Coal has been serving as a profuse source of energy since centuries and several attempts are being made to reduce sulphur emission levels from coal. Recently, pretreatment techniques such as ultrasonication and utilization of surfactants as additives have surfaced aiming at improving the biodesulphurization of coal. In the present study, biodesulphurization of Turkish lignite was studied for the first time using Leptospirillum ferriphilum. Attempts have been made to study the biodesulphurization aspects of the lignite sample where the effect of Fe²⁺ iron, surfactant Span 80 and ultrasonication were studied under shake flask conditions. The study indicated Fe²⁺ to be an essential component in the growth media for improving biodesulphurization performance (with 56.2% total sulphur removal). Span 80 (0.05% v/v) marginally enhanced the biodesulphurization of the lignite sample (nearly 61% of total sulphur removal). The carbon content in the lignite sample increased following biodesulphurization. Ultrasonication of the lignite sample, on the other hand, did not yield significant sulphur removal when compared to the effect of Span 80. About 57.6% of total sulphur could be removed from the sample when ultrasonicated for 60 min. Mineralogical characterization along with thermal analysis of the samples pre and post biodesulphurization provided more information on different phases present in coal and the effect of microbial treatment on them.