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Abstract

Over the past decade, the rapid developments and growth of information and communication technology (ICT) have had a profound influence on nursing education. E-learning has grown tremendously has been integrated into education and training. The aim of this review is to examine the effect of e-learning program in nursing education. Akdeniz University electronic databases center including MEDLINE, CINAHL, Sciencedirect, Cochrane library were searched published studies in English with “e-learning, nursing education, nursing students” key words and 554 articles were reached by the search results. By the analysis, published 2011-2016, the original six manuscripts have been sampled. A cross-over design study examined the effect of lecture and e-learning methods were compared, no significant difference was found between two methods. In another study, the effect of using e-learning versus lecture of nursing students was examined. Students were indicated to be pleased with the e-learning program. Another study evaluated the effectiveness of an e-learning intervention on pain management for nursing students, it was found to be useful. In another study, experiences of e-learning in a midwifery training package and student's views were evaluated, the students generally welcomed to e-learning however they suggested face-to-face learning. Another study tested the effectiveness of an e-learning program to increase pediatric medication management among students who take pediatric nursing courses, e-learning program is an effective learning method than lecture program. In another study, the effects of e-learning, lectures and role playing on learning, retention and satisfaction of nursing students were evaluated, it was found lectures to be a significantly more effective teaching method than role playing and e-learning. Results of this review showed that students’ satisfaction with e-learning was lower than traditional lecture instruction. However different and well planned e-learning programmes can support the development of nursing students' skills, knowledge and attitudes. Keywords: E-learning; nursing students; nursing education.
New Trends and Issues
Proceedings on Humanities
and Social Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 2 (2017) 230-236
ISSN 2421-8030
www.prosoc.eu
Selected Papers of 1st International Congress on Nursing (ICON-2017) 16 18 March 2017 Grand Park Lara Convention
Center, Lara Antalya, Turkey
The use of e-learning program in nursing education
Sefika Tugba Yangoz a
*
, Department of Public Health Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Akdeniz University,
07058, Antalya, Turkey.
Cigdem Okten b, Department of Public Health Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Akdeniz University, 07058,
Antalya, Turkey
Zeynep Ozer c, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Akdeniz University, 07058, Antalya, Turkey.
.
Suggested Citation:
Yangoz, T. S., Okten, C. & Ozer, Z. (2017). The use of e-learning program in nursing education. New Trends and
Issues Proceedings on Humanities and Social Sciences. [Online]. 4(2), pp 230-236. Available from:
www.prosoc.eu
Selection and peer review under responsibility of Prof. Dr. Nesrin Nural, Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
©2017 SciencePark Research, Organization & Counseling. All rights reserved.
Abstract
Over the past decade, the rapid developments and growth of information and communication technology (ICT) have had a profound
influence on nursing education. E-learning has grown tremendously has been integrated into education and training. The aim of this review is
to examine the effect of e-learning program in nursing education. Akdeniz University electronic databases center including MEDLINE,
CINAHL, Sciencedirect, Cochrane library were searched published studies in English with “e-learning, nursing education, nursing students”
key words and 554 articles were reached by the search results. By the analysis, published 2011-2016, the original six manuscripts have been
sampled. A cross-over design study examined the effect of lecture and e-learning methods were compared, no significant difference was
found between two methods. In another study, the effect of using e-learning versus lecture of nursing students was examined. Students
were indicated to be pleased with the e-learning program. Another study evaluated the effectiveness of an e-learning intervention on pain
management for nursing students, it was found to be useful. In another study, experiences of e-learning in a midwifery training package and
student's views were evaluated, the students generally welcomed to e-learning however they suggested face-to-face learning. Another study
tested the effectiveness of an e-learning program to increase pediatric medication management among students who take pediatric nursing
courses, e-learning program is an effective learning method than lecture program. In another study, the effects of e-learning, lectures and
role playing on learning, retention and satisfaction of nursing students were evaluated, it was found lectures to be a significantly more
effective teaching method than role playing and e-learning. Results of this review showed that students’ satisfaction with e-learning was
lower than traditional lecture instruction. However different and well planned e-learning programmes can support the development of
nursing students' skills, knowledge and attitudes.
Keywords: E-learning; nursing students; nursing education.
* ADDRESS FOR CORRESPONDENCE: Sefika Tugba Yangoz, Department of Public Health Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences,
Akdeniz University, 07058, Antalya, Turkey.
E-mail address: tugbayangoz@akdeniz.edu.tr / Tel.: +90 242 310 61 03
Yangoz, T. S., Okten, C. & Ozer, Z. (2017). The use of e-learning program in nursing education. New Trends and
Issues Proceedings on Humanities and Social Sciences. [Online]. 4(2), pp 230-236. Available from: www.prosoc.eu
231
1. Introduction
With the rapid development of information communication technologies, internet technologies and
web-based applications have created unprecedented chances for conducting learning. This situation
has led to the exponential growth of electronic learning (e-learning) in recent years (Cheng, 2011;
Pourghaznein et al., 2015). E-learning is one method of delivering ‘online’ instruction and relates to
web/computer based programs and virtual learning environments. These can be delivered using
different media sources (CD-ROMs, DVDs) and can either be student or instructor led (Manochehr,
2006; Barker et al., 2013). In other words, e-Learning is learning utilizing electronic technologies to
access educational curriculum outside of a traditional classroom. In most cases, it refers to a course,
program or degree delivered completely online.
Information communication technologies covering e-learning programs are increasing in higher
educational institutions as a means of communication and knowledge sharing (Muirhead, 2007; Barker
et al., 2013). And, these programs are also used in nursing education. This is of particular necessity in
nursing profession, because nurses need access to updated information on diseases, treatments,
drugs, and, new skills (Pourghaznein et al., 2015). E-learning program combines important principles
such as student activity, individual learning, rapid response, and repetition according to requirements.
Additionally, it encourages independent skills; allows flexible working; fosters the development of
skills in time management, organization and self-pacing; and provides an opportunity for practicing
computer abilities. It also contributes to methodological diversity and to changing the focus away from
teaching to learning in the same way as lifelong learning (Reime et al., 2008; Abdelaziz et al., 2011). An
e-learning system also provides a configurable infrastructure that integrates learning material, books
and services into a single solution to quickly, effectively, and economically create and deliver training
or educational content. It has become an important alternative to classroom learning (Anaraki, 2004;
Abdelaziz et al., 2011). This method has in fact provided a new paradigm of teaching and learning
which enables everyone to learn anything anywhere and at any time throughout their lives (Emami,
2009; Pourghaznein et al., 2015). Other benefits of the program are meeting the greater diversity of
student needs, increasing the flexibility of provision, enhancing the integration of study with work and
leisure, meeting individual needs (The Higher Education Funding Council for Education, HEFCE, 2005;
Barker et al., 2013). Purpose of the study is to examine the effect of e-learning program in nursing
education.
2. Method
This study was conducted following guidelines defined in the Preferred Reporting Items for
Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols) (PRISMA-P) (Moher et al, 2015).
2.1. Search strategy
We conducted a systematic literature review to evaluate the study results within effect of e-
learning program in nursing education. Akdeniz University center electronic databases including
MEDLINE, CINAHL, Sciencedirect, Cochrane library were searched studies published in English with “e-
learning and nursing education” “e-learning and nursing students” key words in June 2016. Search
results reached in the 554 articles. Repeated work (duplications) has been identified with the EndNote
X5 program. The titles and abstracts of the studies were reviewed by a researcher. Also references of
the determined studies had reviewed. Investigation of the articles published 2011-2016, which can be
accessed in full text, the original six articles have been sampled (Fig. 1).
Yangoz, T. S., Okten, C. & Ozer, Z. (2017). The use of e-learning program in nursing education. New Trends and
Issues Proceedings on Humanities and Social Sciences. [Online]. 4(2), pp 230-236. Available from: www.prosoc.eu
232
Figure 1. Study selection process. A flow chart illustrating the study selection process, according to the
PRISMA-P guidelines.
The inclusion / exclusion criteria for review are stated below. The inclusion criteria in the systematic
literature review are defined according to PICOS (Centre for Reviews and Dissemination 2009).
P (Population): The research conducted with the nursing students using the e-learning program in
nursing education constituted the target group of this study.
I (Intervention): Quasi-experimental, cross-over, qualitative, historical comparison, randomised
cohort and experimental studies based on e-learning program are included.
C (Comparison): It is aimed to compare the effects of e-learning method on nursing students'
learning outcomes.
O (Outcome): The results of the e-learning program applied to the nursing students constituted the
primer results.
S (Study design): Because randomized controlled trials were not reached, quasi-experimental,
cross-over, qualitative, historical comparison, randomised cohort and experimental studies related to
the topic published in English were selected.
Exclusion criteria for systematic literature review are:
Unreachable articles
Systematic review
Metaanalysis
Total articles obtained from MEDLINE, CINAHL, Sciencedirect, Cochrane library
in June 2016.
554 Citation
308 articles after duplicates
removed.
Inclusion/Exclusion criteria
applied
302 Articles Excluded
After Title/Abstract Screen
6 Articles İncluded
Yangoz, T. S., Okten, C. & Ozer, Z. (2017). The use of e-learning program in nursing education. New Trends and
Issues Proceedings on Humanities and Social Sciences. [Online]. 4(2), pp 230-236. Available from: www.prosoc.eu
233
3. Results
Using the search criteria previously defined, 6 studies were selected for further review. Studies
were examined in terms of study design, subject, intervention, outcome measure and results.
A quasi-experimental study was conducted by Abdelaziz and colleagues (2011). In this study, the
effect of using electronic learning versus lecture of nursing students at a large state faculty where
experience with and access to computer facilities are limited were compared. Two hundred seventy-
six second-year nursing students from both gender was included in the study. A control group used
traditional classroom lectures and a study group used an e-learning cardiac disease program. For the
purposes of this study and to collect data, five tools were developed. Five tools were cardiovascular
knowledge assessment sheet, observation checklist for central venous pressure and electrocardiogram
procedures, 7-point semantic differential scale, opinionnaire sheet, cardiovascular education program
(e-learning lecture). For the students in the study group, orientation session was done 1 week prior to
the beginning of the program to teach students how to use the educational program. For the students
in the control group, the instructor lectured for two periods (from 08:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m.) on
Sundays by a 15-minute break, for 1 month, for the study group, instructor uploaded two modules per
week for 3 weeks. After implementation of the program, study and control groups were asked to fill
out a 7-point semantic differential attitude scale evaluating the attitude of nursing students versus
using e-learning and lectures in nursing education. Students in the study group were indicated to be
pleased with the e-learning program as a teaching method, but they did not wish to take another e-
learning program except if they had computer and Internet at home.
A cross-over design study was conducted by Mehrdad and colleagues (2011). In this study, the
effect of lecture and e-learning methods on nursing students' learning outcomes in the context of Iran
were compared. Thirty two in three year nursing students was included in the study. The study was
applied in two phases. In the first phase, students received traditional education with 2 hour lecture
every week during the first four weeks. In the second phase; students were taught how to use the e-
learning educational program. The course content was divided into 9 parts and each part lasted up to
30 minutes. Students’ learning outcomes were evaluated a final test was administered based on
educational content. According to the study, no significant difference was found between two
methods in general but students reported better "capability" and "independency" in elearning
method while lecture was obtained higher scores in "effectiveness on learning" and "motivation"
characteristics.
Another study a randomised cohort design was conducted by Keefe and colleagues (2012). In this
study, the effectiveness of an e-learning intervention on pain management developed for nursing
students were evaluated. Two hundred six students were included in the study. Students were drawn
from the undergraduate masters nursing course between september 20072010. Two variants of an
e-learning on pain management were developed, a section focusing on pain assessment and the other
on pharmacological management. Nursing students (n=42) were randomly assigned a section.
Students in the e-learning program were invited via email to undertake one of the RLOs (reusable
learning objects) developed for the study. Students were given two weeks to complete the RLO. After,
students’ e-learning outcomes were evaluated with Ferrell and McCaffrey's Nurses Knowledge and
Attitudes Towards Pain Survey. The non-intervention standard group (n=164) received only the
compulsory pain lectures already incorporated into the nursing programme. After this, all students
were again done a pain knowledge questionnaire. Questionnaire results were compared between e-
learning and non-intervention standard group analysed for each resource and year of study. According
to the study, introducing e-learning to enhance pain education in nursing was found to be useful.
A qualitative interpretive approach was conducted by Barker and colleagues (2013). In this study,
experiences of e-learning in a midwifery training package and student's views were evaluated. Either
year three or year four (final year) fifty one students was included in the study. A purposive sample of
students was invited based on whether they had already undertaken their maternity experience or
Yangoz, T. S., Okten, C. & Ozer, Z. (2017). The use of e-learning program in nursing education. New Trends and
Issues Proceedings on Humanities and Social Sciences. [Online]. 4(2), pp 230-236. Available from: www.prosoc.eu
234
where about to do so. Therefore participants were well placed to evaluate e-learning in relation to
midwifery care. Students were given a 12 week placement in maternity care course with an e-learning
program. Data of study were collected using audio taped focus group discussions (FGD) because the
students were homogenous groups. FGD comprised of five groups in this study. Data were recorded,
transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a framework approach. In the result of the study, the
students generally welcomed to e-learning however they suggested that it should be “supplementary”
to face-to-face learning.
A historical comparison study was designed by Lee and Lin (2013). This study examined that the
effectiveness of an e-learning program to increase pediatric medication management among students
who take pediatric nursing courses. Three hundred and forty nine students in two- and four-year
programs who were taking pediatric nursing courses (both lectures and practicum) were included in
the study. Eighty students in the comparison group received regular pediatric courses and 269
students in the intervention group received an e-learning program. The e-learning program was
developed via the five phases of the ADDIE model (analysis, design, development, implementation,
and evaluation). Students in both group were given 1015 days of lectures over five weeks. The
students in the intervention group were given e-learning program and the students in the comparison
group were given the regular lecture course only. Students in both the intervention and comparison
groups were given a pediatric medication management scale (pretest), after the lecture course was
completed (post-test 1) and after the clinical practicum was completed (post-test 2). According to the
study, using an e-learning program on pediatric medication management is an effective learning
method than lecture course.
A quasi-experimental study was conducted by Pourghaznein and colleagues (2015). This study
evaluated that the effects of e-learning, lectures and role playing on learning, retention and
satisfaction of nursing students. Sixty nursing students who take medical-surgical nursing- II course in
their fourth semester were selected as an experiment (n=31) and control groups (n=29). The
educational content was applied as e-learning and role playing during one semester (experiment
group) and as lectures in the next semester (control group). Data were collected a three-part author-
made questionnaire (demographic information, theoretical knowledge (20 MCQ), and satisfaction (12
questions on a five-point Likert scale)). Studens were asked open-ended question that students’
opinion about the entire course at the final. As a result of this study, it was found lectures to be a
significantly more effective teaching method than role playing and e-learning.
4. Discussion
Increased accessibility of the Internet has created a new portal for education resources with
enhanced satisfaction and efficacy. Known for its recipient-oriented approach, e-learning has
extended learning experiences beyond face-to-face lectures and textbooks to enhance individualized
student preparation and accommodate learning preferences (Wunschel et al., 2010; Back et al., 2014).
The six studies in this review validate and demonstrate the potential for e-learning in nursing
education at the nursing school.
All studies in this review reported different interventions including differences in: the size of e-
learning programmes, the number of modules undertaken and the time taken to complete them
(Sinclair et al., 2015). In the four study, study group used an e-learning program and control group
used traditional classroom lectures (Abdelaziz et al., 2011; Keefe & Wharrad, 2012; Lee & Lin, 2013;
Pourghaznein et al., 2015). Only in the one study, a role play method was applied to students with e-
learning (Pourghaznein et al., 2015). Other study, students were given traditional education and then
e-learning was applied (Mehrdad et al., 2011). Another study, e-learning program was given and then
the opinions of the students were taken (Barker et al., 2013).
With the development of e-learning platforms can use text, graphics, animations and videos
(among others), which can significantly enrich the learning experience for nursing education. The
Yangoz, T. S., Okten, C. & Ozer, Z. (2017). The use of e-learning program in nursing education. New Trends and
Issues Proceedings on Humanities and Social Sciences. [Online]. 4(2), pp 230-236. Available from: www.prosoc.eu
235
literature on e-learning demonstrates the variety of teaching method that can be given by this
medium, which includes case-based, theoretical knowledge and surgical skills teaching (Jayakumar et
al., 2015). According to the results of the study, e-learning program was delivered through the method
including theoretical knowledge in the five study (Abdelaziz et al., 2011; Mehrdad et al., 2011; Keefe
and Wharrad, 2012; Lee and Lin, 2013; Pourghaznein et al., 2015). After applying an e-learning
program in the one study, the opinions of the students were taken (Barker et al., 2013). In the two
studies, e-learning program was enriched using platform like video and role playing (Lee & Lin, 2013;
Pourghaznein et al., 2015). Other enrichment method hasn’t been mentioned in other studies.
5. Conclusion and Recommendations
As a result of this review, no strong generalisations concerning the effect of e-learning on nursing
education. Students’ satisfaction with e-learning was lower than traditional lecture instruction. The
size and direction of the effect of e-learning on learning outcomes are situational when compared to
traditional learning in nursing education. However different and well planned e-learning programmes
can support the development of nursing students' skills, knowledge and attitudes.
As technology advances and training pressures rise, e-learning is an economical, innovative and
reputable platform for program directors to incorporate into their curricula. It is suggested to increase
the study related to e-learning for enhanced nursing learning, improved clinical skills and heightened
learner satisfaction.
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... The outcomes of the included studies are shown in Table 2. [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] There was evidence that nurses have positive attitude toward online classes. Thirteen of the 17 studies showed that there is favorable attitude of nursing students, staff nurses, and nursing faculty toward online classes, [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21] one study [22] has shown that there is unfavorable attitude toward online classes, and remaining three studies [23][24][25] demonstrated that there is no significant difference in the attitude toward online classes among nursing students, staff nurses, and nursing faculty members. ...
... The outcomes of the included studies are shown in Table 2. [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] There was evidence that nurses have positive attitude toward online classes. Thirteen of the 17 studies showed that there is favorable attitude of nursing students, staff nurses, and nursing faculty toward online classes, [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21] one study [22] has shown that there is unfavorable attitude toward online classes, and remaining three studies [23][24][25] demonstrated that there is no significant difference in the attitude toward online classes among nursing students, staff nurses, and nursing faculty members. ...
... [38][39][40][41] The review has demonstrated that there is a consistent positive attitude of nurses toward online classes. [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21] Online classes were also effective in bringing about the change in knowledge [26][27][28] among nursing students, staff nurses, and nursing faculty, but there were limited data that present significant changes in skill [32][33] improvement. ...
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... [11] Several researchers have reported beneficial and limited outcomes of e-learning in nursing education in terms of achievement, satisfaction, outlook and desire for learning. [11,12] With new technological advancements in health care academics being introduced every day, e-simulations are the next step to be incorporated into the practical classes and to provide real-time virtual experience for student nurses to explore the clinical practice. ...
... Another study conducted in Taiwan also indicated that face-to-face learning was perceived to be more effective than online learning in terms of all social presence, social interaction, and students' satisfaction [25]. A review conducted to assess the use of e-learning programs in nursing education found that students were more satisfied with lecture method than e-learning [26]. In contrast to the finding, a previous systematic review on e-learning has shown e-learning as equivalent to traditional learning in terms of academic context [20]. ...
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Introduction In present days, the use of information technology (IT) in education is unquestionable. The mounting advancement of IT has changed the scenario of education. With the emergence of the current COVID-19 situation, it has undoubtedly provided a solution to most of our educational needs when all educational institutions remained closed due to the pandemic. This study aims to identify the nursing students’ attitude towards the practice of e-learning amidst COVID-19. Methods A descriptive web-based cross-sectional study was conducted among nursing students with a sample size of 470. A self-administered validated questionnaire along with a standard tool to measure the attitude was used for data collection. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results The mean ± SD age of the respondents was 20.91± 1.55 years. The majority (76.4%) of the respondents used mobile for their study and 90.4% used Wi-Fi for the internet source. The main advantage of e-learning was stated as the ability to stay at home (72.1%) followed by the reduced cost of accommodation and transport (51.3%) whereas the internet problem (81.7%) was the major disadvantage followed by technical issues (65.5%). Only about 34% of the students found e-learning as effective as traditional face-to-face learning. The mean scores for the domains: perceived usefulness, intention to adapt, distant use of e-learning, ease of learning, technical support, and learning stressors were 3.1, 3.1, 3.8, 2.9, 2.9, and 2.5 respectively. Overall, 58.9% had a favorable attitude regarding e-learning. There was no significant association of overall attitude regarding e-learning with selected socio-demographic variables whereas it was positively associated with all of its six domains. All the domains were positively correlated with each other except for ease of learning with technical support and distant use, and technical support with learning stressor and distant use. Learning stressor versus distant use was negatively correlated with each other. Conclusion Though e-learning was implemented as a substitute during the pandemic, almost half of the nursing students showed a positive attitude regarding e-learning. The majority of the students had internet problems and technological issues. If e-learning can be made user-friendly with reduced technical barriers supplemented with programs that can enhance practical learning abilities, e-learning can be the vital alternative teaching method and learning in the nursing field.
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Background: Technologies, such as the use of information technology for teaching and learning, e-learning and virtual learning, are commonly used terms in today’s education system. These ever growing and developing modes of teaching and learning have changed the landscape of higher education, in general. As a result, nursing education has equally responded positively to the use of information technology for teaching and learning. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe and compare the readiness to use information technology for teaching and learning for both nursing students and nurse educators in the two campuses of a North West public nursing college. Setting: The study was conducted in a multi-campus North West public nursing college in South Africa. Methods: A quantitative approach of a comparative descriptive design was followed in this study. Descriptive statistics was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 27. Results: A total of 285 (254 nursing students and 31 nurse educators) respondents completed the online questionnaires. Both nurse educators and nursing students were in agreement with the information technology use readiness construct (83.9% and 77.9%, respectively). For all the variables with significant ( 0.05) p-values from the Mann–Whitney U test, the mean ranks were higher for the Ngaka Modiri Molema District (NMMD) campus. Conclusion: When comparing the two campuses, conclusion can be drawn that the campus at NMDD is more ready to use information technology for teaching and learning than the campus at Dr Kenneth Kauda District. Contribution: The results of this study contribute to the body of knowledge on technology use for teaching and learning in nursing education.
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Background Online learning in nursing education has been demonstrated to exert positive effects on knowledge, skills, learning attitudes, and confidence in performance. However, a noteworthy caveat has been that such benefits could vary depending on the content of pedagogical materials. Aim To examine the impact of online-tutorials in place of face-to-face tutorials on knowledge level and understand the perspectives of learners who experience online-tutorials. Methods This study adopted a mixed method experiential design in which the perspectives of learners who experience online-tutorials are embedded within the trial. Two cohort of nursing students enrolled for the module on Psychology for Nurses were recruited to evaluate the impact of online-tutorials compared to face-to-face tutorials in terms of knowledge level. Apart from the dissimilar mode of delivery, both cohorts experienced the same teaching structure, content, and assessments. Examination results from these two cohorts were compared upon completion of the course. For the online group, additional one-to-one interviews were conducted to further understand the impacts exerted by online learning on the level of knowledge among them. Results There was a significant difference between the knowledge level of the two cohorts. Responses elicited during the interviews revealed five themes: lack of motivation; limited teamwork; missed learning opportunities; decreased interactions; and differences between online and face-to-face learning. Conclusion: Online-tutorials may be a feasible pedagogical approach but the motivation to learn, teamwork and quality of discussion may be compromised due to the lack of socialization and interactions between students and tutors.
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Systematic reviews should build on a protocol that describes the rationale, hypothesis, and planned methods of the review; few reviews report whether a protocol exists. Detailed, well-described protocols can facilitate the understanding and appraisal of the review methods, as well as the detection of modifications to methods and selective reporting in completed reviews. We describe the development of a reporting guideline, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols 2015 (PRISMA-P 2015). PRISMA-P consists of a 17-item checklist intended to facilitate the preparation and reporting of a robust protocol for the systematic review. Funders and those commissioning reviews might consider mandating the use of the checklist to facilitate the submission of relevant protocol information in funding applications. Similarly, peer reviewers and editors can use the guidance to gauge the completeness and transparency of a systematic review protocol submitted for publication in a journal or other medium.
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The focus of much e-learning activity is upon the development of courses and their resources. Successful e-learning takes place within a complex system involving the student experience of learning, teachers’ strategies, teachers’ planning and thinking, and the teaching/learning context. Staff development for e-learning focuses around the level of technological delivery strategies when other issues such as the teachers’ conception of learning has a major influence on the planning of courses, development of teaching strategies and what students learn. This article proposes a more comprehensive framework for the design, development and implementation of e-learning systems in higher education.
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e-Learning involves the delivery of educational content through web-based methods. Owing to work-hour restrictions and changing practice patterns in surgery, e-learning can offer an effective alternative to traditional teaching. Our aims were to (1) identify current modalities of e-learning, (2) assess the efficacy of e-learning as an intervention in surgical education through a systematic review of the literature, and (3) discuss the relevance of e-learning as an educational tool in surgical education. This is the first such systematic review in this field. A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE was conducted for relevant articles published until July 2014, using a predefined search strategy. The database search was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 38 articles were found which met the inclusion criteria. In these studies, e-learning was used as an intervention in 3 different ways: (1) to teach cases through virtual patients (18/38); (2) to teach theoretical knowledge through online tutorials, or other means (18/38); and (3) to teach surgical skills (2/38). Nearly all of the studies reviewed report significant knowledge gain from e-learning; however, 2 in 3 studies did not use a control group. e-Learning has emerged as an effective mode of teaching with particular relevance for surgical education today. Published studies have demonstrated the efficacy of this method; however, future work must involve well-designed randomized controlled trials comparing e-learning against standard teaching. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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The contemporary health workforce has a professional responsibility to maintain competency in practice. However, some difficulties exist with access to ongoing professional development opportunities, particularly for staff in rural and remote areas and those not enrolled in a formal program of study. E-learning is at the nexus of overcoming these challenges. The benefits of e-learning have been reported in terms of increased accessibility to education, improved self-efficacy, knowledge generation, cost effectiveness, learner flexibility and interactivity. What is less clear, is whether improved self-efficacy or knowledge gained through e-learning influences healthcare professional behaviour or skill development, whether these changes are sustained, and whether these changes improve patient outcomes.
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Introduction Within the last decade, e-learning has gained a consistent place in surgical teaching. However, as the use of new programs is often voluntary, more information on the implications of the data regarding user acceptance and knowledge with mandatory use is desirable, especially in the context of the long-term developments of courses. Materials Starting in 2009, the e-learning program Network for Students in Traumatology and Orthopedics was offered in a voluntary blended learning context. Students’ satisfaction and increase in knowledge were evaluated using questionnaires and written tests. With proven effectiveness, the program became a mandatory part of the curriculum, and students’ attitudes and gain of knowledge were re-evaluated in 2010 and 2011 to detect differences in voluntary vs mandatory use. Results In the evaluation questionnaires (n = 108 voluntary vs n = 361 mandatory), the overall appreciation regarding the offerings remained high. Significantly more students felt better prepared for clinical situations (p < 0.001) and asked for e-tutoring (p = 0.025) with mandatory use. In written tests, both voluntary (n = 70) and mandatory (n = 147) users showed significantly increased knowledge (p < 0.001). Starting with a lower base level (p < 0.001), mandatory users had a significantly higher absolute increase compared with voluntary users (p = 0.015), leading to a similar final level. Discussion The presented blended learning concept was an efficient way to teach students orthopedics and traumatology. Data can support the assumption that even if the voluntary evaluation of e-learning offerings might be subject to a selection bias, the results can serve as a representative impression for the students’ overall mood and their gain in knowledge. However, as changes would have to be anticipated when shifting to mandatory use, users’ perceptions should be constantly evaluated.
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This article presents the results of a study to evaluate the effect of using electronic learning versus lecture of nursing students at a large state faculty where experience with and access to computer facilities are limited. The study was conducted on a group of (N = 276) second-year nursing students from both gender at the Faculty of Nursing of Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt. A control group using traditional lectures included 186 students, and a study group of 90 students used e-learning. Data were collected through a student's knowledge assessment sheet, observation checklists, a 7-point semantic differential scale, and an opinionnaire sheet. This article reports the analysis and statistical results of the study with respect to knowledge gained, practice, attitudes, and opinions toward traditional lectures and e-learning. Lack of computer skills of students affected their abilities to communicate effectively with the instructor and failed to participate in a variety of online communication methods. Students in the study group were satisfied with the e-learning program as a teaching method, but they did not wish to take another e-learning program except if they had computer and Internet at home. The study recommended that it is better to use and tune a “blended learning environment” that integrates the strengths of both e-learning and lecture into nursing education to provide the most efficient and effective instruction and overcome the deficiency of limited skills and resources.
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Background: Safe medication management is a major competency taught in the nursing curriculum. However, administering pediatric medications is considered a common clinical stressor for Taiwanese students. A supplemental e-learning program that helps students fill the gap between basic nursing skills and pediatric knowledge on medication safety was developed. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of an e-learning program to increase pediatric medication management among students who take pediatric nursing courses. Design: This intervention study used a historical comparison design. Setting: A university in Northern Taiwan. Participants: A total of 349 undergraduate nursing students who took pediatric nursing courses participated. Eighty students in the comparison group received regular pediatric courses, including the lectures and clinical practicum; 269 students in the intervention group received an e-learning program, in addition to the standard pediatric courses. Methods: Between February 2011 and July 2012 pediatric medication management, including pediatric medication knowledge and calculation ability, was measured at the beginning of the first class, at the completion of the lectures, and at the completion of the clinical practicum. The program was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: The intervention group had significantly higher pediatric medication management scores at completion of the lecture course and at the completion of the clinical practicum than the comparison group based on the first day of the lecture course, after adjusting for age, nursing program, and having graduated from a junior college in nursing. Overall, the students appreciated the program that included various teaching modalities content that related to the administration of medication. Conclusion: Using an e-learning program on pediatric medication management is an effective learning method in addition to sitting in a regular lecture course. The different emphases in each module, provided by experienced instructors, enabled the students to be more aware of their role in pediatric medication safety.
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Background: Information technology is a rapidly increasing means of communication in education and healthcare. This is also true in low resource settings, where electronic communication provides an opportunity for sharing information about health and wellbeing and enhancing learning for healthcare professionals. Methods: A qualitative study whereby 51 year 3 and 4 student nurses at the University of Nairobi participated in 5 focus group discussions. Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a framework approach. Results: Four main themes were identified, 'moving with the times', 'global networking', 'inequity as a barrier' and 'transfer of internet learning into practice'. Conclusions: Information technology is already integral to students' lives both personally and professionally and the students had a strong desire to find out what is happening globally. The familiarity of the internet contributes to the acceptance of e-learning programs as part of educational curricula. Students felt that e-learning 'is here to stay' and wanted to 'embrace the concept.' E-learning was generally welcomed however students suggested that it should be 'supplementary' to face-to-face learning. In order to incorporate e-learning ethically in low resource settings, resources should be sustainable, for example CDROMs and DVDs which are not dependant on internet access. Researching the views of qualified midwives might be the next step in promoting this valuable teaching method.
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The Web Based Training (WBT) or eLearning is emerging to replace traditional training. "eLearning", is rapidly becoming the preferred route to building and maintaining advanced performance capabilities via improved efficiencies and effectiveness. It transcends the normal classroom mentality in favor of a Web-based method of delivery that meets specific needs and is self-paced, extremely interactive, and measurable. eLearning offers a new way to think about workforce development. eLearning activities on offer range from simple tutorials in Flash or PowerPoint presentation to enterprise-wide learning portals that may offer pre-packaged and custom courseware, individual assessment and monitoring devices, directories of course offerings from different vendors, and support for virtual learning communities. Intranets and the Internet are a natural vehicle for supporting and delivering eLearning. The purpose of this paper is to research the problems with current eLearning platforms and recommend ways to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of eLearning platforms.