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Assessment of Primary and Secondary Schools Education in Katsina State

Authors:
  • Federal University
Assessment of Primary and Secondary Schools Education in Katsina
State
Bashir Umar faruk
Deparment of Economics
Umaru Musa Yar'adua University
Katsina, Nigeria
Abstract
Over the years Katsina state government has been spending huge amount of Money
annually towards improving the educacional sector. However, available data
indícated that students' performance in the state is nothing to show of it. One cannot
but wonder what are the actual needs of educational sector in the state? Does
government expenditure determined students' performance in the state? And what
to do to improve the students' performance rate? A combination of questionnaire
and other secondary source of data are employed, also tables and percentages are
used to analyze the result. The study identies the most critical needs of educational
sector in the state, on the basis of their order of preference to the society. We also
found that government expenditure is not the main determinant of educational
outcome in Katsina. Though, state government has been making an effort towards
attainment of MDGs through the provision of necessary facilities, buildings and
equipment as well as manpower development. The study recommends an
involvement of local community and traditional rulers in monitoring and
evaluating projects in the state, effective supervision on the on-going projects,
adequate funding of educational sector and elimination of corrupt practices in the
process of awarding contracts.
Keywords: Primary, Secondary, Education, Katsina, MDGs, Critical Needs
Journal of Education, Technology and Humanities Page 13
International Journal of Strategic Research in Education, Technology and Humanities
ISSN Hard Print: 2465-731X, ISSN Online: 2467-818X Vol. 2, No.2 September, 2015
http://internationalpolicybrief.org/journals/international-scientic-research-consortium-journals/intl-jrnl-of-strategic-research-in-edu-tech-humanities-vol2-no2-Sept-2015http://internationalpolicybrief.org/journals/international-scientic-research-consortium-journals/intl-jrnl-of-strategic-research-in-edu-tech-humanities-vol2-no2-Sept-2015
Background to the Study
The importance of education on economic growth and development cannot be
overemphasized (Omotor, 2004, Anyanwu and Erhijakpor, 2007). The focus now is
not only on its importance on economic performance, but on the determinants of
educational outcomes (Fadiya, 2010). Having recognized the role and importance of
education to all nations, United Nation developed an initiated termed Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs), two (of eight) of the most crucial goals are: achieving
universal primary education by the year 2015 and achieving gender equality at all
levels of education by 2015(Wikipedia, Anyanwu and Erhijakpor, 2007 ). In spite of
the greatest contribution of education to the overall development of every country
in the world, yet schooling in Nigeria has failed to delivered the expected result, this
has been attributed to the dearth of qualify teachers and basic infrastructures,
overcrowding in the class rooms, inadequate funding, poor management and
sanitation among others (Omotor, 2004, Olaniyan and Obadara, 2008, Fadiya, 2010).
Among the various states in Nigeria, Katsina state is considered among the
educationally less developed states, despite the huge amount of money spent on
educational sector annually, Available data shows that state expenditure on
education (capital and recurrent) has been on the increase from N 398,562,497 in
1999 to N 2,082,675,635,N6,555,036,099 and N 16,623,086,720 in 2002, 2006 and 2010
respectively (approved estimates of government, 2000,2003,2007 and 2010).
The number of primary schools in the state has grown in size from 1842 in 2000, to
1922 in 2004, in 2010 the state recorded a total of 2188 primary schools, before the
gure increased to 2211 in 2011. Equally, the number of secondary schools during
the period of 2001 was 111, then rose to 126 in 2004, in the year 2010 the number
escalates to 332, before it further increased to 401 in 2011 (SUBEB, 2008, SESP, 2010,
katsina state ministry of Education, 2012). Furthermore, the enrolment gure has
also persistently on the increase, enrolment gure in 2004/2005 session stood at
only 142,729 students in secondary school, the gure rose to 266,735 in the
2008/2009 session. Similarly, primary school enrolment during the same period
rose from 1,001,447 to 1,278,418 and 1,315, 032 in 2009 and 2010 (SESP, 2010, state
web portal).
Ironically, the state has the highest poverty rate in the country's it also has a
crumbling education system. Similarly, the state has a JSS enrolment rate of about
33%, which is the second lowest in the north-west zone, after Jigawa state which
recorded the lowest enrolment rate of 22% (El-Rufai, 2013). Moreover, Katsina state
recorded a massive failure in the nal year senior secondary school examinations,
out of the total number of 15,960 students, who sat for the West African
Examinations Council (WAEC) in 2006, only 1,538 (9.6%) scored ve (5) credits and
above. In 2008 WAEC results, out of 19,173, only 2,254 (11.6%) obtained 5 credits
Journal of Education, Technology and Humanities Page 14
and above, while the remaining 88.4% scored less that 5 credits (SESP, 2010). Also of
380,000 students, who sat for the examinations in 2012 less than 5,000 had ve
credits (Danjuma, 2013), similarly, of 21,389 pupils who sat for the 2012 UTME from
katsina state, only 3,767 scored 200 and above (El-Rufai, 2013).
One major observation that can be draw regarding the above analysis is that, so
much money has been sinking into the educational sector in katsina state with less
positive result; thus, one cannot but wonder what are the actual needs of
educational sector in katsina state? Does government expenditure determined
students' performance in the state? What can be done to improve the students'
performance rate in the state?
Objectives of the Study
Therefore, the major objective of this paper is to identify the most critical needs of
primary and secondary schools education in Katsina state, other specic objectives
are to evaluate the efforts of Katsina state government and other non-governmental
organizations towards improving the standard and quality of primary and
secondary schools education in the state, in order to achieve the millennium
Development goals (MDGs). Similarly, this study would examine whether
government spending is the main factor determines the educational outcome in
Katsina state and also to offer a policy decision on ways in which the state
government can tackle the identied critical needs in the sector. The paper is
divided into four sections; Section one is the introductory part, section two is the
literature review, this is followed by data and methodology in section three, section
four consists of result and discussions of ndings. Finally, conclusion and
recommendations are in section ve.
Literature Review
Bamisaiye (undated) views that the indices applied in assessing the quality of
educational system can either be quantiable or non-quantiable. The quantiable
includes; teacher-student ratios, student-classroom ratios, proportion of trained
teachers and students performance in the external examinations. Whereas the non-
quantiable factors includes; discipline, school climate, among others. Using the
above indices, the study concluded that the quality of primary and secondary
education in Nigeria generally is falling, due to inadequate physical facilities,
equipment and relevant teaching aids, similarly ill-prepared teaching force and
irrelevant curriculum contents contribute signicantly to the falling standard and
quality of education in the country.
Journal of Education, Technology and Humanities Page 15
Omotor (2004) examines the educational proles in Nigeria, using secondary
source of data range from 1977-1998, the study employed Ordinary Least Square
(OLS) regression model. The nding from the study indicated that, federal
government revenue is the main determining factor of government expenditure on
education in Nigeria.
Anyanwu and Erhijakpor (2007) Study the relationship between government
expenditure on education and education enrolments, using panel data obtained
from selected African countries (Nigeria South Africa, Egypt and Algeria), the
study applied regression model. The result indicated that government expenditure
on education has a positive and signicant direct impact on primary and secondary
education enrolments rates, the impact is even higher in Nigeria than the rest of the
countries. The study however observed that higher expenditure on education
needs to be complemented with some policy interventions in order to achieve
MDGs, that investment in education in form of increased expenditure alone is
inadequate to achieve MDGs.
Fadiya (2010) investigates the determinants of educational outcome (literacy rate)
in Nigeria using Error Correction model on the time series data covering the period
of 1975 to 2008. The result shows that primary and secondary enrolments, as well as
the life expectancy (Health) are the signicant determinants of education outcome
(literacy rate). On the contrary, government expenditure on education is found
have positive and insignicant relation with education outcome in Nigeria.
According to El-Rufa'I (2013) based on UBEC 2010 education prole, the qualied
teacher to student ratio was 1 teacher to 208 students in katsina state, this gure was
considered to be worst comparing with its neighbour Kaduna state with a ratio of 1
teacher to 58 students. SESP (2010) posits that the main challenge confronting the
educational sector in katsina state is the growing number of school-age children not
enrolled into schools, due to the rapid population growth and parents' apathy
towards western education in the state. Despite the increase number of structures,
schools expansions and additional schools built, yet the supply could not be
marched with the demand.
Nurudden and Usman (2010) investigated the impact of government expenditure
(including expenditure on education) on economic growth in Nigeria, using co-
integration and error correction methods. The nding from the study revealed that
government expenditure on education bears a negative relationship with economic
growth, this is not unconnected with the fact that funds set aside for educational
development are not properly utilized in most cases diverted or embezzled.
Journal of Education, Technology and Humanities Page 16
Data and Methodology
This study is a quantitative research, therefore in carrying out this research a
combination of primary source of data through administered questionnaire and
secondary source of data are employed. The secondary data are obtained from the
Katsina state Universal Basic Education Board (UBEB), planning, research and
statistic department of the ministry of education Katsina also data from the web side
of the state ministry of education and other internet sources. The primary data to be
deployed are collected using questionnaire designed, we used sample observations
of 30 respondents from six (6) local governments out of the total 34 local
governments in the state; the selection was made based on the simple random
sampling technique in which respondents from each local government has an equal
chance of being selected.
The selected local governments are: Katsina, Funtua, Faskari, Bakori, Dandume,
and Sabuwa. The targeted respondents were the senior and junior staff of the
ministry of education Katsina, staff of the local government education boards, state
universal primary education board, proprietors of private schools, staff and
principals as well headmasters from public primary and secondary schools, retired
academicians and lecturers from tertiary institutions in Katsina state. Similarly, the
method of analyzing the data involved the use of tables and percentages
Result and Discussion of Findings
The information obtained from the respondents using a designed questionnaire is
presented in form of questions and responses from the respondents as follows:
Q1. What progress has the state made towards achieving MDGs on universal basic
education?
Responses: Majority of the respondents viewed that the following are the steps
taking by the state towards achieving the MDGs: Building schools, Construction of
class rooms and boreholes, provision of furniture and supplying learning materials
to rural and urban communities, organizing teachers training programs, seminars
and workshops to acquire new skills and teaching methods, so as to raise the
teaching standard. Furthermore, most of the respondents acknowledged that the
state developed a high quality 9-years basic education curriculum and free
education in primary and secondary schools.
Q2. What are the major challenges in achieving MDGs in the state?
Responses: Dearth of qualied teaching personnel, improper arrangement of
workshops and seminars, delay and under-payment of workshops and seminars
Journal of Education, Technology and Humanities Page 17
allowances to teachers, inadequate supervision and corruption. They also viewed
that there is lack of community awareness about the projects and programs
undertaking by the Katsina state government as well as inadequate nancing of
such programs. There is also insufcient provision of teaching aids and incentives,
biasness in selecting schools to be renovated by the state government.
Q3. What is the present Government policy on primary and secondary education?
Responses: State government has been creating and interface with local
communities and NGOs in an areas where there is need to do so. State government
has also providing adult education programs for the community to learn how to
read and write. In addition, it also provides free education from primary to
secondary schools levels, building new schools, provision of class rooms, computer
laboratories, staff accommodations and de-boarding of the secondary schools,
Q4. What is the current student - teacher ratio in the state?
Table 4.1: Primary Level
Table 4.1 above shows that majority of the respondents (44.44%) agreed that the
current student-teacher ratio in the state primary schools fall between 71:1 to 100:1,
however, 27.78 % of the total respondents indicated that student-teacher ratio in
primary schools is between 151:1 and above. Similarly, 16.67% of the total
respondents believed that the current student-teacher ratio ranges between 40:1 to
70:1. Lastly, those who viewed that the student-teacher ratios in the state primary
schools fall between 101:1 to 150:1 are only 11.11%.
Table 4.2: Secondary Level
Range Frequency Percentage (%)
40:1 - 70:1 3 16.67
71:1 - 100:1 8 44.44
101:1 – 150:1 2 11.11
151:1 - above 151:1 5 27.78
Total 18 100.00
Range Frequency Percentage (%)
40:1 - 70:1 3 21.43
71:1 - 100:1 5 35.71
101:1 – 150:1 4 28.57
151:1 - above 151:1 2 14.29
Total 14 100.00
Journal of Education, Technology and Humanities Page 18
From the above table 4.2, ve(5) {35.71%}out of the total respondents agreed that the
current student-teacher ratio in secondary schools ranged between 71:1 to 100:1,
this is followed by four (4) respondents representing 28.57%, who also agreed that
student-teacher ratio is between 101:1 to 150:1. However, three (3) representing
21.43% observed that student-teacher ratio ranges between 40:1 to 70:1. The
remaining two (2) of the respondents representing 14.29% opined that the current
student-teacher ratio in secondary school is between 151:1 to above.
Q5. What is the average number of pupils in the class at primary and secondary
levels?
Table 4.3: Primary Level
Table 4.4:Secondary Level
The table 4.3 indicated that the majority of the respondents of 47.37% and 31.58%
agreed that the average numbers of pupils in a class in primary schools in Katsina
are about 80-100 and 151 to above respectively. As against the secondary schools in
Table 4.4 where the majority representing 31.25 %observed that it is between 50-79
and 101-150 per class.
Range Frequency Percentage (%)
60 - 79 1 5.26
80 - 100 9 47.37
101 – 150 3 15.79
151 - above 6 31.58
Total 19 100.00
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Journal of Education, Technology and Humanities Page 19
Q6. Based on 2006 National Census what is the school going population % in the
state
Table 4.5: % Population
From the table 4.5 above, 33.33%, 22.22% and 11.11% of the respondents agreed that
the % of their individual schools going population for the state are 41-50%, 51-70%
,below 40%, and the remaining agreed it is between 71% to above.
Q7. What is the Boy-Girl school Enrolment Ratio
Table 4.6: Boy-Girl Enrolment Ratio
Majority of the respondents 53.33% observed that boy-girl enrolment ratio are 2:1-
5:1, those who viewed that the ratio is 3:1-5:2 are 33.33% and 13.33% of the total
percentage of the respondents agreed that the ratio is between 2:2-above.
Q8. How equitably distributed are educational facilities in the state
Table 4.7: Distribution of Educational Facilities in the State
Range Frequency Percentage (%)
Below 40% 2 22.22
41% - 50% 3 33.33
51% - 70% 3 33.33
71% - above 1 11.11
Total 09 100.00
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Journal of Education, Technology and Humanities Page 20
On the issue of distributing the educational facilities in the state the table 4.7 shows
that majority of the respondents representing about 50.0% fairly agree that there is
an equitable distribution of the facilities across the state. While 16.67%, 16.67% and
16.67% responded that the distribution of materials are poor, very good and
satisfactory.
Q9. Are there locations e.g LGA, communities & towns without fair share of
available educational facilities?
Table 4.8:
Table 4.8 above shows that 57.14% agreed that there are locations without fair share
of educational facilities in the state, while the remaining 42.86% disagreed to that.
Q10. What would you say are the 7 most CRITICAL needs of the education sectors
in the state(arrange them in the order of their importance)?
Responses:
1. provision of more qualied teachers in primary and secondary schools
2. provision of teaching aids/materials such as text books, writing materials,
library etc
3. Building more class rooms to reduce over-crowding in rural and urban
communities.
4. Rehabilitation of the existing dilapidated building
5. Construction of laboratories
6. Providing sport facilities
7. Organizing more workshops and seminars for primary and secondary
teachers
8. Proving adequate chairs, desk etc
9. Constant and effective supervision for schools and teachers.
10. Standard monitoring and evaluating Teachers records.
11. Provision of laboratory equipment.
12. Training and re-training the teachers through induction courses and
improving teachers training centers.
13. Provision of incentives and welfare programs to teachers.
Responses Frequency Percentage (%)
YES 12 57.14
NO 9 42.86
Total 21 100.00
Journal of Education, Technology and Humanities Page 21
14. Eliminating corrupt practice in educational sector.
15. Fighting all form of examination malpractices in secondary schools
16. Create public enlightment campaign.
17. Complete the uncompleted and abandon buildings in primary and
secondary schools.
18. Proper management of the schools.
19. Provision of conducive environment to teachers, such as building staff
quarters, ofces and basic infrastructures for the teachers.
20. Full Implementation of all government policies on education.
21. Provision of school buses to pupils in primary and secondary schools.
22. Fencing schools.
23. Creating guidance and Counseling unit to teachers and students in both
primary and secondary schools.
Q11. Do you have any suggestion on how these critical needs can be met?
Responses:
1. Government at all levels, communities and traditional rulers should join
hand to work together to overcome the aforementioned critical needs.
2. Recruit more qualied teachers in both primary and secondary schools
3. Inculcate disciple into the mind of teachers
4. Provide the needed teaching and learning aids/materials/facilities freely
and adequately.
5. Provide adequate classrooms.
6. Government to review the teachers' welfare packages such as allowances.
7. Government should complete all uncompleted/abandon projects
8. Create awareness and enlightment campaign
9. Ensuring sanity in employing teachers based on merit not favoritism
10 Ensuring that adequate funds are channelled to educational sector
11. Provision of modern techniques of teaching and learning such as computers
and laboratories.
Q12. What on-going intervention project of government are aimed at meeting the
listed areas of needs in the education sector
Responses:
1. Converting class rooms from at to upstairs
2. Providing teaching materials in primary and secondary schools
3. Rehabilitations and reconstructions of class rooms in various schools
4. Organizing workshops and seminars frequently
Journal of Education, Technology and Humanities Page 21
5. Employing casual staff to overcome shortages of teachers
6. Increment of teachers wages and salaries
7. Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC) on-going project
Q13. Any planned/Future programme of Government to Address Listed Needs?
Responses:
1. Payment of teachers arrears
2. De-boarding school system
3. Introducing teachers professional examination
4. Workshop programmes.
5. Possible conversion of casual teachers to permanent
Q14. Which international Organizations/ Development Partners Including Nigeria
Organizations are working in the area of promoting Educational Advancement in
the state?
Table 4.9:
S/N Names of Donors/Development
Partners
Focus Areas
1. UNICEF Girls-Child education, primary and
secondary education facilities.
2. Education Trust Fund (ETF) Manpower development,
rehabilitation and constructions of
classrooms, toilets, laboratories,
provision of chairs and desks
3. Millennium Development Goals
(MDG)
Provision of teaching materials
4. State Universal Basic Education
Board
Buildings and rehabilitations of
schools
5. Parents Teachers Association
(PTA)
Provision of teaching materials
6. World Bank Toilets, boreholes and class rooms
constructions
7. International Goals of Education
for All (EFA)
Education
8. National Economic
Empowerment Development
Strategy (NEEDS)
Social and economic aspects
Journal of Education, Technology and Humanities Page 23
Q15. Give Example of Public- Private Partnership Project in Education Sector in the
State (if any)
Table 4.10:
Q16. What is the State of the Handicapped, blind, deaf, Dump and Special Children
Education in the State
Table 4.11:
The response generated from the table 4.11, shows that 57.14 % convinced that its
fair, 28.57 % viewed that it is good, their reason is that the state government has
been initiating programs targeting people with special disabilities, one good
example is establishment of school for deaf in Malumfashi Local government.
While 9.52 % are of the opinion that it is poor and the remaining 4.76 % ranked it as
excellent. This indicates that on the average the people with disabilities have never
left behind by the state government in the provision of basic and sound education in
the state.
Conclusion
The study used primary source of data collection through administering
questionnaire, which consists of both open-ended and close-ended questions, out
of 30 questionnaires distributed, only 23 were retrieved. The nding from the study
reveals that state government has been making an effort towards attainment of
9. United Nation Development
Program
Building of classes
10. S.B.M.C Education
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MDG Goal through the provision of teaching materials, constructing and
renovating class rooms, organizing workshops and seminars as well as provision of
free education for all. However, dearth of qualied teachers, improper
arrangement and under payments of allowances on workshops and seminars, lack
of constant supervision and absent of public awareness about the state government
programs are the stumble block towards achieving such goals.
Currently, the state government has embarked on some policies such as free
education for all, adult education programs, building more schools and classrooms
among others on primary and secondary education in the state. Majority of the
respondents believed that the student- teacher ratio ranges from 71 to over 150
pupils per teacher in primary school. In secondary school, the student–teacher ratio
is between 71-150 students per one teacher. However, the number of pupils per
class in primary schools is 100 pupils, but in secondary there are about 100-150
students in a class.
Most of the respondents are of the view that distribution of educational facilities in
the state is fair, many areas in Funtua, Bakori, Dandume, Sabuwa and Faskari were
identied not have adequate education facilities such as blocks of class rooms,
inadequate teaching materials/instructions, schools, library and laboratories.
Therefore, the critical needs of education in the state are outlined which include lack
of qualied manpower, inadequate provision of classrooms, teaching aids/
materials, lack of science and computer laboratories, lack of adequate supervision,
indiscipline and corruption among others. To meet these critical needs various
suggestions were put forward. In addition, agencies such as UNICEF, ETF, MDGs,
SUBEB, SBMC, USAID, World Bank are found to be an organization or
development partners in the area of promoting education in Katsina state.
This study observes that government expenditure in terms of building more class
rooms, renovating schools are not adequate to improve the quality of education in
the state, rather other factors such as employing additional, qualitative and
experiences teachers, and provision of incentive and motivational factors as well as
adequate provision of teaching aids are also the most important determinant of
educational outcome, as these would complement the government spending in
improving the quality and standard of education in the state.
Recommendations
Therefore this study recommends that:
1. The Katsina state government should henceforth involve local communities
and traditional rulers in monitoring and evaluating capital projects in
primary and secondary schools for effective and better control.
Journal of Education, Technology and Humanities Page 25
2. Considering the paramount importance of education to the society, the state
government should as a matter of urgency eradicate corrupt practices in the
process of awarding contracts in the schools, through effective supervision
on the on-going capital projects in the government owned schools. This
would improve the standard and quality of education in the state.
3. Government should adequately fund educational sector, especially its
recurrent expenditure
4. The communities and stakeholders should also initiate programs to assist
government's effort in improving the quality of education, because
government alone cannot adequately take care of the whole educational
needs in the state.
Journal of Education, Technology and Humanities Page 26
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Journal of Education, Technology and Humanities Page 27
... Several measures have been proposed and implemented by education stakeholders to reduce student dropout (UNESCO-Tanzania 2015). Faruk (2015) proposed the teachers' training, seminars, and workshops as a measure for students not to drop out of school. Similarly, Bibi (2018) evidenced that parents-teachers meetings contribute 93.5%, and parent workshops 82.3% to control student dropout rate. ...
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Student dropout in secondary schools is a major issue in developing countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Sub-Saharan African countries had the highest dropout rate (37.5%), followed by South Asia (15.5%), the Middle East (11%), East Asia (9.5%), Latin America (7%), and Central Asia (3.5%). Various initiatives such as the big results now initiatives, no child left behind, and secondary education development programme as well as machine learning prediction models have been used to reduce the severity of the problem in Sub-Saharan countries. The ongoing dropout problem, particularly in secondary schools is ascribed to improper root cause identification and the absence of formal procedures that can be used to estimate the severity of the issue. This study has compared the AutoML model, ensemble learning approach, and KNORA-AutoML to predict student dropout problems. The KNORA-AutoML model scored 97% of accuracy, precision = 71%, and AUC = 87% when compared to the conventional ensemble of optimized ML models with accuracy = 96%, precision = 70%, and AUC = 78%. KNORA-AutoML model performance increased by 0.6% accuracy, 0.8% precision, and 8.7% AUC. An optimized model draws a lot of attention to the findings related to student dropout rates in developing countries.
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The Sub-Saharan countries are leading in dropout rates in secondary schools by 37.5% followed by South Asia 15.5% and Middle East 11% in 2018. In Tanzania, student dropouts in secondary schools increased from 3.8% in 2018 to 4.2% in 2019. Different initiatives such as parent-workshops, parent-teacher meetings, community empowerment programs, school feed programs, and secondary education development program (SEDP) have been used to address student dropout but unfortunately, the dropout problem still persists. The persisting dropout problem especially in secondary schools is attributed to a lack of proper identification of root causes and unavailability of formal methods that can be used to project the severity of the problem. In addressing this problem, machine learning (ML) techniques have done a great job in predicting secondary school dropouts. However, most of the ML models suffer from processing features, and hyper-parameters tuning leads to poor prediction accuracy in identifying the root causes of the student dropout. In this study, the AutoML model has been used to improve prediction accuracy by selecting the corresponding hyper-parameters, features, and ML algorithm for the acquired dataset. The proposed model achieved a better prediction accuracy of DT = 99.8%, KNN = 99.6%, MLP = 99% and NB = 97%. The improved prediction score indicates an accurate selection of features that cause student dropout that can be looked in a close eye in the learning process for early intervention.
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Qualitative Primary and Secondary Education in Nigeria: Implication for Implementation
  • E A Bamisaiye
Bamisaiye, E.A. (undated), "Qualitative Primary and Secondary Education in Nigeria: Implication for Implementation".
Katsina Sets to Tackle Falling Education Standard
  • James Danjuma
Danjuma, James (2013), "Katsina Sets to Tackle Falling Education Standard". National Mirror Newspaper, Jul 4.www.nationalmirroronline. net/new/katsina.
Budget: July 12. Seunfakze.wordpress.com/tag/Budget/katsina "An Ofcial Web Portal of katsina State
  • Nasir A Elrufai
Elrufai, Nasir A. (2013), "Katsina State "No Future" Budget: July 12. Seunfakze.wordpress.com/tag/Budget/katsina "An Ofcial Web Portal of katsina State".www.katsinastategov.org