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Psychophysiological requirements of chess players are poorly understood, and periodization of training is often made without any empirical basis. For this reason, the aim of the present study was to investigate the psychophysiological response and quantify the player internal load during, and after playing a chess game. The participant was an elite 33 year-old male chess player ranked among the 300 best chess players in the world. Thus, cortical arousal by critical flicker fusion threshold, electroencephalogram by the theta Fz/alpha Pz ratio and autonomic modulation by heart rate variability were analyzed. Data revealed that cortical arousal by critical flicker fusion threshold and theta Fz/alpha Pz ratio increased and heart rate variability decreased during chess game. All these changes indicated that internal load increased during the chess game. In addition, pre-activation was detected in pre-game measure, suggesting that the prefrontal cortex might be preparatory activated. For these reasons, electroencephalogram, critical flicker fusion threshold and heart rate variability analysis may be highly applicable tools to control and monitor workload in chess player.
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... Previous studies have investigated the mental load and brain activation areas during chess games [5,6] showing that frontal, temporal and parietal areas have predominately activated [7][8][9]. Moreover, previous researches have focused on the study of cognitive load in the autonomic modulation or electroencephalographic (EEG) signal [2,[10][11][12][13]. Furthermore, the expertise paradigm has been explored in chess. ...
... EEG power spectrum studies have detected changes in theta power spectrum (4-7 Hz) when task difficulty increased, or higher levels of mental effort were required [15][16][17][18][19]. Moreover, previous studies focused on alpha power spectrum (8)(9)(10)(11)(12) showed that the activity in this spectrum decreased during arithmetic tasks [17] or during visual attentional tasks [20,21]. Furthermore, beta power spectrum (13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30) has been postulated as an indicator of behavioral arousal and attentional process [22]. ...
... Both EEG and HRV are highly applicable tools to control and monitor workload in chess players [11,12]. Thus, previous studies have used these tools to study how different chess games could impact on the EEG and HRV responses. ...
Article
The aim of the present study was to analyze the heart rate variability (HRV) and the electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectrum in low and high performance chess players during easy and difficult chess endgames. A total of 28 chess players participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were divided into two groups according to their ELO level (rating system used by the international chess federation): 1) high level chess players (more than 1600 of ELO score); and 2) low level chess players (ELO less than 1599 of ELO score). Chess players had to complete two easy and two difficult endgames while the electroencephalographic activity and heart rate variability were assessed. High level chess players exhibit more alpha EEG power spectrums (p-value>0.05) during difficult than during easy chess endgames in the occipital area (O1 and O2 electrodes). Moreover, high performance players showed a reduced autonomic modulation (p-value>0.05) during the difficult chess endgames which low performance players did not reach. These results could suggest that high level chess players adapt their neurophysiological response to the task demand.
... Previous studies have found that alpha power spectrum (8)(9)(10)(11)(12) was decreased during arithmetic tasks [33] and increased in prefrontal and parietal cortical areas during creative thinking task [35]. Furthermore, beta power spectrum (13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30) is an indicator of behavioral arousal and attentional process [32]. ...
... The EEG has been traditionally used as a tool to assess the central nervous system functioning in pilots. Regarding EEG power spectrum, theta band has been suggested to be a biomarker of stress ( [23]; J. P. [24,29,30]). Our results showed higher theta EEG power spectrum during takeoff, air-air attack and air-ground attack when compared to baseline. ...
Article
Objective: To analyze the psychophysiological response during takeoff, landing, air-air attack and air-ground attack maneuvers. Methods: A total of 11 expert pilots (age=33.36 (5.37)) from the Spanish Air Force participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants had to complete in a flight simulator the following missions: 1) takeoff; 2) Air-air attack; 3) Air-Ground attack, and 4) Landing. The electroencephalographic activity (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV) were collected during all these maneuvers. Results: Significant higher values of theta (during takeoff, air-air attack and air-ground attack) EEG power spectrum were obtained when compared to baseline. Significant difference in the P3 scalp location was observed between landing and takeoff maneuvers in the beta EEG power spectrum. Furthermore, significant lower values of HRV were obtained during takeoff, landing, air-air attack and air-ground attack when compared to baseline values. Also, landing showed a higher sympathetic response when compared to takeoff maneuver. Conclusion: Takeoff, landing, air-air attack or air-ground attack maneuvers performed in a flight simulator produced significant changes in the electroencephalographic activity and autonomic modulation of professional pilots. Beta EEG power spectrum modifications suggest that landing maneuvers induced more attentional resources than takeoff. In the same line, a reduced HRV during landing was obtained when compared to takeoff. These results should be considered to training purposes.
... To quantify heart-rate variability (HRV), four reliable heart-rate monitors (Polar RS800CX, Kempele, Finland) were used [18]. Similar to Fuentes et al. (2018), we included the variables heart-rate mean RR mean (HR), standard deviation of all NN intervals (SDNN), NN50 count divided by the total number of all NN intervals (Pnn50), and the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of the differences between adjacent NN intervals (rMMSD) [19]. All these variables were obtained immediately after each match had finished. ...
... To quantify heart-rate variability (HRV), four reliable heart-rate monitors (Polar RS800CX, Kempele, Finland) were used [18]. Similar to Fuentes et al. (2018), we included the variables heart-rate mean RR mean (HR), standard deviation of all NN intervals (SDNN), NN50 count divided by the total number of all NN intervals (Pnn50), and the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of the differences between adjacent NN intervals (rMMSD) [19]. All these variables were obtained immediately after each match had finished. ...
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Motivation seems to enhance athletes’ mental efforts, but this has not been tested yet in padel. The objective was to test the effects of motivation on mental fatigue during padel trainings. Thirty-six elite youth players participated (twenty-two males, Mage = 17.40, SDage = 2.16, and fourteen females, Mage = 17.90, SDage = 3.21). We designed four padel training matches, introducing a constraint in two of them in a counterbalanced order. The constraint was: Couples that win more sets in these two matches obtain a free lesson with a professional padel player. Motivation was quantified by a questionnaire before the matches. Moreover, subjective feelings of mental load and fatigue were measured with questionnaires, and objective measures of fatigue were quantified through heart-rate variability and reaction time. Results suggest that the constraint significantly increases motivation (p < 0.001). Furthermore, in these matches, players reported significantly higher feelings and objective measures of fatigue (p < 0.001 for HRV and VAS; p = 0.04 for reaction time). An increase in the resources used by the neural facilitation system, mediated by higher values of motivation, seems a relevant candidate to explain this phenomenon.
... Like other academic experiences, such as the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and clinical practices, the final degree dissertation is perceived as the single most demanding task at university, causing fear, inquietude, and uncertainty [4]. Using new technological devices, we can implement organic response evaluation instruments which provide us with direct information on the autonomous nervous system modulation or even cortical arousal of participants [5][6][7]. Previous studies [8][9][10][11][12] have monitored a large increase in sympathetic autonomic modulation in university students during stressful academic experiences, as well as an anticipatory anxiety response before academic events. ...
... In each one, time was quantified as the amount of time that a student took for detecting the changes in the lights from the beginning of the test until the moment of pressing a button [14,29,30]. We used the critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT) as it has been widely used in different contexts, like sports, military, education, and pharmacy, to evaluate cortical arousal and central fatigue [6,7,14,19,20,29,31]. ...
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The aims of this study were: i. to analyze the effect of nationality on the psychophysiological stress response of physiotherapy last year students in their final degree dissertations; and ii. to analyze the relationship between the stress response and academic results according to nationality. We evaluated the autonomic stress response, cortical arousal, distress subjective perception, and objective and subjective academic fulfilment in Spanish, Italian, and French physiotherapy students during their final degree dissertation. Results showed a large anticipatory anxiety response before the dissertation in the three student groups. Only the Spanish group showed an increased tendency in the habituation process, reducing the psychophysiological stress response during the dissertation, while the Italian and French groups maintained a large sympathetic activation until the end of the dissertation. Cortical arousal and subjective perception of distress were similar in the three nationalities. In addition, no correlation between academic fulfilment and autonomic modulation was found. We concluded that there was no nationality effect in the psychophysiological stress response of physiotherapy last year students in their final degree dissertation, all of them showing a large anticipatory anxiety response.
... However, since mental fatigue only remained elevated in a certain period (≥50 min) following the 45-min Stroop task , to maintain the validity and reliability of the experiment, the tool (VAS) with a minimum time requirement was used. Nevertheless, future studies may try to employ objective indicators to assess mental fatigue, such as HRV, for it is modified by cognitive and attentional activities in sports (e.g., chess) (Fuentes et al., 2018;Fuentes-García et al., 2019). Also, there are valid tools that can be used to monitor the psychological condition conveniently, such as fatigue evaluation app (De La Vega et al., 2021a) and online evaluation platform (Reigal et al., 2020). ...
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Background It has been well investigated that nature exposure intervention can restore directed attention and improve subsequent cognitive performance. The impairment of decision-making skills in mentally fatigued soccer players was attributed to the inability of attention allocation. However, nature exposure as the potential intervention to counter mental fatigue and improve the subsequent decision-making skill in soccer players has never been investigated.ObjectsThis study aimed to evaluate the effects of nature exposure intervention on decision-making skills among mentally fatigued university soccer players. Moreover, different durations of nature exposure were also evaluated.MethodsA random control between-subject design was adopted. Players were randomly assigned into six groups with three different durations of the experimental group compared with the corresponding control group (4.17 min: Exp 1 vs. Con 1; 8.33 min: Exp 2 vs. Con 2; and 12.50 min: Exp 3 vs. Con 3). All players were first mentally fatigued by performing a 45-min Stroop task; then, they viewed virtual photos of natural or urban scenes; and finally, they performed a soccer decision-making task.ResultsThe subjective ratings of mental fatigue were significantly higher following the Stroop task. Only Exp 3 (12.50 min viewing natural scenes) significantly improved decision-making reaction time compared with Con 3 (p = 0.09). Moreover, the accuracy slightly increased in Exp 3 after the intervention.Conclusion In line with attention restoration theory, nature exposure significantly improved decision-making skills in mentally fatigue university players. However, the duration must be 12.50 min for each stimulus to stay longer to attract involuntary attention.
... Previous studies in military population showed a decrease in cortical arousal [38,39] which has been considered a symptom of fatigue in CNS, reflected by the increase in CFFT values [40]. Furthermore, similar results have been observed after other high intensity activities such as simulated combat or tactical parachute jumps, or even activities with high cognitive requirement [40,41] such as chess [42,43]. A previous investigation hypothesized this could be due to the increase in sympathetic nervous system activation produced in the HIIT that can induce a greater number of cortex efferences to muscles [44]. ...
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) exercises, with and without cognitive load, on the accuracy, critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) on recreational tennis players. A total of 32 players of tennis at recreational level (25 men and 7 women) were enrolled in this cross-sectional the study. Participants had to perform, randomly, two HIIT sessions. In one of them, cognitive load was induced by conducting an incongruent Stroop during rests. After training accuracy of tennis serve, CFFT, and RPE were measured. Results showed that accuracy after baseline and HIIT without cognitive load were significantly higher than after HIIT with cognitive load. RPE significantly increased (p-value < 0.001) after HIIT sessions in both, with and without cognitive load. However, significant differences were not observed between the two sessions in the RPE (p-value = 0.405). Furthermore, differences were not obtained in the CFFT neither within nor between sessions (p-value > 0.05). Therefore, HIIT with and without cognitive load increased the RPE in recreational tennis players. Furthermore, HIIT sessions with cognitive load significant altered tennis serve accuracy
... In each one, time was quantified as the amount of time that a student took for detecting the changes in the lights from the beginning of the test until the moment of pressing a button [27]. We used the critical flicker-fusion threshold (CFFT) as it has been widely used in different contexts, like sports, military, education, and pharmacy, to evaluate cortical arousal and central fatigue [18,20,27,[29][30][31][32]. ...
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The aim of this research was to analyze the effect of studying a single or double degree in the psychophysiological stress response and academic performance of university students in their bachelor’s thesis defense. We analyzed the autonomic stress response, cortical arousal, subjective distress perception, and the sense of objective and subjective academic fulfilment of 84 single-degree physiotherapy students and 26 double-degree sport sciences and physiotherapy students during their bachelor’s thesis defense. The results showed that the bachelor’s thesis defense was a stressful event for double-degree students, showing an activation of the sympathetic nervous system and presenting a higher autonomic habituation response for the double degree students compared to the single degree students. We found higher mean grades during the whole degree and higher grades in the written and oral bachelor’s thesis academic achievements for single-degree students compared to double-degree students. No significant differences were found between single-degree and double-degree students in subjective distress perception and cortical arousal. No correlation was found between academic performance variables and subjective distress perception, cortical arousal, and autonomic modulation variables. We conclude that the bachelor’s thesis defense produces a large anticipatory anxiety response in single-degree physiotherapy students and in double-degree sport sciences and physiotherapy students. Double-degree students showed higher levels of habituation and adaptability to the stressful event, with a better autonomic response. Academic achievements were significantly higher among single-degree students compared to the double-degree group.
... Concerning the sensibility of the measures, all the HRV parameters evaluated in this study showed a high sensibility to monitor autonomic modifications. This results differed partially with another previous studies, since depending on the context and population evaluated, different sensibility of HRV variables were found [38,42,[46][47][48]. ...
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Introduction: Physiotherapy treatment is a common intervention for low back pain (LBP) patients. These interventions have been related to physiological effects in the central nervous system. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the effect of physiotherapy treatment in patients with LBP in the autonomic nervous system activation and subjective pain perception of patients. Methods: A total of 30 male subjects diagnosed with non-specific subacute LBP received a 50 min session consisting of (a) a manual therapy based on joint mobilization and soft tissues techniques in the lumbo-pelvic area, (b) a stretching program, and (c) motor control exercises of the core muscles. The autonomic modification of participants was assessed prior to and after the physiotherapy treatment. Results: Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis reported a significant increase in average RR (p = 0.001), RMSSD (p = 0.008), LRMSSD (p = 0.001), SDNN (p = 0.005), and PNN50 (p = 0.024) after the session. Frequency-domain measures showed a significant increase in LF (p = 0.030) and HF (p = 0.014), and a decrease in LF/HF ratio (p = 0.046). A significant decrease was found in minimum HR values (p = 0.001) and average HR (p = 0.001). Moreover, maximal HR decreased its value from 116.7 ± 26.1 to 113.7 ± 40.8 after intervention. In addition, subjective pain perception (VAS scores) was significantly lower (p = 0.001) in the post-session assessment. Conclusions: Physiotherapy treatment produced an increase in parasympathetic nervous system activation and a decrease in subjective pain perception in non-specific subacute LBP patients.
... For instance, the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games was postponed until 2021 (International Olympic Committee, 2020) and the International Chess Federation (2020) (FIDE) canceled the World Candidates Tournament 2020 (FIDE, 2020). Chess is considered a sport with high psychophysiological demands where players are exposed to higher levels of stress and cognitive load (Fuentes-Garcia et al., 2018, Fuentes-Garcia et al., 2019a,b,c, 2020Villafaina et al., 2019). Previous neuropsychological studies have shown the benefits of chess practice in executive functions, facilitating the adaptation to complex or not routine situations (Grau-Perez and Moreira, 2017;Ramos et al., 2018). ...
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The outbreak of COVID-19 has triggered a pandemic, jeopardizing global health. The sports world is also suffering enormous consequences, such as the suspension of the Olympic Games in Tokyo or, in chess, the cancelation of the World Candidates Tournament 2020. Chess is a sport characterized by high psychophysiological demands derived from long training durations, tournaments, and games, leading to mental, emotional, and physical stress. These characteristics could provide chess players a certain advantage in facing quarantine situations. This study aimed to analyze the effect of COVID-19 confinement on behavioral, psychological, and training patterns of chess players based on their gender, level of education, and level of chess played. We analyzed chess players (N: 450; age = 38.12 ± 14.01 years) in countries where confinement was mandatory: Professional players (N: 55; age = 43.35 ± 13), high-performance players (N: 53; age = 38.57 ± 13.46), competitive players (N: 284; age = 36.82 ± 13.91), and amateur players (N: 58; age = 39.10 ± 14.99). Results showed that chess players significantly decreased physical activity per day while increased chess practise during the confinement period. However, anxiety levels remained moderate despite the anti-stress effects of physical activity. Amateur players showed a significantly higher level of social alarm than professional and high-performance players. Moreover, professional players showed higher values of extraversion than high-performance players and amateur players. In neuroticism, professional players showed higher values than high-performance players. In addition, the professional players showed higher scores in psychological inflexibility than competitive players. Finally, chess players with the highest academic level showed higher levels of personal concern and anxiety due to COVID-19 as well as lower psychological inflexibility compared to those with a lower academic level. In conclusion, chess players, especially those with a higher academic level, might have adapted their psychological profile to fit confinement situations and the worrying levels of physical inactivity.
Chapter
The electroencephalogram or EEG is introduced in this chapter. Properties of the EEG time series are discussed as well. These include individual frequency band descriptions, and their critical functional properties are discussed. A variety of measurement tools are introduced to assist in the frequency-based intensity measure. These include the traditional strategies of power spectrum and time-domain analysis for continuous EEG signals, and other strategies for capturing the power frequency information about the sporadic events through the Teager energy operator (TEO). For the analysis of wave features, we also consider additional time-frequency methodologies, particularly wavelets. Lastly, apparent randomness of the EEG signals lends itself to entropy or information-theoretic analysis. We discuss an entropy-based model known as information quantity or IQ which is shown to reflect the changes in EEG from healthy, to injury, to recovering states. As a case study, we examine the use of EEG signal processing methods as a diagnostic tool in the recovery of the brain after cardiac arrest which causes global ischemic brain injury. The corresponding experiments demonstrate the importance of spectral methods to analyze the EEG frequency and amplitude variability assessed through the IQ measure and TEO as a tool to detect the burst suppression events in the experimental models of cardiac arrest. Our review of the EEG methods and the principled discoveries coming out of our experiments provide a general introduction to the basic properties of the EEG data interpretation and clinical translation.
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The present research aimed to analyze the effect of combat stress in the psychophysiological response and attention and memory of warfighters in a simulated combat situation. Variables of blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, blood glucose, blood lactate, body temperature, lower body muscular strength manifestation, cortical arousal, autonomic modulation, state anxiety and memory and attention through a postmission questionnaire were analyzed before and after a combat simulation in 20 male professional Spanish Army warfighters. The combat simulation produces a significant increase (p < 0.05) in explosive leg strength, rated perceived exertion, blood glucose, blood lactate, somatic anxiety, heart rate, and low frequency domain of the HRV (LF) and a significant decrease of high frequency domain of the heart rate variability (HF). The percentage of correct response in the postmission questionnaire parameters show that elements more related with a physical integrity threat are the most correctly remembered. There were significant differences in the postmission questionnaire variables when participants were divided by the cortical arousal post: sounds no response, mobile phone correct, mobile phone no response, odours correct. The correlation analysis showed positive correlations: LF post/body temperature post, HF post/correct sound, body temperature post/glucose post, CFFTpre/lactate post, CFFT post/wrong sound, glucose post/AC pre, AC post/wrong fusil, AS post/SC post and SC post/wrong olfactory; and negative correlations: LF post/correct sound, body temperature post/lactate post and glucose post/lactate post. This data suggest that combat stress actives fight-flight system of soldiers. As conclusion, Combat stress produces an increased psychophysiological response that cause a selective decrease of memory, depending on the nature, dangerous or harmless of the objects.
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Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier, José Juan Robles-Pérez, Ketty Herrera-Mendoza, Beliña Herrera-Tapias, and Jesús Fernández-Lucas. Psychophysiological response and fine motor skills in high-altitude parachute jumps. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-We analyzed the psychophysiological response and specific fine motor skill of an experienced jumper in HALO (high altitude low opening) and HAHO (high altitude high opening) parachute jumps. Eight HALO and eight HAHO jumpers were analyzed. They jumped at 5500 m, HALO jumpers opened the parachute at 500 m and HAHO jumpers at 4300 m of altitude. Before and after the jumps, parameters of muscle strength, cortical arousal, blood creatine kinase (CK) and glucose, blood oxygen saturation, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and specific fine motor skills of an experienced jumper were assessed; during the jump, heart rate (HR), HR variability, and speed were evaluated. HALO and HAHO jumps produced a significant increase in CK, lactate, and RPE, and a decrease in glucose. HAHO decreased cortical arousal, presented a higher sympathetic modulation, and a higher HR during the jump than HALO. HALO and HAHO produced an increase in the physiological, sympathetic modulation and muscle destruction, and a decrease in cortical arousal and a higher blood lactate concentration only in the HAHO jump. Also, somatic and cognitive anxiety correlated with higher strength manifestation and muscle destruction. This novel research could be used to improve actual training systems in both civil and military parachute jumpers.
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The study of psychophysiological responses of soldiers in combat situations remains a challenge, especially in melee combat—a close proximity unarmed fight—defined by high unpredictability. Gaining knowledge about psychophysiological changes in high-stress situations is required to optimise training. This study aimed to analyse modifications in autonomic modulation, cortical arousal, heart rate, muscle strength, blood lactate concentration, and rating of perceived exertion of veteran soldiers in a melee combat simulation. Twenty veteran soldiers were analysed before and after a melee combat simulation in accordance with realistic situations that occur in actual operations areas. The simulation consisted of actions performed by a binomial unit in a security and protection mission in an operations area. The melee combat caused an increase in sympathetic modulation, blood lactate concentration, heart rate, muscle strength, a decreased tendency in cortical arousal, and a lower rating of perceived exertion than the organic response measured. An intense fight–flight response was observed in soldiers by the limbic system activation, causing a misinterpretation of perceived exertion. Finally, implications for the design of simulation environments for tactics training in high-stress professions are discussed.
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This paper describes the analysis and design of a cognitive emotional assesment model. This model is based on the goals looked for a chess player during a game. The model affects the output of the board evaluation function of a computational agent which plays chess, giving more weight to aspects related to the most urgent goals, according to the context. Thus, it perceives environment changes, and consequently changes its choice of the next play. The aim is that the computational agent incorporates into the decision making process, the emotional state and choose the plays based on that state. For that purpose were used tools of cognitive psychology and soft computing in order to simulate emotion, and affect the agent’s behavior computer.
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The author's aim was to analyze the cortical arousal response during a conventional strength training session as a method to assess central nervous system fatigue. Sixteen trained men were recruited to perform the maximum number of training series composed of 6 exercises of 10 repetition each, at the intensity of 70% of the 1 maximum repetition, with a rest period of 2 min between exercises and 5 min between series, until exhaustion. Cortical arousal was measured using the critical flicker fusion threshold before, after warm-up, after each exercises series, after the recovery phase between series, and 15 min and 30 min after finishing the training session. Participants could not finish the fourth series of exercise, corresponding with a significant decrease of cortical arousal respect to the warm-up value. The assessment of cortical arousal using CFFT during a strength training session could be a fast and efficient method for assessing central nervous fatigue. Practically, coaches could modify the training protocol according to the individual cortical arousal response in order to improve training efficiency and prevent injuries.
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Parachute jump is an extreme activity that elicits an intense stress response that affects jumpers’ body systems being able to put them at risk. The present research analysed modifications in blood oxygen saturation (BOS), heart rate (HR), cortisol, glucose, lactate, creatine kinase (CK), muscles strength, cortical arousal, autonomic modulation, pistol magazine reload time (PMRT) and state anxiety before and after an automatic open parachute jump in 38 male Spanish soldiers (25.6 ± 5.9 years). A MANOVA with samples as a fixed factor and Effect Size (ES) were conducted. MANOVA showed (Wilks lambda = .225; F = 5.980; P = .000) a significantly increase in cortisol (6.2 ± 3.2 vs. 8.2 ± 4.3 nmol/l; P = .025; ES = .47), HR (75.0 ± 14.6 vs. 87.4 ± 17.3 bpm; P = .004; ES = .72), lactate (1.8 ± 1.2 vs. 4.4 ± 2.2 mmol · l⁻¹; P = .002; ES = 1.18), sympathetic nervous system and leg strength manifestation after the parachute jump. By contrary BOS, PMRT (55.6 ± 27.6 vs. 48.0 ± 16.7 s; P = .021; ES = .46) and somatic anxiety (SA), evaluated by CSAI2R questionnaire, decreased. An automatic parachute jump increased physiological and cortical response and decreased SA of participants. This stress response can affect the jumpers’ abilities and allow us to have a better understanding of the organism stress response and to improve training for both military and sport parachute jumps.
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We aimed to analyse the effect of experience level in the psychophysiological response and specific fine motor skills of novel and expert parachute warfighters during a tactical combat parachute jump. We analysed blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, salivary cortisol, blood glucose, lactate and creatinkinase, leg strength, isometric hand-grip strength, cortical arousal, specific fine motor skills and cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confident before and after a tactical combat parachute jump in 40 warfighters divided in two group, novel (n=17) and expert group (n=23). Novels presented a higher heart rate, lactate, cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and a lower self-confident than experts during the jump. We concluded that experience level has a direct effect on the psychophysiological response since novel paratroopers presented a higher psychophysiological response than compared to the expert ones, however this result neither affected the specific fine motor skills nor the muscle structure after a tactical combat parachute jump.
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Several authors have studied the influence of exercise on the nervous system and cognitive functioning in untrained subjects (Bobon, et al., 1982, Li, et al., 2004) and different exercises from anaerobic exercise intense exercise to exhaustion at sub-maximal endurance exercise (Davranche and Audifren, 2004, Gibson and Noakes, 2004; Presland, et al., 2005) using the Ricker Fusion Threshold (UFF). No studies have investigated the effects of exercises in which VO 2max is reached on the central nervous system. The purpose of this study is examine changes in Flicker Fusion thresholds before and after perform an incremental test to exhaustion on that reached the maximum oxygen consumption (VO 2max) as a means to evaluate the central nervous system fatigue. 30 cyclists (71.6±8.6 kg, 175.8±8.1 cm, 25.2±9.5 years, 14.7±4.3% fat, VO 2max on 60.8±6.5 ml/kg/min VO 2max absolute: 4.3±.51) were tested in an incremental test to determine VO 2max in cycle ergometer (starting at 100W with 50W increments every minute until complete fatigue, subjects performed warming from 5' to 75W). The variables (UFF upward, downward and classic, the subjective test and sensory sensitivity) were measured pretest and postest. Each subject performed the test three times and obtaining an average value. The results showed no significant differences in UFF; therefore there is no decrease in sensory sensitivity and an increased level of cortical activation. These results suggest that an incremental test to reach VO 2max cycle ergometer does not generate fatigue in the central nervous system evaluated with Flicker Fusion and don't alter cognitive function.
Article
Background: The analysis of the brain activity during balance is an important topic in different science fields. Given that all measurements involve an error that is caused by different agents, like the instrument, the researcher, or the natural human variability, a test-retest reliability evaluation of the electroencephalographic assessment is a needed starting point. However, there is a lack of information about the reliability of electroencephalographic measurements, especially in a new wireless device with dry electrodes. Objective: The current study aims to analyze the reliability of electroencephalographic measurements from a wireless device using dry electrodes during two different balance tests. Method: Seventeen healthy male volunteers performed two different static balance tasks on a Biodex Balance Platform: a) with two feet on the platform, and b) with one foot on the platform. Electroencephalographic data was recorded by using Enobio (Neuroelectrics). The mean power spectrum of the alpha band of the central and frontal channels were calculated. Relative and absolute indices of reliability were also calculated. Results: In general terms, the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) values of all the assessed channels can be classified as excellent (>.90). The percentage Standard Error of Measurement oscillated from 0.54% to 1.02% and the percentage Smallest Real Difference ranged from 1.50% to 2.82%. Conclusion: Electroencephalographic assessment through Enobio device during balance tasks has an excellent reliability. However, its utility was not demonstrated because responsiveness was not assessed. http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/mHhpfMxtfJEknqqIBsGq/full