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Improving Productivity of Garment Industry with Time Study

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The garment industries are always trying to improve production and the quality of the garments to sustain in the enormous competitive market. The sustainability and profitability of garment industry is governed by the productivity of that industry. Garment manufacturing involves number of operations carried out at different spots by the operators. All these activity need to be performed in synchronized, planned and timely to achieve desired productivity. There are various practices and methods applied in industries to improve productivity of the industries, time study is one of the effective tool used by almost all garment industry for improving production rate. This paper deals with time study of manufacturing process of Shirts and Leggings. In which we have studied the time taken in each steps of garment manufacturing. The observations of the time study elaborate on the scope for reduction the time taken and improvement in the production of the garment industry. One of the important finding from this study is that the timely supply of pieces and order sheets plays vital role in improving productivity of the industry.
Scope of Improving Productivity in Individual Operations of Shirt Manufacturing Observations: As it is found that button hole is consuming 20 secs more for the operation in garment so it is required to provide with special training to the operator for attaching hole which will improve their efficiency and productivity, similarly front placket edge stitching also required special technique which can be practiced by continuous application.so a training should be provided to the workers in in this line so that by continuous practicing the same task with ease and proficiency they can improve the efficiency along with the rise in production. Recommendation 1] Provide material to operator as in ample before process start. 2] At least require number of bone should be provided near the operator table. 3] It was observe in the above operation most of the time was spend in elastic attachment for drinking water so it was recommended to provide water bottle on machine table for saving a time in this section. 4]It was observe that after completion of the sewing operators was found idle as there was not availability of feed material by the supervisor line, so here care is needed to be taken to see that there should be adequate stock material which will prevent the operator sitting idle thus proper utilization of time management will be carried out. 5] It was suggested to have a strict schedule for the time allotted to the task that the operator is performing so that after completion of the shift he can analyze the work done by him and in the same way management should encouraged and award the operator for his performance given in the industry. 6] Reduce downtime by taking preventive maintenance step to improve productivity.
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International Journal on Textile Engineering and Processes ISSN 2395-3578
Vol. 3, Issue
October 2017
Copyright@CTF- MPSTME Page 1
Improving Productivity of Garment Industry with Time Study
S.S. Jadhav, G.S.Sharma, A.M. Daberao, S.S.Gulhane
SVKMs NMIMS MPSTME, Centre for Textile Functions, Shirpur-425405, Maharashtra, India.
Email: sujit.gulhane@nmims.edu
Abstract
The garment industries are always trying to improve production and the quality of the garments to sustain in the
enormous competitive market. The sustainability and profitability of garment industry is governed by the
productivity of that industry. Garment manufacturing involves number of operations carried out at different spots
by the operators. All these activity need to be performed in synchronized, planned and timely to achieve desired
productivity. There are various practices and methods applied in industries to improve productivity of the
industries, time study is one of the effective tool used by almost all garment industry for improving production
rate. This paper deals with time study of manufacturing process of Shirts and Leggings. In which we have studied
the time taken in each steps of garment manufacturing. The observations of the time study elaborate on the scope
for reduction the time taken and improvement in the production of the garment industry. One of the important
finding from this study is that the timely supply of pieces and order sheets plays vital role in improving
productivity of the industry.
Keywords: -Breakdown, Machine Maintenance, Buffer, workflow.
I. Introduction
This is a study conducted at garment house “A” where we have come out with the solution towards the problem
faced by many industries, if a necessary and proper action is taken against this particular point we can definitely
improve the quality and production of any garment house with time saving. By using method related to time
saving, its capacity and production study, it is possible to improve productivity while reducing wastage. Two
important attributes have been considered, one is possible standard method for each process and another is
considerable time is consumed. Time study took to record the actual individual capacity of each worker and
process line. The work measurement techniques were applied for recording the times and rates of working in the
elements within specific conditions. The results of work measurement for analyzing the data so as to determine
the time necessary for carrying out a job at a defined level of performance. Time study evolved from the work of
Taylor and was the original work measurement technique. The objectives of this project are to find out average
time taken to complete each process of garment manufacturing, to analyze the difference between and actual time
taken and basic time of each process of garment manufacturing and to recommendations for improving production
rate based on analysis. Time study is the field of engineering in which productivity of the manufacturing process
is measured to find out the scope for improvement. Time study elaborates on manufacturing process about the
best way to do something, the time required to complete task, and the way to measure production rates [1]. Today's
customers around the globe demand product at the best possible price. In today’s highly competitive global
marketplace they are placing greater value on quality and delivery time [2]. According to ANSI (American
National Standard Institute) it is stated that time study is a work measurement technique consisting of careful time
measurement of the task with a time measuring instrument, adjusted for any observed variance from normal effort
or pace and to allow adequate time for such items as foreign elements, unavoidable or machine delays, rest to
overcome fatigue, and personal needs.” The author in this paper have specified various ways to stand in this
competitive business environment by efficiently managing the lead time required for the manufacturing of the
entire product. He has thrown light on the business process of garment sector about the importance of lead time
in minimization of the garment making process [3]. The amount of time required to complete a specific job or
operation under existing conditions, using the specified & standard method at a standard space when there is
plenty of repetitive work. Different type of allowance is allowed in apparel production floor. Such as personal
time allowance, Delay allowance, fatigue allowance [4]. On-Productive Time: - Time that is spent by an operator
without producing any garment (standard minutes) like 'set up time' is called non-productive time. In garment
production Non-productive time is measured to analyze how much standard time is lost due to machine downtime
[12]. Lost time is recorded to show management a reason for low production in a particular day or lower line
efficiency. Here are a few example of lost time [6]. Productivity plays an important role behind the sustainability
of the of every textile manufacturing sectors, and various types of studies are carried to improvise the productivity
such as improvement in loom shed efficiency by effective stretch control, improvement in loom shed efficiency
by effective control of humidity [8,9]. The supply chain management plays an important role in garment industry
and design to be selected by the manufacturer depends on the requirement from the industry [5, 13]. This reflects
those actions & values which are responsible for the continuous improvement of the design along with the process
of development & management of an organization’s with the concept of improving its profitability & ensuring its
survival and stand in the market toward this tough competition which will not only improve the profitability but
International Journal on Textile Engineering and Processes ISSN 2395-3578
Vol. 3, Issue
October 2017
Copyright@CTF- MPSTME Page 2
will also give a satisfactory service to the customer. New ideas came out from innovation and strategies helps to
improve the quality by utilizing the knowledge bringing necessary information, technology, mass customization,
and some others means to raise the productivity with improved quality [14]. The author has outlined several
methodologies which created foundations for transforming a company into a Factory. The innovative cycle
designed by the author is an important tool toward understanding what a customer wants and how these resources
are found to be helpful to understand the requirement of the society. We can evaluate the corresponding design
with best solution and its value-adding potentials [6]. Empowering the technical and managerial staff by enhancing
their knowledge and ability and taking all the necessary steps in favour of the industry is of prime importance that
the company should think toward increasing the productivity along with efficiency and labor attribution. So, it is
needed to concentrate and identify the real issues, and act accordingly to take corrective actions for the upliftment
of the company. The author here put strain on the industrial engineering concept which is needed to be imparted
to increase the productivity. [7]. The study clearly indicate that eliminating nonproductive activities like reworks
in the apparel industries time as well as cost are saved by ensuring quality production which have an important
impact on overall factory economy. This project sewing and finishing sections is to identify reworks so as to
eliminate them for saving time, cost and improved product quality. In the Apparel Manufacturing Industry, main
raw material is fabric; others are different types of trimming and accessories [9]. This study is key to apparel
industry to improve their work nature & the methods, the apparel industries is identify as buyer driven or costumer
driven industry, so the apparel production has become more intensified by global competition. To survive in this
comparative world the industry should work more efficient. The concept which are outlined here are the most
important factors to improve the productivity & efficiency of the industry the application of industrial engineering
methods like method engineering, work study, capacity study, line plan & other operation management system
are ultimately lead the industry to timely delivery of goods, high profit & develop the working environment [11].
The modular design for garment manufacturing center around extending the fundamentals of elasticity and
economies of scale that modular products used to increase the end user value. Incorporating flexibility, modularity,
and adaptability into design to provide additional freedom to adjust and adapt to changes for improving
productivity [15]. Considering the requirement of the textile industries and its allied sectors, government of India
started a highly ambitious programm ‘Make in India’ campaign. This study will enhance the productivity of various
garment industries to be a part of make in India policy as per government initiatives [16].
II. Material and Method
Material: Two stitching lines are selected for this study, one line shirts and on other line the leggings were
stitched. At the time of study industry has maximum order of these two garments. Thus these two stitching lines
are more focused on improving the productivity of the garment line. Also it is possible to study the stitching
process of these garments thoroughly.
Method: The analysis of major process in this garment lines were done manually, a time was recorded with the
help of stopwatch. Following figure1 and figure 2 elaborates the processing sequence of operations involved in
shirt manufacturing and legging manufacturing respectively. There are many process involved but here we
considered some specific operation which was needed to be controlled so as to shorten the time span. These
processes are supposed to be completed in specified time but when actually it was observed the result showed that
there is additional time involved which is projected to be reduced.
Figure 1: Sequence of Operations Involved in Shirt Stitching
III. Data Collection and observations
International Journal on Textile Engineering and Processes ISSN 2395-3578
Vol. 3, Issue
October 2017
Copyright@CTF- MPSTME Page 3
The time taken for completing each step in garment manufacturing is measured by taking the average of 20 cycles
of each process. For example the total time taken for attaching a care label on 20 pieces is 400 seconds, thus the
time taken for attaching one care label is calculates as 400/20 = 20 seconds. In this manner time taken for each
process involved in manufacturing of shirt and leggings were measured and noted as actual time. The industry
while preparing a production plan decides the standard time and basic time including 15 % allowance in each
operation of the garment manufacturing. The standard time is defined the time required by an average skilled
operator, working at a normal pace, to perform a specified task using a prescribed method. In the standard time
15 % allowances are considered for different a cause which leads to more consumption of time to complete given
task. The observed data in two garment lines were given in the following tables. It shows that the time taken by
each process is more than that of basic time. Thus there is scope for improvement in each operation to reduce the
time of production.
Figure 2: Sequence of Operations Involved in Leggings Stitching
Table: I Time consumption by various operations of legging manufacturing
Sr.
no
Operation
Standard
TimeSecs
Basic Time Std. +
All of 15% Std
Actual Time in Sec
1
Cut and Join Elastic
35
40
2
Join front and back rise
52
60
3
Sew inseam
129
148
4
Attach elastic to waist
60
69
5
Bartech
35
40
6
Bartech
46
53
7
Back folding
40
46
8
Finish waistband
46
53
9
Bottom hemming
58
66
10
Attach Main label
32
37
11
Attach size label
29
33
12
Attached care label
29
33
13
Trimming and Finishing
40
48
Total
629
725
Extra time Consumed per Piece with
respect to Basic time
725 - 629 = 96 sec
Table: II Time consumption by various operations of shirt manufacturing
International Journal on Textile Engineering and Processes ISSN 2395-3578
Vol. 3, Issue
October 2017
Copyright@CTF- MPSTME Page 4
Sr.
no.
Operation
Standard time
(Sec)
Basic Time Std. + All
of 15% Std.
Actual Time in Sec
Cutting Room Operations
1
Fuse Placket
15
17
19
2
Hem Front Placket
20
23
25
3
Bottom Hem
20
23
26
Stitching Operations
4
Shoulder attachment
35
40
44
5
Armhole
56
64
70
6
Attach placket to front
24
28
35
7
Cut placket
28
32
39
8
Front placket edge stitch
35
40
55
9
Sew box at placket
29
33
39
10
Yoke attach to back
56
64
70
11
Sholder overlock
35
40
49
12
Top Stitch Shoulder
28
32
39
13
Tack piping at collar ends
28
32
36
14
Attach piping to collar
26
30
35
15
Turn placket ends inside out
28
32
39
16
Finish piping
35
40
49
17
Cuff O/L
28
32
36
18
Cuff Topstitch
25
29
68
19
Sleeve attach
56
64
69
20
Sleeve topstitch
28
32
39
21
Slits Making
25
29
35
22
Sides seam
30
35
39
23
Bottom Placket
30
35
40
24
Tack at Sleeve ends
26
30
36
Finishing Operations
25
Button Hole 6 + 2
80
92
112
26
Button attaching 6 + 4
100
115
127
27
Thread Trimming Garment
60
69
78
Total
986
1134
1348
Extra time Consumed per Piece with
respect to Basic time
1348 - 1134 = 214 sec
Figure 3: Scope of Improving Productivity in Individual Operations of Leggings Manufacturing
Observations:
5
8
19
9
5
7
6
7
9
5
4
4
8
0 5 10 15 20 25
CUT AND JOIN ELASTIC
SEW INSEAM
BARTECH
BACK FOLDING
BOTTOM HEMMING
ATTACH SIZE LABEL
TRIMMING AND FINISHING
Scope in Seconds For Improving
Productivity
International Journal on Textile Engineering and Processes ISSN 2395-3578
Vol. 3, Issue
October 2017
Copyright@CTF- MPSTME Page 5
It has been observed that in this study that sew inseam consume more time for in this garment industry and
this can be reduced by giving training to the workers with proper method that not only will reduce the time
but also will improve the quality of the product. In overall performance it was observed that the time
consumed for the operation was increased due to lack of material provided to the workers to continue this
stitching operation so care has to be taken by the management to supply with ample of stock on their table so
that they could not sit idle in absence of material.
Figure 4: Scope of Improving Productivity in Individual Operations of Shirt Manufacturing
Observations:
As it is found that button hole is consuming 20 secs more for the operation in garment so it is required to provide
with special training to the operator for attaching hole which will improve their efficiency and productivity,
similarly front placket edge stitching also required special technique which can be practiced by continuous
application.so a training should be provided to the workers in in this line so that by continuous practicing the same
task with ease and proficiency they can improve the efficiency along with the rise in production.
Recommendation
1] Provide material to operator as in ample before process start.
2] At least require number of bone should be provided near the operator table.
3] It was observe in the above operation most of the time was spend in elastic attachment for drinking water so it
was recommended to provide water bottle on machine table for saving a time in this section.
4]It was observe that after completion of the sewing operators was found idle as there was not availability of feed
material by the supervisor line, so here care is needed to be taken to see that there should be adequate stock
material which will prevent the operator sitting idle thus proper utilization of time management will be carried
out.
5] It was suggested to have a strict schedule for the time allotted to the task that the operator is performing so that
after completion of the shift he can analyze the work done by him and in the same way management should
encouraged and award the operator for his performance given in the industry.
6] Reduce downtime by taking preventive maintenance step to improve productivity.
IV. Conclusion
As it is found that garment manufacturing is gaining its importance thorough out the world due to its demand
which is coming from various places. To facilitate the entire world it is required to provide with huge supply
which can be fulfilled with proper time management with improvised quality of the garment, which can be
achieved by special training and some steps needed to be taken to improve the productivity. The observations of
the time study elaborate on the scope for reduction in the time taken and improvement in the production of the
garment industry. It was observed more time consumption occurred during operations like sew inseam, button
International Journal on Textile Engineering and Processes ISSN 2395-3578
Vol. 3, Issue
October 2017
Copyright@CTF- MPSTME Page 6
hole stitching and front placket edge stitching which can be reduced by providing a special training from the
experts which will not only improve the efficiency but will also increase the productivity. Apart from this there
are some operations which require pieces to be stitched should be available in ample, as the lack of availability
will lead the workers to sit idle and hence reduction in the production rate.
Acknowledgment
The author is also highly grateful to Mr. Jainath Rana General Manager and Mr. Raj Kumar plant head of Pratibha
Syntex Indore, for their technical support and guidance.
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... It plays a vital role in identifying the issues influencing productivity. The evaluation of productivity can be done based on relationships between input and output of industry [2,3]. Modern Engineering is concerned with the plan, improvement and establishment of coordinated arrangement of men, materials and hardware. ...
... Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) technique is one of the effective tools which can help prevent, identify, control and eliminate possible errors occurring in the Apparel industry [5]. Time study is the solid tool used for balancing the sewing line as well as solving the bottlenecks in the apparel industry [2]. To improve the current situation in the apparel industry, this time study can be utilised, which in turn, accomplishes upgrades in the sewing area; for example, SMV, labour bottleneck, limit feasible, generation/hr, execution rating, balance %, etc. ...
... Gozali et al. (2020) tried to forecast demand, calculate production aggregate, control the inventory cost, and design production planning inventory control system in a knit fabric industry by using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method. Through time study, Jadhav et al. (2017) showed that proper time management with improved quality control of products leads to the improvement in the overall productivity. Cadavid et al. (2020) used a machine learning approach for production planning and control to facilitate the implementation of industry 4.0 in the manufacturing industries. ...
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In this article, we look at recent developments in the Bangladesh garment industry on the issue of efficiency and productivity. First, we were looking for new ideas. How are companies trying to improve their efficiency? Then, we were trying to see if there was a relationship between a companies" (x) efficiency and cost saving (a) and increased revenue (y). Of course, intuitively, we would all hypothesise that there must be some relationship between efficiency and reduction of cost of manufacturing and ultimately increased revenue. Further, we would all probably hypothesise that the slope of the function describing that relationship must be significantly higher than zero. Nevertheless, we tried to document the connection so that companies can believe it and give it more attention. Theoretical relationships are one of the weakest ways to try to persuade CEOs of the existence of anything. Show them the numbers, only then they will agree. This paper is an attempt to persuade a readymade garments manufacturing unit to increase efficiency to cut cost and increase revenue, we show that there is a direct causal relation to efficiency and revenue earnings.
Chapter
Enhanced communication and increase in radio frequency improve the growth of emerging Internet of Things (IoT) applications. Textile manufacturers are always trying to improve the production and quality of the garments to sustain in the enormous competitive market. They perform enormous number of operations at different spots by the operators to determine the sustainability and profitability. All these activities need to be performed in synchronized and timely manner to achieve desired productivity. Smart/interactive textiles are one of the methods of deploying smart materials in textile sectors. Smart materials appear to think and memory to revert back to their original state and also communicate with the master system. Machines are deployed with various smart devices and they are made to interact with the main master system. These data are collected in a storage device, and they are transferred to master system for monitoring the user efficiently, by determining the machine’s ideal state. The master system deploys various data analytic algorithm for measuring the performance of the system when it receives the status of the machine. Depending upon the prior values, a model can be developed so that it can be used to reveal estimate time to complete the given task.
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In apparel industry, lead time is the total amount of time required for completing a product beginning from the date of receiving the order to the shipment of the goods to customer. Time is a great issue in apparel trade as orders are based on weather, seasons and occasions. Lead time hence, carries huge importance when delivering the products to the respective outlets is concerned. Bangladesh, though the second largest exporter of ready-made apparel to the world, still to prevail the on-time issues. The study commenced with the identification of back-locks affecting the lead time in the apparel industry. A three step strategy is proposed in this study to ensure a shorter lead time.
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Abstract Government of India has embarked its highly ambitious programme ‘Make in India’ campaign to galvanise the manufacturing sector of the country and to increase the inward investment in different sectors. Textile industry, one of the largest and highly labour intensive manufacturing sectors in India, is one of the identified benefactors of this campaign. The present paper deals with the impact of Make in India scheme on the Textile and allied sectors. Indian yarn spinning sector occupy 24 percent of the world’s spindles, and 8 percent of the world’s rotors. India is one of the few textile producing countries in the world which can claim the complete value chain productivity strength. The sector also has several advantages like, abundance of availability of raw materials like cotton and silk, and the comparative advantage in terms of skilled manpower. Make in India leads to penetration of organized retail, favorable demographics and rising income levels. Keywords: Make in India; Indian textile industries
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As the global economic condition changing in a rapid motion, generally in an industry more focus is given on profit margin, customer demand for high quality product and improved productivity. In this project sewing and finishing sections is to identify reworks so as to eliminate them for saving time, cost and improved product quality. In the Apparel Manufacturing Industry, main raw material is fabric; others are different types of trimming and accessories. Operational wastages in the Apparel manufacturing process are top surface Rework, printed label rework, knitting fault, dying fault, cutting fault, sewing fault rework, pinhole rework, fabric rework, Improper fly shape, and other reworks.
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The fabric manufacturing industries moves from shuttle weaving to shuttle less weaving in order to secure higher production rates in with good quality fabric. The productivity of the loom is govern by the speed, efficiency and quality of the fabric produced. Loom stoppages during the weaving process not only reduces the productivity but also affect the fabric quality as startup marks and differential dye take up are appeared on the fabric as defects. In the woven fabric manufacturing, warps ends are generally sized so that they can withstand various stresses encountered in weaving process. Prime object of the sizing is to improve the weave ability of the warp and make them sustainable for weaving. The breakage rate of cotton sized warp yarn is highly sensitive to the relative humidity and shows large difference with change in relative humidity. In weaving industry it is a challenging task to find out optimum level of relative humidity to get minimum warp breakage rate. The present study was done to analyze the effect of relative humidity to warp breakages in weaving and to optimize relative humidity with minimum warp breakage rate. Key Words: Relative humidity, Warp breakage rate and efficiency. I. Introduction In the every manufacturing industry it is always emphasized to increase production and maintain quality of the product, so the industry can meet the demands of both national and international consumers and markets in terms of cost and quality of the product. Textile industry is the second largest industry in the world and every textile industry is facing the challenge improving productivity to meet the competitiveness in the market [1]. Majority of textile industries are producing similar type of yarns and fabrics [2]. Thus industries need to produce quality product with low cost at high production. In woven fabric manufacturing lower the production costs per meter of woven fabric depends up on the loom stoppages due to yarn breakages [3]. These breakages are essential to be reduced by controlling manufacturing process and atmospheric conditions at every stage of manufacturing the woven fabric. In weaving industry one of the most important and considerable problem is breakages of both warps and weft yarns [4]. These breakages not only reduce the production rate but also deteriorate the quality of the produced fabric, thus affects the productivity of the loom shed. These breakages on the preparatory processes like warping and sizing also creates lots of problems and effects productivity of loom shed. Lesser is the number of yarn breakages results in better quality fabric [5]. The reduction breakages of both warp and weft yarns not only increase the production and quality of the warping, sizing and weaving processes but also reduces wastages of yarn[6]. This reduces the overall cost of the fabric manufactured and improves the profitability of the fabric. The efficiency of weaving is the most important factor considered in terms of productivity. The loom efficiency is mainly decided by the speed as well as the down time of the machine [7]. Efficiency of the loom can be improved by effective control on the breakage of warp or weft yarn. The mechanical condition of the machine, poor quality yarn of the weft or warp, atmospheric conditions in the weaving shed were identified as main reasons for the weft and warp breakages during the weaving process [8]. By carrying out proper maintenance, use of optimal settings of mechanical and technological parameters yarn breakages due to mechanical problems can be almost eliminated. With the use of appropriate technology in modern yarn preparation machines, the required properties of the yarns can be acquired and thereby yarn breakages due to inferior properties can be minimized [9].The change in relative humidity causes a change in the moisture content of the fibers [10].The fiber strength and elasticity proportionately change with humidity[11]. The surrounding temperature and the relative humidity have a great impact on the physical proper ties of yarns [12]. Higher relative humidity than specified, fibers tends to stickiness' on the warp yarns which disrupt the production process[13]. The standard relative humidity in a textile mill producing cotton fabrics is required to be maintained at 80% to 85% in contrast to general relative humidity condition of a room is around 65%. High humidity in a weaving shed also helps to increase the abrasion resistance of the warp [14]. Many studies are available which provides the relationship between humidity and warp breakage rate in a weaving shed. As the fabrics are produced on different looms with different construction using different warp yarns of various counts, twist and fibre type, requirement of relative humidity for all fabrics varies from one another [15]. Effect of Relative Humidity % and temperature in a textile mill Dry air causes lower regain and this contributes to poor quality and lower productivity.
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Proper sizing practices reduces end breakages at loom which ultimately increases loom performance. There are various sizing parameters which are responsible for maintaining quality of size beam. The machine speed, squeezing roller pressure, viscosity of size paste, temperature of saw box and stretch control are the essential parameters which need to be control during sizing. A size yarn must have good abrasion resistance which clearly reflect by its increase tensile strength with minimum loss of elasticity and required amount of moisture for looming. Weavers beam should not have more number of missing ends, cross ends, lappers and taped ends so that it could unwind smoothly in weaving machine. To increase the strength in abrasion resistance of yarn after sizing depend on a number of factor, namely the recipe of the size mixing. Size preparation, level of size pickup and its degree of penetration into the yarn as well as on the sizing condition. The extensibility of the yarn reduces due to two reason 1) application of size binds the fibre in the yarn major rigidly and reduces the relative slippage at the time of break and 2) even the minimum necessary tension applied during sizing result in a slight that sets in permanently these by reducing the yarn extensibility. Due to the substandard quality of beam it increase the breakage rate at loom shed and causes the electro ration of quality of fabric as well as reduction in loom shed efficiency beam quality is major factor responsible for the improvisation in loom shed efficiency. So, those qualities of weavers beam reflect the quality of weaving preparatory. Quality of beam can be improved by quality parameter, the major parameter affecting on beam quality is stretch. LITERATURE REVIEW An electronic stretch controller monitors the yarn stretch on a sizing machine continuously. Whenever the stretch exceeds or goes below pre-set values, a servomotor suitably operates an appropriate PIV drive to increase or decrease the pull of yarn through 'first pulling nip'. During sizing, the yarns are under tension, this result in a slight permanent stretch in the yarn. It leads to a decrease in extensibility or elongation at break of the sized yarn, which leads to more breakage at the loom shed. The greater the yarn stretch, the higher the loss in extensibility of the yarn. If the average extensibility of the sized yarn fall below a certain minimum, the less extensible portions are likely to break during waving. A stretch between the beams and the size box or between the drying cylinders and the loom beams is not as important as stretch which occurs while the yarn is wet when the yarn is stretched dry it will recover most of its original length but when it is overstretched wet and dried in this stretched conditions the life is taken out of it. An unusually large decrease in elongation is often due to mechanical mix-adjustments in the sizing operation. To obtain certain types of constructions, more stretch than normal will often give better face on the cloth after weaving because of the twill lines. In order to exercise an effective control of stretch. It is necessary to understand the manner in which the yarn undergoes stretch in sizing. Let us consider a multi-cylinder sizing machine with positive drive to the drying cylinders. The warper beams are not positively driven, and therefore, the yarn has to provide the torque for driving the beam. It is in this process that the yarn gets stretched. The portion of the machine in which the yarn is stretched in this way will depend upon the nearest point ahead which grip the yarn and pulls it from the creel and forward to the headstock. Besides this, the yarn can also undergo stretch if between any two positive nips the take up is more than delivery. On most sizing machines the first positive grip on the yarn is provided by the nip of pair of sizing and squeezing rollers. This nip has to pull the yarn and rotate the warper's beam. The next forward positive grip is at the head stock. Ideally speaking, the first grip should be effective enough to provide sufficient torque to rotate the warpers beam in such a case, the grip at the head stock need only serve to pull the yarn over the cylinders since the drying cylinders are positively driven. If this drive is well synchronized with that of the head stock and also with the sizing and squeezing rollers, then there should not be any yarn stretch in the other zones except the creel zone. The torque to rotate the warp warper's beam in the creel progressively increases as the winding off diameter decreases. Gradually a stage is reached when the grip of the first pulling point the first pair of sizing and squeezing rollers becomes inadequate to withstand or sustain the required pulling force. When this stage is reached, a grip
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