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Sources of fluoride contamination in Singrauli with special reference to Rihand reservoir and its surrounding Sources of fluoride contamination in Singrauli with special reference to Rihand reservoir and its surrounding

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The Singrauli region is known for fluoride contamination and its effect on human population. In this work we have constrained the possible sources of fluoride contamination in Rihand reservoir water. They include slurry water, fly ash and coal samples of various thermal power plants, coal seams and granites of the region. Petrographic study depicted the presence of fluoride bearing minerals-flour apatite in pink granite samples. Preliminary Scanning electron microscope studies revealed presence of fluorine peak in coal samples. The chemical analysis confirmed the presence of fluoride in fly ash (12.6 mg/kg), drain water (5.34 mg/l), soil (6.1 mg/kg), coal (3.1 mg/kg). They confirmed the source of fluoride from coal of thermal power plant which utilized coal from Singrauli coal seam (1.6 mg/kg). Further the Rihand reservoir water is also enriched by fluoride contaminant (upto 4.7 mg/l). This contaminates groundwater of the area as well. The contaminated water used for drinking and agriculture affects health of inhabitants in the area. It is concluded that the main source of fluoride contamination in the study area is due to coal burnt in thermal power plant and pink granite formation of the area, both anthropogenic and geogenic sources are implicated.
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Journal of the Geological Society of India
Sources of fluoride contamination in Singrauli with special reference to Rihand
reservoir and its surrounding
--Manuscript Draft--
Manuscript Number: JGSI-D-17-00079R1
Full Title: Sources of fluoride contamination in Singrauli with special reference to Rihand
reservoir and its surrounding
Article Type: Research Article
Corresponding Author: ARNOLD LUWANG USHAM, M.Sc
University of Delhi
DELHI, DELHI INDIA
Corresponding Author Secondary
Information:
Corresponding Author's Institution: University of Delhi
Corresponding Author's Secondary
Institution:
First Author: ARNOLD LUWANG USHAM, M.Sc
First Author Secondary Information:
Order of Authors: ARNOLD LUWANG USHAM, M.Sc
Chandra Shekhar Dubey, PhD
Dericks Praise Shukla, PhD
Bhupendra Kumar Mishra, PhD
Ganga Prasad Bhartiya, M.Sc
Order of Authors Secondary Information:
Funding Information:
Abstract: The Singrauli region is known for fluoride contamination and its effect on human
population. In this work we have constrained the possible sources of fluoride
contamination in Rihand reservoir water. They include slurry water, fly ash and coal
samples of various thermal power plants, coal seams and granites of the region.
Petrographic study depicted the presence of fluoride bearing minerals- flour apatite in
pink granite samples. Preliminary Scanning electron microscope studies revealed
presence of fluorine peak in coal samples. The chemical analysis confirmed the
presence of fluoride in fly ash (12.6 mg/kg), drain water (5.34 mg/l), soil (6.1 mg/kg),
coal (3.1 mg/kg). They confirmed the source of fluoride from coal of thermal power
plant which utilized coal from Singrauli coal seam (1.6 mg/kg). Further the Rihand
reservoir water is also enriched by fluoride contaminant (upto 4.7 mg/l). This
contaminates groundwater of the area as well. The contaminated water used for
drinking and agriculture affects health of inhabitants in the area. It is concluded that the
main source of fluoride contamination in the study area is due to coal burnt in thermal
power plant and pink granite formation of the area, both anthropogenic and geogenic
sources are implicated.
Keyword: Fluoride Contamination, Coal, Fly ash, Granite, Singrauli.
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Sources of fluoride contamination in Singrauli with special reference to
Rihand reservoir and its surrounding
A L Usham1*, C S Dubey1*, D P Shukla12, B K Mishra13, G P Bhartiya1
1 Department of Geology, Center for Advanced Studies, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007, India
2 School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi 175001 (HP), India
3 Department of Mining, AKS University, Satna - 485001, (M.P), India
*Corresponding Authors: arnoldluwang@gmail.com, csdubey@gmail.com
Tel: +91 9990436744, +91 9811074867
Title Page
1 Introduction:
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The elevated level of fluoride (F-) in water is the widespread contaminant in India. It is widely prevalent in
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different parts of India, particularly in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Odissa,
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Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan, where 50-100% of the districts have drinking water
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sources containing excess level of fluoride and causes fluorosis (Gupta et al., 1998; Muralidharan et al.,
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2011 and Chakraborti et al., 2011, Susheela, 2007; Duraiswami and Patankar, 2011, Chakrabarti and
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Bhattacharya 2013, Routroy et al., 2013, Saha et al., 2014, Rao et al., 2016 2014). It was estimated that 62
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million people from 17 states are affected with dental, skeletal and/or non-skeletal fluorosis (Susheela,
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2007). Increase in demand and lack of availability of potable water has led the population of these states
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to consume degraded quality water. The degradation of groundwater may be due to natural or anthropogenic
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processes. Natural source for fluoride, arsenic and other heavy metals etc. are inherent mineralization and
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deposits of toxic element bearing ore/ minerals (Raju et al., 2009; Shukla et al., 2010; Usham et al., 2012,
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Rao et al., 2016, 2014) while anthropogenic sources include flushing of wastewater from sewage treatment
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plants (Schroder 1993; Schroder and Fytianos 1999), discharge from industries (Churchill et al., 1948;
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Alloway et al., 1997), burning of coal in thermal power plants (Li and Cao, 1994; Ando et al., 1998;
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Watanabe et al., 2000; Prasad and Mondal, 2006; Aggrawal et al 2011; Dubey et al., 2012; Mishra et al.,
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2014), from blast furnace/ brick kilns (Jha et al., 2008), in houses (Finkelman et al., 1999); mining activities
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(Dhar et al., 1986; Beg et al., 2011), etc. The area of study - Singrauli is in the mining hub of about 9.1
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billion tonnes coal reserves spreading over an area of approx. 220 km2 and it has 6 superthermal power
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plants producing 12 GW of power i.e. 10% of total installed capacity of India (NIC, 2010). Due to remote
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location of the study area, very few researchers have worked in this area. A few studies have been carried
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out which indicate fluoride contamination in groundwater in distant parts of this region (Gautam and
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Tripathy 2005; Raju et al., 2009; CSE, 2011). Fluoride contamination is reported in the eastern portion of
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study area i.e. Dudhi area, where about 80% of water samples have F contamination (CSE, 2011) and 50%
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of children (out of total 1796) are affected by fluorosis (Gautam and Tripathy, 2005). CSE 2011 also
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reported some village ponds of Singrauli region of being fluoride contamination upto 3.14 mg/l and
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considered due to burning of coal in power plants. Since the source of fluoride contamination in the vicinity
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of thermal power plants (TPPs) has not yet been studied, the present study concentrates on the possible
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geologic and anthropogenic sources of fluoride contamination in the region. Therefore rock, coal, fly ash,
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soil and water samples were collected from the various sites of granitic terrains, TPPs, coal mines, ash
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ponds, and in the vicinity of Rihand reservoir. The samples were analyzed by petrography, SEM and ICP-
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MS, and the results are presented in this paper.
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2 Study Area
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The study area is situated between 24°03′N to 24°33′N and 82°33′E to 83°03′E at the boundary of three
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states viz. Uttar Pradesh in North, Madhya Pradesh in West and South and Chhattisgarh in the East.
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Geologically, sedimentary rock formations belonging to Vindhyan (Kaimur and Semri Groups) and
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Gondwana Supergroups; volcanosedimentary rock formations of Precambrian Mahakoshal Group and
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Precambrian Chhotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC) ) (Singh and Srivastava, 2011; Srivastava
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and Srivastava, 2012) occur in the area. CGGC is represented by the Dudhi Group of rocks in the study
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area, comprising mainly migmatitic granitic gneisses and porphyritic granite, besides numerous
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metasedimentary enclaves (Mazumdar, 1988; Banerji, 1991; Kumar and Ahmad, 2007). The rocks have
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evolved predominantly under amphibolite facies metamorphism (Mahadevan, 2002) and are present in the
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eastern portion of the study area. The area is structurally very complex (Srivastava and Gairola, 1997) and
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tectonically active (Mohan et al. 2007). The Permo-Carboniferous Gondwana Supergroup is known for coal
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bearing formations. They occur in the Western portion of study area. Most of coal belongs to the Barakar
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Formation, while some areas have Talchir, and Raniganj series coals (Hussain, 2012; Singh et al., 2014).
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Around 98% of coal reserves of India belong to Gondwana Supergroup (Singh, 1995; Larry, 2002). There
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is a 91m high concrete dam across river Rihand, a tributary of River Son, which has created a very large
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reservoir known as Gobind Ballabh Pant Sagar or Rihand reservoir covering an area of 130 sq. km. (466
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sq. km when full) and collects 10,608 m cu m of water. The Rihand reservoir supplies potable water to
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500,000 inhabitants and provides for irrigation in approx. 65,000 ha and provides water facilities to the
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STPPs for generation of approx. 10,654 MW of thermal power (Christopher et al., 2002). Six large coal
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based Super Thermal Power Plants (STPP) are located at the periphery of this reservoir, while most of the
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mining activities are confined to the western side of the reservoir. The host rocks (sandstones and shales)
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near the Fly ash pond of Vindhyachal STPP, Singrauli STPP belongs to Barakar Formation. The
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stratigraphic succession of the study area is also presented as Table 2 and eastern portion is mostly covered
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by Dudhi granites (Figure 1). Most of the places in India, where high fluoride contamination is observed,
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are situated on hard rock terrain mostly granitic and gneissic complexes (Raju et al., 2009). Some towns of
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Uttar Pradesh, lying on Quaternay-Upper Tertiary deposits of Ganga alluvial plain, are also affected (Raju
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et al., 2009). Fluoride contamination in parts of Chopan, Dudhi and Myorpur blocks of Sonbhadra district,
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UP has been carried out by some researchers and NGO (Gautam and Tripathi, 2004; GSS, 2004 and Raju
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et al., 2009). Fluoride contamination in water due to coal ash is studied in Andhra Pradesh and Jharkhand
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and is related to anthropogenic activities (Prasad and Mondal, 2006).
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2.1 Hydro-Geological Settings of the area
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Due to the construction of the Rihand dam, the groundwater regime in the surrounding area is changed. The
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water seeps into the sub-surface and water table often rises when the reservoir is filled. Hydrological studies
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conducted by the Central Ground- Water Board reported that the water table was between 5 and 10m in the
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vicinity of the dam/reservoir (Christopher et al., 2002).. The high water table indicates that the reservoir
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water recharges the local groundwater system. However, groundwater discharge for the local drainage basin
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around the reservoir has been estimated to be 17,100 m3/h (NTPC 1995), less than 4% of the average annual
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inflow to the reservoir. Rainfall is the main source for groundwater recharging, apart from seepage from
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the surface water bodies. The general hydraulic gradient prevailing in the area is towards River Son or
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locally towards the subsidiary surface water bodies. More or less, the flow of groundwater is in conformity
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with the surface topography.
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3 Materials and methodology:
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Coal, pink granite, fly ash, soil, and water samples were collected from the study area. A total of 47 samples
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including. 6 coal samples, 3 pink granite samples, 6 fly ash samples, 17 soil samples were collected. 15
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water samples were collected and Ph, Ec, ORP and TDS were measured at the sampling site itself. Then
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the water samples were acidified by adding 2 ml of concentrated HNO3 (Keith 1991; Hasan et al., 2007)
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for preservation and further analysis. The sampling was done in and around two mining blocks, six super
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thermal power plants and their respective fly ash ponds as shown in Figure 1. The collected samples were
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analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscope (ICP-MS) for fluoride concentration and
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titration method for anion cation analysis (Shown in Table 1, & Figure 3). The ICP-MS and titration
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methods were carried out at Anacon Laboratories, Nagpur, recognized by the Ministry of Environment &
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Forests (MOEF) vide Notification No. D.L-33004/99 dt.24.10.2007 under EPA. Act. The pink granite
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samples and coal samples were studied by Advanced petrological/ Ore microscopy. The Selected spot are
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analysed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM-EDS) facility using Leica Orthoplan microscope fitted
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with Image Analyzer and M.A 15 Zeiss at the Department of Geology, University of Delhi.
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4 Results and Discussion
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All the samples analyzed are alkaline in nature, except mine drainage water from Kakri coal mine. Drain
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water sample from Kakri coal mine has sulphate concentration of 304.1 mg/l which is beyond the
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permissible limit 250 mg/l given by USEPA while rest of the samples varied between 3.2 to 90.1 mg/l.
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Drain water sample of Kakri and treated water sample of Bina coal mine have ORP value of 36.2 mv and
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8.2 mv indicating oxidizing nature. All other water samples collected in the vicinity of 6 TPP have ORP
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values ranging from -30.03 mv to 160 mv which show reducing nature. Maximum TDS of 831 mg/l is
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recorded in the slurry water of Lanco Super thermal power plant. TDS value from drain water of Kakri coal
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mine, treated water of Bina coal mine, and slurry water samples of Super Thermal power plants are also
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found to be beyond permissible limit of 500 mg/l given by the USEPA. The results of the water samples
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analyzed by titration method for major cation and anion concentrations along with F were used to create
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various water quality plots such as Piper diagram, Durov plot etc. From the Piper diagram (Figure 3) it is
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evident that no dominant type of water facies is present, but mixed composition of water is present among
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these samples. It shows that the chemical composition of slurry water collected from all the respective
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thermal power plants are almost similar to domestic water such as hand pump, drain water, canal water and
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reservoir water. It indicates the slurry water are leach out into groundwater and contaminated it. Four
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different types of water in the order of dominance found in the study area are Ca-HCO3, CaCO3 Ca-SO4,
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and Na-HCO3. The CaCO3 dominant water is found only in slurry water of Lanco STPP. It shows high
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salinity as well as highest TDS concentration of 831mg/l. It is not suitable for irrigation purposes. Treated
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water of Bina coal mine, reservoir water of Rihand, and slurry water of Hindalco power plant belong to the
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Ca-HCO3. The reservoir water shows low concentration of salinity (sodium adsorption ratio=0.23,
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exchangeable sodium ratio=0.109, magnesium hazard ratio=18.6). The Ca-SO4 is dominant in drain waters
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of Kakri Coal mine, Singrauli Thermal Power Plant, Anpara Thermal Power Plant, and Vindhyachal
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Thermal Power Plant. Kakri drain water has high salinity value (sodium adsorption ratio=0.58,
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exchangeable sodium ratio=0.155, magnesium hazard ratio=31.5) and high TDS value of 586 mg/l, hence
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it is not suitable for irrigation, while rest of the samples have low salinity value. The Na-HCO3 dominant
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type of water is observed in canal water of Vindhyachal STPP (sodium adsorption ratio=0.99, exchangeable
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sodium ratio=0.774, magnesium hazard ratio=27) and both drain and slurry waters of Obra STPP. These
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samples have low salinity hazard [(sodium adsorption ratio=0.85, exchangeable sodium ratio=0.715,
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magnesium hazard ratio=56.2), (sodium adsorption ratio=1.15, exchangeable sodium ratio=1.064, and
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magnesium hazard ratio=41.4)]. This physio chemical analysis suggests that there is a clear indication of
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the contribution from the mixing of mine drainage and industrial influence.
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Fluoride estimation using ICP-MS Analysis
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ICP-MS study revealed that the concentration of fluoride in slurry water is directly proportional to its
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concentration in fly ash samples. The water samples were analyzed by ICP-MS which showed very high
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concentration of fluoride (upto 4.7 mg/l) in water sample of Rihand reservoir. Highest concentration of 12.6
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mg/ kg fluoride (shown in Figure 1, Figure 2, Table 1) is observed in fly ash sample of Hindalco TPP. The
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slurry water of same TPP has highest concentration of fluoride (9.94 mg/ l). Concentration of fluoride in
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slurry water of Vindhyachal TPP and Singrauli TPP is found to be 8.87 mg/ l and 6.54 mg/ l (Figure 2a)
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respectively and concentration in fly ash of these plants is observed to be 5.54 mg/ kg respectively. Ground
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water sample near fly ash pond of Vindhyachal TPP has fluoride concentration of 1.5 mg/l. Sample from
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Obra STPP has high concentration of 7.6 mg/kg in fly ash; 3.1 mg/kg in coal samples (Figure 2b) and 1.78
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mg/l in slurry water. As observed from the samples, it can be suggested that slurry waters are not being
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properly treated before draining it into the environment. The contaminated slurry and drain water are
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drained and mixed into Rihand reservoir (as visible in Google Earth image in Figure 1). Hence rapid
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industrialization in the study area- increased coal mining activities and installation of super thermal power
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plants to meet the increasing demands for power has led to fluoride contamination in the study area.
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Untreated waste byproducts of the industries are drained into the Rihand reservoir, increasing the pollution
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in reservoir. The formation around the fly ash pond sites of respective TPPs are Barakar Formation where
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low concentration of fluoride is observed in groundwater near Vindhyachal TPP. It is also shown that about
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85%- 90% of the fluorine present in coal is emitted as HF when the temperature rises above 850° C, (Lui et
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al., 2006; 2007). During combustion, fluorine is emitted as HF, SiF4, and CF4. (Yan et al., 1999 and Lui et
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al., 2007). Very little literature on fluoride contamination and its source is available in the study area of
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Singrauli region; hence water samples (surface, ground, drain, slurry water samples) were collected and
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analyzed in this work. Unfortunately very less work has been carried out on fluoride in Indian coal, but a
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lot of literature is present on occurrence of fluoride content in coal, fly ash and soil of China (Swaine 1990;
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Ren et al., 1999; Liu et al., 2007). Hence the coal samples from various coal mines of the area; fly ash
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samples from ash ponds of thermal power plants and the soils from the vicinity of these TPPs were collected
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along with the water samples and analyzed for fluoride content in them by ICP-MS.
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SEM Analysis of Coal
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Coal samples were collected and analyzed at Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM-EDS) facility of the
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Advanced Microscopy Lab, Department of Geology, University of Delhi. Elemental composition was
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identified through energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) embedded onto the SEM. The SEM analysis of
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coal samples showed the presence of fluorine peak (Figure 4). According to the SEM analysis, coal sample
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of Kakri coal mine has fluorine concentration of 0.873 weight % and 0.77 atomic % as shown in Figure 4.
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Coal contains small amounts of fluorine, and coal-fired power plants constitute the largest source of
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anthropogenic HF emissions (http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov).
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Petrographical study of Granite
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The soils developed in the Sonbhadra district are derived from the underlying bedrocks of Archaean to
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Proterozoic era. They consist of sandstones, limestone, phyllites, shale, slate and granite (Mishra and
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Mishra, 2013). They are products of weathering, erosion, deposition, and leaching over a long period of
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time. The study area lies on Dudhi granite which is a part of Precambrian Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss
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Complex (Mazumdar, 1988; Banerji, 1991; Singh and Srivastava, 2011). Hence focus for sampling was
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kept on the granitic terrain. 7 granite samples were collected from various areas to the east of Rihand
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reservoir. The rocks are medium to coarse-grained and composed of pink feldspars, bluish grey or white
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translucent to opaque quartz, biotite, and hornblende. Thin section studies show apatite grains in the
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samples (Figure 5). They are colourless, having low birefringence, show hexagonal prismatic outline with
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high relief. They do not have any cleavage, but have cross fractures. The common rock-forming minerals
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which have higher fluoride concentrations are fluorite CaF2, apatite Ca5[PO4]3(Cl,F,OH), topaz Al2F2[SiO4],
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carobbite KF, and muscovite KAl2(OH,F)2[AlSi3O10] and a range of amphiboles and mica minerals. Among
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these minerals apatite, hornblende and biotite are observed in the rock samples under study. These minerals
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contain fluorine which substitutes for hydroxyl in the crystal lattices (Edmunds and Smedley, 2005). Hence
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the basement and weathered rocks of the area contain substantial quantities of these F-bearing minerals,
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especially in the porphyritic pink granites. Fluoride bearing minerals presence in the granite samples are
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shown by Petrography study and SEM analysis. Moreover, presence of fluorapatite mineral in pink granite
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samples is also observed in XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) analysis (Figure 6).
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5 Conclusion
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The chemical composition of water samples of the area shows dominance of high sulphate and high
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carbonate water types due to the presence of many thermal power plants and coal mining activities. The
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discharges (rich in H2SO4) from TPPs increase the sulphate content in water. High fluoride concentration
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is observed in ground water, surface water, slurry water, fly ash, soil and coal samples as detected by ICP-
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MS. Fluorine is observed in coal samples with the help of SEM analysis and fluoride bearing minerals are
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found in pink granite samples. Coal, fly ash, slurry water of TPPs along with fluorapatite bearing pink
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granite have contributed towards fluoride contamination in the surface and sub- surface water in the study
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area. Hence rapid industrialization in the study area; increased coal mining activities and installation of
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super thermal power plants to meet the increasing demand power. This led to the contamination of fluoride
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in study area. So the source of this contamination is both anthropogenic (coal mining, coal used in thermal
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power plant, improper fly ash disposal) in the western portion of the study area and geogenic (apatite
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bearing pink granites) in the eastern portion of the area.
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Acknowledgements
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The authors express sincere and deep sense of gratitude to the University of Delhi for providing financial
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support to carry out the field work and analysis under R&D project during 2011-2013 sanctioned to Prof.
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C. S. Dubey. Part of this work was supported by DST- SERB Funded Project No. SR/FTP/ERS-6/2013
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sanctioned to Dr. D. P. Shukla, Department of Geology, University of Delhi. The authors would like to
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acknowledge and highly appreciate to anonymous reviewers for the constructive and suggestive comments
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which have improved the manuscript.
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Wastes and their disposal (2nd Ed.). Blackie Academy. Professional, London, UK, pp.353-
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ANDO, M., TADANO, M., ASANUMA, S., TAMURA, K., MATSUSHIMA, S., WATANABE, T.,
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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: (a) Map showing concentration of Fluoride in mg/l in various water samples collected from the
study Western portion of the area is dominated by coal mining and TPP while eastern portion lies on
CGGC (Srivastava and Srivastava 2012; Banerji 1991; Kumar and Ahmad 2007; Singh et.al.
2014) (For details see text). (b) Spatial analysis with contour lines is prepared with the help of software
ArcGIS 9.2 IDW method]. (c) Google Earth images showing waste materials contaminated into the
Reservoir
Figure 2: Graphs showing the concentration of Fluoride in [a] Water in mg/l [b] Coal, Fly Ash, and Soil
in mg/kg collected from the vicinity of various TPPs.
Figure 3: Piper diagram showing concentration of various cations and anions in the water samples
collected from the study area. (For description see text)
Figure 4: Back Scatter SEM image of one spot on the coal sample collected from Kakri mining area
showing presence of F and As peak in the graph & Elemental composition as obtained by SEM analysis
for coal sample of Kakri mining area.
Figure 5: Petrography of Pink Granite Samples showing presence of Qtz: Quartz, Feldspar: Fel, Apt:
Apatite, Bt: Biotite, Hbl: Hornblende, Epd: Epidote.
Figure 6: XRD analysis of Pink Granite.
List of Figures (All Figures; Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3, Figure 4,
Figure 5, Figure 6))
Figure 1: (a) Map showing concentration of Fluoride in mg/l in various water samples collected from the study area;
western portion of the area is dominated by coal mining and TPP while eastern portion lies on CGGC (Srivastava and
Srivastava 2012; Banerji 1991; Kumar and Ahmad 2007; Singh et.al. 2014) (For details see text). (b) Spatial
analysis with contour lines is prepared with the help of software ArcGIS 9.2 IDW method]. (c) Google Earth images
showing waste materials contaminated into the Reservoir
Figure 2: Graphs showing the concentration of Fluoride in [a] Water in mg/l [b] Coal,
Fly Ash, and Soil in mg/kg collected from the vicinity of various TPPs.
Figure 3: Piper diagram showing concentration of various cations and anions in the water samples
collected from the study area. (For description see text)
Element
C (K)
F (K)
Na (K)
Mg (K)
Al (K)
Si (K)
K (K)
Ca (K)
As (L)
O
Total
Weight%
14.365
0.873
0.141
0.283
0.507
20.825
0.083
0.1
0.05
62.765
100
Atomic%
20.11
0.77
0.11
0.2
0.32
12.46
0.03
0.04
0.01
65.95
Composition%
63.32
-
0.23
0.57
1.16
53.59
0.12
0.17
0.08
-
Figure 4: Back Scatter SEM image of one spot on the coal sample collected from Kakri mining area showing presence
of F and As peak in the graph & Elemental composition as obtained by SEM analysis for coal sample of Kakri mining area..
Figure 5: Petrography of Pink Granite Samples showing presence of Qtz: Quartz, Feldspar: Fel,
Apt: Apatite, Bt: Biotite, Hbl: Hornblende, Epd: Epidote.
Figure 6: XRD analysis of pink granite samples, (Quartz upon fluorapatite).
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Fluoride concentration in Water (mg/l), Coal (mg/kg), Fly Ash (mg/kg), and Soil (mg/kg)
samples collected from the study area.
Table 2: Stratigraphic succession of study area (after Srivastava and Srivastava 2012; Banerji 1991;
Kumar and Ahmad 2007; Singh et.al. 2014)
Table (All Tables; Table 1 & Table 2)
Table 1: Fluoride concentration in Water (mg/l), Coal (mg/kg), Fly Ash (mg/kg), and Soil (mg/kg) samples collected
from the study area.
S/
N
LOCATION
TYPE
LATTITUDE
LONGITUDE
F
(Fluoride)
Ph
EC
(mS/cm)
TEMP.
(C)
ORP
(mv)
TDS
(ppm)
Water (mg/l)
1
KCF
DW
N 24.174533°, E 82.760006°
1.03
5.9
0.7
31.8
36.2
586
2
BCM
TW
N 24.148138°, E 82.762415°
0.538
6.49
0.8
31.3
8.3
641
3
R.R
RD
N 24.107165°, E 82.757737°
4.7
7.25
0.2
30.6
-30.3
218
4
S.T.T.P
DW
N 24.112335°, E 82.756335°
5.34
7.6
0.2
31.5
-58.4
132
5
S.T.T.P
SW
N 24.107931°, E 82.742519°
6.54
7.44
0.2
31.5
-33.9
145
6
V.T.T.P
SW
N 24.086132°, E 82.679253°
8.78
7.33
0.2
31.3
-43.5
149
7
V.T.T.P
CW
N 24.076083°, E 82.673278°
1.14
7.1
0.1
31.8
-38.8
115
8
V.T.T.P
HP
N 24.076098°, E 82.672966°
1.5
6.95
0.5
31.2
-24.2
464
9
V.T.T.P
SW
N 24.077432°, E 82.634715°
5.98
7.2
0.3
31.2
-32.5
271
10
A.T.T.P
SW
N 24.202252°, E 82.897444°
4.08
7.22
0.1
31.2
-33.6
131
11
L.T.T.P
SW
N 24.192815°, E 82.889285°
2.94
9.29
0.9
31.5
-160
831
12
H.T.T.P
SW
N 24.186378°, E 82.785321°
9.94
9.21
0.5
31
-150
465
13
O.T.T.P
DW
N 24.450137°, E 82.966971°
1.97
8.35
0.1
32.5
-104.5
109
14
O.T.T.P
SW
N 24.448253°, E 82.977376°
1.78
8.11
0.1
32.6
-84.7
125
15
O.T.T.P
HP
N 24.448222°, E 82.967808°
1.3
8.4
0.3
32.3
-79.8
290
Coal (mg/kg)
16
KCF
Coal
N 24.173012°, E 82.758826°
1.6
-
-
-
-
-
17
BCM
Coal
N 24.150917°, E 82.756278°
0.64
-
-
-
-
-
28
S.T.T.P
Coal
N 24.101811°, E 82.704088°
0.32
-
-
-
-
-
19
V.T.T.P
coal
N 24.092659°, E 82.674416°
0.78
-
-
-
-
-
20
O.T.T.P
Coal
N 24.449177°, E 82.976705°
3.1
-
-
-
-
-
Fly Ash (mg/kg)
21
S.T.T.P
Fly Ash
N 24.110181° E 82.742719°
5.43
-
-
-
-
-
22
V.T.T.P
Fly Ash
N 24.070475°, E 82.683192°
5.54
-
-
-
-
-
23
A.T.T.P
Fly Ash
N 24.202511°, E 82.885833°
2.72
-
-
-
-
-
24
L.T.T.P
Fly Ash
N 24.191268°, E 82.889220°
4.3
-
-
-
-
-
25
H.T.T.P
Fly Ash
N 24.186860°, E 82.785404°
12.6
-
-
-
-
-
26
O.T.T.P
Fly Ash
N 24.449250°, E 82.976889°
7.6
-
-
-
-
-
Soil (mg/kg)
27
KCF
Soil
N 24.174588° E 82.760121°
3.6
-
-
-
-
-
28
BCM
Soil
N 24.150866°, E 82.756573°
4.87
-
-
-
-
-
29
BCM
Soil
N 24.148083°, E 82.762107°
5.32
-
-
-
-
-
30
R.R
Soil
N 24.107377°, E 82.757868°
2.84
-
-
-
-
-
31
S.T.T.P
Soil
N 24.112618°, E 82.756357°
6.1
-
-
-
-
-
32
V.T.T.P
Soil
N 24.070282°, E 82.682756°
3.9
-
-
-
-
-
33
A.T.T.P
Soil
N 24.202660°, E 82.885832°
1.4
-
-
-
-
-
34
L.T.T.P
Soil
N 24.192509°, E 82.889281°
0.83
-
-
-
-
-
35
H.T.T.P
Soil
N 24.186419°, E 82.785131°
2.03
-
-
-
-
-
36
O.T.T.P
Soil
N 24.449071°, E 82.977069°
3.8
-
-
-
-
-
DW- Drain Water, TW- Treated Water, RD- Reservoir Water, SW- Slurry Water, CW- Canal Water, HP- Ground Water (K.C.F- Kakri
Coal Mine; B.C.F- Bina Coal Mine; RD-Reservoir, S.T.P.P- Singrauli Thermal Power Plant, V.T.P.P- Vindhyachal Thermal Power
Plant, A.T.P.P- Anpara Thermal Power Plant; L.T.P.P- Lanco Thermal Power Plant; H.T.P.P- Hindalco Thermal Power Plant;
O.T.P.P- Obra Thermal Power Plant) (For description see text)
Table 2: Stratigraphic succession of study area (after Srivastava and Srivastava 2012; Banerji 1991; Kumar and Ahmad 2007; Singh et.al.,
2014)
Supergroup
Group/Formation
Formation/Lithology
Age
Intrusive
Dolerite dykes and sills
Cretaceous
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Unconformity ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Upper
Gondwana
Mahadeva
Coarse to medium grained ferruginous sandstones with shale bands and conglomerates
Upper Triassic
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Unconformity~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Panchet
Coarse to fine grained ferruginous sandstones with red beds, siltstones, shale beds and
conglomerates
Lower Triassic
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Unconformity ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Lower
Gondwana
Raniganj
Coarse to fine grained sandstones, shale beds and coal seams
Upper Permian
Barren Measures
Very coarse to fine grained ferruginous sandstones with green clays and shale beds
Middle Permian
Brakar formation
Coal seams, coarse to fine grained sandstones, shale beds.
Lower Permian
Talchir formation
Diamictite, sandstones, siltstones, needle shales etc.
Lower Permian
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Unconformity ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Vindhyan
Bhander, Rewa,
Kaimur, Semri
Alternate Sandstone & Shale sequence, Jungel Sandstone and Shale Limestone Conglomerate
Neoproterozoic and
Meso proterozoic
~~~~~~~~~~~~ Unconformity ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Precambrian
Mahakoshal
Intrusive Granite, Quartz veins Ultrabasic dyke, Tuffs, BHQ and BHJ Ultrabasic dyke, Tuffs,
BHQ and BHJ Metabasics, Quartzite, Phyllite and dolomitic limestone
Palaeoproterozoic
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Unconformity. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Basement(CGGC)
Granite Gneisses and schists
Archean
... For analyzing the spatial distribution, Geographic Information System (GIS) is widely used. Spatial distribution maps of various pollutants such as fluoride ( Ali et al. 2016;Ali et al. 2018;Bhuiyan et al., 2016;Chen et al., 2012;Usham et al., 2018), arsenic ( Bhattacharya et al., 2006; Shukla et al., 2010) and other heavy metals ( Bhuiyan et al., 2016;Kumar et al., 2017;Shekhar and Sarkar 2013;Sarkar and Shekhar 2018;Tirkey et al., 2017) etc. have been carried out to demarcate the pollutant distribution in the area. Further, these maps were used in groundwater vulnerability studies to investigate the pollution potential from non- point sources (Aliewi and Al-Khatib, 2015;Singh et al., 2011). ...
Article
This paper introduces a GIS-based simulation method to study the temporal and spatial variation of the conservative contaminant plume in the subsurface environment of Panchkula region, Haryana, India. Numerical tools within GIS framework were used to create the raster images of various flow and contaminant transport parameters. The purpose of the study is to identify the plume area at different time and to investigate the variation of contaminant concentration with depth in perspective of the nature of the subsurface formations. This method is intended to evaluate the risk assessment with minimum available data on urban groundwater flow and transport parameters. The study investigates the temporal behavior of contaminant concentration at various depths i. e. 6 m (Z = 260 m), 26 m (Z = 240 m), and 36 m (Z = 230 m) below dumping site, which is situated as 266 m above sea level (a.s.l). The study using porous-puff shows that the contaminant plume area increases with an increase in time and the concentration decreases with the increasing depth below the dumping site. It is observed that the plume area is larger at 36 m (Z = 230 m) depth as compared to plume area at other depths due to the presence of sandstone layer around the dumping site at 36 m (Z = 230 m) depth. The ground water velocity is higher in sandstone layer at 36 m (Z = 230 m) depth which cause higher dispersion of source concentration in comparison to layers at 6 m (Z = 260 m) and 26 m (Z = 240 m) depths. Results show that this method is efficient in predicting contaminant plume behavior with fewer input parameters and less complexity. The plume movement analysis can be performed as a precursor to facilitate the mitigation of contaminated regions around the dumping site.
Full-text available
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Lower Gonwana (Permian) Coals of Peninsular India: Environment of Deposition Related to Organic Petrographic Types
Full-text available
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Study has been carried out to map the areas with erosion using remotely sensed data (Kharif, Rabi and Summer Season) from Indian Remote Sensing (RS) satellite (IRS P-6) LISS III sensor. Remotely sensed data provide timely, accurate and reliable information on degraded lands at definite time intervals in a cost effective manner. It was observed that the data enabled better delineation of small units of eroded areas. Satellite data has been used for qualitative assessment of areas, being subject to soil erosion. Based on length and degree of slope from SRTM, land use /cover and soil characteristics as revealed by IRS-LISS-III data and other related ancillary data, three soil erosion categories namely sheet erosion, gullied, and stony waste was found in Rajgarh district of Madhya Pradesh. The eroded areas were infested distinctly on the FCC. The sheet erosion occupied 58365 hectares followed by gullied 1519 hectares. The stony waste is encountered in 923 hectares area. The extent and geographical distribution of degraded lands like sheet erosion, gullied and stony waste areas will be used as an input for future planning reclamation conservation programs. Key words: Remote sensing, Soil erosion, Land use land
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The effects of airborne fluoride from unvented indoor burning of fluoride-rich coal on the bones and teeth of residents of two rural villages in SW China were investigated and compared. In the highly polluted village of Xaochang in Sichuan Province, stage III skeletal fluorosis was found in 43 (84%) of 51 examinees. In the moderately polluted village of Minzhu in Guizhu Province, this stage was seen in 25 (51%) of 49 examinees. In the nonpolluted control village of Shucai in Jiangxi Province in SE China, none of 47 examinees showed any evidence of skeletal fluorosis. In Minzhu, but not in Xaochang, significantly more males than females ware afflicted with stage III skeletal fluorosis. In contrast, with Xaochang, some examinees in Minzhu had serious skeletal effects but normal teeth or minor dental fluorosis. A high frequency of extremital transverse bone growth lines was observed in Xaochang but not in Minzhu. These findings suggest that greater exposure to fluoride occurred during infancy and early childhood in Xaochang than in Minzhu.
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This paper entails the results of petrological studies carried out on coal samples drawn from two lower Gondwana coal bearing horizons (Raniganj formation and Barakar formation) of the Singrauli coalfield, Son basin. It emerges from this study that the coals of this basin are banded in nature and are dominated by 'banded dull' and 'dull' components. Further, vitrinite and inertinite are the dominant maceral groups while the macerals of liptinite group occur in relatively low concentration. Chemically, the coals are high in volatile matter and ash contents. The study further reveals that the Jhingurdah top seam of Raniganj formation characteristically has elevated concentration of detrital macerals when compared with the coals of Purewa top, Purewa bottom and Turra seams of Barakar formation. Furthermore, it is evolved that these coals have been generated under a fluvio-lacustrine setting, largely from forest swamp, where an alternate oxic to mildly anoxic moor conditions prevailed.
Conference Paper
— Arsenic contamination in ground water is reported in valleys of Manipur especially in Kakching area. Kakching is the second biggest town in Manipur with a population of 28,746. Ground water samples of the area are well contaminated with arsenic. Highest level of 111 ppb is found in Paji Leikai. The area was a peat land in the past and patches bog iron deposits are still observed. Ore Microscopy, SEM and XRD analyses of bog iron samples confirmed the presence of arsenopyrite. We concluded that the main source of the Arsenic contamination in ground water of the study area is due to leaching out of arsenic from the Bog Iron deposits. .
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The harmony of multilayered folds can be determined objectively by comparing the b3b1 (ratio of third and first coefficient of harmonic components of the Fourier series) for different surfaces in an individual fold. A plot of the b3b1 value against surface number provides a simple graphical technique for assessing fold harmony. On such a diagram, a straight line parallel to abscissa denotes a strictly harmonic fold, while other lines and curves denote variation of fold shape from surface to surface. A new scheme of multilayered fold classification based on ‘Index of Non-Harmony (INH)’, which reveals the degree of variation in shape of different surfaces of the fold, is proposed. INH is obtained from standard deviation (σn) of b3b1 ratios of ‘n’ number of surfaces of a quarter wave sector. On the basis of values of INH (= 1000 · σn) the multilayered folds are classified as ‘Strictly Harmonic’ (INH = 0), ‘Periharmonic’ (0 75). In a case study of polydeformed Precambrian rocks of central India, it is found that the index of nonharmony decreases in folds of later (younger) generations.
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Extracts of drinking water and effluents from municipal and industrial sewage treatment plants were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with ultraviolet and/or mass spectrometric detection. After column chromatography or flow-injection analysis bypassing the analytical column, ionization was performed by a thermospray interface. Identification of the pollutants was carried out by tandem mass spectrometry, generating daughter-ion spectra by collision-induced dissociation. Most pollutants in drinking water and in the effluents of waste water treatment plants are surface-active compounds of anthropogenic origin or their biochemical degradation products. Difficulties encountered during separation, detection and identification are presented and discussed and techniques for solving these problems are proposed.
  • Kanker District
Kanker District, Chattisgarh Central India. J. Hydrol., 2010, v.395, pp.49-66. 315
Morphotectonics of the area around Renukoot
  • C K Singh
  • V Srivastava
SINGH, C. K. AND SRIVASTAVA, V. (2011) Morphotectonics of the area around Renukoot, district 319
Analysis of folds from the CGGC rocks
  • V Srivastava
Int. J. Oil Gas Coal T., v.8 (2), pp.194-220. 324 SRIVASTAVA, V AND SRIVASTAVA, H. B. (2012) Analysis of folds from the CGGC rocks in 325