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Big-Lipped Phalaenopsis: Breeding of Big-Lip Phalaenopsis and its Achievements in Taiwan

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692  ORCHIDS NOVEMBER 2014 www.AOS.Org
Big-Lipped Phalaenopsis
Breeding of Big-Lip Phalaenopsis and its Achievements in Taiwan
BY YI TZU KUO AND WEN HUEI CHEN
A TOTAL OF 31,382 PHALAENOPSIS
hybrids have been registered with the
Royal Horticultural Society up to June of
2013. Most of the breeding of Phalaenopsis
orchids is focused on improving the number
of flowers, length of the inflorescences,
flower size and the color and pattern of
flowers, including characteristics such
as lines, spots, picotees and various
combinations of mottling and shading.
Attempts to significantly change the shape
of the floral parts are relatively rare except
for peloric petals. The recent big-lipped
Phalaenopsis hybrids could become a
leading fashion trend of future moth orchid
hybrids.
The big lip is a petal-like lip variation.
For example, the Phalaenopsis (Yu Pin
Easter Island × I-Hsin Diamond ‘Join White
of Love’), bred by Join Orchids, exhibits
variations in lip morphology from cultivar
to cultivar. This kind of lip morphology
was unknown until the discovery of
Phalaenopsis World Class ‘Big Foot’,
JC/AOS in 1990 by Carmela Orchids in
Hawaii. This cultivar received a Judges’
Commendation (JC) from the AOS at the
New England Orchid Show in 1991. At the
time of its award it was described as having
11 flowers on one inflorescence, of nearly
round shape with uniformly petaloid lips.
The cultivar ‘Big Foot’ was mericloned and
sold to orchid hobbyists in the USA and
Japan. It was largely used as a parent to
develop different types of novel big-lipped
commercial hybrids after it was imported to
Taiwan in 2006 (Kou and Chen, 2013).
DISCOVERY AND GENOMIC
CONSTITUTION OF PHAL. WORLD
CLASS ‘BIG FOOT’, JC/AOSPearl
Takasaki of Carmela Orchids reported
that ‘Big Foot’ was the only cultivar with
petal-like lips found in the population of
Phal. World Class they raised. Neither its
capsule parent, Phalaenopsis Mae Hitch,
nor its pollen parent, Phalaenopsis Kathy
Sagaert, exhibited such petaloid lips.
An analysis of the genealogy of
Phal. World Class shows that white
flowered Phalaenopsis species including
Phalaenopsis aphrodite (10.3 percent),
Phalaenopsis amabilis (26.4 percent)
and Phalaenopsis rimestadiana [itself a
synonym of Phal. amabilis] (26.4 percent),
make up over 60 percent of the grex’s genetic
background. The pink flower color derives
from three species, Phalaenopsis equestris
(13.6 percent), Phalaenopsis schilleriana
[1] Flowers of Phalaenopsis (Yu Pin Eas-
ter Island × I-Hsin Diamond ‘Join White
of Love’). Plants of this grex express
very different types of lip morphology.
[2] Phalaenopsis World Class ‘Big Foot’,
the one and only cultivar of the grex
with petaloid lips occurred in a popula-
tion of Phal. World Class raised by
Carmela Orchids in Hawaii. [Carmela
Orchids]
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(12.3 percent) and Phalaenopsis sanderiana
(5.8 percent), which account for another
30 percent of the genetic background.
Phalaenopsis stuartiana and Phalaenopsis
lueddemanniana contribu te 4 percen t
and 1.2 percent, respectively. Therefore,
we speculated that the emergence of a
petaloid lip was more likely due to a
mutation of certain genes than the result of
characteristics inherited from its parents.
HYBRIDIZATION WITH PHAL.
WORLD CLASS ‘BIG FOOT’, JC/
AOS From 1994 to 2012, four generations
of Phal. World Class ‘Big Foot’, JC/AOS
progeny, a total of 136 hybrids, have
been registered. The number of registered
hybrids in the first, second, third and
fourth generations was 38, 92, 5 and 1,
respectively. In the beginning, Phal. World
Class ‘Big Foot’, JC/AOS might not have
been widespread and used extensively
in breeding programs, because breeders
who had access to it were short of other
parental plants with which to make hybrids
or could not afford large-scale breeding of
big lip Phalaenopsis due to budgetary or
space restrictions. Therefore, the registered
number of its progeny was quite limited
through 2010. In 2011 and 2012, 22 and
57 second generation hybrids of Phal.
World Class were registered, respectively.
The F1 hybrids, especially Phal. Yu Pin
Easter Island and Phal. Yu Pin Fireworks
registered in 2009 and 2010, respectively
have become important parents for breeding
of big-lip Phalaenopsis.
BREEDING AND ACHIEVE-
MENTS IN BIG-LIP PHALAENOPSIS IN
TAIWAN Phalaenopsis World Class ‘Big
Foot’, JC/AOS was imported into Taiwan
by Long-Hui Chen (Jumbo Orchids) and
Yung-Yu Lin (Brother Orchid Nursery)
who bought the ‘Big Foot’ cultivar in
Japan. Neng-I Chang (Yu Pin Biological
Technology) obtained two flowers from
Mr. Lin and used their pollen to start a
new era of big lip Phalaenopsis breeding
in Taiwan. He used Phalaenopsis Sogo
Yukidian, a large-white, to produce Phal.
Yu Pin Easter Island registered in 2009.
Crossing ‘Big Footwith the pink-flowered
Phalaenopsis Sogo Dove, produced
Phal. Yu Pin Fireworks registered in
2010. Furthermore, numerous cultivars
of these two hybrids were sold, becoming
widespread in Taiwan’s orchid nurseries
and the parents of choice for creating big-
lip Phalaenopsis hybrids. From that point
until 2012, 27 and 48 hybrids derived
from the progenies of Phal. Yu Pin Easter
Island and Phal. Yu Pin Fireworks were
registered. These two hybrids have made
great contributions to the breeding of big-
[3] The first- to fourth-generation of hybrids of Phalaenopsis World Class registered by
the RHS from 1994 to 2012. Data derived from OrchidWiz Encyclopedia 9.02.
Table 1 First generation offspring of Phal. World Class with big-lip characteristics and number
of their hybrids registered with the RHS.
First generation (F1) Seed/PollenaOriginator Year Offspring #b
Fantastic Lip Stripes and More (P) S. Camhi 2002 1
Elizabeth Hayden Formosa Best Girl (S) J. Hayden 2003 0
Yu Pin Easter Island Sogo Yukidian (S) Yu Pin Biotech 2009 27
Yu Pin Fireworks Sogo Dove (S) Neng-I Chang 2010 48
K S Big Class K S Red Coral (S) Kung Sir Orchids 2010 0
Millie’s Atavist Hilo Lip (P) A. Pickrel 2010 0
Krull’s Butterfly Music (S) Krull-Smith 2007 0
a P and S indicate hybrids used as pollen and seed parents, respectively.
b The number of offspring derived from OrchidWiz Encyclopedia 9.02.
Table 2 AOS awards won by progeny of Phal. World Class
AOS Awards Generation of progeny
1st 2nd 3rd
First Class Certificate (FCC) 0 0 1
Award of Merit (AM) 0 13 8
Highly Commended Certificate (HCC) 0 7 1
Judges’ Commendation (JC) 2 3 1
Award of Quality (AQ) 0 0 1
Total 2 23 12
Information derived by using software OrchidWiz Encyclopedia 9.02. The awards information
was obtained from the Taiwan Orchid Growers Association (TOGA).
lip Phalaenopsis orchids in Taiwan.
Kuo-Liang Hung (Tying Shin Orchids)
crossed Phal. Yu Pin Easter Island and
Phal. Yu Pin Fireworks with a wide variety
of other Phalaenopsis grexes, including
mini, harlequin, splash, white-with-red-lip,
red-spotted waxy yellow, stripes and spots
(Hung, 2012). By 2012, Tying Shin Orchids
had registered 12 Phalaenopsis hybrids
with one parent being either Phal. Yu Pin
Easter Island or Phal. Yu Pin Fireworks.
These hybrids have demonstrated that
the heritable probability of the big-lip
characteristic was about 30 to 40 percent,
regardless of the Phalaenopsis type used
in the other half of the mating. In addition,
both Fuller’s Orchids and Lioulin Orchids
in Taiwan made great efforts to create novel
big-lip Phalaenopsis hybrids. Fuller’s
Orchids registered 38 big lip related hybrids
by 2012.
Recently, as the number of big lip
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Phalaenopsis hybrids has grown, many
cultivars have received awards at orchid
shows worldwide, especially from the AOS.
From 1998 to 2013, 15 grexes derived
from Phal. World Class have received a
total of 35 AOS awards, including 1 FCC,
21 AM, 8 HCC, 4 JC and an AQ. Eight
hybrids are first-generation and seven
are second-generation. Phalaenopsis Yu
Pin Fireworks has garnered 2 AMs and 4
HCCs of its own. In addition, Phalaenopsis
Krull’s Butterfly has received 7 AMs and
a JC, but it was not, through 2012, used as
a parent and no offspring were registered
through 2012. This may be due to a lack
of mass production or limited distribution
of this hybrid.
At the 2012 and 2013 Taiwan
[4] Phalaenopsis varieties with big-lipped flowers given AOS awards in the 2012 Taiwan International Orchid Show. (A) Phal. Tying
Shin World Class ‘2164-1’, AM/AOS, Tying Shin Orchids; (B) Phal. Tying Shin World Class ‘2164-7’, AM/AOS (the grex was also
given an Award of Quality), Tying Shin Orchids; (C) Phal. Tying Shin Unicorn ‘2172’, AM/AOS, Tying Shin Orchids; (D) Phal. Yu Mei
Pink Lady ‘Yu Mei’, AM/AOS, Yu Mei Orchids and (E) Phal. Lioulin Lovely Lip ‘#1’, FCC/AOS, Champion Orchid Nursery. [Taiwan
Orchid Growers Association]
International Orchid Shows (TIOS), the
presence of numerous big-lip hybrids
started to attract the attention of the
judges. Hybrids derived from Phal. Yu Pin
Fireworks at the 2012 TIOS were especially
outstanding and were granted many awards
in individual judging. Both Phalaenopsis
Tying Shin World Class, ‘2164-1’ and
‘2164-7’, obtained from the cross of Phal.
Yu Pin Fireworks with Phalaenopsis
Sogo Vivien by Tying Shin Orchids were
multifloral with pink stripes. In addition,
Phal. Yu Pin Fireworks was also hybridized
with spotted and red flowers, producing
varieties such as Phalaenopsis Tying
Shin Unicorn ‘2172’ (Yu Pin Fireworks
× Leopard Prince) and Phalaenopsis
(Yu Pin Fireworks × Tai Lin Red Angel)
‘Yu Mei’. These remarkable varieties all
received AM/AOS awards. Champion
Orchid Nursery bred Phalaenopsis Lioulin
Lovely Lip ‘#1’ by crossing Phal. Yu
Pin Fireworks with the harlequin-type
Phalaenopsis. Chian Xen Piano. It was
the only Phalaenopsis cultivar to receive
an FCC/AOS at the 2012 TIOS.
At the 2013 show, three excellent
hybrids of Phal. Yu Pin Easter Island
won AM/AOS awards; two cultivars
of Phalaenopsis Tying Shing Eastern,
‘TS-2442-9’ and ‘Cotton Candy’ (Yu Pin
Easter Island x Sogo Genki) [Tying Shing
Orchids Farm], and Phalaenopsis Fangmei
Dream Wedding ‘FA7773-13’. OX Orchids
Farm crossed Phal. Yu Pin Fireworks with
Phalaenopsis Surf Song and produced
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Phalaenopsis OX Sunkist ‘OX1637’. This
cultivar produces orange-red flowers with
big-lip characteristics and was granted a
Silver Medal by the Taiwan Orchid Growers
Association judges. These excellent big-lip
Phalaenopsis hybrids will encourage
more breeders to increase their efforts
to breed additional big-lip Phalaenopsis
creating novel cultivars to take the big-lip
Phalaenopsis trend forward.
Acknowledgements
We are grateful to Dr. Joseph Aditti for help
with the editing of this manuscript.
References
Chen, W.H., Chen, T.C. and Wu, W.L. 2004. The influence
of Phalaenopsis Golden Peoker ‘Brother’ on harlequins
Phalaenopsis. Journal of the International Phalaenopsis
Alliance. pp.14-16.
Hung, K.L. 2012. The hybridization of big lip from peloric
Phalaenopsis. Taiwan Orchid Talks 04:14-23
Kuo, Y.T. and Chen, W.H. 2013. Selection of Phal. World
Class ‘Big Foot’ and its progeny’s performance. Taiwan
Orchids 10:12-19. OrchidWiz Encyclopedia Version
9.02. 2012. OrchidWiz LLC., USA.
Taiwan International Orchid Show 2012. 2012. Taiwan
Orchid Growers Association (TOGA), Taiwan.
Professor Wen-Huei Chen, an AOS
Fellow, from 1988 to 1999 was Plant
Biotechnologist and Head of the Depart-
ment of Horticulture, of the Taiwan Sugar
Research Institute, Tainan, Taiwan. From
2000 to 2003 he was Deputy Director of
Agri-Business at the Taiwan Sugar Cor-
poration (TAISUCO), Taiwan and has
since 2003 been Professor, Chairman and
Director, Department of Life Sciences and
Institute of Biotechnology, National Uni-
versity of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
and is now Distinguished Professor and
Director of the Department. He is currently
Research fellow, Orchid Research Center,
National Cheng Kung University, Tainan,
Taiwan. Prof Chen has played a key role
in the development of the orchid industry
in Taiwan. Department of Life Sciences,
National Cheng Kung University, No. 1,
University Rd., 701, Tainan, Taiwan (email:
a08539@gmail).
Table 3 Progeny of Phal. World Class granted AOS awards between 1994- 2013.
Generation Hybrid AOS Awards Year
1 Krull’s Butterfly 7 AM, 1 JC 2008, 2009 and 2011
1 Yu Pin Fireworks 2 AM, 4 HCC 2009, 2010 and 20012
1 Hi Peng Pi 3 AM, 1 HCC 2011
1 July’s Love 1 HCC 2011
1 Yu Pin Easter Island 1 JC 2002
1 Elizabeth Hayden 1 AM 2007
1 Fantastic Lip 1 JC 2002
1 Jordan’s Pixie 1 HCC 2001
2 Tying Shin World Class 2 AM, 1 AQ 2012
2 Merriman’s Web 1 HCC, 1 JC 1998 and 2002
2 Tying Shin Unicorn 1 AM 2012
2 Lioulin Lovely Lip 1 FCC 2012
2 Yu Mei Pink Lady 1 AM 2012
2 Tying Shing Eastern 2 AM 2013
2 Fangmei Dream Wedding 2 AM 2013
Information derived using OrchidWiz Encyclopedia 9.02. The awards information was ob-
tained from the Taiwan Orchid Growers Association (TOGA).
[5] Phalaenopsis varieties with big-lipped flowers given AOS and TOGA awards at the
2013 Taiwan International Orchid Show. (A) Phalaenopsis Fangmei Dream Wedding
‘FA7773-13’, AM/AOS and BM/TOGA, Fang Mei Orchids; (B) Phal. Ching Ann An-
tenna ‘Smile’, SM/TOGA, Champion Orchid Nursery; (C) Phal. Tying Shing Eastern
‘TS-2442-9’, AM/AOS, Tying Shin Orchids; (D) Phal. Tying Shing Eastern ‘Cotton
Candy’, AM/AOS, Tying Shin Orchids and (E) Phal. OX Sunkist ‘OX1637’, SM/TOGA,
OX Orchids Farm . [Taiwan Orchid Growers Association]
5
Chapter
Most people today, even those who are illiterate, recognize that Phalaenopsis is an orchid. Phalaenopsis has overtaken Cattleya as the most popular orchid in the market. Such beautiful orchids were admired by people living in the Philippines for centuries, and on the island of Ternate in the Moluccas only princesses were permitted to wear the precious flower (Osbeck, 1752). The first European to see, describe and illustrate the flower was Rumphius (1627–1702) who named it Angraecum album majus in his monumental work of the Amboinese flora, Herbarium Ambonese completed in 1701 and published posthumously in Amsterdam between 1741 and 1759 (Beekman 2011). Peter Osbeck (1723–1805) collected the plants from the East Indies and sent preserved material to Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) who described and named it as Epidendrum amabile in the first edition of Species Plantarum (1753). Osbeck reported that it grew on ‘branches of trees on the shore’. The flowers were long-lasting, and they filled his room ‘with the most agreeable smell’ (Alrich and Higgins 2014)
the influence of Phalaenopsis golden Peoker 'Brother' on harlequins Phalaenopsis Journal of the international Phalaenopsis alliance
  • W H Chen
  • T C Chen
  • W Wu
Chen, W.h., Chen, t.C. and Wu, W.l. 2004. the influence of Phalaenopsis golden Peoker 'Brother' on harlequins Phalaenopsis. Journal of the international Phalaenopsis alliance. pp.14-16. hung, K.l. 2012. the hybridization of big lip from peloric Phalaenopsis. taiwan orchid talks 04:14-23