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The chapter is an introduction to service design. It starts by introducing design thinking and how it recently became adapted by the specifics of service to become service design. It uses theory and practice to describe key terms, competences and approaches to explain what service design is, and how it is a means of designing for trust. © Marika Lüders, Tor W. Andreassen, Simon Clatworthy and Tore Hillestad 2017. All rights reserved.
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11. Service design thinking
Simon Clatworthy
This chapter is an introduction to service design. It starts by describing
design thinking and explaining how it recently became adapted by the spe-
cifics of service to become service design. It then uses theory and practice
to convey key terms, competences and approaches to describe what service
design is, and how it is a means of designing for trust. It concludes by
linking to the other chapters in Part 4.
Design thinking has its roots back in the 1950s with the emergence of
industrial design as a separate discipline, but was introduced as a term by
Tim Brown from IDEO in 2008. Brown identifies design thinking as inte-
grating three key aspects: Viability, Feasibility and Desirability (Brown,
2008). Viability relates to the underlying business case and business model,
and the potential that an innovation has in the market for the specific
organization. Feasibility relates to technological potential and the ability
to actually deliver on the innovative idea. Finally, desirability relates to
how the market, and particularly individual customers, will emotionally
connect to the innovation.
11.1.1 Design as Synthesis, a Way of Thinking, a Process and an
The balance of Viability, Feasibility and Desirability is unique to each
and every project and designers have an important role in integrating all
three areas. The competences and skills of integration, using an explora-
tive customer-centric process, makes design particularly useful in this
respect. Design integrates across multiple disciplines and functional areas
in a company, at all times with a focus on customer value. It is therefore a
synthesis of multiple aspects.
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168 Innovating for trust
Design often creates beautiful objects, and can easily be misunder-
stood as something that can be included at the end of a project, as a
veneer of beauty. This is design as an outcome, a resultant product (or
service). This kind of thinking is far from the truth in understanding
how designers work, and hides the designers’ central role at the early
stages of a project in defining the what of a product (what it does), the
how of a product (how it will be made) and the who of the product (who
will want it). This is why you will find designers working more and more
at the start of a project, where the opportunity to innovate is greatest.
Design is therefore also a process, as well as an outcome and works best
when introduced at the start of a project. In Chapter 15, we will see how
design is not only designing products, service and interactions but also
11.1.2 Design and its Importance at the Front End of a Project
It is important, particularly with design for service, to introduce design
early in the project process – during the fuzzy front end (Clatworthy, 2014).
The ‘fuzzy’ front end of the innovation has three important characteristics.
Firstly, major decisions are made here. According to Berliner and Brimson
(1988), over 80 percent of life cycle costs are decided during this phase
of a project, whilst less than 5 percent of development costs are utilized.
The front end is where the major innovations can occur, where the major
decisions are made, but also where a project knows least about what it is
Secondly, the front end is the start-up phase of a project and involves the
team getting to know each other, to know the brief and to plan the details.
Smith and Reinertsen (1998) describe the phase as a bargain basement,
since they consider that greater focus on the start-up phase of a project has
very little cost effect upon the project but gives great returns.
Thirdly, the front end is the phase in which customer input is beginning
to become vital. Belliveau et al. (2004) describe it in this way:
The NPD (New Product Design) process is probably mistakenly visualized as
a linear process beginning with the FFE (Fuzzy Front End) and ending with
commercialization. Perhaps a more useful picture is a loop showing a linkage
between the market-place and the FFE. (p. 165)
In design thinking, the front end is often visualized as a linear struc-
tured process that moves through clear phases. However, the reality
is that it is a messy process, which is non-linear and involves jumping
between phases and zooming in and zooming out of the problem
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Service design thinking 169
context. Zooming in to the detail of perhaps a single customer inter-
action to understand the experience a customer might have, to then
zooming out to understand what that might imply for the whole service
system that it influences. The argument for this messy approach reveals
a key aspect of design thinking; designing is as much a way to gain
understanding as it is to resolve a project brief. The front end can
therefore be seen as an exhaustive set of iterations to explore and under-
stand and resolve a problem, like illuminating something from multiple
angles, throughidea generation and making, continually evaluating how
this potential solution shapes up in terms of Viability, Feasibility and
Design thinking happens in the making, and it is the constant focus
upon making, and the understanding that making gives, that is central
to design thinking. Design thinking integrates analytical and skill-based
approaches to innovation within a customer-centric framework.
Notes: A design thinking approach cycles through phases of understanding, idea
generation, prototyping and reflection. It is often described as a linear process (above), but
in reality is a rapid, messy and non-linear cycling, jumping between these stages (below).
Figure 11.1 A design thinking approach
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170 Innovating for trust
11.1.3 The Core Competences of the Design Thinker
There is no agreed definition of design thinking, nor an agreement of
its core characteristics. Brown identified the competences of the design
thinker as empathy, integrative thinking, optimism, experimentalism and
collaboration (Brown, 2008). Since then, design thinking has received
both research attention (Leifer et al., 2013; Lockwood, 2010) and more
focus in business (Kolko, 2015; Martin, 2009). However, design thinking is
repeatedly described as combining design doing, with the mindset of the
innovator (or design thinker) in a human-centered and creative approach
for solving complex and strategic problems (Brown, 2008, 2009; Dunne
and Martin, 2006; Kimbell, 2011; Martin, 2009). In many ways, this shows
that design thinking is dependent upon design doing, and this is key to
understanding design – design has rapid cycles of thinking and doing. This
approach and set of competences has been seen as valuable for innovation
and innovation processes.
It makes sense therefore that organizations would like to capture and
use design thinking within the organization (Ignatius, 2015; Muratovski,
2015). The transformation of an organization such that it utilizes design
thinking is viewed as central in many organizations and this is covered in
Chapter 15.
Service design may be described as a service-specific application of design
thinking, and has the following definition: ‘Designed offerings to provide
experiences that happen over time and across different touch-points’
(Clatworthy, 2012). It suggests that what an organization designs and
proposes to customers are offerings that are accessed through touch-
points along a timeline, and that through use, provide desired experiential
outcomes. Time in a service design perspective can be short term, such
as purchasing a ticket at a train station, or long term, such as a life-long
relationship with an insurance company. In service design, the time aspect
is described as a customer journey, and along this journey, the customer
interacts with the touch-points of a service. Touch-points are often tan-
gible or human, such as a building or a service assistant, but can also be
intangible such as the smell of coffee at a coffee bar. The three aspects of
design thinking – Viability, Feasibility and Desirability – are still core, but
the object of design is different. It is not a product, but rather an offering,
delivered through a series of interactions with touch-points over time. This
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Service design thinking 171
means that the designer is bridging high level, zoomed-out concepts, such
as the offering (and how it might fit the market and the provider), with
zoomed-in details, in terms of interactions with specific touch-points (the
experience of using the service). Using the lenses of Viability, Feasibility
and Desirability, the service designer is working not just with the offering,
the touch-points and the experience but also the organization’s ability to
deliver this. Service design, therefore is as much about the ability of the
organization to deliver an offering, as the design of the offering itself. The
service designer cannot not do this alone, and works together with multiple
disciplines and representatives from many functional areas. The service
designer, like the design thinker, integrates multiple aspects into a whole,
and has strong co-design skills and tools.
Service design is a young domain, and spans areas from service devel-
opment (Koivisto and Miettinen, 2009; Stickdorn and Schneider, 2010)
to the designer participating in the transformation of service organiza-
tions (Gloppen, 2012; Sangiorgi, 2012). This is not surprising since there
is a tighter connection between service development and organizational
development when concerning innovation within the service sector than
the product sector. Indeed, this is commented on by Kimbell (2009), who
describes how service designers link the strategic and operational levels of
a service organization. This seems to be a core aspect of service design, and
it fits well with both an understanding of design as being both the whole
and the parts (e.g. Schön, 1983) and with the specifics of service innova-
tion (e.g. Miles, 2008).
Kimbell (2009) argues that the service designer’s creative input occurs in
three explicit areas: (1) human-centered approach and methods; (2) itera-
tive processes of idea generation through modeling and prototyping; and
(3) competence in aesthetics and visual forms. In a later publication, she
observes that service design approaches services as entities that are both
social and material, noting that designers ‘approached designing a service
through a constructivist enquiry in which they sought to understand the
experiences of stakeholders’ (Kimbell, 2011, p. 41). Designing for service is
described by her as an exploratory process that aims to create new kinds
of value relation between diverse actors within a socio-material configura-
tion. This brings design thinking to service (and also service-dominant
logic) since services are socio-material configurations, with experiential
outcomes. Wetter Edman (2011) describes two main characteristics of
service design: designing transformation (which may be on an individual,
organizational or societal level) and designing for value creation by ‘moving
from seeing the outcome as products or single interactions and instead
understanding service as value creation’ (p. 70). Sangiorgi (2012) takes this
further and links service design with service-dominant logic (Vargo and
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172 Innovating for trust
Lusch, 2004) describing the service designers’ role as being strategic and
transformational. Sangiorgi, however, also shows the importance of how
value is produced through interactions: ‘when value is recognized in the
process of use, the focus shifts from the units of output to the interactions’
(Sangiorgi, 2012, p. 97). Touch-points therefore become central as they are
the means of interaction, and a link can be seen between touch-points,
value and customer experience.
11.2.1 The Value Proposition as a Designed Offering
One of the key aspects of service-dominant logic (Vargo and Lusch, 2004)
is that value arises for actors in the value ecology through use of the offer-
ing, so-called ‘value-in-use.’ This value can take many forms, for example,
status, data, trust and money. Service designers are interested in the value
exchange as part of any offering (Clatworthy, 2014) and aim to ensure a
strong value ecology, with a focus on the customer experience.
An offering is intangible and difficult to describe. It is perceived and
experienced before, during and after using a service, and is an extension of
the brand, expressing benefits at the functional, emotional, self-expressive
and idealistic levels. Linking this to the integrative role of the designer,
we can say that the designer integrates multiple aspects to develop a value
proposition that promises and delivers on emotional, self-expressive and
idealistic levels.
Trust is obviously a central part of any offering since trust requires a
willingness to be vulnerable to another party’s actions, based upon expec-
tations communicated through the service offering. This expectation is
then compared with the actual experience of using the service to form a
customer’s opinion of value-in-use. Benevolence is a key part of this as it
is the perception that the service provider has your best interests at heart.
Benevolence is something that is communicated as part of the offering
through the ‘fit’ of the service to a customer’s needs, and then through the
detail of the interactions through the feeling that someone ‘designed this
to fit me.’ Trust can therefore be designed for in a service.
To design for trust, the designer works to develop and express character-
istics of the service that convey trustworthy intentions and behavior, and
then designs each and every interaction with the service such that the cus-
tomers experience the service as trustworthy. Design, by its innate under-
standing of people, can therefore be seen as a central way of developing
a trustworthy offering and then delivering it through service interactions,
such that a relationship between a service provider and the customer devel-
ops. But this can only happen if trust is a core part of the service brand; in
other words, if trust is part of the DNA of the organization (and therefore
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Service design thinking 173
the DNA of the brand). Chapter 13, about brand experience, explains how
the designer translates the brand into an experiential promise and designs
to deliver on this promise.
Service designers therefore work with a zoomed-out perspective (the
offering) and a zoomed-in perspective (the interactions) to create the link
between these, that is, between the high-level offering and the experience
of use. In terms of trust, they do this by asking the following questions:
1. How is trust a core part of the offering, and how is this communicated
as a whole to the customer, particularly its perceived experiential
2. How is experiential value achieved through individual touch-point
interactions and the customer journey as a whole to deliver on the
trust that is promised in the oering?
Using the brand megaphone model, it is possible to ensure that innova-
tions take account of emotional and experiential perceptions of the offer-
ing, whilst at the same time ensuring that there is an alignment between the
offering and the brand.
Notes: The brand megaphone shows the relation between brand DNA and how this is
transformed into an offering, expressed through a service personality, and experienced
through different touch-points, tone of voice and behaviors which interact along a customer
journey. The outcome is value-in-use through customer experience. When designing for
trust, each and every aspect of the design will take account of how trust can be expressed.
Source: Adapted from Clatworthy (2012).
Figure 11.2 The brand megaphone
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174 Innovating for trust
11.2.2 Actors in Value Ecologies
The combination of actors, and the way they collaborate to deliver service
is key to developing and delivering the offering. In service, value is created
in networks of collaboration, by multiple actors, as part of a value ecology
(Vargo and Lusch, 2004).
Service design has a focus upon how actors together create value
together with the customer and considers who needs to collaborate (and
in what way) to create the compelling experiences that will draw custom-
ers to a service offering (Clatworthy, 2014). The key is to see the potential
that lies in the reconfiguration of roles and relationships among the con-
stellation of actors in order to facilitate the creation of value through the
customer experience.
A service designer will work with actors through mapping and investi-
gating existing service ecologies, through considering users as co-creators
of value, and through reconfiguration of the value network. One of the key
aspects we see from service design practice is that a service designer does
this with a customer-centric view (Kimbell, 2009), whilst an organization
(due to its context and history) often does this from a company-centric
Since almost all projects now are co-designed by a cross-functional
team, often (but not always) including customers, then we find the service
designer designing tools for a project to assist it with understanding,
Notes: Service ecologies are based upon multiple overlapping and sometimes nested
networks of actors in the customer sphere, the joint sphere and the provider sphere
(Grönroos and Voima, 2013). Understanding these networks, and reorganizing them by
either adding or changing actors and roles can create new value for customers and the actors
of the ecology. Service design does this with a customer value focus.
Source: Image adapted from LiveWork AS.
Figure 11.3 Service ecologiesç
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Service design thinking 175
exploration, solution generation and prototyping. Service designers often
spend time designing tools that function as boundary objects (Star, 1990) –
tools that give a shared understanding in a team. According to Mattelmäki,
‘Designers should build scaffolding that supports everyday people’s gen-
erative design thinking’ (Mattelmäki, 2008, p. 65) and Lee considers that
design tools bridge the abstract space inhabited by experts in a design team
together with the concrete spaces of everyday people (Lee, 2008).
11.2.3 Making the Touch-point Experience Work Alone and as a Whole,
Along a Customer Journey
Touch-points are the points of contact between a service provider and
customers and are how the customer experiences the offering. A cus-
tomer might utilize many different touch-points as part of their customer
journey, and each time they use a service they might use different combina-
tions. Touch-points are therefore central to the customer experience and
the creation of value. If value-in-use is central to service (Vargo and Lusch,
2004), touch-points are where the value is exchanged, since they are the
points of use. It is not surprising then that touch-points are a key material
of service design (Clatworthy, 2012) and mentioned as one of the three
pillars of service design (Koivisto and Miettinen, 2009, p. 142).
The concept of designing points of contact between the service provider
and the customer is not new. Shostack (1984) introduced thinking around
touch-points as part of services, using the term tangible evidence as part of
what she termed ‘service blueprinting.’ Fortini-Cambell (2003) states how
many different touch-points a customer might interact with: ‘in a more
complex consumer experience . . . there may be literally hundreds of small
elements of experience the consumer notices’ (Fortini-Cambell, 2003, p. 63).
Holmlid (2008) relates this to design, claiming that: ‘For design manage-
ment the challenge becomes one of both coordinating multiple service chan-
nels, and the coordination between service channels’ (Holmlid, 2008, p. 7).
Service design is about choosing the most relevant touch-points for
service delivery and designing a consistent customer experience across
these many touch-points. Clatworthy (2011) describes the many innovation
opportunities that designing with touch-points offer:
creating consistency across touch-points
introducing new touch-points
replacing touch-points
optimizing individual touch-points
expanding the service journey by adding touch-points at earlier or
later phases of the journey.
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Figure 11.4 The experience journey describes the stages of the customer journey, the experience expected (or reported
upon) and supporting data
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Service design thinking 177
The experience journey describes the journey the customer is expected
to take when using a service, together with the touch-points that they
meet, and the desired (or reported) customer experience. It is a means of
structuring customer points of experience over time and divides the service
encounter into separate stages and gives a customer view into the service
delivery process (Voss and Zomerdijk, 2007). In this way, the experience
journey integrates the whole and the parts.
11.2.4 Seeing, Being and Hearing the Customer
Service design is inherently customer-focused (Gloppen, 2012; Kimbell,
2009) and goes beyond simply identifying customer need. In many
situations, the designer is trying to identify what customers will desire
in the future, but perhaps cannot express now. This brings the designer
into the area of interpreting customers and attempting to best guess their
future needs, wants and desires and how this might form new service offer-
ings. A service designer will therefore work together with customers (and
other actors) to fully understand need, but in many situations will look
beyond the needs that a customer may mention, and approach a project
through three aspects. Firstly, the context of use, secondly, an understand-
ing of what is important to the customer and finally, from an empathic
understanding of how a service feels for the customer. Table 11.1 sum-
marizes the focus that a service designer takes to gain a detailed and rich
understanding of customer need.
Service designers use both quantitative and qualitative means in design
work, but often there is a preference for qualitative. This is because the
understanding needed is often contextual and requires deeper customer
insights than qualitative data alone can give. Therefore, ethnographic tools
are used to see, hear and be the customer.
Table 11.1 Approaches for understanding the customer
What does the designer want to
Tools used by designers
See the customer Understand the customer as
part of the context of use
Observational tools
Hear the customer Understand what is important
for a customer
Qualitative ethnographic
approaches, cultural
observation. co-design
Be the customer Feel for themselves how it is to
be a customer in a given context
Self-ethnography, service
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178 Innovating for trust
As mentioned earlier, designers are focused upon the new. The under-
standing that a designer gains about a customer is always obtained with a
view to developing something new, based upon this input. Therefore, the
designer is looking for insights and inspiration to create something new
that can be innovative. This inspiration can come from unexpected places,
and therefore the quantitative aspect is less important for a designer than
its potential for opening up new insights and understanding. Design is a
process of multiple iterations of understanding need, transforming into
ideas and evaluating (often with customers). Service designers therefore
use multiple sources for inspiration, including direct customer contact, to
develop new service offerings, and at an early stage evaluate these (through
prototyping) with regard to their value potential.
11.2.5 Design for Experience: Value Comes through Use
Value-in-use is one of the central axioms of service-dominant logic, and is
described by Vargo and Lusch (2008, p. 7) in the following way: ‘value is
idiosyncratic, experiential, contextual and meaning laden’ and ‘S-D logic
acknowledges that value is always uniquely and phenomenologically deter-
mined by the beneficiary’ (Merz et al., 2009, p. 337).
More recently, this is explained by Lusch and Vargo (2014, p. 44):
Quality moved the focus of the firm from engineering specifications of goods
production to the perceived evaluations of the customers, so that the focus of
value creation moved from the firm to the customer, thus affirming for him a
new and active role in service provision.
Sandström et al. (2008) link value-in-use to customer experience, stating:
‘Value in use is the evaluation of the service experience, that is, the indi-
vidual judgment of the sum total of all the functional and emotional
experience outcomes’ (p. 120). Further, ‘To fully leverage experience as
part of a value proposition, organizations must manage the emotional
dimension of experiences with the same rigor they bring to the manage-
ment of service functionality’ (p.119). This connects value-in-use to the
decisions made during the design process. Clatworthy (2013, p. 101) uses
the following definition of customer experience in a service design perspec-
tive: ‘The Customer Experience is the impression left with a customer from
their interactions with the service offering as presented through the touch-
points of a service over a period of time.’
This identifies the need to design for the customer experience such
that it fits with the value proposition, as presented through touch-points
and links brand identity, touch-points and customer experience in a
service design context. Morrison and Crane (2007) support this, stating:
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Service design thinking 179
‘Effectively managing the customer’s emotional brand experience means
creating an environment in which the “clues” that customers detect, col-
lectively meet or exceed their emotional needs and expectations’ (p. 416).
Since we have shown that service design is strongly centered around
design for experience, we can conclude that service designers are design-
ing for value-in-use, particularly through the design for interactions with
touch-points over time.
If we take a broader perspective on design, that of designing for sym-
bolic meaning, then the connection between design and value-in-use
becomes apparent in terms of designers imbuing meaning to objects and
interactions, a key contributor to value-in-use. Lusch and Vargo describe
the importance of context in value creation: ‘value creation needs to
be viewed in the context of social systems in which value is created and
evaluated’ (2014, p. 23). The importance of the symbolic aspect to service-
dominant logic is described in more detail by Akaka et al. (2014, p. 311):
We argue that symbols guide actors in enacting particular practices that enable
the co-creation of shared meanings, which help actors determine the value of
current and future interactions. In this way, symbols support the coordination
of interaction, the communication of information, the integration of resources,
and the evaluation of value, among actors.
Akaka et al. (2014) further link symbols and meaning to branding,
particularly the cultural negotiation of meaning, recognizing the complex
nature of brand systems, concluding: ‘Thus, it is the continual communi-
cation of information and the enactment of representative practices that
contributes to the representation of a brand’ (p. 319).
In a design context, service design can be understood as supporting the
cultural negotiation of an intended meaning, or brand meaning, through
service interactions. In a broader sense, design relates to meaning. Press
and Cooper (2003, p. 23) describe it as follows:
The designer makes meaning possible.Crafting a design solution is merely
the first part, which is continued by users of consumers as part of their lives
. . . Every designed product, communication or environment provides human
experiences. And, all experiences, whether in the city, kitchen, cinema or else-
wherecarry meaning and forms of representations. By enabling meaning, the
designer is a maker of culture. The designer is a cultural intermediary.
11.2.6 Experience Prototyping as a Way to Experience the Experience
In design, prototyping and modeling are well-defined processes that help
the designer, client and potential user evaluate the concept at an early
phase of development. In service design, the designer is interested in
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180 Innovating for trust
gaining an understanding of how the service ‘feels’ for the customer, and
also for the other actors involved in the service (personnel, providers, sub-
contractors and so on). This is termed experience prototyping (Bucheneu
and Suri, 2000) and attempts to simulate how the customer will experience
the complex ecology of actors, the underlying technological infrastructure
and the organization of people, when delivered through touch-points as
part of a journey. Experience prototypes are developed at a very early stage
to understand if the solution feels right and to be able to understand the
implications the experience has upon the service system. Further down the
development process, a greater degree of fidelity is needed and utilized.
Chapter 14 presents different ways to represent service through prototypes.
The chapter introduces the field of service design and, through its way of
thinking and doing, how it contributes to service innovation and trust. It
shows how trust can be designed into an offering and then designed to be
delivered through customers’ interactions with a service over time. Service
design does this by designing offerings that provide experiences that
happen over time and across touch-points.
The chapter has described multiple facets of service design and dis-
cussed service design as a customer-focused activity (Gloppen, 2012;
Kimbell, 2009) that has a natural approach to designing for value-in-use.
This area is explored in more detail in the following chapters. Service
design is a means of specifically developing value-in-use using two forms
of translation during the design process. Firstly, through brandslation
(see Chapter 13) as a means of translating brand into interaction cues for
use within the organization, and secondly, through designing for touch-
point interactions over time along a customer journey (see Chapter 12).
Further, service designers use prototyping as a central aspect of their
work to continually evaluate their designs and their ability to deliver
value-in-use (see Chapter 14). Finally, linking back to the core design
traits of Viability, Feasibility and Desirability (Brown, 2008) that we
introduced at the start of the chapter, the designer integrates multiple
aspects to develop an offering such that it fits the organizations purpose,
the customers’ needs and can be delivered. The service design approach
can therefore be seen as a desirable leadership characteristic, since it inte-
grates around a core focus of experiential value (Wetter-Edman, 2011).
This integrative approach around value-in-use (customer experience) is
therefore of relevance to both leadership and organizational development
(see Chapter 15).
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... Per ogni strumento c'è una parte dedicata alla sua descrizione, la possibilità di scaricare template, alcune reference e verificare come un determinato strumento può avere elementi in comune con altri. Successivamente la catalogazione è stata proposta in "manuali" o meglio definiti "textbook" (Stickdron & Schneider, 2011). Nel 2011 viene sviluppato anche il, anche in questo caso un toolkit con template da scaricare per costruire workshop, carte con schede specifiche e poster sulla metodologia. ...
... Polaine et al., 2009 Polaine et al., 2013Stickdron, M. and Schneider, J. (2011, scrivono il libro "This is Service Design thinking" il primo manuale di Service Design, per quanto riguarda il Blueprint lo definiscono a "living document"(2011, p. 204) che sottolinea come questo strumento debba essere continuamente revisionato.Polaine et al. (2013), nel loro libro "Service Design, from Insight to Implementation", ribadiscono il progetto di ricerca di Polaine et al. del 2009 dove creano un ibrido tra la journey map e laStickdorn, Schneider, 2011 Blueprint, dividendo l'asse verticale in User (Step e Experience), Channels, Backstage process. In questo caso sull'asse orizzontale è specificata la categoria del tempo suddivisa in Aware, Join , Use, Develop, Leave.Kimbell inserisce infine il concetto di infrastructure: "what other organizational resources are required for the service experience to exist, which might include mobile broadband, payment system, monitoring or verification processes" (2014, p. 179) La journey map, anche chiamata User Journey, Customer Journey, Experience Journey, Employee Journey ( è una rappresentazione che descrive il percorso di un ipotetico utente attraverso i touchpoint che egli incontra durante un processo temporale di interazione con il servizio(Poline et al., 2016). ...
Le design de services est étroitement liée aux outils utilisés pour concevoir un service. La définition du design de service est née en même temps que la systématisation du premier outil mis en place, le Blueprint. Au cours des quarante dernières années, les outils ont été critiqués, hybridés, personnalisés, pour faciliter les processus dans la dynamique de la co-conception et pour rendre plus claire la communication de la production des services. Cette thèse traite de deux problématiques : la première concerne le processus de simplification et de réduction de la complexité des phénomènes sur lesquels le service entend intervenir ; la seconde concerne les modalités de développement du service dans le temps ainsi que l'impact qu'il provoque sur la réalité. Cet impact, qui n'est pas toujours prévisible et contrôlable, est le résultat des nombreuses variables du service qui évoluent en fonction de la satisfaction des utilisateurs et de l'implication des parties prenantes. L'objectif de cette thèse est de démontrer comment les aspects de communication et de représentation du processus de conception et du service peuvent être rendus plus efficaces, en repensant les outils de conception de services. Le renforcement de ces fonctions facilite la perception et la création de valeur du service au sein de l'équipe de projet, mais surtout auprès des parties prenantes externes. L'objectif est d'optimiser les capacités des outils de représentation du processus et du projet, afin de permettre de suivre l'évolution du service et d'agir si des besoins de réorganisation apparaissent. La méthodologie identifiée prévoyait une collecte initiale de données par le biais de la littérature scientifique, afin d'étudier les modèles représentatifs des quatre principaux outils de conception de services et leur évolution dans le temps : Blueprint, Journey map, System Map et Stakeholder Map. Ensuite, les critiques formulées à l'égard de ces outils ont été analysées et trois nouvelles tendances, développées au cours des dix dernières années, ont été identifiées pour résoudre certains aspects critiques qui sont apparus : l'agrégation, la notation et l'accent mis sur l'impact futur/anticipé. En partant des outils étudiés, combinés à d'autres plus transversaux, nous sommes passés à une phase d'expérimentation à travers la réalisation/implémentation de trois toolkit, Pack & Unpack. Leave your stamp, Service Design Tool Trip, Co.Creation Blue Services. La conception de ces toolkit a permis d'expérimenter certains éléments de quatre stratégies : de narration, comme la représentation graphique du voyage du héros de Vogler ; d'hybridation, comme le mélange de plusieurs outils ; de facilitation, par exemple petits artefacts pour soutenir la réalisation d'actions logiques complexes ; et de personnalisation. Ces éléments, calibrés comme les ingrédients d'une recette, permettent d'atteindre l'objectif final. Ensuite, un modèle d'évaluation reproductible et applicable a été construit pour vérifier le niveau de profondeur d'une stratégie donnée dans les toolkit. Parallèlement, les toolkit ont fait l'objet d'entretiens avec des professionnels de six entreprises italiennes de conception de services. La dernière partie de la recherche se concentre sur les manières de mettre en scène le processus de conception et le service, qui ont été recueillies au cours d'expériences lors d'ateliers et de stages. À ces occasions, certaines techniques telles que les petits musées et les installations interactives ont été expérimentées. En conclusion, la thèse définit quelques stratégies pour systématiser un nouveau modèle de représentation du processus de conception, capable d'englober une vision globale du processus. Il s'agit d'ouvrir des scénarios futurs où l'outil de conception, hybridé avec une mise en scène intégrée cohérente, peut contribuer à une interprétation plus efficace de la valeur du processus de conception de services.
... Según Giacomin (2014), se enfoca en comunicar, interactuar, empatizar y estimular a los usuarios involucrados a través de la tecnología para comprender sus experiencias, necesidades y deseos. Poner en el centro al usuario es comúnmente visto en la mayoría de los procesos de diseño de servicios (Stickdorn y Schneider, 2011), sin embargo, no necesariamente debe comprenderse como un diseño «humanizado» o más bien, cómo diría Bates (2018), un «diseño humanista». ...
El propósito de este artículo es examinar las bases teóricas recientes relacionadas con el diseño de experiencias y el diseño de servicios para la humanización en los hospitales desde el año 2014. Además, examinar las temáticas principales más relevantes en esta área. La revisión sistemática se dividió en dos fases. La primera fase consistió en encontrar los términos adecuados de búsqueda en cuatro idiomas diferentes: inglés, francés, italiano y español. La segunda fase comprendió la búsqueda en las bases de datos Scopus, Web of Science, Ebscohost, dependiendo de la cantidad de términos y aplicando filtros entre el año 2014 a 2020, revistas científicas y acceso abierto. El análisis de resultados muestra una serie hallazgos comprendidos en la cantidad de estudios publicados anualmente, por continente y por términos esenciales (innovación-tecnología, significación, empatía, cocreación e interacción) para la investigación en el diseño de servicios y experiencias para servicios de salud. Además, este estudio permite una comprensión para visualizar, de manera holística, los sistemas de servicios de salud teniendo en cuenta aspectos relacionados entre la humanización y la investigación en diseño.
... • (Re-)Design the recycling experience for the city's households so that the (re)supply of valuable materials into the circular economy becomes more attractive • (Re-) Design the sales experience of office farms to support companies in their engagement for sustainability • (Re-) Design how users of the "Handprint" tool (developed by the German non-profit organization "Brot für die Welt") can be supported in the (very) first steps of their engagement Students worked on the project using the service design methodology, a service-specific application of Design Thinking and design methodologies (Clatworthy, 2017). Service design can be defined as "an approach to designing services that balances the needs of the customer with the needs of the business, aiming to create seamless and quality service experiences. ...
... In the early nineties designers adopted qualitative methods from anthropology to validate design decisions using data mostly from observing and interviewing users or customers. These qualitative methods are used in design approaches (e.g., contextual inquiry (Beyer & Holtzblatt 1998), service design (Stickdorn & Schneider 2014) and design thinking (Dorst 2011)), which give designers insights into (long-term) user or customer experiences. By visually mapping the user or customer experiences into models and seeing how these experiences are connected give designers the tools and techniques to validate design decisions. ...
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Citizen science entails the collaboration of citizens and scientists. The process of this collaboration can take on many forms: identifying a research question, collecting data, analysing data to support or refute a hypothesis, monitoring environmental or health conditions for management or policy development. Citizen science propagates the inclusion of citizens not only as participants engaged in the design research process but also involved in designing the research process itself. In order to address issues of a citizen science approach, it is important that potentially everyone can contribute. Therefore, methodologies need to be fine-tuned to improve the involvement of non-professional researchers in the research process. Co-creation methods may be an effective methodology for doing so and bring different types of knowledge (e.g., insights, experiences, data, information) to the ‘table of science’ and, ultimately, improve the constructive exchange and evaluation of this knowledge. This article describes the process of a pilot where professional researchers, informal caregivers, and human resource advisors use visual co-analysis to create a research plan. For the framing of this research a theme was proposed which focused on the possibility of technological support for work-related challenges experienced by informal caregivers working in healthcare. Five semi-structured interviews were conducted by researchers with informal caregiver in the first phase of ‘Empathize’ within design thinking (i.e., human centred approach). The goal of the interviews was to understand and relate to the caregiver’s perception of their current informal care situation (e.g., balance, bottlenecks, opportunities, well-being). Quotes selected from theses interviews were the input for a bottom-up methodology for citizen science using the KJ Method (i.e., affinity diagramming) as a form of visual analysis model. The (co-)analysis was done by the team of caregivers, HR advisors and researchers using the online tool Miro. This article aims to describe how the use of visual analysis models as a group consensus technique can facilitate the involvement of non-professional researchers and thereby support the establishment of inclusiveness of a citizen science approach. In other words, to obtain equal collaboration, an inclusive citizen science approach must allow communication about, and analysis of data by all participants, instead of non-professional researchers merely being presented with the finalized results of the analysis phase within research. An inclusive citizen science approach might lead to a period of uncertainty where problem definitions, research questions or predefined categories posed early on are (re-)assessed. However, this bottom-up approach will ultimately lead to a positive impact in finding the root problem for innovative scientific outcomes. Together, the pilot study and descriptive review offer guidance for understanding visual co-analysis models as the starting point for an inclusive citizen science approach.
... However, to support an easier codification of the DIH support actions, which also directly entails the engagement of customer enterprises in the innovative DIH ecosystems, a method able to codify DIH Customer Journeys (CJ) is needed. Indeed, as usually done in the company context by service design, 26,27 to successfully design, manage and deliver services, it would be important to evaluate the service delivery process from a customer's perspective. This has been demonstrated in service design 28 with the introduction of service blueprinting, a method grounded on flowcharts that visually clarifies the steps involved in a service delivery process, shaping how it should be understood and analyzed. ...
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Digital Innovation Hubs (DIHs) are ecosystems bolstering European companies to overtake innovation hindrances and drive Europe to become the world leading innovator in the industry digital revolution. Each of such organizations can provide a certain list of services, that can be classified and grouped in five macro-classes according to the Data-driven Business-Ecosystem-Skills-Technology (D-BEST) reference model, able to decode DIHs’ service portfolio and to shape collaborative networks in the Industry 4.0 age. However, to support an easier codification of DIH support actions, which also directly entails the engagement of enterprises in the DIH ecosystems, a method able to analyze typical Customer Journeys (CJs) is needed. Therefore, this paper proposes the D-BEST based DIH CJ analysis method, able to configure DIHs’ unique value proposition, mapping on the five macro-classes of services of the D-BEST the digital transformation processes of the two main categories of DIH customers (technology end-users and technology providers). The method analyses the service provision process of single DIHs, evidencing their strengths and weaknesses, and is also effective in suggesting possible collaborations and joint service provision in a network of multiple DIHs, being able to unveil the commonalities and complementarities among the different journeys.
Full-text available Creative Food Cycles addresses three interconnected fields of innovation: 1. CREATIVE FOOD CYCLES AS DRIVER FOR URBAN RESILIENCE. Fostering novel and adaptive Food Cycles as driver for resilience in cities, economy, society, and culture. 2. CREATIVE FOOD CYCLES AS SOCIAL INNOVATION. Extending civic participation in Food Cycles toward active engagement, new urban communities, and new models of social entrepreneurship. 3. CREATIVE FOOD CYCLES BASED ON DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES. Experimenting with interactive devices and digital protocols with a strong cultural and social impact, as an empowering force of Food Cycles Creative Food Cycles is funded by the European Union in the Creative Europe programme from 2018 to 2020. The project is coordinated by the Institute for Design and Urban Planning of the Leibniz University of Hannover and pre- formed with the project partners Institute for Advanced Architecture of Cat- alonia IAAC Barcelona/Spain and Department of Architecture and Design of the University of Genoa/Italy. Creative Food Cycles combines research with experimental prototyping, cultural actions and social dialogue.
Since China actively joined the globalization process, industrialization and urbanization have brought economic development to China’s traditional rural areas, but at the same time, many problems have also arisen. Among them, the problems faced by rural areas where ethnic minorities live in compact communities are more severe. Besides the common problems in rural areas, they also need to face the decline and disappearance of ethnic culture. The design and social innovation of rural areas and ethnic minority settlements have attracted scholars from many fields to study and practice. In 2013, we formed an interdisciplinary team to cooperate with Guangxi’s ethnic management agencies to carry out a series of social innovation practices in many places in Guangxi, China, this paper explores the development model of local social innovation and promotes the sustainable development of local society. Based on the Internet platform application service thinking design and product-service system design method, a new model is established to promote the local economic development and protect and inherit the national culture characteristic. The experiences, sustainability and discussed methods in this paper provide reference for the practice and research of different social innovation and social lessons.KeywordsSocial innovationService designProduct service systemNational culture
With the rapid development of society and improvement of material conditions, people begin to focus on internal needs, claiming more complicatedly about the social value of food and the way it presents. The meaning of food not only stays at the material level, but is more of an internal symbol of a regional. Its symbolic meaning reflects the internal culture of the region and the complex social and relationship between the local region and other regions. This research involves service design thinking into the research process of sustainable development of food culture in Zhenze Region of Suzhou, China, focusing on how service design can meet the challenge of complex social development issues, and how to deal with the obstacles of food inheritance and innovation under the background of sustainable development. Specifically, the structural relationship of service design participating in the development of regional food has been combed, and the process model of discovery - exploration - opportunity point - proposal - experiment - execution is provided for the construction of regional food system in China, while playing the role of service design in this process. Furthermore, this paper explores the value of food service design from the perspective of social sustainability, promotes and expands a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of regional, explores the relationship between regional and food, deconstructs and reconstructs the various possibilities of regional food, social sustainability and people. We emphasize the ability and creativity of service design to solve the development issues of regional characteristic food, establish short chain communication between people and regional space, meanwhile, push forward the upgraded food innovation, convey more diversified value significance, and promote the sustainable development of society.KeywordsRegional food cultureSocial sustainabilityService designFood designDesign value
People’s mobility is constantly increasing all over the world, and more and more transport systems are available. This is especially evident in urban transport systems that link individual transport with carCars and bikeBikes sharing or autonomous shuttlesShuttles. This creates completely new challenges for humanHumans-computer interaction, as the complexity of mobility information and the management of intermodal travel becomes more and more sophisticated. A broad spectrum of travelersTraveler with different needs must be taken into account. To achieve the acceptance of these systems, humanHumans-computer interaction must be completely redesigned. In order to structure this complexity for HCI research, small modules for a theoretical basis have been developed step by step over the last 10 years, most of them were published for the first time at the HCI conferences. In many case studies, method sets and classifications were testedTested in order to get to know the challenges for HCI better and better. On the basis of case studies method sets and theoretical concepts have been developed. The contribution shows how these results were transferred into the holistic concept of the Mobility Experience.
This study aims to explore the background factors that affect the relationship between IPE, which are tourism experiences caused by unexpected circumstances, and the evaluation of tourism experiences from the perspective of the customer journey. Qualitative research using customer journey mapping was conducted to analyze factors that influence the relationship between IPE and tourist satisfaction. The results suggest that the factors of “assumption of behavior on the day of visit,” “assumption of satisfaction on the day of visit,” and “assumption of the timing of the next visit” with respect to the pre-visit stage and “actions to implement the plan” and “actions to change plans” with respect to behavior on the day of visit may be background factors that lead to satisfaction with IPE. This study exploratively analyzes and clarifies the impact and background of tourists’ IPE on their evaluation of tourism experiences, which has not been previously examined.
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This paper reviews one of the central areas of service design, the area of touch-point innovation. Specifically, it describes the development and use of a card-based toolkit developed in the AT-ONE project-the AT-ONE touch-point cards. These cards have been developed to assist cross-functional teams during the first phases of the New Service Development (NSD) process. This paper describes and analyses the development of the tools, their intended use and their evaluation following actual uptake by several commercial service providers. The results show that the toolkit assists the innovation process during the first phases of the new service development process and helps develop team cohesiveness. The card-based approach offers a tangibility that teams find useful, and that offers multiple usage alternatives. In addition, the paper describes the multiple functions that tools used in service innovation need to accommodate, and how design makes an important contribution to this. The work also reflects upon the materials of service design and suggests that touch-points are one of the materials used by designers to understand, explore and develop innovative service solutions. Suggestions for further work are included that include aspects of toolkit tangibility, usage areas and touch-point innovation.
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As leading businesses and global organizations started gaining new understanding of the value of design, their internal culture and attitude towards design began to change. Financial companies and management consultancies that have never before been associated with design are now creating their in-house design teams and including design in their portfolio of services. Large corporations that in the past used design in a limited capacity now rapidly increase their in-house design capabilities and appoint designers in executive roles. Venture capitalist firms and start-up companies also started recognizing the value that designers can bring to the business development stages of their investments. Even global organizations and international foundations started placing design on their agendas. All of this is causing a paradigm shift in the field of design. This study examines some of the latest corporate investments in design and reflects on what this means for the field of design. The focus of this study is on the key trend indicators that are defining the current landscape of design and its role in business and society.
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This paper considers different ways of approaching service design, exploring what professional designers who say they design services are doing. First it reviews literature in the design and management fields, including marketing and operations. The paper proposes a framework that clarifies key tensions shaping the understanding of service design. It then presents an ethnographic study of three firms of professional service designers and details their work in three case studies. The paper reports four findings. The designers approached services as entities that are both social and material. The designers in the study saw service as relational and temporal and thought of value as created in practice. They approached designing a service through a constructivist enquiry in which they sought to understand the experiences of stakeholders and they tried to involve managers in this activity. The paper proposes describing designing for service as a particular kind of service design. Designing for service is seen as an exploratory process that aims to create new kinds of value relation between diverse actors within a socio-material configuration. This has implications for existing ways of understanding design and for research, practice and teaching.
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Service design is an emerging design practice with an interdisciplinary heritage. Most previ- ous research has been based on what service designers do; with the increased academic inter- est in service design over the past decade, the time has come to conceptualize the underlying discourses. The main purpose of this thesis is to contribute knowledge to the emerging service design discourse through conceptual comparisons of key concepts in the design and service management literatures. This theoretical licentiate thesis consists of a main body text, a Kappa, situating two previ- ously published papers in the research context. The conceptual framework encompasses areas of design research, including design thinking, service design and design management. These areas are related to management research, with a specific focus on service marketing/management, including Service-Dominant logic and service innovation. The thesis includes an interdisciplinary literature review with a specific focus on how user involvement is conceptualized in service design and service management respectively, and de- velops a conceptual framework of service design based in descriptions of service design practice in the literature. The framework presents service design through five characteristics, as an 1) in- terdisciplinary practice, using 2) visualization & prototyping, and 3) participation as means for developing the design object, seen as 4) transformation, and 5) value creation. This framework leads to an understanding of service design practice as a continuously repositioning activity. The thesis argues that the relation between service marketing/management and service de- sign is complementary, particularly in tools and methods for user involvement and co-creation, and therefore the relation is mutually productive. It further argues that design practice can help realize Service Dominant logic, and a service perspective can help open up new positions for design practice. In sum, this thesis contributes knowledge that enriches the understanding and relevance of service marketing/management for the design discourse and vice versa.
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Since the introductory article for what has become known as the “service-dominant (S-D) logic of marketing,” “Evolving to a New Dominant Logic for Marketing,” was published in the Journal of Marketing (Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2004a)), there has been considerable discussion and elaboration of its specifics. This article highlights and clarifies the salient issues associated with S-D logic and updates the original foundational premises (FPs) and adds an FP. Directions for future work are also discussed. KeywordsService-dominant logic-New-dominant logic-Service
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Roger Martin, dean of the Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto, is interviewed on the subject of "design thinking"—approaching managerial problems as designers approach design problems—and its potential impact on management education. Under a design-thinking paradigm, students would be encouraged to think broadly about problems, develop a deep understanding of users, and recognize the value in the contributions of others. In Martin's view, the concept of design thinking can potentially address many of the criticisms currently being leveled at MBA programs. The interview is followed by a discussion and critique of the themes Martin raises.
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This article explores the role of symbols in value cocreation in order to develop a deeper understanding of how actors communicate, interact, and reconcile perspectives as they integrate and exchange resources to create value for themselves and for others. We draw on a service ecosystems approach to value cocreation and propose a conceptual framework that highlights varying views of value and articulates the way in which value cocreation results from the integration of resources and interactions among multiple actors. We argue that symbols guide actors in enacting particular practices that enable the cocreation of shared meanings, which help actors determine the value of current and future interactions. In this way, symbols support the coordination of interaction, the communication of information, the integration of resources, and the evaluation of value, among actors. We provide an empirical example of our conceptual framework as supporting evidence for the role of symbols in value cocreation and point toward directions for future research.
This book summarizes the results of Design Thinking Research carried out at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, USA, and Hasso Plattner Institute in Potsdam, Germany. The authors offer readers a closer look at Design Thinking with its processes of innovations and methods. The contents of the articles range from how to design ideas, methods, and technologies via creativity experiments and wicked problem solutions, to creative collaboration in the real world and the connectivity of designers and engineers. But the topics go beyond this in their detailed exploration of design thinking and its use in IT systems engineering fields and even from a management perspective. The authors show how these methods and strategies work in companies, introduce new technologies and their functions and demonstrate how Design Thinking can influence as diverse a topic area as marriage. Furthermore, we see how special design thinking use functions in solving wicked problems in complex fields. Thinking and creating innovations are basically and inherently human - so is Design Thinking. Due to this, Design Thinking is not only a factual matter or a result of special courses nor of being gifted or trained: it's a way of dealing with our environment and improving techniques, technologies and life. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014. All rights are reserved.