ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Ischemic pre-conditioning (IPC) was initially developed to protect the myocardium from ischemia through altered cardiocyte metabolism. Due to the observed effects on metabolism and oxygen kinetics, IPC gained interest as a potential ergogenic aid in sport. Limited research evaluating the effects of IPC on maximal short-duration activities has been performed and of the existing literature, mixed outcomes resulting from intra-subject variation may have clouded the efficacy of this technique for enhancing sprint performance. Therefore, the current study employed a randomized repeated-measures crossover design with IPC, placebo (SHAM), and control conditions while using sprint-trained athletes (n=18) to determine the effect of IPC (3 x 5 min occlusions, with 5min reperfusion), concluding fifteen minutes prior to maximal 10 and 20 m sprinting. A visual analogue scale was used in conjunction with the sprint trials to evaluate any possible placebo effect on performance. Despite a "significantly beneficial" perception of the IPC treatment compared with the SHAM trials (P < 0.001), no changes in sprint performance were observed following either the IPC or SHAM conditions over 10 m (IPC Δ = <0.01s ± 0.02s, SHAM Δ = <0.01s ± 0.02s) or 20 m (IPC Δ = -0.01s ± 0.03s, SHAM Δ = <0.01s ± 0.03s) compared to control. Thus, an IPC protocol does not improve 10 or 20 m sprint performance in sprint-trained athletes.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Ischemic Pre-Conditioning Does Not Influence Maximal Sprint Acceleration Performance” by Thompson KMA et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2018 Human Kinetics, Inc.
Note. This article will be published in a forthcoming issue of the
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. The article
appears here in its accepted, peer-reviewed form, as it was provided by
the submitting author. It has not been copyedited, proofread, or formatted
by the publisher.
Section: Original Investigation
Article Title: Ischemic Pre-Conditioning Does Not Influence Maximal Sprint Acceleration
Performance
Authors: Kyle M.A. Thompson, Alanna K. Whinton, Shane Ferth, Lawrence L. Spriet, and
Jamie F. Burr
Affiliations: Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada.
Journal: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Acceptance Date: January 9, 2018
©2018 Human Kinetics, Inc.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0540
Ischemic Pre-Conditioning Does Not Influence Maximal Sprint Acceleration Performance” by Thompson KMA et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2018 Human Kinetics, Inc.
Ischemic Pre-Conditioning Does Not Influence Maximal Sprint Acceleration Performance
Authors: Kyle M.A. Thompson1, Alanna K. Whinton1, Shane Ferth1, Lawrence L. Spriet1, Jamie
F. Burr1
1Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada
Preferred running header: Ischemic Pre-Conditioning and Acceleration Performance
Submission type: Original investigation
Abstract word count: 215
Text word count: 3300
Number of figures: 2
Number of tables: 1
Corresponding Author
Jamie F. Burr
University of Guelph, HHNS
ANNU, 50 Stone Road East
Guelph, ON, Canada, N1G 2W1
Tel: 1-519-824-4120 ext. 52591
Fax: 1-519-763-5902
Email: burrj@uoguelph.ca
This research was supported by a Mitacs Accelerate grant (IT08409)
Downloaded by UNIV BRITISH COLUMBIA on 02/08/18, Volume ${article.issue.volume}, Article Number ${article.issue.issue}
Ischemic Pre-Conditioning Does Not Influence Maximal Sprint Acceleration Performance” by Thompson KMA et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2018 Human Kinetics, Inc.
ABSTRACT
Ischemic pre-conditioning (IPC) was initially developed to protect the myocardium from ischemia
through altered cardiocyte metabolism. Due to the observed effects on metabolism and oxygen
kinetics, IPC gained interest as a potential ergogenic aid in sport. Limited research evaluating the
effects of IPC on maximal short-duration activities has been performed and of the existing
literature, mixed outcomes resulting from intra-subject variation may have clouded the efficacy of
this technique for enhancing sprint performance. Therefore, the current study employed a
randomized repeated-measures crossover design with IPC, placebo (SHAM), and control
conditions while using sprint-trained athletes (n=18) to determine the effect of IPC (3 x 5 min
occlusions, with 5min reperfusion), concluding fifteen minutes prior to maximal 10 and 20 m
sprinting. A visual analogue scale was used in conjunction with the sprint trials to evaluate any
possible placebo effect on performance. Despite a significantly beneficial perception of the IPC
treatment compared with the SHAM trials (P < 0.001), no changes in sprint performance were
observed following either the IPC or SHAM conditions over 10 m (IPC Δ = <0.01s ± 0.02s, SHAM
Δ = <0.01s ± 0.02s) or 20 m (IPC Δ = -0.01s ± 0.03s, SHAM Δ = <0.01s ± 0.03s) compared to
control. Thus, an IPC protocol does not improve 10 or 20 m sprint performance in sprint-trained
athletes.
Keywords: sprinting, blood-flow occlusion, skeletal muscle, ergogenic aid, anaerobic exercise
Downloaded by UNIV BRITISH COLUMBIA on 02/08/18, Volume ${article.issue.volume}, Article Number ${article.issue.issue}
Ischemic Pre-Conditioning Does Not Influence Maximal Sprint Acceleration Performance” by Thompson KMA et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2018 Human Kinetics, Inc.
INTRODUCTION
Ischemic pre-conditioning (IPC) was originally developed to reduce cell necrosis during
prolonged periods of ischemia 1. In addition to the cytoprotective effects of IPC, the stimuli from
cyclical periods of localized ischemia, which is similar to the periods of vascular occlusion caused
by maximal contractions 2, results in physiological changes such as increased phosphocreatine
(PCr) availability 3, anti-inflammatory effects 4, increased muscle perfusion 4, and improved
oxygen uptake 5,6. As these effects protect muscle and other tissues from ischemia, it is likely that
IPC may also influence the ability of muscle to work under similar conditions.
Work supporting the use of IPC as an ergogenic technique has primarily used endurance 6
9 and repeated sprint 1012 exercise models. With some evidence suggesting IPC alters metabolism
in a way that may be beneficial in endurance sport (reduced blood lactate levels following intense
exercise 8), it has also been shown (though not in human exercise performance models) that IPC
attenuates the depletion of ATP, phosphocreatine and glycogen during periods of ischemia 13,14,
and transiently increases PCr levels 3, which could be metabolically beneficial in short-duration
activities. Limited work has examined the effectiveness of IPC at improving maximal, short-
duration activities lasting <10 s 5,15,16. While IPC was demonstrated to enhance force production
during maximal leg extensions in highly-trained males 5 and improved 6s sprint cycling peak
power output 16, Gibson et al. 15 did not observe an improvement in 10, 20, or 30 m maximal sprint
time using a group of team-sport athletes. Irrespective of the sprint specific literature, there are a
number of more general findings that do not support a performance-enhancing effect of IPC 1719.
A recent systematic review of the literature 20 demonstrates that the specific effects of IPC on
numerous quantifiable performance outcomes are highly variable and, at present, a definitive effect
on exercise performance remains uncertain.
Downloaded by UNIV BRITISH COLUMBIA on 02/08/18, Volume ${article.issue.volume}, Article Number ${article.issue.issue}
Ischemic Pre-Conditioning Does Not Influence Maximal Sprint Acceleration Performance” by Thompson KMA et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2018 Human Kinetics, Inc.
The outcomes of sport performance intervention studies are heavily influenced by
methodological design. In the IPC performance literature, factors such as the timing of IPC prior
to the performance test, the number of ischemia-reperfusion cycles, the location of IPC (local or
remote), the quantity of muscle mass made ischemic, subject characteristics, and any pre-
conceived expectations of the technique could possibly influence outcomes. With each of these
variables having the ability to independently influence the results, it becomes especially important
to minimize controllable measurement error, recruit subjects with low inter-test variation, and use
statistical methods which are sufficiently sensitive to detect meaningful changes, should they exist.
A major source of potential error in the existing literature may derive from the low-level
training status of recruited subjects. For example, in the 30m sprint model used by Gibson et al.
15, the subjects’ inter-sprint variability may have been too large to observe the smallest worthwhile
change in performance, which would have equated to 0.05 s (0.2 times group SD [0.25 s] 21).
Examination of the individual response data provided in this paper 15 reveals that subjects
experienced changes in performance as large as 0.30 s over 30 m, which would describe a large
change in performance as per their stated effect sizes. (By comparison, the difference in sprint time
over 30 m between the world record 100 m performance and the 8th place finisher at the 2009
World Championships was 0.24 s, suggesting that an effect size of this magnitude would mean
IPC has the potential to make any world championship finalist a world record holder.) These
substantial fluctuations in performance were more likely a result of large inter-sprint variation,
which may have masked a small, but meaningful, change in performance.
Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to determine whether a 3 x 5 min IPC
protocol, ending 15 minutes prior to exercise influences 10 and 20 m sprint performance in well-
trained sprint athletes. We expected sprint performance to improve following the IPC protocol, as
Downloaded by UNIV BRITISH COLUMBIA on 02/08/18, Volume ${article.issue.volume}, Article Number ${article.issue.issue}
Ischemic Pre-Conditioning Does Not Influence Maximal Sprint Acceleration Performance” by Thompson KMA et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2018 Human Kinetics, Inc.
the only maximal short-duration IPC performance study using highly-trained individuals saw
improvements in peak/average force outputs during leg extensions 5.
METHODS
Experimental Approach to the Problem
A randomized repeated-measures crossover design (n=18) was used to determine the short-
term effect of IPC on maximal 10 and 20 m sprint performance. Three randomly ordered protocols
were performed prior to the exercise test, with each trial performed in duplicate to account for
normal inter-day variability: 1. Control (no IPC), 2. SHAM (3 x 5 min at 20 mmHg) and 3. IPC (3
x 5 min at 220 mmHg). To control for any pre-conceived beliefs regarding the effects of the IPC
intervention on sprint performance, subjects quantified their expectations using a visual analogue
scale. Testing was conducted over a six-week period during the subjects’ indoor competitive
season and all subjects performed similar training programs over the course of the study.
Subjects
Top varsity level track and field sprinters (male=10, female=8) were recruited from the
National Champion Canadian University Track team, with further inclusion of select sprinters of
similar caliber from other teams (all podium finishers at a national championship). Descriptive
subject statistics are presented in Table 1. All subjects had at least three years of previous sprint
and resistance training experience and a primary indoor track event 300 m, which ensured the
quality of maximal 30 m sprint ability remained high. No subjects had previously used or had
knowledge of IPC. The University of Guelph Research Ethics Committee approved the study, and
written informed consent was obtained from all subjects prior to participation.
Downloaded by UNIV BRITISH COLUMBIA on 02/08/18, Volume ${article.issue.volume}, Article Number ${article.issue.issue}
Ischemic Pre-Conditioning Does Not Influence Maximal Sprint Acceleration Performance” by Thompson KMA et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2018 Human Kinetics, Inc.
PROCEDURES
Testing Protocol
Upon arrival at the testing facility, subjects completed a standardized warm-up consisting
of light jogging, core exercises (planks, glute bridges and thoracic extensions), running drills
(running A’s, running B’s, “dribbles”) and progressive sprints, followed by a randomized
intervention (Control, SHAM or IPC protocol). Subjects were given 15 min following the
SHAM/IPC protocol to ensure they were prepared to sprint maximally. Four 20 m sprints were
performed by each participant. Sprints were performed from starting blocks, in track spikes, on an
indoor polytan track surface with performance metrics measured continuously using a 1080 Sprint
device (with the minimum functional load of 1 kg) and data stored online for later analysis. 10 and
20 m sprint times from each sprint were analyzed using online software provided by 1080 Motion.
The error of the 1080 Sprint has previously been examined and is low across all measurements
(velocity error = ± 0.5%, distance error = ± 5 mm, force error = ± 4.8 N) 22. A minimum of 5 min
was provided between sprints to ensure full recovery. After completion of the sprints, subjects
indicated their perception of SHAM or IPC interventions on sprint performance using a 1000-pixel
visual analogue scale (VAS) with the anchors of IPC did not influence sprint performance at
the zero end and “Sprint performance improved because of IPC at the 1000 end.
SHAM and IPC Protocol
Subjects were instructed to assume a recumbent position with both legs extended while
performing the SHAM/IPC protocol. Both protocols consisted of 3 cycles of 5 min occlusion
(SHAM - 20 mmHg, IPC - 220 mmHg) and 5 min reperfusion (0 mmHg) periods. Occlusions were
performed using a pneumatic tourniquet system (Delfi Medical, Vancouver, British Columbia,
Canada) with the cuff positioned around the proximal aspect of the upper right thigh. A pressure
Downloaded by UNIV BRITISH COLUMBIA on 02/08/18, Volume ${article.issue.volume}, Article Number ${article.issue.issue}
Ischemic Pre-Conditioning Does Not Influence Maximal Sprint Acceleration Performance” by Thompson KMA et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2018 Human Kinetics, Inc.
of 20 mmHg was chosen for the SHAM protocol as it provides a sensation of cuff inflation with
no vascular occlusion 5,8,23. To reduce subject expectations, subjects were told that the purpose of
the study was to compare the effects of different levels of occlusion on subsequent sprint
performance.
Statistical Analysis
Using repeated measures ANOVA, we compared mean sprint times from each condition
with significance set a priori at P < 0.05. A paired t-test was used to determine whether there was
a difference in the athlete’s perception following the SHAM and IPC protocols using the VAS
scores. A magnitude-based inferences approach was concurrently applied to account for changes
in performance which may be meaningful, but not detectable using null-hypothesis testing. This
approach has been recommended for sport performance and clinical studies, in which a reported
P-value does not necessarily describe the magnitude or importance of change in a context-specific
manner; for a full review of the rationale, the reader is directed to 24,25. The coefficient of variation
(CV) and the smallest worthwhile change in performance (0.2 times the between subject SD) were
derived using the control sprint trials. Mean changes in sprint times (individual and group) were
reported with 95% confidence intervals.
RESULTS
The average individual CV within subjects was 1.3% over 10 m (~0.03 s) and 1.1% over
20 m (~0.04 s). The smallest worthwhile change in performance was 0.02 s and 0.04 s for 10 and
20 m sprints, respectively. The SHAM and IPC protocols had an unclear trivial effect on 10 (Figure
1) and 20 m (Figure 2) sprint time.
No differences were detected between control (10 m = 2.07 ± 0.11s, 20 m = 3.37 ± 0.20s),
SHAM (10 m = 2.07 ± 0.11s, 20 m = 3.37 ± 0.19s) or IPC (10 m = 2.08 ± 0.11s, 20 m = 3.37 ±
Downloaded by UNIV BRITISH COLUMBIA on 02/08/18, Volume ${article.issue.volume}, Article Number ${article.issue.issue}
Ischemic Pre-Conditioning Does Not Influence Maximal Sprint Acceleration Performance” by Thompson KMA et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2018 Human Kinetics, Inc.
0.19s) sprint times over 10 m (P = 0.55) or 20 m (P = 0.91) (Table 2). A significant difference in
the perception of how the SHAM (mean VAS score = 276 ± 159) and IPC (mean VAS score = 525
± 251) protocols affected performance was observed (P < 0.001). The significantly higher VAS
score following the IPC sprints indicated the subjects believed IPC improved performance. The
average change in sprint times between conditions, and the variation of the subjects, demonstrated
the consistency of this population. The mean group change in sprint performance did not exceed
the smallest worthwhile change for either the SHAM or IPC for 10 or 20 m and confidence
intervals demonstrated a range across a harmful, trivial and beneficial effect. The magnitude of the
change across all conditions was, therefore, deemed trivial and the effect was described as
unclear.
DISCUSSION
In opposition to our hypothesis, no performance enhancing effect was observed following
IPC or SHAM protocols in the current study. This finding supports the conclusions of Gibson et
al. 15, who also used a maximal sprint test as a performance outcome, and importantly clarifies that
a null finding was not simply an artefact from “normal” participant variation and traditional
statistical approaches, which would serve to reduce statistical power and the chances of observing
small effects. The major strength of the current study was the well-trained status of the subjects
and the repeated-measures study design, which allowed us to confidently attribute changes (or lack
thereof) to the intervention. Also, using the VAS to determine subject perceptions following each
testing day provided insight into the overall influence of the placebo effect on this population.
Despite subjects believing they had performed better after the IPC treatment, there was no change
in performance compared to the SHAM or control conditions, suggesting that highly-trained
sprinters (CV for 10 and 20 m <1.5%) did not experience a “functional” placebo effect from these
Downloaded by UNIV BRITISH COLUMBIA on 02/08/18, Volume ${article.issue.volume}, Article Number ${article.issue.issue}
Ischemic Pre-Conditioning Does Not Influence Maximal Sprint Acceleration Performance” by Thompson KMA et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2018 Human Kinetics, Inc.
protocols. Further analysis showed IPC “believers” (reported VAS score >600) displayed an
average decrement in sprint time over 20 m of -0.01s from their control sprints, further indicating
a lack of benefit from the placebo effect.
While consistent with the findings of Gibson et al. 15, the major findings of the current
study appear contradictory to work observing improvements in maximal and average force outputs
following IPC while using a maximal leg extension exercise model 5. It is plausible that IPC
influences specific muscle actions differently, allowing movement-controlled (and concentric-
dominant) modalities such as cycling or leg extensions to benefit more than open-chain, dynamic
activities like sprinting, wherein coordination and skill may play a more important role. However,
no currently published data adequately provides a strong rational for why IPC would improve peak
force production during leg extensions 5 or during the first 6 s of a maximal cycling performance
16 in humans.
While making a thorough comparison of the methodological differences between positive
and negative IPC performance-related study findings is outside the scope of this article, it is worth
noting that two recent investigations suggest IPC timing 26 and the repeated use of IPC 27 may play
a large role in affecting the performance outcome. In a study by Lisbôa et al. 26, competitive
swimmers performed maximal 50 m swim sprint trials 1, 2, and 8 hrs following a 4 x 5 min IPC
protocol. Sprint times displayed clear beneficial improvements at 2 and 8 hr intervals after IPC,
whereas no improvement in sprint time was seen at 1 hr. Similarly, Lindsay et al. 27 saw large
improvements in peak power output (~11%), average power output (~4%), and maximal aerobic
capacity (~10%) after performing a 7-day consecutive IPC protocol. Of note, both studies
employed performance tests lasting much longer than the ~3.5 s duration sprint test used in the
current study, making it difficult to identify whether similar factors would play as important a role
Downloaded by UNIV BRITISH COLUMBIA on 02/08/18, Volume ${article.issue.volume}, Article Number ${article.issue.issue}
Ischemic Pre-Conditioning Does Not Influence Maximal Sprint Acceleration Performance” by Thompson KMA et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2018 Human Kinetics, Inc.
in anaerobic sprint performance. Despite the clear differences in exercise duration between the 50
m swim sprint, repeated 30 s Wingate tests, and the VO2 max test with the current short-duration
20 m sprints, the results of Lindsay et al. 27 and Lisbôa et al. 26 suggest a need for future research
to continue to focus on protocol optimization. The importance of IPC timing relative to the
performance test and the lack of repeated IPC exposure do, however, provide simple plausible
explanations as to why no improvements in sprint times were observed in the current study.
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
The findings of this study suggest three sets of five minute occlusions performed prior to
sprinting do not provide an adequate stimulus to improve acceleration ability. This suggests that
track and field coaches aiming to improve short-distance sprint performance in highly-trained,
collegiate level athletes, should not use ischemic pre-conditioning as a pre-race performance
enhancing protocol. Despite no observed change in performance, the change in athlete perception
may be of utility to coaches, especially prior to hard training sessions in preparation for
competition.
CONCLUSION
A standard, three by five minute IPC protocol, completed fifteen minutes prior to exercise,
did not elicit a performance enhancing effect over distances of 10 or 20 m in sprint-trained athletes.
The trained nature of the subjects used in the current investigation allowed small changes in
performance to be observed due to their consistency in performance. Future research in this area
should evaluate the accepted methods used in IPC performance related studies to determine
whether other factors such as the number of ischemia-reperfusion cycles, or the quantity of muscle
mass made ischemic play a critical role in study outcome.
Downloaded by UNIV BRITISH COLUMBIA on 02/08/18, Volume ${article.issue.volume}, Article Number ${article.issue.issue}
Ischemic Pre-Conditioning Does Not Influence Maximal Sprint Acceleration Performance” by Thompson KMA et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2018 Human Kinetics, Inc.
REFERENCES
1. Murry CE, Jennings RB, Reimer KA. Preconditioning with ischemia: a delay of lethal cell
injury in ischemic myocardium. Circulation. 1986;74(5):1124-1136.
doi:10.1161/01.cir.74.5.1124.
2. Barcroft H, Millen JLE. The blood flow through muscle during sustained contraction. J
Physiol. 1939;97:17-31. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1939.sp003789.
3. Andreas M, Schmid AI, Keilani M, Doberer D, Bartko J, Crevenna R, Moser E, Wolzt M.
Effect of ischemic preconditioning in skeletal muscle measured by functional magnetic
resonance imaging and spectroscopy: a randomized crossover trial. J Cardiovasc Magn
Reson. 2011;13(1):32. doi:10.1186/1532-429X-13-32.
4. Souza-Filho MVP, Loiola RT, Rocha EL, Simao AFL, Gomes AS, Souza MHLP, Ribeiro
RA. Hind limb ischemic preconditioning induces an anti-inflammatory response by
remote organs in rats. Brazilian J Med Biol Res. 2009;42(10):921-929.
doi:10.1590/S0100-879X2009005000025.
5. Paradis-Deschênes P, Joanisse DR, Billaut F. Ischemic preconditioning increases muscle
perfusion, oxygen uptake, and force in strength-trained athletes. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab.
2016;41(9):938-944. doi:10.1139/apnm-2015-0561.
6. Kido K, Suga T, Tanaka D, Honjo T, Homma T, Fujita S, Hamaoka T, Isaka T. Ischemic
preconditioning accelerates muscle deoxygenation dynamics and enhances exercise
endurance during the work-to-work test. Physiol Rep. 2015;3(5):e12395-e12395.
doi:10.14814/phy2.12395.
7. Cruz RS, Aguiar RA, Turnes T, Pereira KL, Caputo F. Effects of ischemic
preconditioning on maximal constant-load cycling performance. J Appl Physiol.
2015;119(9):961-967. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00498.2015.
8. Bailey TG, Jones H, Gregson W, Atkinson G, Cable NT, Thijssen DHJ. Effect of ischemic
preconditioning on lactate accumulation and running performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc.
2012;44(11):2084-2089. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e318262cb17.
9. Crisafulli A, Tangianu F, Tocco F, Concu A, Mameli O, Mulliri G, Caria MA. Ischemic
preconditioning of the muscle improves maximal exercise performance but not maximal
oxygen uptake in humans. J Appl Physiol. 2011;111(2):530-536.
doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00266.2011.
10. Gibson N, Mahony B, Tracey C, Fawkner S, Murray AM. Effect of ischemic
preconditioning on repeated sprint ability in team sport athletes. J Sports Sci.
2015;33(11):1182-1188. doi:10.1080/02640414.2014.988741.
11. Ferreira TN, Sabino-Carvalho JL, Lopes TR, Ribeiro IC, Succi JE, Da Silva AC, Silva
BM. Ischemic Preconditioning and Repeated Sprint Swimming: A Placebo and Nocebo
Study. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016;(35):1967-1975.
doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000977.
Downloaded by UNIV BRITISH COLUMBIA on 02/08/18, Volume ${article.issue.volume}, Article Number ${article.issue.issue}
Ischemic Pre-Conditioning Does Not Influence Maximal Sprint Acceleration Performance” by Thompson KMA et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2018 Human Kinetics, Inc.
12. Lalonde F, Curnier D. Can Anaerobic Performance Be Improved By Remote Ischemic
Preconditioning? J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(1):80-85.
13. Lintz JA, Dalio MB, Joviliano EE, Piccinato CE. Ischemic pre and postconditioning in
skeletal muscle injury produced by ischemia and reperfusion in rats. Acta Cir Bras.
2013;28(6):441-446. doi:10.1590/S0102-86502013000600007.
14. Weiss RG, de Albuquerque CP, Vandegaer K, Chacko VP, Gerstenblith G. Attenuated
glycogenolysis reduces glycolytic catabolite accumulation during ischemia in
preconditioned rat hearts. Circ Res. 1996;79(3):435-446.
15. Gibson N, White J, Neish M, Murray A. Effect of ischemic preconditioning on land based
sprinting in team sport athletes. Int J Sport Physiol Perform. 2013;8(6):671-676.
16. Patterson SD, Bezodis NE, Glaister M, Pattison JR. The Effect of Ischemic
Preconditioning on Repeated Sprint Cycling Performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc.
2014;(13):1652-1658. doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000576.
17. Sabino-Carvalho JLC, Lopes TR, Freitas TO, Ferreira THN, Succi JE, Silva AC, Silva
BM. Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning on Endurance Performance Does not Surpass
Placebo. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016;(25):12-14. doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000001088.
18. Tocco F, Marongiu E, Ghiani G, Sanna I, Palazzolo G, Olla S, Pusceddu M, Sanna P,
Corona F, Concu A, Crisaffuli A. Muscle ischemic preconditioning does not improve
performance during self-paced exercise. Int J Sports Med. 2015. doi:10.1055/s-0034-
1384546.
19. Marocolo M, da Mota GR, Pelegrini V, Appell Coriolano HJ. Are the Beneficial Effects
of Ischemic Preconditioning on Performance Partly a Placebo Effect? 2015;36(10):822-
825. doi:10.1055/s-0035-1549857.
20. Incognito AV, Burr JF, Millar PJ. The Effects of Ischemic Preconditioning on Human
Exercise Performance. Sport Med. 2016;46(4):531-544. doi:10.1007/s40279-015-0433-5.
21. Hopkins WG, Marshall SW, Batterham AM, Hanin J. Progressive statistics for studies in
sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(1):3-12.
doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818cb278.
22. Bergkvist C, Svensson M, Eriksrud O. Accuracy and repeatability of force, position and
speed measurement of 1080 quantum and 1080 sprint. 2015.
23. Marocolo M, da Mota GR, Pelegrini V, Appell Coriolano HJ. Are the Beneficial Effects
of Ischemic Preconditioning on Performance Partly a Placebo Effect? 2015;36(10):822-
825. doi:10.1055/s-0035-1549857.
24. Batterham AM, Hopkins WG. Commentary on making meaningful inferences about
magnitudes. Sportscience. 2005;9:43-44.
25. Buchheit M. The Numbers Will Love You Back in Return I Promise. Int J Sport
Physiol Perform. 2016;11(4):551-554. doi:10.1123/IJSPP.2016-0214.
Downloaded by UNIV BRITISH COLUMBIA on 02/08/18, Volume ${article.issue.volume}, Article Number ${article.issue.issue}
Ischemic Pre-Conditioning Does Not Influence Maximal Sprint Acceleration Performance” by Thompson KMA et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2018 Human Kinetics, Inc.
26. Lisbôa FD, Turnes T, Cruz RSO, Raimundo JAG, Pereira GS, Caputo F. The time
dependence of the effect of ischemic preconditioning on successive sprint swimming
performance. J Sci Med Sport. 2016;20(5):507-511. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2016.09.008.
27. Lindsay A, Petersen C, Blackwell G, Ferguson H, Parker G, Steyn N, Gieseg SP. The
effect of 1 week of repeated ischaemic leg preconditioning on simulated Keirin cycling
performance: a randomised trial. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. 2017;3(1):e000229.
doi:10.1136/bmjsem-2017-000229.
Downloaded by UNIV BRITISH COLUMBIA on 02/08/18, Volume ${article.issue.volume}, Article Number ${article.issue.issue}
Ischemic Pre-Conditioning Does Not Influence Maximal Sprint Acceleration Performance” by Thompson KMA et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2018 Human Kinetics, Inc.
Figure 1. Individual and group (diamond) changes in sprint time over 10m.
Error bars indicate 95% CI. The smallest worthwhile change in performance (0.02s) is indicated
in the center with left and right areas indicating a beneficial and harmful effect, respectively.
Figure 2. Individual (circles) and group (diamond) changes in sprint time over 20m.
Error bars indicate 95% CI. The smallest worthwhile change in performance (0.04s) is indicated
in the center with left and right areas indicating a beneficial and harmful effect, respectively
S H A M C o m pa re d t o C on tr o l 1 0m
D if fe re nc e in S pr in t Ti m e (s)
-0 . 0 8
-0 . 0 6
-0 . 0 4
-0 . 0 2
0.0 0
0.0 2
0.0 4
0.0 6
0.0 8
I PC C o m pa r ed to C o n tr ol 1 0m
D if fe re nc e in S pr in t Ti m e (s)
-0 . 0 8
-0 . 0 6
-0 . 0 4
-0 . 0 2
0.0 0
0.0 2
0.0 4
0.0 6
0.0 8
I PC C o m pa r ed to C on t ro l 2 0 m
D if fe re nc e in S pr in t Ti m e (s)
-0 . 1 4
-0 . 1 2
-0 . 1 0
-0 . 0 8
-0 . 0 6
-0 . 0 4
-0 . 0 2
0.0 0
0.0 2
0.0 4
0.0 6
0.0 8
0.1 0
Downloaded by UNIV BRITISH COLUMBIA on 02/08/18, Volume ${article.issue.volume}, Article Number ${article.issue.issue}
Ischemic Pre-Conditioning Does Not Influence Maximal Sprint Acceleration Performance” by Thompson KMA et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2018 Human Kinetics, Inc.
Table 1. Subject characteristics
Subject Characteristics
Female
Male
Number of Subjects
8
10
Age (years)
20 ± 2.6
21.7 ± 2.6
Weight (kg)
58 ± 6
72.8 ± 6.7
Best time over 60m (s)
7.44 - 7.92
6.75 - 7.25
Table 2. Mean sprint times over 10m and 20m
Condition
10m Sprint Time (s)
95% CI
20m Sprint Time (s)
95% CI
Control
2.07 ± 0.11
2.02-2.13
3.37 ± 0.20
3.28-3.46
IPC
2.08 ± 0.11
2.02-2.12
3.37 ± 0.19
3.28-3.46
SHAM
2.07 ± 0.11
2.01-2.13
3.37 ± 0.19
3.28-3.46
Downloaded by UNIV BRITISH COLUMBIA on 02/08/18, Volume ${article.issue.volume}, Article Number ${article.issue.issue}
... In order to improve such power and sprint ability, ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been proposed to enhance peak power output, maximize speed, and optimize jump height and distance in short duration, supramaximal activities. [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9] With the goal of achieving better results, physical therapists, athletic trainers, and coaches use a variety of strategies to enhance physical performance. Various pre-exercise approaches, including IPC, [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9] have been utilized and practiced in the attempt to attenuate postischemic decrements in power output, speed, and jumping performances. ...
... [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9] With the goal of achieving better results, physical therapists, athletic trainers, and coaches use a variety of strategies to enhance physical performance. Various pre-exercise approaches, including IPC, [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9] have been utilized and practiced in the attempt to attenuate postischemic decrements in power output, speed, and jumping performances. IPC involves intermittent periods of occlusion followed by reperfusion; 10 applied prior to exercise, data have shown that IPC has the ability to elicit improved performance in a 375-kJ cycling time trial compared with a control condition. ...
... 12 More recently, IPC has been used in the athletic population to improve performance in aerobic 13,14 and anaerobic 15,16 activity; however inconclusive data show the precise effect of IPC on power and sprint performance. [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9] Specific to the present study, it has been reported that IPC may be associated with an attenuation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glycogen depletion. 17 The attenuation of ATP depletion is of utmost importance from a physical performance standpoint, as type II fast-twitch muscle fibers are represented by high myofibrillar ATP activities, such as power and sprint activities. ...
Article
Introduction: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been shown to induce positive effects on skeletal muscle resulting in enhanced physical performance. Data display that IPC positively impacts both aerobic and anaerobic performance. However, there is inconclusive data exemplifying IPC's effects on power and sprint performance. We hypothesized 15 minutes of bilateral lower limb IPC, applied 25-45 minutes prior to power and sprint activity, would enhance power and sprint performance. Methods: Using a randomized crossover design, 14 NCAA Division II athletes received IPC (100 percent occlusion) and sham (50 mmHg) treatments followed by either a 0 minute or a 20 minute rest. A Delfi Personalized Tourniquet System (PTS) for blood flow restriction with an internal doppler radar was used to occlude blood flow to the lower extremities. Followed by IPC treatment, power and sprint performance was assessed using a vertical jump, reactive strength index (RSI), broad jump, flying 10m dash, and pro-agility. Each of the fourteen subjects in the experimental group received all four protocols. Results: Using an ANOVA, no statistical significance was found between the type of treatment (i.e., sham 0 min, sham 20 min, IPC 0 min, IPC 20 min) and the performance tests: vertical jump (p=0.97), RSI (p=0.73), broad jump (p=0.98), flying 10m dash (p=0.99), and pro-agility (p=0.90). In addition, no statistical significance was found between the order of treatments and the performance tests (p=0.97). Conclusion: Despite previous research suggesting IPC enhances anaerobic and anaerobic performance, the current results indicate IPC doesn't significantly enhance power and sprint performance in highly trained athletes.
... wettkampforientiert Sport. Das Niveau der Probanden reichte von Top-Athleten, die auf nationalem oder internationalem Niveau Sport trieben ( Thompson et al., 2018;Tocco et al., 2015;Turnes et al., 2018;Williams et al., 2018). (Groot et al., 2010). ...
... Im Gegensatz dazu detektierten Paixão et al. (2014) eine Verschlechterung der Leistung beim Wingate-Tests und drei weitere Forschergruppen zeigten keine Abweichungen in der Leistung bei Durchführung eines IPC-Manövers (Clevidence et al., 2012;Gibson et al., 2015;Hittinger et al., 2015). Die Laufleistung scheint von IPC-Manövern nicht beeinflusst zu werden, da die drei eingeschlossenen Studien keine Abweichungen in der Leistung feststellen konnten (Gibson et al., 2013;Thompson et al., 2018;Tocco et al., 2015). Bei besonderer Betrachtung des sportlichen Leistungsniveaus der Probanden der eingeschlossenen Studien lässt sich feststellen, dass Top-Athleten, die auf nationalem oder internationalem Niveau im Schwimmsport tätig sind, von einem IPC-Manöver profitieren. ...
... Jean-St-Michel et al., 2011;Richard & Billaut, 2018;Turnes et al., 2018;Williams et al., 2018), über Top-Athleten amerikanischer Universitäten(Ferreira et al., 2016;Thompson et al., 2018) bis hin zu wettkampforientiertenAmateur-Sportlern (Clevidence et al., 2012;Gibson et al., 2013; Gibson et al., 2015;Groot et al., 2010;Hittinger et al., 2015;Lisbôa et al., 2017;Paixão et al., 2014;Tocco et al., 2015;Turnes et al., 2018;Kilding et al. 2018). In Bezug auf die sportliche Leistung zeigen vier Studien eine Verbesserung der Leistung. ...
Article
LEISTUNGSSPORT 3/2021: Ischemic Preconditioning (IPC) beschreibt im Kontext Sport ein Manöver, in welchem mittels einer Manschette der Blutfluss des Arms oder des Beins künstlich unterbunden wird. Dieses Manöver besteht in der Regel aus 4 Zyklen mit 5 Minuten Okklusion und 5 Minuten Reperfusion des Blutflusses und wird in den meisten Fällen unmittelbar vor der sportlichen Belastung durchgeführt. Seit der Jahrtausendwende wurde die Wirkungsweise des IPC-Manövers auf die sportliche Leistungsfähigkeit vielfach untersucht. Die Ergebnisse erster vielversprechender Studien zeigten, dass die Leistungsfähigkeit im Sport durch ein IPC akut verbessert werden konnte. Aus heutiger Sicht sind die Ergebnisse der Studien allerdings sehr heterogen und zeigen sowohl leistungsverbessernde und –vermindernde als auch keine Effekte. Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es daher, erstmals einen Überblick über die praktische Wirkungsweise des IPC im Kontext des leistungsorientierten Sports zu geben und mögliche Anwendungsempfehlungen für den Leistungssport abzuleiten. Die systematische Literaturrecherche wurde mittels der PRISMA in ausgewählten Datenbanken durchgeführt. Demnach wurden 15 Studien in diese Übersichtsarbeit eingeschlossen, welche insgesamt 225 Probanden (179 Männer, 46 Frauen) rekrutierten, die leistungs- bzw. wettkampforientiert Sport trieben. Es kann festgestellt werden, dass Studien zum IPC-Manöver im Kontext des leistungsorientierten Sports sehr heterogene Ergebnisse darlegen. Es wurden vier Studien identifiziert, welche einen leistungssteigernden Effekt zeigen konnten. Von diesen verwendeten drei Studien Schwimmprotokolle zur Überprüfung der Leistung. Allerdings zeigte auch eine Studie, dass die Schwimmleistung unbeeinflusst blieb. Eine weitere Studie konnte eine Leistungsverbesserung bei einer Fahrradbelastung zeigen. Zusammengefasst darf festgehalten werden, dass nach jetzigem Wissensstand primär der Schwimmsport von IPC Protokollen profitieren könnte, wenngleich weitere Studien notwendig sind, um genauere Handlungsempfehlungen für den Leistungssport geben zu können.
... However, others have reported the opposite, i.e., that for repeated sprints with a short overall exercise time, including 5 × 6-s [8] and 10 × 6-s cycling sprints [9], LIPC does not enhance performance. Alternatively, application of LIPC to single short-duration sprints, such as 10-30-m sprints, revealed no obvious benefits [10,11]. Some studies have indicated that LIPC may be beneficial only in single sprints powered by glycolysis, such as 50-m swimming sprint [12] and 60-s cycling sprints [13]. ...
... In addition, a meta-analysis study by Salvador et al. [3] has indicated that, while IPC may have a >99% and a 57.9% chance of benefiting aerobic (>90 s) and anaerobic (10-90 s) exercise performance, respectively, its effect on the performance of sprints with a duration of less than 10 s is negligible. Similarly, other studies have pointed out that LIPC cannot improve the performance of 10-30 m sprints [10,11], while RIPC cannot enhance the power output and the fatigue index of a single 30-s Wingate sprint [19]. However, LIPC has been shown to improve the power output of both 60 s [13] and 3 min all-out [31] cycling sprint. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of local (LIPC) and remote (RIPC) ischemic preconditioning on sprint interval exercise (SIE) performance. Fifteen male collegiate basketball players underwent a LIPC, RIPC, sham (SHAM), or control (CON) trial before conducting six sets of a 30-s Wingate-based SIE test. The oxygen uptake and heart rate were continuously measured during SIE test. The total work in the LIPC (+2.2%) and RIPC (+2.5%) conditions was significantly higher than that in the CON condition (p < 0.05). The mean power output (MPO) at the third and fourth sprint in the LIPC (+4.5%) and RIPC (+4.9%) conditions was significantly higher than that in the CON condition (p < 0.05). The percentage decrement score for MPO in the LIPC and RIPC condition was significantly lower than that in the CON condition (p < 0.05). No significant interaction effects were found in pH and blood lactate concentrations. There were no significant differences in the accumulated exercise time at ≥80%, 90%, and 100% of maximal oxygen uptake during SIE. Overall, both LIPC and RIPC could improve metabolic efficiency and performance during SIE in athletes.
... On the other hand, reperfusion is defined by the reestablishment of blood flow and the return of oxygenation to the tissues, organs and sectors of the body [9,10]. Studies have shown that IPC improved the performance of athletes in some sports modalities such as running [11][12][13][14][15], swimming [16][17][18][19], rowing [20], diving [20], cycling [21][22][23][24][25], simulated competition indoor cycling [26]. ...
... In studies with cyclists of different levels of training, IPC promoted an increase in performance in the proposed tests, that is, reduction of the time of accomplishment [21,23,26]. Additionally, the IPC in runners also caused a small performance improvement related to the sprint time [15]. In a survey conducted with rowers and divers, a reduction in rowing time and an increase in static and dynamic apnea time, respectively, were observed, indicating improvement in performance [20]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background & Study Aim: Ischemic preconditioning may improve the physiological responses and performances of athletes in different sport modalities. Similarly, judokas could also benefit from augmented performance the day of a competition. However, until now, there is no evidence of the effect of ischemic preconditioning procedure (IPC) on the performance of these athletes. Thus, the objective of this study was the effect of IPC on the performance of judo athletes. Material & Methods: The study involved 17 judo athletes (age 21.35 ±3.46 years, practice judo 8.94 ±3.88 years, height 1.73 ±9 m, body mass 69.34 ± 10,94 kg). In the first session, they answered the questionnaires, performed the anthropometric evaluation, the familiarization of the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT). The SJFT was used to evaluate the athletes’ special physical fitness. In the second and third sessions, two experimental protocols were performed in a randomized and counterbalanced manner: a) IPC (3 cycles x 5 min ischemia at 220 mmHg / 5 min reperfusion at 0 mmHg) + SJFT and b) SHAM (placebo session: 3 cycles x 5 min ischemia at 20 mmHg / 5 min reperfusion at 0 mmHg) + SJFT. A 30-minute interval between the experimental protocols and the SJFT and 72 hours between the 2nd and 3rd sessions was observed. Results: After performing IPC, judokas performed the highest number of throws in the series (A) and the total number of throws (A+B+C). The SJFT index also showed a significant improvement over the SHAM session. Conclusions: IPC acutely improves specific performance of judo athletes and may therefore be used during competitions.
... Similarly, it has been demonstrated that IPC treatment (3 × 5 min at 220 mmHg) did not affect maximal 10-m and 20-m sprinting performance (Thompson et al., 2018). Hittinger et al. observed no change in peak power during a graded cycling test. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
RESUMO: O pré-condicionamento isquêmico [do termo em inglês ischemic preconditioning (IPC)] é uma estratégia caracterizada por breves ciclos de restrição do fluxo sanguíneo seguidos de reperfusão, realizados nos membros superiores ou inferiores com o objetivo de melhorar o desempenho físico. Essa intervenção tem chamado atenção devido a sua característica não invasiva, seu baixo custo e a fácil aplicação. Uma vez que não há um consenso sobre a sua efetividade como uma estratégia ergogênica, o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o seu estado atual de produção científica, o efeito sobre o desempenho físico e o efeito do nível de treinamento dos participantes e diferentes exercícios/testes utilizados para avaliação do desempenho. Sessenta e sete artigos, envolvendo 984 participantes (177 mulheres) de diferentes níveis de treinamento, preencheram os critérios de inclusão. Sete exercícios (ciclismo, exercício resistido, corrida, natação, patinação, futebol, remo) e cinco níveis de treinamento (destreinados, recreacionalmente treinados, treinados, bem treinados, profissional) foram identificados. A maioria da produção científica sobre IPC e desempenho físico foi publicada a partir de 2015. Mais da metade dos estudos apresentaram um efeito positivo do IPC sobre o desempenho físico (59,7%, n=40). O teste exato de Fischer mostrou que existe uma relação entre o efeito do IPC sobre o desempenho físico e o nível de treinamento dos participantes [X2(8) = 15,149; p = 0,026], mas não entre o efeito do IPC e exercício/teste [X2(12) = 19,528; p = 0,129]. Na última década, houve um aumento substancial na produção cientifica sobre IPC e desempenho físico. Nossos achados sustentam um efeito benéfico do IPC na melhora do desempenho físico, sendo este efeito mais pronunciado em indivíduos destreinados e recreacionalmente treinados, independente do exercício/teste realizado.
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objective: Acute ischemic preconditioning improves exercise performance. This study was done to determine the effect of four weeks of ischemic preconditioning on vascular grow factor (VEGF), lactate metabolism and fatigue indices. Methods: In this clinical trial study, twenty inactive young men were randomly divided experimental (n=10) and control (n=10) groups. Subjects in experimental group perceived ischemic preconditioning (consisted of four 5-minute cycles of ischemia, followed by five minutes of reperfusion) for four weeks prior training. Blood samples were taken in the rest in order to measuring of VEGF. 48 hours prior and after the last intervention session, subjects performed an anaerobic Wingate test and rating the perceived exertion immediately and blood lactate were measured before, immediately, 5, 10 and 15 min after of Wingate test. Results: 4-week IPC treatment significantly increased VEGF in compared to control group (138.2±8.2 vs 160.1±10.3) (P<0.05). Rating of perceived exertion (6.4±0.5 vs 6±0.1) and lactate accumulation in 15 min after exercise was significantly lower in experimental group in compare to controls (4.1±0.8 vs 5.6±1.2) (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between groups for power output (745.2±131.6 vs 769.7±148.6) and fatigue index (50.58±7.2 vs 46.2±11.8). Conclusion: Four weeks of ischemic preconditioning increase VEGF and reduce rating the perceived exertion and blood lactate after intensive exercise in inactive young men.
Article
Full-text available
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been repeatedly reported to augment maximal exercise performance over a range of exercise durations and modalities. However, an examination of the relevant literature indicates that the reproducibility and robustness of ergogenic responses to this technique are variable, confounding expectations about the magnitude of its effects. Considerable variability among study methodologies may contribute to the equivocal responses to IPC. This review focuses on the wide range of methodologies used in IPC research, and how such variability likely confounds interpretation of the interactions of IPC and exercise. Several avenues are recommended to improve IPC methodological consistency, which should facilitate a future consensus about optimizing the IPC protocol, including due consideration of factors such as: location of the stimulus, the time between treatment and exercise, individualized tourniquet pressures and standardized tourniquet physical characteristics, and the incorporation of proper placebo treatments into future study designs.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Recent studies have reported ischemic preconditioning (IPC) can acutely improve endurance exercise performance in athletes. However, placebo and nocebo effects have not been sufficiently controlled, and the effect on aerobic metabolism parameters that determine endurance performance [e.g., oxygen cost of running, lactate threshold, and maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max)] has been equivocal. Thus, we circumvented limitations from previous studies to test the effect of IPC on aerobic metabolism parameters and endurance performance in well-trained runners. Methods: Eighteen runners (14 men/4 women) were submitted to three interventions, in random order: IPC; sham intervention (SHAM); and resting control (CT). Subjects were told both IPC and SHAM would improve performance compared to CT (i.e., similar placebo induction) and IPC would be harmless despite circulatory occlusion sensations (i.e., nocebo avoidance). Next, pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange, blood lactate concentration, and perceived effort were measured during a discontinuous incremental test on a treadmill. Then, a supramaximal test was used to verify the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and assess endurance performance (i.e., time to exhaustion). Results: Ventilation, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide output, lactate concentration, and perceived effort were similar among IPC, SHAM, and CT throughout the discontinuous incremental test (P > 0.05). Oxygen cost of running, lactate threshold, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max were also similar among interventions (P > 0.05). Time to exhaustion was longer after IPC (mean ± SEM, 165.34 ± 12.34 s) and SHAM (164.38 ± 11.71 s) than CT (143.98 ± 12.09 s; P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively), but similar between IPC and SHAM (P = 1.00). Conclusions: IPC did not change aerobic metabolism parameters, whereas improved endurance performance. The IPC improvement, however, did not surpass the effect of a placebo intervention.
Article
Full-text available
Muscle ischemia and reperfusion induced by ischemic preconditioning (IPC) can improve performance in various activities. However, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of IPC on muscle hemodynamics and oxygen (O2) uptake during repeated maximal contractions. In a cross-over, randomized, single-blind study, 10 strength-trained men performed 5 sets of 5 maximal voluntary knee extensions of the right leg on an isokinetic dynamometer, preceded by either IPC of the right lower limb (3×5-min compression/5-min reperfusion cycles at 200 mm Hg) or sham (20 mm Hg). Changes in deoxyhemoglobin, expressed as a percentage of arterial occlusion, and total hemoglobin ([THb]) concentrations of the vastus lateralis muscle were monitored continuously by near-infrared spectroscopy. Differences between IPC and sham were analyzed using Cohen's effect size (ES) ± 90% confidence limits, and magnitude-based inferences. Compared with sham, IPC likely increased muscle blood volume at rest (↑[THb], 46.5%; ES, 0.56; 90% confidence limits for ES, -0.21, 1.32). During exercise, peak force was almost certainly higher (11.8%; ES, 0.37; 0.27, 0.47), average force was very likely higher (12.6%; ES, 0.47; 0.29, 0.66), and average muscle O2 uptake was possibly increased (15.8%; ES, 0.36; -0.07, 0.79) after IPC. In the recovery periods between contractions, IPC also increased blood volume after sets 1 (23.6%; ES, 0.30; -0.05, 0.65) and 5 (25.1%; ES, 0.32; 0.09, 0.55). Three cycles of IPC immediately increased muscle perfusion and O2 uptake, conducive to higher repeated force capacity in strength-trained athletes. This maneuver therefore appears relevant to enhancing exercise training stimulus.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been shown to improve performance of exercises lasting 10-90 s (anaerobic) and more than 90 s (aerobic). However, its effect on repeated sprint performance has been controversial, placebo effect has not been adequately controlled, and nocebo effect has not been avoided. Thus, the IPC effect on repeated sprint performance was investigated using a swimming task and controlling placebo/nocebo effects. Methods: Short-distance university swimmers were randomized to two groups. One group [n = 15, 24 ± 1 years (mean ± SEM)] was exposed to IPC (ischemia cycles lasted 5 min) and control (CT, no ischemia); another (n = 15, 24 ± 1 years) to a placebo intervention (SHAM, ischemia cycles lasted 1 min) and CT. Seven subjects crossed over groups. Subjects were informed IPC and SHAM would improve performance compared to CT and would be harmless despite circulatory occlusion sensations. The swimming task consisted of six 50-m all-out efforts repeated every 3 min. Results: IPC, in contrast with SHAM, reduced worst sprint time (IPC: 35.21 ± 0.73 vs. CT 36.53 ± 0.72 s, P = 0.04) and total sprints time (IPC: 203.7 ± 4.60 vs. CT 206.03 ± 4.57 s, P = 0.02), moreover augmented swimming velocity (IPC: 1.45 ± 0.03 vs. CT 1.44 ± 0.03 m/s, P = 0.049). Six out of 7 subjects who crossed over groups reduced total sprints time with IPC versus SHAM (delta = -3.95 ± 1.49 s, P = 0.09). Both IPC and SHAM did not change blood lactate concentration (P = 0.20) and perceived effort (P = 0.22). Conclusion: IPC enhanced repeated sprint swimming performance in university swimmers, whereas a placebo intervention did not.
Article
Full-text available
Background Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is the exposure to brief periods of circulatory occlusion and reperfusion in order to protect local or systemic organs against subsequent bouts of ischemia. IPC has also been proposed as a novel intervention to improve exercise performance in healthy and diseased populations. Objective The purpose of this systematic review is to analyze the evidence for IPC improving exercise performance in healthy humans. Methods Data were obtained using a systematic computer-assisted search of four electronic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL), from January 1985 to October 2015, and relevant reference lists. Results Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. The collective data suggest that IPC is a safe intervention that may be capable of improving time-trial performance. Available individual data from included studies demonstrate that IPC improved time-trial performance in 67 % of participants, with comparable results in athletes and recreationally active populations. The effects of IPC on power output, oxygen consumption, rating of perceived exertion, blood lactate accumulation, and cardiorespiratory measures are unclear. The within-study heterogeneity may suggest the presence of IPC responders and non-responders, which in combination with small sample sizes, likely confound interpretation of mean group data in the literature. Conclusion The ability of IPC to improve time-trial performance is promising, but the potential mechanisms responsible require further investigation. Future work should be directed toward identifying the individual phenotype and protocol that will best exploit IPC-mediated exercise performance improvements, facilitating its application in sport settings.
Article
Full-text available
The acute effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on the maximal performance in the 100-m freestyle event was studied in recreational swimmers. 15 swimmers (21.0±3.2 years) participated in a random crossover model on 3 different days (control [CON], IPC or SHAM), separated by 3-5 days. IPC consisted of 4 cycles of 5-min occlusion (220 mmHg)/5-min reperfusion in each arm, and the SHAM protocol was similar to IPC but with only 20 mmHg during the occlusion phase. The subjects were informed that both maneuvers (IPC and SHAM) would improve their performance. After IPC, CON or SHAM, the volunteers performed a maximal 100-m time trial. IPC improved performance (p=0.036) compared to CON. SHAM performance was only better than CON (p=0.059) as a tendency but did not differ from IPC performance. The individual response of the subjects to the different maneuvers was very heterogeneous. We conclude that IPC may improve performance in recreational swimmers, but this improvement could mainly be a placebo effect. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Article
Full-text available
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) improves maximal exercise performance. However, the potential mechanism(s) underlying the beneficial effects of IPC remain unknown. The dynamics of pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) and muscle deoxygenation during exercise is frequently used for assessing O2 supply and extraction. Thus, this study examined the effects of IPC on systemic and local O2 dynamics during the incremental step transitions from low- to moderate- and from moderate- to severe-intensity exercise. Fifteen healthy, male subjects were instructed to perform the work-to-work cycling exercise test, which was preceded by the control (no occlusion) or IPC (3 × 5 min, bilateral leg occlusion at >300 mmHg) treatments. The work-to-work test was performed by gradually increasing the exercise intensity as follows: low intensity at 30 W for 3 min, moderate intensity at 90% of the gas exchange threshold (GET) for 4 min, and severe intensity at 70% of the difference between the GET and VO2 peak until exhaustion. During the exercise test, the breath-by-breath pulmonary VO2 and near-infrared spectroscopy-derived muscle deoxygenation were continuously recorded. Exercise endurance during severe-intensity exercise was significantly enhanced by IPC. There were no significant differences in pulmonary VO2 dynamics between treatments. In contrast, muscle deoxygenation dynamics in the step transition from low- to moderate-intensity was significantly faster in IPC than in CON (27.2 ± 2.9 vs. 19.8 ± 0.9 sec, P < 0.05). The present findings showed that IPC accelerated muscle deoxygenation dynamics in moderate-intensity exercise and enhanced severe-intensity exercise endurance during work-to-work test. The IPC-induced effects may result from mitochondrial activation in skeletal muscle, as indicated by the accelerated O2 extraction. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated whether ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in a trained population affected repeated sprint performance. A secondary aim was to assess responses according to gender. Sixteen (nine females and seven males) well trained team sport athletes took part in a randomised crossover study design. Participants underwent an IPC and placebo treatment involving three periods of 5 min occlusion applied unilaterally (3 × 5 min occlusion to each leg) at either 220 mmHg or 50 mmHg. Each period of occlusion was followed by 5 min reperfusion. Following treatment 5 × 6 s maximal effort sprints were undertaken on a cycle ergometer against 7.5% body mass, each interspersed by 24 s recovery. Measured parameters included peak power, total power, percentage decrement, post-exercise blood lactate and ratings of perceived exertion. Nor within subject main effect for IPC was observed, neither was there an interaction effect with gender. Effect sizes were trivial (ES < 0.2) with the exception of a moderate (ES < 1.2) change in post-exercise blood lactate in the female cohort (1.6 ± 0.4 mmol−1 lower following IPC). Results suggest no benefit to team sport players in utilising IPC as a means of enhancing repeated sprint performance. A lower blood lactate response in female participants following IPC may suggest improved blood flow through vasodilation.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Ischemic preconditioning enhances exercise performance. We tested the hypothesis that ischemic preconditioning would improve intermittent exercise in the form of a repeated sprint test during cycling ergometry. Methods: In a single-blind, crossover study, 14 recreationally active men (mean ± SD age, 22.9 ± 3.7 yr; height, 1.80 ± 0.07 m; and mass, 77.3 ± 9.2 kg) performed twelve 6-s sprints after four 5-min periods of bilateral limb occlusion at 220 mm Hg (ischemic preconditioning) or 20 mm Hg (placebo). Results: Ischemic preconditioning resulted in a 2.4% ± 2.2%, 2.6% ± 2.7%, and 3.7% ± 2.4% substantial increase in peak power for sprints 1, 2, and 3, respectively, relative to placebo, with no further changes between trials observed for any other sprint. Similar findings were observed in the first three sprints for mean power output after ischemic preconditioning (2.8% ± 2.5%, 2.6% ± 2.5%, and 3.4% ± 2.1%, for sprints 1, 2, and 3, respectively), relative to placebo. Fatigue index was not substantially different between trials. At rest, tissue saturation index was not different between the trials. During the ischemic preconditioning/placebo stimulus, there was a -19.7% ± 3.6% decrease in tissue saturation index in the ischemic preconditioning trial, relative to placebo. During exercise, there was a 5.4% ± 4.8% greater maintenance of tissue saturation index in the ischemic preconditioning trial, relative to placebo. There were no substantial differences between trials for blood lactate, electromyography (EMG) median frequency, oxygen uptake, or rating of perceived exertion (RPE) at any time points. Conclusion: Ischemic preconditioning improved peak and mean power output during the early stages of repeated sprint cycling and may be beneficial for sprint sports.
The first sport-science-oriented and comprehensive paper on magnitude-based inferences (MBI) was published 10 y ago in the first issue of this journal. While debate continues, MBI is today well established in sport science and in other fields, particularly clinical medicine, where practical/clinical significance often takes priority over statistical significance. In this commentary, some reasons why both academics and sport scientists should abandon null-hypothesis significance testing and embrace MBI are reviewed. Apparent limitations and future areas of research are also discussed. The following arguments are presented: P values and, in turn, study conclusions are sample-size dependent, irrespective of the size of the effect; significance does not inform on magnitude of effects, yet magnitude is what matters the most; MBI allows authors to be honest with their sample size and better acknowledge trivial effects; the examination of magnitudes per se helps provide better research questions; MBI can be applied to assess changes in individuals; MBI improves data visualization; and MBI is supported by spreadsheets freely available on the Internet. Finally, recommendations to define the smallest important effect and improve the presentation of standardized effects are presented.
Article
Purpose: This study investigated the effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), surface electromyography (EMG), and pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇O2) onset kinetics during cycling until exhaustion at the peak power output attained during an incremental test (PPO). Methods: A group of 12 recreationally trained cyclists volunteered for this study. After determination of PPO, they were randomly subjected on different days to a performance protocol preceded by intermittent bilateral cuff pressure inflation to 220 mm Hg (IPC) or 20 mm Hg (control). To increase data reliability, the performance visits were replicated, also in a random manner. Results: There was an 8.0% improvement in performance after IPC (Control: 303 s, IPC 327 s, factor SDs of ×/÷1.13, P = 0.01). This change was followed by a 2.9% increase in peak V̇O2 (Control: 3.95 L·min(-1), IPC: 4.06 L·min(-1), factor SDs of ×/÷ 1.15, P = 0.04) owing to a higher amplitude of the slow component of the V̇O2 kinetics (Control: 0.45 L·min(-1), IPC: 0.63 L·min(-1), factor SDs of ×/÷ 2.21, P = 0.05). There was also an attenuation in the rate of increase in RPE (P = 0.01) and a progressive increase in the myoelectrical activity of the vastus lateralis muscle (P = 0.04). Furthermore, the changes in peak V̇O2 (r = 0.73, P = 0.007) and the amplitude of the slow component (r = 0.79, P = 0.002) largely correlated with performance improvement. Conclusion: These findings provide a link between improved aerobic metabolism and enhanced severe-intensity cycling performance after IPC. Furthermore, the delayed exhaustion after IPC under lower RPE and higher skeletal muscle activation suggest they have a role on the ergogenic effects of IPC on endurance performance.