Conference Paper

Cognitive and motivational key factors of late primary students’ writing performance

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Conference Paper

Cognitive and motivational key factors of late primary students’ writing performance

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... Research to further understanding of the relationship between the factors of WSE and writing self-regulation is limited to elementary students' self-reported ratings of their selfregulation behaviours (De Smedt et al., 2017). As noted earlier, measuring student writing self-regulation with teachers' reported observations of student self-regulation behaviours (e.g., planning, revising, persistence) during writing may provide a more accurate depiction of student writing self-regulation than students' self-reports of their behaviour. ...
... This study also examined the relationship between WSE and writing self-regulation. In another multifactorial study of WSE also examining writing self-regulation, surprising results from De Smedt et al. (2017) showed that self-efficacy for ideation and conventions negatively related to elementary students' self-reported self-regulation. Students' confidence in their ability to self-regulate their writing behaviour was the only factor to positively relate to their personal reports of their regulative writing behaviours, which is expected given the high correspondence between measures (i.e., both focused on self-regulation) and method (i.e., both relied on student self-reports). ...
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As theory and research in self-regulated learning (SRL) advance, debate continues about how to measure SRL as strategic, fine-grained, dynamic adaptations learners make during and between study sessions. Recognizing learners’ perceptions are critical to the strategic adaptations they make during studying, this research examined the unique contributions of self-report data for understanding regulation as it develops over time. Data included (a) scores on the Regulation of Learning Questionnaire (RLQ) completed in the first and last few weeks of a 13-week course and (b) diary-like Weekly Reflections completed over 11 weeks. Participants were 263 undergraduate students in a course about SRL. First, exploratory factor analysis resulted in a five-factor model of the RLQ with factors labeled Task Understanding, Goal Setting, Monitoring, Evaluating, and Adapting. Second, latent class analysis of Time 1 and 2 RLQ scores revealed four classes: emergent regulators, moderate regulators, high regulators with emergent adapting, and high regulators. Finally, in-depth qualitative analysis of Weekly Reflections resulted in group SRL profiles based on a sub-sample of participants from each RLQ class. Qualitatively, these groups were labeled: unengaged regulators, active regulators, struggling regulators, and emergent regulators. Quantitative and qualitative SRL profiles were juxtaposed and similarities and differences discussed. This paper explicates and discusses the critical importance of sampling self-reports of SRL over time and tasks particularly in contexts where regulation is developing.
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Large-scale surveys using complex sample designs are frequently carried out by government agencies. The statistical analysis technology available for such data is, however, limited in scope. This study investigates and further develops statistical methods that could be used in software for the analysis of data collected under complex sample designs. First, it identifies several recent methodological lines of inquiry which taken together provide a powerful and general statistical basis for a complex sample, structural equation modeling analysis. Second, it extends some of this research to new situations of interest. A Monte Carlo study that empirically evaluates these techniques on simulated data comparable to those in largescale complex surveys demonstrates that they work well in practice. Due to the generality of the approaches, the methods cover not only continuous normal variables but also continuous non-normal variables and dichotomous variables. Two methods designed to take into account the complex sample structure were investigated in the Monte Carlo study. One method, termed aggregated analysis, computes the usual parameter estimates but adjusts standard errors and goodness-of-fit model testing. The other method, termed disaggregated analysis, includes a new set of parameters reflecting the complex sample structure. Both of the methods worked very well. The conventional method that ignores complex sampling worked poorly, supporting the need for development of special methods for complex survey data.
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This study compared the written expression of 159 English-speaking first (L1) and second language (L2) learners (Mage = 9; 7 years, SD = 3.63 months) in England The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the four dimensions of written expression, namely holistic quality, written vocabulary, organisational quality, and compositional fluency. Girls also outperformed boys on all dimensions, except for organisation. The interaction between language group and gender was nonsignificant, but there was a trend for the language group differences to be larger for boys. Vocabulary, organisation, and compositional fluency made unique contributions to holistic quality in both language groups and the strength of these relations were relatively comparable across the L1 and L2 groups. Educational implications are discussed.
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Writing may be the most complex facet of the language arts. Students need to become competent writers to succeed in school and society; therefore, teaching these skills is an important educational goal. To accomplish this goal, schools must identify students who have writing difficulties early in order to enact effectual interventions. Early screening and intervention is even more important in the current educational climate of response to intervention. In this article we discuss how schools can create a tiered system of screening, intervention, and progress monitoring for writing.
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Path analysis was used to test the influence of writing self-efficacy, writing apprehension, perceived usefulness of writing, and writing aptitude on the essay-writing performance of 218 fifth-grade students. A model that also included sex accounted for 64% of the variance in performance. As hypothesized, self-efficacy beliefs made an independent contribution to the prediction of performance despite the expected powerful effect of writing aptitude. Aptitude also had a strong direct effect on self-efficacy, which mediated the indirect effect of aptitude on performance. Self-efficacy had direct effects on apprehension and perceived usefulness. Girls and boys did not differ in performance, but girls reported higher writing self-efficacy, found writing more useful, and had lower apprehension. Results support the hypothesized role of self-efficacy in Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory.
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It is the consensus that, as a result of the extra constraints placed on working memory, texts written in a second language (L2) are usually of lower quality than texts written in the first language (L1) by the same writer. However, no method is currently available for quantifying the quality difference between L1 and L2 texts. In the present study, we tested a rating procedure for enabling quality judgments of L1 and L2 texts on a single scale. Two main features define this procedure: 1) raters are bilingual or near native users of both the L1 and L2; 2) ratings are performed with L1 and L2 benchmark texts. Direct comparisons of observed L1 and L2 scores are only warranted if the ratings with L1 and L2 benchmarks are parallel tests and if the ratings are reliable. Results showed that both conditions are met. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) indicate that, while score variances are large, there is a relatively large added L2 effect: in the investigated population, L2 text scores were much lower than L1 text scores. The tested rating procedure is a promising method for cross-national comparisons of writing proficiency.
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This study explores the (a) text-learning strategies and (b) schematizing skills of pre-adolescents with varying achievement levels by means of the analysis of think-aloud protocols, traces, and pen movements. Twenty fifth- and sixth-grade students from two elementary schools participated. Results show the use and combination of various text-learning strategies during learning from text, mostly applied at a surface level. Notwithstanding the large variation in students' individual strategy repertoires, four main text-learning approaches could be distinguished. No achievement level differences in text-learning strategy use were found. As to students' schematizing skills, analyses illustrate the great difficulty students experience with spatially and hierarchically representing text information. Students paid limited attention in the construction process to assist metacognitive processes. Surprisingly, low achievers spent significantly more time on these metacognitive processes. This multi-method assessment of text-learning strategies in general and schematizing skills in particular provide fruitful avenues for future intervention research.
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This article reviews the literature on the self-efficacy beliefs of students with learning disabilities (LD). Motivational and metacognitive difficulties of students with LD are briefly discussed, followed by a synopsis of Bandura's self-efficacy theory, with special attention to the issue of calibration. From the literature search, 22 studies met the criteria of (a) using a measure of self-efficacy, and (b) including a sample of students identified as having learning disabilities. The resulting body of literature is summarized and analyzed in terms of the nature of the sample, the performance task or domain, the self-efficacy measure used, the research question and outcomes, and the accuracy of calibration between perceived self-efficacy and task outcome. The results from this review suggest that in specific contexts — in the writing performance of students with specific writing difficulties, in particular — students appear to optimistically miscalibrate their self-efficacy. Methodological problems found in some of the research, such as “conceptual blurring,” are discussed. Finally, implications for practice are considered, and suggestions are made for future research.
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It is proposed that the development of writing competence depends on high levels of self-regulation and the mastery of low-level transcription skills. Predictions consistent with each of these claims are identified and evaluated. Although the available data are incomplete and many key findings require further replication, the accumulated evidence generally supports both of these propositions.
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Two decades of cognitive research have shown writing to be a highly fluid process of problem solving requiring constant monitoring of progress toward task goals. Becoming an able writer brings great intellectual and social rewards, but the extended nature and difficulty of this process create unique motivational challenges. Speech development provides some models for development of writing motivation, but writing requires special attention to motivational conditions. Four clusters of conditions are proposed as keys to developing motivation: nurturing functional beliefs about writing, fostering engagement using authentic writing tasks, providing a supportive context for writing, and creating a positive emotional environment. Teachers' own conceptions of writing are seen as crucial to establishing these conditions in most writing contexts. Systematic motivational research complementing our knowledge about the cognitive processes of writing is needed to understand the development of motivation to write.
Article
Becoming an adept writer involves more than knowledge of vocabulary and grammar, it depends on high levels of personal regulation because writing activities are usually self-planned, self-initiated, and self-sustained. We present a social cognitive model of writing composed of three fundamental forms of self-regulation: environmental, behavioral, and covert or personal. Each of these triadic forms of self-regulation interact reciprocally via a cyclic feedback loop through which writers self-monitor and self-react to feedback about the effectiveness of specific self-regulatory techniques or processes. Well known writers’ personal descriptions of ten major self-regulatory techniques are recounted, and empirical studies demonstrating the effectiveness of these self-regulatory techniques are discussed. We conclude that writing self-regulation is a complex system of interdependent processes that are closely linked to an underlying sense of self-efficacy, and we discuss implications of the proposed model of self-regulatory processes and self-beliefs for guiding future research and developing innovative writing instruction.