ArticlePDF Available

Teeth re-whitening effect of strawberry juice on coffee stained teeth

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Many people favor coffee. However, regarding health and aesthetic dentistry, coffee gives a negative effect. Tanin in coffee causes a brown stain on the tooth surface. Therefore, in aesthetic dental care, teeth whitening has become popular matter. One of the natural ingredients used for teeth whitening treatment is strawberry. The purpose of this study was to obtained data regarding the effect of strawberry juice on the re-whitening process of the coffee-stained tooth enamel surface. This study was a pure experimental in-vitro using Friedman and Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Tests for statistical analysis. The population of this study was anterior teeth. The samples were maxillary central incisors. The sampling technique using sample size determination based on the testing formulas of the difference of two average data pairs resulted in 11 specimens. The result of the research showed that all coffee-stained teeth sample had an increasing enamel colour index. The samples were then applied with strawberry juice resulted in a significant average difference colour index value indicated by p<0.001. The conclusion of this research indicated that there was an effect of strawberry juice on the coffee-stained teeth re-whitening process.
Content may be subject to copyright.
15
Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry 2013;25(1):15-20.
Corresponding author: Anisya Pramesti, Department of Oral Biology Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran
Sekeloa Selatan No.1 Bandung, West Java-Indonesia, Ph./Fax.: +6222-2504985/2532805
Teeth re-whitening eect of strawberry juice on coee
stained teeth
Anissya Pramesti*, Tadeus Arufan Jasrin*, Opik Taok Hidayat**
*Department of Oral Biology Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran
**Department of Conservative Dentistry Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran
ABSTRACT
Many people favor coee. However, regarding health and aesthetic dentistry, coee gives a
negative eect. Tanin in coee causes a brown stain on the tooth surface. Therefore, in aesthetic
dental care, teeth whitening has become popular matter. One of the natural ingredients used for teeth
whitening treatment is strawberry. The purpose of this study was to obtained data regarding the eect of
strawberry juice on the re-whitening process of the coee-stained tooth enamel surface. This study was
a pure experimental in-vitro using Friedman and Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Tests for statistical analysis. The
population of this study was anterior teeth. The samples were maxillary central incisors. The sampling
technique using sample size determination based on the testing formulas of the dierence of two
average data pairs resulted in 11 specimens. The result of the research showed that all coee-stained
teeth sample had an increasing enamel colour index. The samples were then applied with strawberry
juice resulted in a signicant average dierence colour index value indicated by p<0.001. The conclusion
of this research indicated that there was an eect of strawberry juice on the coee-stained teeth re-
whitening process.
Keywords: Strawberry juice, coee stained, teeth whitening.
INTRODUCTION
Coee is one of the most popular beverages
for many people. Coee has become a very
lucrative business. Coee is a type of beverage
derived from the processing and extraction of
the coee beans contains high concentration of
caeine.1 Caeine is a compound resulted from
the alkaloid secondary group metabolism of the
coee plant.2 The role of caeine inside the body
system is to increase the psychomotor function
thus makes the body stay awake and provide
physiological eects by energy increased,3
reduce the risk of cancer, diabetes, gallstones,
and cardiovascular disease.4 However, regarding
aesthetical aspect in dentistry, coee gives a
negative eect. The tannin deposits present
in coee cause brown staining on the buccal,
lingual, labial, and palatal surfaces of teeth.5 This
condition will aect individual appearances and
may decrease condence.
Nowadays, the general population chooses
modern dentistry to improve facial aesthetics,
health, and social success.6 Techniques and
materials available for dentists have also developed
rapidly. This fact supports a better and more
16
Teeth re-whitening eect of strawberry juice on coee stained teeth (Anissya Pramesti et al.)
conservative restoration. Much attention has been
devoted towards aesthetical dentistry aspects and
individual attention on physical appearances.7
The white tooth color associated with
healthiness, young age, and strength. A recent
survey of American women showed that 55% of
women aged 34-55 years old would undergo the
teeth whitening or orthodontic treatment to
create a younger appearance.8 One development
of aesthetic dentistry was the teeth whitening.9
Many manufacturers produce teeth
whitening products. However, these products
containing chemical compounds and often used
publicly without any supervision from the dentist.
On the other hand, much information regarding
non-synthetic materials that have the potential
for teeth whitening. One of them is strawberries.10
Strawberries belong to the herbaceous
fruit plants and belong to the family of Rosaceae.
Strawberries (Fragaria sp.) Is one of many fruits
consumed due to its rosy red color, sweet and sour
taste, and various benets. This fact is based on the
growing number of people consuming strawberries
in both fresh and processed conditions.11
Strawberries have various benets, including
the ability to prevent coronary heart disease
and controlling high blood pressure. Strawberry
is also useful in assisting the absorption of iron
from vegetables consumed. Strawberry contains
only a small amount of sugar, so it is appropriate
to be consumed by people with diabetes.
Also, strawberries can be used to make a more
beautiful and healthy skin and improving brain
power and vision.12 Based on these properties,
we are interested in researching the eectivity of
strawberry juice as the bleaching agent for the
coee stained tooth enamel surface.
METHODS
This research was a purely experimental in-
vitro. The population of this study was anterior
teeth. The sample of this study was maxillary
central incisors. The inclusion criteria were
extracted permanent human teeth without
abnormalities and caries-free. Independent
variable in this study was the strawberry juice
application, and the dependent variable was the
tooth color index.
Data obtained from the results of the color
change measurements then analyzed statistically
using the Friedman and Wilcoxon matched
pairs signed-rank test.13 The data used was the
data score, then the Wilcoxon test was used to
determine dierences between observation
groups.13 The Friedman Test was used to compare
the average dierence in more than two groups of
paired data.
RESULTS
The research conducted on the eects of
strawberry juice as the bleaching agent of coee
stained tooth enamel surface was performed
towards as much as 11 anterior mandibular central
incisor specimens. The study was conducted
through three stages of the working procedure
such as follows: specimen control; coee staining
or discolouring of specimens; and application of
strawberry juice towards the specimens. For the
Table 1. Comparison of tooth enamel surface colour index from each treatment
No. Procedure Mean Standard Deviation Median Range
1 Original Color 6.36 3.139 63 – 10
2Discoloration by coee 8.91 3.448 66 - 13
3Strawberry juice application Day 1-1 6.09 3.3 63 - 10
4Strawberry juice application Day 1-2 4.64 1.567 63 - 6
5Strawberry juice application Day 2-1 3.91 1.758 31 - 6
6Strawberry juice application Day 2-2 2.15 0.934 31 - 3
7Strawberry juice application Day 3-1 2.45 0.934 31 - 3
8 Strawberry juice application Day 3-2 2.09 1.044 31 - 3
9Strawberry juice application Day 4-1 2.09 1.044 3 1 - 3
10 Strawberry juice application Day 4-2 2.09 1.044 31 - 3
Notes : X2 (Friedman) = 86.377; p<0.001
17
Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry 2013;25(1):15-20.
control specimens, the procedure was performed
by immersing the eleven specimens in articial
saliva for 24 hours, then the discolouration
procedure was performed by immersing the
specimen in the coee solution for 48 hours.
For the treatment specimens, the procedure
was performed by applying the strawberry
juice towards the specimens for 4 days. Both
procedures were performed twice daily. The
study was conducted by observing discolouration
of the tooth enamel on the labial surface
each day, which assessed using a shade guide.
The results from the comparison test of the
tooth enamel surface color index and its original
color, after discolouring process and after applied
with strawberry juice, were presented in Table 1.
From the collected data, the average statistical
measure, standard deviation, and the median
value were calculated. The Wilcoxon Matched-
Pairs Signed Test was used to determine the
dierences between the observations, and the
results were presented in Table 2.
Figure 1. Average of tooth enamel surface colour index decrease in all specimens
Tabel 2. Comparison of the colour index between all specimens after application
No Inter Group Comparison Z (Mann-Whitney) P-value
1 Original colour with Coee-stained 2.007 0.004
2Original colour with Strawberry juice application 1–1 0.272 0.785
3Original colour with Strawberry juice application 1–2 2.121 0.034
4Coee-stained with Strawberry juice application 1-1 2.007 0.004
5Coee-stained with Strawberry juice application 1-2 2.059 0.004
6Strawberry juice application 1-1 with Strawberry juice application 1-2 2.00 0.046
7Strawberry juice application 1-2 with Strawberry juice application 2-1 0.046 0.102
8 Strawberry juice application 1-2 with Strawberry juice application 2-2 1.633 0.006
9Strawberry juice application 2-1 with Strawberry juice application 2-2 2.762 0.023
10 Strawberry juice application 2-1 with Strawberry juice application 3-1 2.271 0.023
11 Strawberry juice application 2-2 with Strawberry juice application 3-1 2.271 1.0
12 Strawberry juice application 2-2 with Strawberry juice application 3-2 0 0.157
13 Strawberry juice application 2-2 with Strawberry juice application 4-1 1.414 0.157
14 Strawberry juice application 2-2 with Strawberry juice application 4-2 1.414 0.157
15 Strawberry juice application 3-1 with Strawberry juice application 3-2 1.414 0.157
16 Strawberry juice application 3-1 with Strawberry juice application 4-1 1.414 0.157
17 Strawberry juice application 3-2 with Strawberry juice application 4-1 1.414 1.0
18 Strawberry juice application 4-1 with Strawberry juice application 4-2 0 1.0
Notes: signicant in p<0.05; very signicant in p<0.001
18
Teeth re-whitening eect of strawberry juice on coee stained teeth (Anissya Pramesti et al.)
Based on Table 1 and Figure 1 can be seen
that from the total of 11 specimens that have
been discolored by the coee solution, there was
an increase in the tooth enamel surface color
index. For the result in the treatment group, from
the total specimen that has been discolored by
the coee solution, there was a decrease in the
average of the colour index value after being
applied with strawberry juice. However, a decrease
in the colour index values was only up to the third
day of treatment and did not change signicantly
on the fourth day of treatment and after.
Furthermore, based on the Friedman’s
Chi-Square test results obtained the X2=71.113,
p<0.001. These data indicated that the comparison
of the average dierence between more than two
specimen groups was very signicant. Thus seen
that the treatment was eectively decreasing the
average color index level for all the study samples.
According to Table 2, the comparison
between the initial object group and the group
being discoloured with coee solution showed
a signicant dierence (p<0.05). Comparison
between coee-stained specimen groups with
the group already being applied with strawberry
juice also showed signicant dierences on the
rst day of treatment. Furthermore, a signicant
dierence was also observed in the comparison
between the group of strawberry juice application
on the rst day with the group of second-day
strawberry application.
DISCUSSION
From the results of this study can be
inferred that strawberry juice was able to act as
the bleaching agent for the coee-stained tooth
enamel surfaces. Discolouration of the tooth
enamel surfaces is evident of increasing colour
index value after immersed in the coee solution.
By the statement of Kerr5 that the tannin deposits
presence in coee causes brown staining on the
buccal, lingual, labial, and palatal surfaces of
the teeth. Coee-stained tooth enamel surfaces
discolouration is an exogenous color change. This
is consistent with the statement of Osborn and
Ten Cate14 which suggested that tooth enamel has
an ultramicroscopic slit and has semipermeable
properties that can absorb the color from the
outside like some food and beverage colouring
(coee, tea, soft drinks, etc.).
The tooth-whitening eect of fruit juice
can be characterized by the results of this study
which show the average tooth enamel surface
color index from all specimens were decreasing
signicantly after immersed in strawberry juice.
This result was consistent with Williams’s15
statement which suggested that example of the
natural tooth-whitening procedure was performed
by consuming some fruit that has the ability to
whiten teeth. Goldstein and Garber16 suggested
that teeth-whitening occurred by the strong
oxidizing properties of the bleaching agent. This
oxidizing agent has free radicals with unpaired
electrons thus make the bleached substance
received the electron and oxidized.
Research conducted by Ayub17 stated
that strawberries contain various vitamins and
minerals, and also ellagic acid. Strawberries
had an acid pH degree, ranged from 3-4. Ellagic
acid is built by many OH clusters, according to
Gunawan’s18 research stated that the OH cluster
formed the ellagic acid structure has the potential
of becoming a strong oxidizing agent as well as
hydrogen peroxide as the tooth-whitener.
The results of this study were consistent
with the research conducted by Carrel19 suggested
that strawberries consumption can help removing
Figure 2. Decrease in colour index score after application
19
Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry 2013;25(1):15-20.
tooth discolouration caused by wine, soda, and
coee. The natural ingredients tooth-whitening
eect takes place when consumed in the proper
time, concentration, and period.
More research on the use of strawberry juice
for teeth whitening is still needed. Consumption
of strawberry juice provides a bleaching eect
due to its acidic properties, working as a strong
oxidizing agent on the enamel surface of the
tooth. Thus the side eects caused by the acidic
property of the strawberries can be minimized
and safer to use in the future.
According to Winston and Bhaskar,20 if an
acidic material with the pH value less than equal
to the critical value met the enamel surface, it
will decreased the enamel surface pH value, then
shed the phosphate (PO43-) and calcium (Ca2+)
from the enamel surface. The acidity decrease on
the enamel surface caused by an acidic material,
such as fruit juice, resulted in unsaturation
of important ions, PO43- and Ca2+, which are
minerals of the tooth. This condition leads to
enamel dissolution.
In this study, when the tooth enamel surface
was applied with an acidic material under the
critical pH value of the enamel repeatedly, the
enamel surface pH value was decreasing into the
lower value, thus made the mineral dissolution
continue. The same result also found in Larsen’s21
research suggested that saturated properties of
calcium and phosphate at the low pH value prevent
remineralization. As the pH value increases again,
remineralization will begin. The saturated nature
of saliva was expected to stimulate the process
of hydroxyapatite remineralization on the tooth
enamel surface. Saliva protein compounds also
play a role in maintaining this balance.
The use of articial saliva in in-vitro
studies simulates similar chemical conditions in
the oral cavity. This treatment was consistent
with the study conducted by Leung and Darvell22
suggested that the development of articial
saliva was essential for more valid and controlled
experiment as the standardization of the object’s
concentration for application.
CONCLUSION
The conclusion of this research indicated
that there was an eect of strawberry juice on
the coee-stained teeth re-whitening process.
REFERENCES
1. Merriam-Webster [homepage on internet].
Springeld: Merriam-Webster, Inc.; c1828-
2012 [cited 2011 Dec]. Available from: https://
www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/
coee
2. Indonesian Nutrition Network [homepage on
internet]. Jakarta: Siswono. 2007. Kafein.
[cited 2011 Dec]; [about 2 screens]. Available
from: http://gizi.depkes.go.id/arsip/arc10-
2007.html
3. Wildman REC. Handbook of Nutraceuticals
and Functional Food. 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC
Press; 2007. p. 453-62.
4. Ranheim, T and B. Halvorsen. 2005. Coee
consumption an human healt. Mol Nutr Food
Research 49 vol 3: 274-284.
5. Medscape [homepage on internet]. New York:
Patel DN, Kerr AR, Butler DF, Eisen D, Elston
DM, Belsito D. 2008. Tooth Discoloration.
[cited 2012 Jan]; [about 3 screens]. Available
from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/
article/1076389-overview
6. Goldstein RE. Change Your Smile: Discover
How a New Smile Can Transform Your Life. 4th
ed. Chicago: Quintessence Publishing Co. Inc.;
2009.
7. McLaughlin G, Freedman GA. Color Atlas
of Tooth Whitening. St. Louis: Ishiyaku
Euroamerica Inc.; 1991.
8. Engelhardt-Nash D. Power bleaching. In:
Freedman G. Contemporary Esthetic Dentistry.
1st ed. St. Louis: Mosby-Elsevier; 2012.
9. Abbott FB, Abbott N, Aschheim KW. A Clinical
Approach to Technique and Material Esthetic
Dentistry. 1st ed. St. Louis: Mosby-Elsevier;
1993.
10. Care2 Healthy Living [homepage on internet].
Redwood City: Johnson C. 2011. Beauty
with Strawberries. [cited 2011 Nov]; [about
2 screens]. Available from: https://www.
care2.com/greenliving/strawberries-kitchen-
cupboard-beauty.html
11. Rukmana R. Stroberi Budidaya dan Pasca
Panen. Yogyakarta: Kanisius; 1998.
12. Budiman S, Saraswati D. Berkebun Stroberi
20
Teeth re-whitening eect of strawberry juice on coee stained teeth (Anissya Pramesti et al.)
Secara Komersial. Jakarta: Penebar Swadaya;
2008. p. 12-25.
13. Sugiyono. Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif,
Kualitatif dan R&D. Bandung: Alfabeta; 2009.
14. Gaunt WA, Osborn JW, Ten Cate ARL, Mass JW.
Advanced Dental Histology, 4th ed. Oxford:
Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd.; 1983.
15. Web MD [homepage on internet]. New York:
Williams R. 2009. Dental Health and Tooth
Discoloration. [cited 2011 Jan]; [about 10
screens]. Available from: https://www.
webmd.com/oral-health/guide/tooth-
discoloration
16. Goldstein RE, Garber DA. Complete Dental
Bleaching. 1st ed. Chicago: Quintessence
Publishing Co. Inc.; 1995.
17. Ayub M, Ullah J, Muhammad A, Zeb A.
Evaluation of strawberry juice preserved
with chemical preservatives at refrigeration
temperature international. Int J Nutr Metab.
2010 Feb;2(2):27-32.
18. Gunawan LW. Stroberi. Jakarta: Penebar
Swadaya; 2003.
19. Live Strong [homepage on internet]. Santa
Monica: Carrel A. 2008. Home Remedies for
Getting Visibly Whiter Teeth Overnight. [cited
2011 Aug]; [about 2 screens]. Available from:
https://www.livestrong.com/article/124775-
home-remedies-getting-visibly-whiter/
20. Winston AE, Bhaskar SN. Caries prevention
in the 21st century. J Am Dent Assoc. 1998
Nov;129(11).1579–87.
21. Larsen MJ, Pearce EI. Saturation of human
saliva with respect to calcium salts. Arch Oral
Biol. 2003 Apr;48(4):317-22.
22. Leung VW, Darvell BW. Articial salivas for in
vitro studies of dental materials. J Dent. 1997
Nov;25(6):475-84.
... The results of the study were consistent with the research conducted by Pramesti et al showed that strawberry consumption can remove stains caused by soda, wine and coffee. The natural tooth whitening can happen when consumed in proper time and concentration [35]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Teeth whitening or dental bleaching is a procedure that is most often asked by patients because it is a very effective way to improve the appearance and aesthetics of a smile when compared with other invasive restorative treatments. Strawberry being a natural ingredient helps in the teeth whitening process. Aim: The aim of the study is to find the effect of strawberry extract on tooth discoloration and morphology Materials and Methods: Non-carious tooth samples were used for the experiment. Mandibular premolars were used as the samples, in which one tooth was immersed in strawberry extract and the other was in distilling water and kept for three days. The height and size of the tooth were measured to determine morphological changes before and after experiments. The results were compared between the dimensions of both the teeth for 72 hours and plotted into a bar graph. Results: The results indicated that there were no significant morphological changes between the Original Research Article Neha et al.; JPRI, 34(5B): 27-36, 2022; Article no.JPRI.81370 28 tooth immersed in strawberry extract and distilled water. Conclusion: Fruits and leaves of strawberry plants are used to whiten teeth. Chewing strawberries every day can help to nourish the mouth, such as whitening of teeth and making breath more fresher. All these processes take place only if teeth are exposed to strawberry for a long period. Our study established the teeth whitening and anti-decay properties of strawberry extract in the teeth. Further research is required to observe the effect of strawberry extract on teeth in detail.
... The re-whitening effect of strawberry juice on stained coffee teeth was also proved experimentally [69]. Strawberry juice provides a bleaching effect due to its acidic properties, working as a strong oxidizing agent on the tooth's enamel surface. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Discoloration of teeth occurs for various reasons. Common ingredients like substances from tea and coffee, as well as antibiotics like tetracycline, or food dyes, can percolate into the teeth, and, as such, these stains may persist in the porous structure of the enamel. Smoking is also contributory to dental discoloration, with toxins of tobacco smoke accumulating in a similar way. With aging, teeth tend to be discolored with accumulation of various stains in addition to the enamel gradually eroding to expose the yellow dentin. Highlight: This review focused on the effect of several natural ingredients with teeth-whitening properties and their daily clinical application. Metabolic dental bleaching mechanisms, as well as tooth discoloration and decay, were also reviewed. The current scientific literature (mostly from 2000 to 2020) was consolidated from manuscripts retrieved from Scopus, PubMed, ResearchGate, and Google Scholar. Conclusion: Natural teeth whitening effectively lightens the natural color of teeth without eroding dental surfaces. On the other hand, commercially available whiteners containing hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide, in high concentrations, can lead to deproteinization and demineralization of teeth through oxidation processes. If used extensively, these compounds may cause a number of adverse effects. Alternative natural teeth-whiteners include ingredients like lemons, strawberries, oranges, papaya, and other fruits. Such natural ingredients offer a milder and safer way of whitening teeth than whiteners containing hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide.
... 7 In dentistry, lime fruit (Citrus aurantifolia) is used to whiten teeth, clean nicotine plaque, and reduce plaque score. [7][8][9][10][11] It has antibacterial properties due to essential oil content consisting of active agent : flavonoid, polyphenol, and saponin. 12 These compounds can denature bacterial proteins thereby inhibiting bacterial growth. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Caries are initiated by the plaque formation on the tooth surface, due to the interaction between food debris and bacteria in the mouth. The pioneer bacterium of plaque formation is Streptococcus sanguis. The Strawberry fruit, lime fruit, and radish root are part of the plant that contains antibacterial substances. Flavonoid, tannin, saponin, alkaloid, polyphenol, terpenoid and quinon as antibacterial substances. This study aimed to evaluate strawberry fruit, lime fruit, and radish root methanol extract can inhibit Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10556. Therefore, strawberry, lime, and radish can be made into mouthwash, bubble gum, or toothpaste to prevent plaque formation. Methods: This study used a Kirby-Bauer diffusion test as the inhibition test. Results: The result of this study that the biggest inhibition zone was lime methanol extract 20,000 ppm, and the smallest one was radish methanol extract 5,000 ppm. Conclusion: Strawberry fruit, lime fruit peel, and radish root methanol extract and their combination had the effect of inhibiting bacterial growth synergistically against Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10556.
Article
Full-text available
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of chemical preservatives on strawberry juice. The samples were; pasteurized strawberry juice (T0), pasteurized strawberry juice with 20% sucrose (T1), pasteurized juice with 0.1% sodium benzoate (T0), pasteurized juice with 20% sucrose and 0.1% sodium benzoate (T3), pasteurized juice with 0.1% potassium sorbate (T4) pasteurized juice with 2% sucrose and 0.1% potassium sorbate (T5) pasteurized juice with 0.05% sodium benzoate and 0.05% potassium sorbate (T6) pasteurized juice with 20% sucrose, 0.05% sodium benzoate and 0.05% potassium sorbate (T7) pasteurized juice with 0.1% sodium benzoate and 0.1% potassium sorbate (T8) and pasteurized juice with 20% sucrose, 0.1% potassium sorbate and 0.1% sodium benzoate (T9). The samples were stored at 4 - 15°C for three months. T0 and T1 were rejected soon due to spoilage. Minimum ascorbic acid content was reduced in T9 (9.8%), while maximum in T2 (26%). Acidity increased from 1.39 to 2.38% with maximum in T1 and T9. pH decreased from 3.29 to 2.22. Reducing sucrose increased from 15.7 to 17.8 and non-reducing sucrose decreased from 11.6 to 8.3. The total soluble solids (TSS) increased from 16.5 to 17.4° brix with maximum in T0 (60%) and minimum in T6 (5.6). Treatments T9, T7 T5 and T3 were found most acceptable in maintaining the sensory characteristics compared to others during storage. Minimum microbial load were observed in T9 and maximum in T0 and T1 (uncountable). Among all the treatments T9 were most effective in maintaining the sensory and nutritional quality during storage.
Article
An artificial saliva (AS) of defined composition is necessary for testing the performance of materials that serve in the mouth as natural saliva is too variable. The chemistry involved is critically important. Many AS recipes can be found in the literature, but the stability of tooth material, i.e. hydroxyapatite (HAP), in most of these has not been addressed. In fact, few contain all major ionic components with concentrations in the physiological range. The aim of the present study was (a) to review reported AS formulae from their inception in 1931 to date, (b) to compare the stability of HAP in various reported AS, and (c) to investigate the individual effects of ionic components present in the reported formulae on the stability of HAP. A computer algorithm, RAMESES, for solving multiple equilibrium equations, was employed for all calculations. There was a marked difference between two groups, i.e. those with and without the presence of Ca; those with Ca were supersaturated with respect to HAP in the physiological pH range, the saturation pH ranging from about 4.5 to 6.0. There was also an approximately 180-fold range in solubility at pH 7, due to the individual effects of components such as phosphate, carbonate and citrate. Acetate, lactate and sulphate showed smaller effects, others have no appreciable effect. All components and equilibria of relevance to saliva must be included in the system for detailed models. Continued systematic development of a standardized AS is essential.
Article
While the incidence of caries has decreased during the past 50 years because of the introduction of water fluoridation and fluoride toothpastes, it is still widespread. Improved therapies, using topical treatments to replace lost calcium and phosphate minerals from early carious lesions, will reduce the need for surgical intervention in the future. Early caries detection techniques currently being developed will allow dentists to maximize the usefulness of these treatments.
Article
It may be assumed that free ionic concentrations of calcium and phosphate in resting saliva tend to equilibrate with those in plaque fluid, and that salivary data can therefore be used to illustrate chemical conditions in both saliva and plaque. In the present study, salivary data collected from the literature or obtained in our laboratory were used to calculate degrees of super- and undersaturation with respect to apatites, brushite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, octacalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate and calcium fluoride in the pH range from 3 to 9. Concentrations of calcium, phosphate, fluoride, carbonate, and background ion strength of resting parotid saliva, resting submandibular saliva, and resting and stimulated whole saliva were entered into a computer program, and curves illustrating saturation in the pH range 3-9 constructed. It was found that oral fluids are supersaturated with respect to apatites above pH 5.3 and with respect to octacalcium phosphate and beta-tricalcium phosphate above pH 6. Parotid saliva was undersaturated with respect to brushite whilst submandibular saliva was supersaturated with respect to that salt in the pH range 6-8. Stimulated whole saliva with 25 mmol/l carbonate became supersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate only above pH 7.3, which may explain the absence of this salt in the human oral cavity. To maintain the saturation of oral fluids with respect to calcium fluoride, i.e. to ensure its survival in the mouth required 6 ppm fluoride in the aqueous phase. Therefore, this salt, the outcome of topical fluoride therapy, will inevitably dissolve in the oral fluids.
Springfield: Merriam-Webster, Inc.; c18282012 [cited Available from: https:// www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ coffee 2. Indonesian Nutrition Network [homepage on internet]. Jakarta: Siswono
  • Merriam-Webster
Merriam-Webster [homepage on internet]. Springfield: Merriam-Webster, Inc.; c18282012 [cited 2011 Dec]. Available from: https:// www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ coffee 2. Indonesian Nutrition Network [homepage on internet]. Jakarta: Siswono. 2007. Kafein. [cited 2011 Dec]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://gizi.depkes.go.id/arsip/arc102007.html
Coffee consumption an human healt
  • T Ranheim
  • B Halvorsen
Ranheim, T and B. Halvorsen. 2005. Coffee consumption an human healt. Mol Nutr Food Research 49 vol 3: 274-284.
Tooth Discoloration. [cited Available from: https
  • Medscape Patel
  • Dn Kerr
  • Ar Butler
  • Df Eisen
  • D Elston
  • Dm Belsito
Medscape [homepage on internet]. New York: Patel DN, Kerr AR, Butler DF, Eisen D, Elston DM, Belsito D. 2008. Tooth Discoloration. [cited 2012 Jan]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/ article/1076389-overview