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Genotypic and phenotypic identification of olive cultivars from north-western Spain and characterization of their extra virgin olive oils in terms of fatty acid composition and minor compounds

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Abstract

Galicia (NW Spain) is emerging as a new olive-growing region. Galician oil producers are currently striving to recover old autochthonous cultivars with a view to obtaining high quality extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). In this work, a total of 32 trees were studied in order to established their identity and genetic relationships to the main cultivated material in the Iberian Peninsula. The analysis of 11 morphological features of the endocarp and 14 microsatellite markers allowed three different cultivars to be identified among the sampled trees. Comparison with the morphological and molecular profiles available in the World Olive Germplasm Bank of Cordoba (WOGBC) revealed that 24 trees (75%) were of the 'Brava' cultivar and 7 (22%) of the 'Mansa' cultivar. The other tree, labelled as Picuda, matched no specific cultivar in WOGBC. Characterizing the oils obtained from the studied cultivars revealed a high potential for producing high-quality EVOOs of specific origin.

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... Localising, characterising and conserving the genotypes that may still be found in this geographi cal area is vital to avoid the genetic erosion of the species and to save their traits for use in olive improvement programmes. A recent article by Reboredo-Rodríguez et al. (2018), and the doctoral thesis of , identified a number of olive genoty pes from this region. However, these contributions co vered only a very small part of the territory and some of the molecular results were contradictory. ...
... SSRs are widely used as markers in the identifi ca tion of olive genotypes (Cipriani et al., 2002;Bal doni et al., 2009;Díez et al., 2012;Jakše et al., 2013;Reboredo et al., 2018). In the present work, the loci GAPU059 and UDO99-019 showed low-le vel polymorphism, and were therefore little informative in identifying the genotypes of the examined trees. ...
... In the present work, the loci GAPU059 and UDO99-019 showed low-le vel polymorphism, and were therefore little informative in identifying the genotypes of the examined trees. Reboredo et al. (2018) reported the same for these two loci. Loci UDO043 and ssrOeUA-DCA9 showed the greatest discriminatory power, in agreement with the results of other authors who examined olive material from different areas (Baldoni et al., 2009;Salimonti et al., 2013;Trujillo et al., 2014). ...
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No country has a larger area under olive (Olea europaea subs. europaea var. europaea) cultivation than Spain. In the Spanish northwest, however, this crop has largely been forgotten, even though olive oil was once an important product of the area. Sadly, apart from a few scraps of information handed down orally, little information exists regarding the genotypes grown, or from where they may have originally come. Many centuries-old olive trees, however, can still be found in the area, some even forming groves now part of open woodland but which may harbour an important genetic reservoir. The present work describes a botanical and molecular analysis of these ancient trees, following a survey of allegedly native genotypes surviving in different locations in Galicia. Comparison of their molecular profiles with those in the World Olive Germplasm Bank of Cordoba, and those in the database compiled by the Agronomy Department of the University of Cordoba, revealed two known Galician genotypes, ´Brava Gallega´ and ´Mansa Gallega´, and the Portuguese genotype ´Cobrancoça´. Six genotypes present in neither database were also detected. In addition, some misidentifications of the ´Mansa´ genotype in recent studies were clarified. Botanical analysis confirmed the molecular results in all cases. The findings suggest a larger survey should be performed so that the full olive genetic diversity of this region can be recorded and preserved.
... Spain ranks first in olive grove area and the main olive-growing zone in terms of production is Andalucía (South Spain) due to the warm and dry climate [1,2]. Although the climate in Galicia (NW Spain) is typically defined as Atlantic climate, there are different areas with Mediterranean climate where the best climatic conditions for olive growing are given [3,4]. ...
... Mansa oils presented a surprising high content of C18:3n-3, near 1%, which is characteristic of some olive oils from Moroccan [29]. On the other hand, the obtained results for fatty acids in Mansa oils did not agree with they showed by Reboredo-Rodríguez et al. [1], being more similar to presented in Brava oils. ...
Article
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Mansa and Brava are olive autochthonous cultivars from Galicia, a new olive-growing zone from NW Spanish, from which high-quality extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) are obtained. The oils obtained as by co-crushing Mansa and Brava olives in different proportions as by blending with others olives cultivars have different composition that influence in their sensory quality. The consumer acceptance of commercial oils elaborated with Local Galician cultivars was evaluated and a quality-mapping of olive oils was created. It was found that the both Local oils had good physical-chemical quality parameters. From sensory analysis viewpoint, Local-MB oils presented the highest intensity values for color, odor, taste, and flavor, and the consumers had a higher acceptance and preference by Picual, Local-MBPA (60% Mansa and Brava, 25% Picual, and 15% Arbequina and Local-MB (60% Mansa and 40% Brava) oils. A quality-mapping of olive oils indicate that attributes better scored from the consumer are high intensity for color, odor, taste and flavor, and pungent and floral series, and bitter is rejected by them.
... In this work, genotyping strategies implementing these popular markers (SSRs and SNPs) have been explored for the identification and differentiation of two varieties from the Northwest of Spain: 'Brava' and 'Mansa de Figueiredo'. These varieties have been explored for the production of high quality extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) (Reboredo-Rodríguez, González-Barreiro, Cancho-Grande, Simal-Gándara, & Trujillo, 2018), with different studies being performed to evaluate their business potential (Zamuz et al., 2020) and their potential nutraceutical properties (Figueiredo-González et al., 2018). This varieties are mainly cultivated in Galicia, in the NW of Spain, where the area under olive cultivation increased from 10 ha in 2007 to 275 ha in 2019 (MAPA, 2019). ...
... A total of 14 SSR markers were analyzed, including UDO99-011, UDO99-019, UDO99-024, UDO99-043, ssrOeUA-DCA3, ssrOeUA-DCA9, ssrOeUA-DCA11, ssrOeUA-DCA15, ssrOeUA-DCA16, ssrOeUA-DCA18, GAPU59, GAPU71B, GAPU101, and GAPU103A. These markers were adapted from previously published works, and they have been described as very efficient for olive cultivar identification studies (Baldoni et al., 2009;Reboredo-Rodríguez et al., 2018;Trujillo et al., 2014). The list of primers used for SSR analysis is described in Table S2 (Supplementary material). ...
Article
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Miniaturization of DNA-based techniques can bring interesting advantages for food analysis, such as portability of complex analytical procedures. In the olive oil industry, miniaturization can be particularly interesting for authenticity and traceability applications, through in situ control of raw materials before production and/or the final products. However, variety identification is challenging, and implementation on miniaturized settings must be carefully evaluated, starting from the selected analytical approach. In this work, SSR- and SNP-based genotyping strategies were investigated for the identification and differentiation of two olive varieties from the Northwest of Spain. For the selected SNPs two genotyping methods were tested: real-time allele-specific PCR and high resolution melting analysis. These methods were compared and evaluated regarding their potential for integration in a microfluidic device. Both SNP-based methods proved to be successful for identification of the selected varieties, however real-time allele-specific PCR was the one that achieved the best results when analyzing mixtures, allowing the identification of both monovarietal samples and mixtures of the varieties tested with up to 25%.
... Genetic diversity analysis helps us in understanding the sea buckthorn germplasm to breeding the crop for important traits (Patricia et al., 2018;Li et al., 2020). Li et al. (2020) reported that loci SB6 and SB8 may be used to construct the fingerprint map in sea buckthorn germplasm because of their high informativity. ...
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Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is an underutilized ecologically and economically important wind-pollinated, low-demanding, dioecious, thorny, and winter hardy tree or shrub native to Europe and Asia. Since ancient times, people living in the cold deserts used it as folk medicine, nutritional supplement, fuel, fence, and fodder. Hence, popularly known as the ‘Gold Mine’ of cold deserts. Sea buckthorn fruits are nutritionally rich with a high amount of vitamins. It also contains bioactive compounds like tannins, flavonoids, sterols, carotenoids, tocopherols, and lipids, therefore, implying as an excellent source for discovering new drugs and improving the food quality of humans. Unfortunately, aside from excellent traits still very limited progress has been made in the improvement of sea buckthorn through conventional breeding programs therefore, the application of modern biotechnological and high-throughput sequencing tools for the bio-prospection of agronomically important traits is needed to speed up the breeding programs. Highlighting several uses of sea buckthorn, it made a case for its status as an underutilized crop with the potential to contribute to our food and nutritional base. It is an interesting subject of future research and scientific publications, as highlights the scientific insights into the existing know-how i.e. historical perspective, taxonomical and botanical description, genetic diversity and distribution; medicinal and nutritional importance, market potential and key players, breeding constraints, biotechnological advancements, omics-based interventions, and a path forward for adoption and large-scale cultivation of sea buckthorn to provide a clear concept for future research.
... Together with the similar work realized in the World Olive Germplasm Bank of Cordoba (Trujillo et al. 2014), a rich database with olive descriptions was formed, available for future research and breeding projects. A combination of morphological and molecular markers has also been employed for studies on commercial olive groves in Spain (Reboredo-Rodríguez et al. 2018) and Tunisia (Hannachi et al. 2008), on monumental olive trees in Spain (Ninot et al. 2018), as well as on wild olives in Spain . Rich diversity was observed in endocarp shape with all four categories (elliptic, elongated, ovoid, and spherical) represented in the studied sample of 41 cultivars and one Olea europaea subsp. ...
Article
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Seed (endocarp) morphology is useful for genotype discrimination and cultivar classification. Over a 20-year period, 504 olive trees (Olea europaea subsp. europaea) previously assigned to different cultivars originating from Greece (n = 37), Spain (n = 2), and Italy (n = 2) as well as one accession of Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata were evaluated employing 11 endocarp morphological markers and 9 SSR markers. A matrix of 42 morphotypes in total was subjected to classification binary tree (CBT) analysis. In addition, cultivars were fingerprinted employing 9 microsatellite (SSR) markers and placed on a similarity dendrogram. All 41 olive cultivars and one accession of Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata employed in the present study yielded different morphological profiles produced by the 11 endocarp traits. In the resulting CBT, the total reduction in error, that is, the total information in the set of all 42 morphotypes, was 100%. This meant that the set of 11 morphological characters—having 28 different states in all—was sufficient to remove all data noise and to correctly classify all examined olive cultivars. In addition, all olive cultivars were successfully discriminated by the 9 SSR markers employed. It is suggested that cultivars with large seeds—and concomitantly large fruits—are more distant from the wild forms and probably more evolved compared to cultivars with small seeds. In corroboration to the above, based on seed shape, some of the olive cultivars showed high resemblance to wild olives leading thus to the hypothesis that they were produced or selected during the early ages of olive domestication.
... These results are of capital importance since Galicia (northwestern Spain) had recently emerged as a new olive-growing region housing two autochthonous cultivars(Brava and Mansa de Figueiredo) with potential relevant health benefits as a result of high concentration levels of phenolic compounds(Figueiredo-González et al., 2019; Reboredo-Rodríguez,González-Barreiro, Cancho-Grande, Simal- Gándara, & Trujillo, 2018).Analogously, the olive tree is one of the most extensively culti-vated perennial species in the International Douro Natural Park. The Park encompass the border section of the Douro River, a deep, embedded valley with cliff margins that separate Portugal from Spain across more than 100 km. ...
Article
The Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain) is a great production area of olives. The fruit production can be severely affected by the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi, 1790) (Diptera). Detailed geographical distribution maps of key pests, such as B. oleae, are essential for their integrated management. Although different sources reporting the occurrence of B. oleae are available for sub‐regions of Portugal and Spain, the data available are dispersed and centralization of this information considering the Iberian Peninsula as a faunistic geographical unit is currently lacking. In this work, we built two distribution maps of B. oleae throughout the Iberian Peninsula, one based on occurrence sites and another based on its bioclimatic habitat suitability. After modeling the bioclimatic suitability of B. oleae using a maximum entropy model, three potential distribution areas beyond the previously known occurrence range of the olive fruit fly were identified corresponding to the autonomous community of Galicia (Spain), the Spanish and Portuguese sides of the International Douro Natural Park, and the autonomous community of Castilla y León (Spain). Interestingly, each region houses nowadays autochthonous olive cultivars. The drivers that most contributed to the model were the precipitation of the coldest quarter and the precipitation of driest month which agrees with the B. oleae bioecology. Although our approach is not fully‐comprehensive in terms of occurrence sites, we show how a maxent modeling approach can be useful to identify potential risk areas of B. oleae occurrence throughout a target geographical extent such as the Iberian Peninsula. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Galician EVOOs obtained from old autochthonous varieties, "Brava Gallega" and "Mansa de Figueiredo", are characterized by their high content on phenolic compounds. 5,6 Figueiredo-Gonzaĺez et al. evaluated the role of dietary polyphenols from these EVOOs against the inhibition of key enzymes involved in the management of type 2 diabetes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase). 7 Their findings support the potential health benefits derived from Galician EVOOs, which might be linked to their outstanding concentration levels of phenolic acids and flavonoids. ...
Article
The INFOGEST standardized method was applied to assess the potential bioaccessibility and bioaccessibility of the phenolic compounds from a Galician extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The in vitro digestion model involves three steps and generates two fractions after each one: an aqueous fraction (namely, water phase (Wp)) and an oily fraction (namely, oily phase (Op)). The results showed that secoiridoids were the most abundant family in the Galician EVOO polar fraction, representing 98% of the total phenolic compounds. After oral digestion, phenolic acids and simple phenols were mainly detected in Wp, while lignans and flavonoids were mostly found in Op. After gastric digestion, extensive hydrolysis of secoiridoids was observed to generate free tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and hydroxytyrosol acetate. The instability of secoiridoids after intestinal digestion was again responsible for the release of simple phenols, which were mainly recovered in Wp together with flavonoids. In contrast, lignans were stable to duodenal conditions and remained in Op.
... Previous studies found that berry size is a useful indicator of Vc, sugars and acids in population identification [19,30]. The nutrients in the seedless fraction were more concentrated in the small berries of ssp. ...
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Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) is an ecologically and economically important species. Here, we assessed the diversity of 78 accessions cultivated in northern China using 8 agronomic characteristics, oil traits (including oil content and fatty acid composition) in seeds and fruit pulp, and SSR markers at 23 loci. The 78 accessions included 52 from ssp. mongolica, 6 from ssp. sinensis, and 20 hybrids. To assess the phenotypic diversity of these accessions, 8 agronomic fruit traits were recorded and analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The first two PCs accounted for approximately 78% of the variation among accessions. The oil contents were higher in pulp (3.46–38.56%) than in seeds (3.88–8.82%), especially in ssp. mongolica accessions. The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio was slightly lower in the seed oil of hybrids (76.06%) than that of in ssp. mongolica (77.66%) and higher than that of in ssp. sinensis (72.22%). The monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) ratio in the pulp oil of ssp. sinensis (57.00%) was highest, and that in ssp. mongolica (51.00%) was equal to the ratio in the hybrids (51.20%). Using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), we examined the correlation between agronomic traits and oil characteristics in pulp and seeds. Oil traits in pulp from different origins were correlated with morphological groupings (r = 0.8725, p = 0.0000). To assess the genotypic diversity, 23 SSR markers (including 17 loci previously reported) were used among the 78 accessions with 59 polymorphic amplified fragments obtained and an average PIC value of 0.2845. All accessions were classified into two groups based on the UPGMA method. The accessions of ssp. sinensis and ssp. mongolica were genetically distant. The hybrid accessions were close to ssp. mongolica accessions. The 8 agronomic traits, oil characteristics in seed and pulp oils, and 23 SSR markers successfully distinguished the 78 accessions. These results will be valuable for cultivar identification and genetic diversity analysis in cultivated sea buckthorn.
... As expected, the variety of olives used to produce EVOO determines its final composition, constituting an internal factor that influences stability and quality [162,163]. Not only the variety but also the geographical location and the growing conditions, as well as the applied mechanical production process, affect its quality [51, 164,165]. ...
Article
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1) Background: Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is responsible for a large part of many health benefits associated to Mediterranean diet as it is a fundamental ingredient of this diet. The peculiarities of this golden, highly valued product are in part due to the requirements that must be met to achieve this title, namely, it has to be obtained using exclusively mechanical procedures, its free acidity cannot be greater than 0.8%, it must not show sensory defects, and it has to possess a fruity taste. (2) Methods: All these characteristics are key factors to EVOO quality, thus the chemical composition of these many health-promoting compounds, such as unsaturated fatty acids (which are also the major compounds, especially oleic acid), as well as minor components such as tocopherols or phenolic compounds (which behave as natural antioxidants) must be preserved. (3) Results: Due to the presence of all these compounds, the daily consumption of EVOO entails health benefits such as cardioprotective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor properties or acting as regulator of the intestinal microbiota, among others. (4) Conclusions: Taking all together, conserving EVOO chemical composition is essential to preserve its properties, so it is worth to control certain factors during storage like exposure to light, temperature, oxygen presence or the chosen packaging material, to maintain its quality and extend its shelf-life until its consumption.
... placed at Lugo province (NW Spain). Approximately 20 kg of olives were manually picked from trees that were carefully selected based on a previous study conducted to achieve their genotypic and phenotypic identification (Reboredo-Rodríguez, González-Barreiro, Cancho-Grande, Simal-Gándara, & Trujillo, 2018). Olive sampling in the orchard was carried out weekly, taking into account all the International Olive Council (IOC) recommendations, with the final aim of adequately covering three diverse RI values. ...
Article
The diet management is imperative to anticipate risk factors that favour the development of diseases; indeed, the intake of virgin olive oil could be an alternative natural source of α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitors, which delay the digestion rate of carbohydrates. Consequently, the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) could be diminished. Extra Virgin Olive Oils (EVOO) were elaborated from Galician autochthonous variety ‘Brava Gallega’ with olives selected at three different degree of ripeness (ripening index, RI: 1.4, 3.0, 5.5) in order to assess the effect of maturation on overall chemical composition, sensory quality, and enzyme inhibition. The phenolic profile of the EVOOs determined by LC-ESI-IT-MS exhibited quantitative differences as ripening advanced; for example oleocanthal, tyrosol, luteolin and apigenin concentrations were higher in the overripe olive oil (RI 5.5). Anyway, the phenolic extracts (from every tested RI) were more active than acarbose. In particular, those obtained from the most mature olives displayed the most powerful inhibitory activity (IC50 value of 143 µg of dry extract/mL). In addition, the significant effect of these compounds (i.e. luteolin, apigenin, tyrosol and oleocanthal) on the inhibitory activity of the olive oil extracts was demonstrated. Our results suggest that, regardless of RI, the inhibitory activity of ‘Brava Gallega’ olive oils could represent a valuable strategy for reinforcing the health claim of olive oil for phenolic compounds.
... Therefore, the identification and conservation of traditional olive cultivars are currently high-priority tasks that are needed to ensure the sustainable use of those cultivars in the future [70]. Microsatellite markers have been proven to be immensely useful in describing olive cultivars cultivated locally in certain regions [71][72][73][74][75][76]. Genotypic data about these local cultivars are useful information when authenticating commercial products coming out of these areas and certifying the origins of cultivars. ...
Article
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The olive fruit, a symbol of Mediterranean diets, is a rich source of antioxidants and oleic acid (55–83%). Olive genetic resources, including cultivated olives (cultivars), wild olives as well as related subspecies, are distributed widely across the Mediterranean region and other countries. Certain cultivars have a high commercial demand and economical value due to the differentiating organoleptic characteristics. This might result in economically motivated fraudulent practices and adulteration. Hence, tools to ensure the authenticity of constituent olive cultivars are crucial, and this can be achieved accurately through DNA-based methods. The present review outlines the applications of microsatellite markers, one of the most extensively used types of molecular markers in olive species, particularly referring to the use of these DNA-based markers in cataloging the vast olive germplasm, leading to identification and authentication of the cultivars. Emphasis has been given on the need to adopt a uniform platform where global molecular information pertaining to the details of available markers, cultivar-specific genotyping profiles (their synonyms or homonyms) and the comparative profiles of oil and reference leaf samples is accessible to researchers. The challenges of working with microsatellite markers and efforts underway, mainly advancements in genotyping methods which can be effectively incorporated in olive oil varietal testing, are also provided. Such efforts will pave the way for the development of more robust microsatellite marker-based olive agri-food authentication platforms.
... One of the current trends in the olive oil market is the production of high quality EVOOs from traditional minor olive varieties with specific origin and particular and differentiated sensory, nutritional and healthy promoting characteristics. This is one of the reasons explaining the Galician oil producersínterest in recovering old autochthonous vari- eties, 'Brava' and 'Mansa de Figueiredo', over the last years (Reboredo- Rodríguez et al., 2016; Reboredo-Rodríguez, González-Barreiro, Cancho-Grande, Simal-Gandara, & Trujillo, 2018). ...
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‘Brava’ and ‘Mansa de Figueiredo’ extra-virgin olive oils (EVOOs) are two varieties identified from north-western Spain. A systematic phenolic characterization of the studied oils was undertaken by LC-ESI-IT-MS. In addition, the role of dietary polyphenols from these EVOOs has been evaluated against the inhibition of key enzymes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) in the management of diabetes mellitus (DM). Oleuropein and ligstroside derivatives comprised 83% and 67% of the total phenolic compounds in ‘Brava’ and ‘Mansa de Figueiredo’ EVOOs, respectively. The main secoiridoids from oleuropein were DOA (3,4-DHPEA-EDA, 59 and 22 mg kg⁻¹, respectively) and the main isomer of OlAgl (3,4-DHPEA-EA, 74 and 23 mg kg⁻¹). The main secoiridoids from ligstroside were D-LigAgl (p-HPEA-EDA or oleocanthal, 23 and 167 mg kg⁻¹) and the main isomer of LigAgl (p-HPEA-EA, 214 and 114 mg kg⁻¹). For α-glucosidase, both EVOO extracts displayed stronger inhibitory activity (IC50 values of 60 ± 8 and 118 ± 9 μg mL⁻¹, respectively) than the commercial inhibitor acarbose (IC50 = 356 ± 21 μg mL⁻¹). Nevertheless, for α-amylase, only ‘Brava’ extracts showed anti-α-amylase capacity. A daily VOO intake lower than the requirements of EFSA seem to be enough to reach both 50% for α-glucosidase and 25% for α-amylase inhibition. These findings support the potential health benefits derived from Galician EVOOs that might be probably linked to the outstanding high concentration levels of phenolic acids and flavonoids.
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BACKGROUND The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare oil production and its quality in three Spanish olive varieties (Genovesa , Villalonga and Nevadillo blanco ) growing outside the Mediterranean basin with the Argentine autochthonous variety (Arauco ). Parameters on fruits and oil characteristics were evaluated on samples collected from Germplasm Collection of Mendoza province and elaborated in the same place. RESULTS The levels of phenolic compounds and fatty acids composition of samples under study were comparable with those previously published for these Spanish varieties grown in the Mediterranean basin, showing the adaptability of olive trees. Specifically, observing the levels of phenolic compounds and oxidative stability, a strong correlation between oxidative stability and oleocanthal was observed. CONCLUSION Fruits and oil characteristics differed among varieties and seasons. The inter harvest stability was different according to the variety. Genovesa was observed as the most stable variety according to fruit and oil characteristics, even more stable than the autochthonous variety namely Arauco . However, according to the composition of phenolic compounds, Arauco was the most stable between harvests, being this characteristic more important for taste and uniformity of the product. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Thirteen olive progenies coming from controlled crosses on Tunisian olive cultivars (Meski and Chetoui) with autochthones and foreign cultivars were selected among 200 olive genotypes on the basis of their agronomic characteristics in a breeding program initiated in 1994. In this study, weight and flesh to seed ratio, oil content, specific absorption at ultraviolet light, free acid content, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, total phenols and fatty acid composition of these progenies were determined and compared to their parents. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes for all traits (p<0.01) except for UV extinction coefficients (K232 and K270). Some progenies showed superior features compared to their genitors.
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Six olive oils extracted from the cultivars Arbequina, Arbosana, Coratina, Frantoio, Koroneiki, and Picual from 2017 and 2018 harvests, cultivated in Pinheiro Machado, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were evaluated for standard oil composition parameters and bioactive constituents (pigments, tocopherols, and phenolic compounds). Multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) and univariate ANOVA and Fisher's LSD test were used to verify the effect of cultivar and harvest year on oil composition. Olive oil composition met extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) standard parameters and was influenced by both cultivar and harvest year. EVOO produced in 2018 had greater chlorophyll, caffeic acid, ligstroside aglycone, hydroxyoleuropein aglycone, syringic acid, and hydroxytyrosol acetate contents than the EVOOs from 2017. Linoleic acid, ferulic acid, ligstroside aglycone, and hydroxytyrosol acetate were the variables whose contents most contributed to differentiation of oils by cultivar in both harvest years. Chemical characterization analyses allowed for the differentiation of oil composition based on harvest year and cultivar. Metabolic quality data obtained here support the establishment of a local EVOO profile and the compounds that most contributed to treatment differentiation may serve as markers that can be utilized in determining origin, cultivar, and harvest year. Practical applications: Olive production in Brazil is recent and is based on European cultivars which have not been bred for the local environmental conditions. Therefore, the measurement of olive oil metabolic quality will determine cultivar adaptability to local edaphoclimatic conditions as well as assist in the establishment of a standard of identity for the product and promote the development of its market. Olive oil produced in Southern Brazil showed high quality, and was especially rich in phenolic compounds. Although harvest year influenced oil composition, oil from both harvests met EVOO standards and cultivar specific metabolic markers were observed. This study provides the foundation for olive producers in Southern Brazil to seek authentication of the geographical origin of olive oil. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Mediterranean olive heritage richness is poorly characterized. Olive oils from minor cultivars of Northeast-Portugal (Lentisca, Madural, Rebolã, Redondal, Verdeal and Verdeal Transmontana) from centenarian trees were chemical and sensory characterized, aiming to identify autochthonous cultivars capable of producing differentiated olive oils. All oils, produced during two campaigns, were classified as extra virgin. Cv. Redondal showed the highest oxidative stability (OS), total phenols, vitamin E and C18:1/C18:2. Contrary, cv. Madural presented the lowest OS and C18:1/C18:2 ratios, supporting the importance of fatty acids on OS, while cv. Verdeal had the lowest total phenols and vitamin E contents. Sensory notes of tomato, apple, dry fruits, fresh herbs, tomato leaves and cabbage were predominant on the oils of most cultivars, whilst some attributes were more specific, such as banana and kiwi (Madural), cherry and apricot (cvs. Lentisca and Madural). The chemical and sensory diversity enabled the statistical discrimination of all cultivars and harvesting years.
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The characterization of both volatiles and fatty acids of Tunisian olive varieties (Ouslati and Chemlali) is achieved in order to understand their correlation with the aroma accumulation via the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway. The main identified volatiles in both crushed pulps and crushed stones are hexanal, E‐(2)‐hexenal, (Z)‐3‐hexen‐1‐ol, 1‐hexanol, and hexyl acetate. With regard to their fatty acid composition, results show that both de‐stoned (DOO) and conventional (COO) olive oils contain mainly unsaturated fatty acids. The results also show that oleic acid (C18:1) is the main fatty acid in both DOO and COO. Meanwhile, linoleic acid (C18:2) is present in a relatively higher percentage (5.2% and 19.8%, respectively, for Ouslati and Chemlali DOI) than linolenic fatty acid (C18:3) (<2%). The analysis of volatiles shows that more than 80% of total LOX‐compounds from both crushed pulps and crushed stones have linolenic acid as synthesis precursor despite its lower level (2%). Moreover, the contribution of olive parts in generating aroma is much higher in crushed pulps (more than 80%) than in crushed stones, which explains the fact that DOO, extracted from crushed pulps, contains the dominant amount of volatiles. Therefore, the obtained results promote both the consumption and the marketing of DOO. Practical Applications: The aroma and the organoleptic properties of olive oil are strictly correlated with both the olives quality and the extraction techniques used. Many technologies are developed to extract olive oil with highest quality. De‐stoned olive oil extraction process is one of these technical procedures. In the present work, the characterization of volatiles in pulp and stone separately provides important information about the contribution of olive constitutive parts on the accumulation of olive oil aroma during the oil extraction process.
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Olive (Olea europaea) is an ancient and important crop in both olive oil production and table use. It is important to identify the genetic diversity of olive genetic resources for cultivar development and evaluation of olive germplasm. In the study, 14 microsatellite markers (UDO4, UDO8, UDO9, UDO11, UDO12, UDO22, UDO24, UDO26, UDO28, DCA9, DCA11, DCA13, DCA15, and DCA18) were used to assess the genetic variation on 76 olive (Olea europaea L.) genotypes from Mardin province together with 6 well-known Turkish and 4 well-known foreign reference cultivars. All microsatellite markers showed polymorphism and the number of alleles varied between 9 and 22, with an average of 14.57. The most informative loci were DCA 11 (22 alleles) and DCA 9 (21 alleles). Dendrogram based on genetic distances was constructed for the 86 olive genotypes/cultivars, which revealed the existence of different clusters. The high genetic similarity was evident between Bakırkire2 and Zinnar5 (0.74) genotypes, while the most genetically divergent genotypes were Gürmeşe5 and Yedikardeşler2 (0.19). It was concluded that there was abundant SSR polymorphism in olive germplasm in southern Anatolia in Turkey and could be important for future breeding activities.
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The conservation of cultivated plants in ex-situ collections is essential for the optimal management and use of their genetic resources. For the olive tree, two world germplasm banks (OWGB) are presently established, in Córdoba (Spain) and Marrakech (Morocco). This latter was recently founded and includes 561 accessions from 14 Mediterranean countries. Using 12 nuclear microsatellites (SSRs) and three chloroplast DNA markers, this collection was characterised to examine the structure of the genetic diversity and propose a set of olive accessions encompassing the whole Mediterranean allelic diversity range. We identified 505 SSR profiles based on a total of 210 alleles. Based on these markers, the genetic diversity was similar to that of cultivars and wild olives which were previously characterised in another study indicating that OWGB Marrakech is representative of Mediterranean olive germplasm. Using a model-based Bayesian clustering method and principal components analysis, this OWGB was structured into three main gene pools corresponding to eastern, central and western parts of the Mediterranean Basin. We proposed 10 cores of 67 accessions capturing all detected alleles and 10 cores of 58 accessions capturing the 186 alleles observed more than once. In each of the 10 cores, a set of 40 accessions was identical, whereas the remaining accessions were different, indicating the need to include complementary criteria such as phenotypic adaptive and agronomic traits. Our study generated a molecular database for the entire OWGB Marrakech that may be used to optimise a strategy for the management of olive genetic resources and their use for subsequent genetic and genomic olive breeding. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10709-011-9608-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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Varieties of the olive cultivar Arbequina have recently been cultivated in Turkey. The objective of the study is to characterize and evaluate extra-virgin olive oils (EVOO) produced from Arbequina grown in the Aegean and Mediterranean regions of Turkey. Major and minor components such as carotenoids, squalene, phenolics and tocopherols were studied to assess their effects on product quality and health benefits. The samples, identified as ArbqI and ArbqA, were from the Izmir and Adana provinces, respectively. Samples were analyzed by GC-FID to determine fatty acid composition, sterol composition, TAG profile and squalene content. Individual phenolic fractions were analyzed by LC–MS/MS and tocopherol isomers were determined by HPLC. According to the results obtained from this study; Total phenolic content (TPC) of the samples were 454.68 and 50.86 mg Gallic acid/kg oil for ArbqI and ArbqA, respectively. Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol were determined to be the main phenols. The major tocopherol isomer found in ArbqI and ArbqA was α-tocopherol with levels of 179.55 and 202.5 mg/kg oil, respectively. β-Carotene levels in both samples were similar at 0.2 mg/kg. Findings of this study were compared with the literature on Arbequina olive oil produced in different countries. It was determined that Arbequina olive oil of high quality can be produced in Turkey, especially in the Aegean region.
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The purpose of this work was to find a simple, cheap and suitable method, among the most widely employed, able to guarantee a proper determination and quantification of the phenolic content of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs), in order to satisfy the requirements of the specific health claim (EU Reg. 432/2012). Total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) was used and compared vs phenolic profile by HPLC-UV, considering this latter as the most sensitive and specific method for evaluating the phenolic content. Both protocols were performed before and after an acid hydrolysis of the polar phenolic fraction that involves a break of the bound forms of hydroxytyrosol (HTyr) and tyrosol (Tyr), with a simplification of the phenolic profile, and quantification of their total free forms. Results of the phenolic compounds of twelve EVOOs, determined by the different analytical approaches, were statistically compared by means of two-tailed paired t-tests: data obtained by the FC assay (expressed as HTyr) before and/or after acid hydrolysis were statistically comparable with results obtained by acid hydrolysis-HPLC (as sum of HTyr and Tyr). Practical applications: The promising results obtained in this study show that the simple and cheap colorimetric assay based on the use of the FC reagent, commonly used for the evaluation of phenolic compounds in hydro-alcoholic extracts of EVOO, can be also efficiently applied, without acid hydrolysis of extracts and HPLC analysis, to verify the compliance to the polyphenols health claim introduced by EU Reg. 432/2012. In fact, in order to preserve the positive image of EVOO due to its healthy properties, it is necessary i) to share an analytical protocol to determine the amount of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives having a demonstrated effect of protection of blood lipids from oxidative stress ii) to check by this protocol if EVOOs satisfy the EU requirement for including the specific health claim on the oil label.
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Background: In the olive oil, the sterols constitute the majority of the unsaponifiable fraction. In recent years there has been increased interest in the sterols of olive oil for the health benefits and the importance to VOO quality regulation. Results: Forty three olive cultivars (Olea europaea, L.) from The Olive Germplasm Bank Collection IFAPA Centre "Alameda de Obispo" of Cordoba were studied for their oil sterol composition and total content. The main sterols found in olive oil were β-sitosterol, Δ-5 Avenasterol, Campesterol and Stigmasterol, showing high variability for most of them. Most of the cultivars showed total sterol content into the limits established by EU Regulations although 28 % of virgin olive oils analyses were out of the limits established for total content and/or for individual sterols. For the group of the cultivars total sterol content ranged from 855 mg/kg to 2185 mg/kg. Conclusion: The high variability observed was due to the genetic component since the other agronomic and technological factors were similar. Because of the high variability the sterol fraction can be considered as a useful tool to characterize and discriminate monovarietal virgin olive oils. The results can be useful for nutritionists for virgin olive oil inclusion in nutrition studies. Furthermore, the variability observed can be applied in the olive breeding project to select the parents of new olive cultivars with an improved sterol fraction.
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Most traditional olive-producing countries possess a diversified genetic patrimony in Olea europaea L. Since the emergence ofmodern olive growing system, the identification, classification, and conservation of autochthonous olive cultivars is a priority for these countries. In this work, a total of 84 accessions belonging to the "Boughrara"-Sfax olive germplasm collection located in Tunisia have been screened using a powerful set of eight simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs). The study revealed a high genetic variability among the collection and detected a total of 64 alleles. For better management of the mentioned germplasm bank, an improved classification of the entries, including new denominations, has been proposed. In addition, several cases of mislabeling, synonymy, and homonymy have been clarified. Genetic relationships among cultivars have been analyzed showing four major clusters. Finally, a correspondence factor analysis demonstrated that cultivars tend to cluster depending on their main use as oil or table olives. No clear clustering tendencies were observed when the geographical origin of cultivars was used as the criteria for the analysis. All results obtained by SSR screening and classification were in accordance with classification based on morphological traits of fruit endocarps.
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A total of 111 accessions belonging to 60 olive cultivars, and one accession of oleaster, native to Italy, Spain, France and Greece, have been screened with three AFLP primer combinations and 27 microsatellite primer pairs in order to characterise their genotypes and reveal their genetic relationships. A total of 70 AFLP and 80 SSR polymorphic bands were scored. Comparisons were made between AFLP and SSR marker variability, efficiency and usefulness for genetic relationships and cultivar identification. The data obtained were analysed using the Jaccard genetic similarity coefficient, applying the SAHN clustering method. A dendrogram of genetic distances was produced. All genotypes studied could be distinguished unequivocally using a combination of SSR and AFLP markers. Cultivars were grouped into three clusters according to their type of use: oil, table, or dual purpose cultivars.
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Twelve published simple sequence repeat (SSR; microsatellite) markers, belonging to the ssrOeUA-DCA, GAPU and UDO series, were tested in a panel of 46 accessions of olive germplasm belonging to 30 unique cultivars collected in seven Provinces of Sicily. Four well-known reference olive cultivars were also added. The analysis was carried out on an automatic capillary sequencer using fluorescent dyes, and fragment sizes were determined using internal standards. The results allowed us to rank the SSRs assayed according to their information content and reproducibility. Up to 115 alleles were identified (119, if those unique to sport mutations were included), the frequency of which allowed genetic relationships among accessions to be investigated. The probability that two unrelated genotypes displayed the same SSR pattern at all loci examined was calculated to be as low as 1.18 × 10-11. Sixteen accessions were identified as synonyms. Of these, eight matched perfectly with another accession at all SSR loci examined. The others showed one or two allelic differences from the reference accession. These were interpreted as mutations. Otherwise, all accessions were clearly separated from each other. Two likely parentages were also identified ('Giarfara' = 'Nocellara del Belice' X 'Cacaridduni'; and 'Pizzo di Corvo' = 'Nocellara Etnea' X 'Tonda Iblea'). The genetic diversity of the pool represented by the unique accessions was very high, reflecting the richness of the olive germplasm accumulated in Sicily. A database of the accessions is available to the scientific community (http://www.unipa.it/germolive/ssr.html) to facilitate comparisons of data.
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In recent years, there has been an increase in interest in super high-density (SHD) olive (Olea europaea L.) groves because they offer early entry into production, increased productivity and the possibility of using modified mechanical vine harvesters. This study was carried out in a young SHD olive grove to examine vegetative, histo-anatomical and productive characteristics and oil quality of the Spanish Arbequina and Italian Maurino and Leccino cultivars, characterized by low, low-to-medium and high vigor, respectively. Arbequina had low vigor and limited development in height and width, as well as a high leaf/wood ratio. Maurino had a canopy volume similar to that of Arbequina and, despite a great tendency to grow in height, had low vigor, a rather compact vegetative habitus, but good lighting in the canopy and high production efficiency. In Maurino, a greater palisade parenchyma height and a larger exposed lateral surface area of the palisade parenchyma cells were observed. In the fourth year after planting, fruit production of Arbequina was about 30 % less than Leccino and Maurino. The oil content on a dry weight basis was slightly higher in Arbequina and Maurino than in Leccino. Oil quality was good for all cultivars.
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The olive is an important fruit species cultivated for oil and table olives in Italy and the Mediterranean basin. The conservation of cultivated plants in ex situ collections is essential for the optimal management and use of their genetic resources. The largest ex situ olive germplasm collection consists of approximately 500 Italian olive varieties and corresponding to 85% of the total Italian olive germplasm is maintained at the Consiglio per la Ricerca e sperimentazione per l'Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l'Olivicoltura e l'Industria Olearia (CRA-OLI), in Italy. In this work, eleven preselected nuclear microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flows with the aim of assembling a core collection. The dendrogram obtained utilizing the unweighted pair group method highlights the presence of homonymy and synonymy in olive tree datasets analyzed in this study. 439 different unique genotype profiles were obtained with this combination of 11 loci nSSR, representing 89.8% of the varieties analyzed. The remaining 10.2% comprises different variety pairs in which both accessions are genetically indistinguishable. Clustering analysis performed using BAPS software detected seven groups in Italian olive germplasm and gene flows were determined among identified clusters. We proposed an Italian core collection of 23 olive varieties capturing all detected alleles at microsatellites. The information collected in this study regarding the CRA-OLI ex situ collection can be used for breeding programs, for germplasm conservation, and for optimizing a strategy for the management of olive gene pools.
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Olive is one of the most ancient crop plants and the World Olive Germplasm Bank of Cordoba (WOGBC), Spain, is one of the world’s largest collections of olive germplasm. We used 33 SSR (Simple Sequence Repeats) markers and 11 morphological characteristics of the endocarp to characterise, identify and authenticate 824 trees, representing 499 accessions from 21 countries of origin, from the WOGBC collection. The SSR markers exhibited high variability and information content. Of 332 cultivars identified in this study based on unique combinations of SSR genotypes and endocarp morphologies, 200 were authenticated by genotypic and morphological markers matches with authentic control samples. We found 130 SSR genotypes that we considered as molecular variants because they showed minimal molecular differences but the same morphological profile than 48 catalogued cultivars. We reported 15 previously described and 37 new cases of synonyms as well as 26 previously described and seven new cases of homonyms. We detected several errors in accession labelling, which may have occurred at any step during establishment of plants in the collection. Nested sets of 5, 10 and 17 SSRs were proposed to progressively and efficiently identify all of the genotypes studied here. The study provides a useful protocol for the characterisation, identification and authentication of any olive germplasm bank that has facilitated the establishment of a repository of true-to-type cultivars at the WOGBC.
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Numerous olive cultivars are cultivated in Iran, mainly in the north. Ninety-two accessions belonging to 10 main olive cultivars were screened by 13 microsatellite markers revealing high genetic variability both within and between cultivars. In total, 72 alleles were detected with a mean number of 5.5 alleles per locus. Twenty-four unique allelic patterns were observed, whereas six genotypes showed 15 unique alleles. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 0.98, whereas the mean number of discrimination power and polymorphic information content were 0.55 and 0.54, respectively. The combination of 5 simple sequence repeat markers made discrimination of 84% of all accessions included in the study possible. The existence of homonyms, synonyms, or mislabeling as well as intracultivar polymorphism was revealed by allele differences between accessions of the same denomination. The phenogram showed variability among as well as between some cultivars, but most accessions with the same generic names were grouped together.
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The study was carried out in a four-year-old super-high density olive grove in Central Italy to compare leaf gas exchanges of Spanish Arbequina and Italian Maurino olive cultivars. Overall, from mid July to mid November, Maurino had a slightly higher maximum light-saturated net photosynthetic rate (P Nmax) than Arbequina. The lowest and the highest P Nmax values were recorded at the end of July and in mid November, respectively. Current-season leaves showed similar or slightly higher P Nmax values than one-year-old leaves. During the day Maurino always had slightly higher values or values similar to Arbequina, with the highest P Nmax being in the morning. Maurino had similar or higher dark respiration rate (R D) values compared to Arbequina. During the day, in both cultivars the R D was lower at 9:00 than in the afternoon. The pattern of the photosynthetic irradiance-response curve was similar in the two genotypes, but the apparent quantum yield (Y Q) was higher in Maurino. In both cultivars intercellular CO2 concentration (C i) tended to increase when P Nmax decreased. The increase in C i corresponded to a decrease in stomatal conductance (g s). The transpiration rate (E) increased from mid July to the beginning of August, then decreased in September and increased again in November. Particularly in the morning, the current-season leaves showed similar or slightly higher E values than the one-year-old leaves. During the day, in both cultivars and at both leaf ages, E was higher in the afternoon. No effects on leaf gas exchanges due to the presence or absence of fruit on the shoot were found. Overall, there was satisfactory physiological adaptation for Arbequina to the conditions of Central Italy and for Maurino to the superintensive grove conditions.
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Thirty-two olive cultivar accessions from Syria, most of them obtained from collecting expeditions, were characterized by means of RAPD markers before being introduced in the World Germplasm Bank of Cordoba. A total of 79 polymorphic bands(6.1 polymorphisms per primer) out of 93(7.1 bands per primer) were scored for the13 primers used, corresponding to 84.9% of the amplification products. Thirty-one different genotypes were clearly discriminated. Differences were not found among the amplification profiles from different individuals of the same cultivar. Only two cases of mislabeling or errors of planting were found. Fourteen accessions corresponding to 6 homonyms were discriminated by RAPDs as different genotypes. The dendrogram obtained by RAPD analysis included three major groups. Some evidence of relationships of the Syrian accessions studied according to their geographic origin and/or diffusion was found. For instance, cultivars from the Central Syria (Tadmur/Palmyra)such as Toffahi', ‘Abbadi Abo Gabra’-1033,‘Abo Kanani’, ‘Shami’-1041, ‘Abbadi Shalal’ ‘Adgam’-844 and ‘Majhol’-1013 clustered in Group 1 and 2. Six cultivars from Northern Syria clustered in Group 2. But it was not found a geographic structure for the cultivars from South and West of Syria. These results agree with the hypothesis of autochthonous origin of most of the olive cultivars. Some associations between cultivars from Central Syria and their fruit size were observed. This suggests that fruit size was a criterion of local selection in olive cultivars of this area.
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The genetic relationships within and between wild and cultivated olives were examined and clarified in an isolated and restricted area, such as the Mediterranean island of Sardinia. Wild (21 individuals) and cultivated olive trees (22 local cultivars from a germplasm collection and 35 ancient trees) were genotyped by means of 13 SSR loci. Five cases of synonymy were observed and nine distinct genotypes were identified in the collection. Five novel genotypes were also detected among the ancient trees. Differences on the allelic composition and heterozygosity levels were found between wild and cultivated trees. Model-based clustering method classified the olive trees into two major gene pools: (a) wild genotypes and (b) local cultivars from the collection and from heritage olives. Regarding the cultivated plant material, we observed that: (a) most of the Sardinian cultivars shared the same allelic profiles with the ancient cultivated trees and (b) the majority of these cultivars and all the novel genotypes were not related to any other cultivars included in this study. These findings as well as the detection of unique alleles and a certain wild genetic background at some cultivars revealed by the Bayesian analysis may indicate their autochthonous origin. The synonymy cases found between local cultivars and Italian mainland cultivars indicate interchange of genetic material among these growing areas, suggesting thus a possible allochthonous origin. The information obtained can assist in the management of an olive collection and sheds some light on the survival of true oleasters and the origin of Sardinian cultivars.
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RAPD markers were used for the study of 19Albanian olive cultivars and two wild olives (oleasters). A total of 76polymorphic bands (4.8 polymorphic markers per primer) out of 107 reproducible were obtained using 16 primers. The number of bands per primer ranged from 4 to 10,whereas the number of polymorphic bands ranged from 1 to 9, corresponding to 71%of the total amplification products. All the accessions could be identified by the combination of four primers: OPA-19;OPA-02; OPK-16 and OPP-19. The dendrogram,based on Jaccard's index, included three major groups according to their origin: 1)most of the cultivars from the area of Berat (South of Albania) 2) cultivars from the Centre and Centre-North of Albania and3) cultivars from the Centre and North-West of Albania along with the oleaster from Elbasan. In order to evaluate the origin of Albanian cultivars they were compared to those diffused in other countries like Greece, Italy and Turkey, due to geographical and historical affinity among these countries, by using a one way AMOVA. Although most of the genetic diversity was attributable to differences among cultivars within each country (91.47%) significantφ-values among countries(φst = 0.085; p < 0.001)suggested the existence of RAPD phenotypic differentiation. Significant φ-values in all pairs formed by Albania with the other countries were observed. These results are consistent with the autochthonous origin of Albanian cultivars.
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Molecular markers (SSR, SNP and DArT) and agronomical traits have been used in the world’s largest olive (Olea europaea L.) germplasm collection (IFAPA, Centre Alameda del Obispo, Cordoba, Spain) to study the patterns of genetic diversity and underlying genetic structure among 361 olive accessions. In addition the marker data were used to construct a set of core collections by means of two different algorithms (MSTRAT and PowerCore) based on M (maximization) strategy. Our results confirm that the germplasm collection is a useful source of genetically diverse material. We also found that geographical origin is an important factor structuring genetic diversity in olive. Subsets of 18, 27, 36, 45 and 68 olive accessions, representing respectively 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 19% of the whole germplasm collection, were selected based on the information obtained by all the data set as well as each marker type considered individually. According to our results, the core collections that represent between 19% and 10% of the total collection size could be considered as optimal to retain the bulk of the genetic diversity found in this collection. Due to its high efficiency at capturing all the alleles/traits states found in the whole collection, the core size of 68 accessions could be of special interest for genetic conservation applications in olive. The high average genetic distance and diversity and the almost equal representation of accessions from different geographical regions indicate that the core size of 36 accessions, could be the working collection for olive breeders.
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Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the oldest trees could be a powerful tool both for germplasm collection and for understanding the earliest origins of clonally propagated fruit crops. The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a suitable model to study the origin of cultivars due to its long lifespan, resulting in the existence of both centennial and millennial trees across the Mediterranean Basin. The genetic identity and diversity as well as the phylogenetic relationships among the oldest wild and cultivated olives of southern Spain were evaluated by analysing simple sequence repeat markers. Samples from both the canopy and the roots of each tree were analysed to distinguish which trees were self-rooted and which were grafted. The ancient olives were also put into chronological order to infer the antiquity of traditional olive cultivars. Only 9·6 % out of 104 a priori cultivated ancient genotypes matched current olive cultivars. The percentage of unidentified genotypes was higher among the oldest olives, which could be because they belong to ancient unknown cultivars or because of possible intra-cultivar variability. Comparing the observed patterns of genetic variation made it possible to distinguish which trees were grafted onto putative wild olives. This study of ancient olives has been fruitful both for germplasm collection and for enlarging our knowledge about olive domestication. The findings suggest that grafting pre-existing wild olives with olive cultivars was linked to the beginnings of olive growing. Additionally, the low number of genotypes identified in current cultivars points out that the ancient olives from southern Spain constitute a priceless reservoir of genetic diversity.
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In this study, eighteen olive varieties, originating from Spain, France, Italy, Greece and Algeria, and maintained at the olive experimental station of Boughrara (arid region of Tunisia) were evaluated for their oil yield and fatty acid composition. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among varieties for all traits (p < 0.01). The Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) classified the varieties into three main groups. The first group included a subgroup which is composed of seven olive varieties (Cornezuelo, Verdial de Vélez-Málaga, Leccino, Coratina, Koroneiki, Lechín de Granada and Changlot Real) characterized by high oil yield with high oleic, low palmitic and linoleic acid contents. The fatty acid compositions of the oils from these varieties comply with international standards and show more beneficial characteristics than the oil obtained from Chemlali: the most abundant olive cultivar in Tunisia. Finally, the main fatty acids (palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2)) of nine of the studied virgin olive oils were compared to those sampled from their traditional areas. Except for Koroneiki and Olivière oils which showed an unchanged fatty acid composition and for Cornezuelo oil in which the level of oleic acid raised and the level of linoleic acid decreased, most of oils showed a decrease in oleic acid rates and an increase in palmitic and linoleic acid percentages as compared to those from their original sites.
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The increasing interest in the Mediterranean diet hinges on its healthy and anti-ageing properties. The composition of fatty acids, vitamins and polyphenols in olive oil, a key component of this diet, is considered a key feature of its healthy properties. Therefore, it is of significance that the Rod of Asclepius lying on a world map surrounded by olive tree branches has been chosen by the World Health Organization as a symbol of both peace and well-being. This review travels through most of the current and past research, recapitulating the biochemical and physiological correlations of the beneficial properties of olive tree (Olea europaea) polyphenols and their derivatives found in olive oil. The factors influencing the content and beneficial properties of olive oil polyphenols will also be taken into account together with their bioavailability. Finally, the data on the clinical and epidemiological relevance of olive oil and its polyphenols for longevity and against age- and lifestyle-associated pathologies such as cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases are reviewed.
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https://www.ishs.org/system/files/scripta-documents/sh_10.pdf
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39 natural forests of "carballo" (Quercus robur) and 40 of "rebollo" (Q. pyrenaica) were inventoried in Galicia, analyzing their types of soils, their chemical properties and content in macronutrients, using 16 edaphic parameters. The substrates are predominantly siliceous, with predominance of granites, schists and quartzites, being the dominant texture in forests of carballo the sandy one, with cambisol soils and slimesandy in rebollo with regosols. The parameters reflecting chemical properties have similar values in both cases, nevertheless, content in macronutrients, except phosphorus, is higher in forests of Q. pyrenaica.
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The regulated physicochemical quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide value and UV absorption characteristics), sensory parameters (median of fruity, median of defect, panel classification, bitterness and pungency), stability parameters (total phenols and oxidative stability at 100°C) and chemical composition (fatty acids, sterols and triterpenic dialcohols) of virgin olive oils obtained from 12 olive varieties cultivated in 6 of the most representative zones of Castilla-La Mancha (La Alcarria, Campos de Calatrava, Campos de Hellín, Campos de Montiel, Montes de Toledo and Sierra de Alcaraz) were evaluated. The varieties Cornicabra and Picual showed remarkable total polyphenols content and high stability, in contrast with Arbequina. The other less common varieties were in-between these two groups. Cornicabra and Picual showed also high oleic and low linoleic acids content, while Arbequina showed low oleic, high linoleic high palmitic and high palimitoleic acid content. The varieties Benizal and Cornicabra showed very high campesterol content. Benizal stood out by its high stigmasterol, low apparent β-sitosterol and low total sterols content, and the latter was below the established limit for olive oil. Triterpenic dialcohol content was significantly lower for Arbequina than for Cornicabra.
Chapter
The most widely grown cultivars worldwide are listed, accompanied by the major sources of information about them. Factors influencing cultivar productivity are briefly discussed, especially those related to self-sterility and cross-pollination. Common-sense recommendations are given concerning cultivar choice and plant certification. A clear-cut distinction is presented between new super-intensive and traditional semi-intensive olive groves.
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The current trend of the olive oil market is the production of high quality extra from traditional minor olive varieties with peculiar and differentiated characteristics (especially with respect to the aromatic and phenolic composition). In this way, the interest of Galician oil producers (NW Spain) in recovering old autochthonous Local olive fruits has increased substantially in recent years. In order to investigate the potential of the Local olives by either producing high quality monovarietal oils or mixing with the most widespread olives in Galicia (Arbequina and Picual cv.), quality indices, and fatty acid composition as well as volatile and phenolic profiles were determined and compared. All EVOOs studied in this work can be considered as “extra virgin olive oil” due to quality indices fell within the ranges established in legislation. Picual and Local olive oils as well as those resulting from their co-crushing reach values which are required by EU legislation to add the specific health claim on the oil label. Co-crushing Picual:Local (80:20) provided a significant enhancement of grass and apple nuances and a decrease of banana notes with respect to Picual oils. The co-crushing process improved sensory and health properties of Picual extra virgin olive oils. The effect of co-crushing on phenolics, ester volatiles and banana nuances cannot be easily modulated, contrary to quality indices and fatty acid composition, both changing linearly in strict correlation with the fruit mass ratio.
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Hydrophilic phenols are the most abundant natural antioxidants of virgin olive oil (VOO), in which, however, tocopherols and carotens are also present. The prevalent classes of hydrophilic phenols found in VOO are phenolic alcohols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans and secoiridoids. Secoiridoids including aglycon derivatives of oleuropein, demethyloleuropein and ligstroside, that are present in olive fruit, are the most abundant phenolic antioxidants of VOO. In this paper, the phenolic composition of VOO as well as the agronomic and technological parameters that affect their concentration in the oil are discussed. The olive cultivar and the ripening stage of fruit, in fact, have always been the most studied agronomic aspects that affect phenolic concentration in VOO. However, the malaxation conditions and the extraction systems used to separate oil from olive pastes (i.e. pressure three-phases and two-phases centrifugation systems) are also of great importance.
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The cultivar Oblonga may have originated from a volunteer seedling at an orchard near Coming, Calif., about 1940. Its main virtue is its high degree of resistance to Verticillium dahliae. 'Frantoio' is the main variety in Italy and has been planted worldwide because of its high content of top-quality oil. In the present study, we show that both cultivars have the same fifteen morphological and eight agronomical traits and both have amplified the same patterns for 22 RAPD primers and five SSRs. This indicates that 'Oblonga' and 'Frantoio' are probably the same cultivar.
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Background: The aim of this work was to evaluate the evolution of the quality of extra virgin olive oil obtained from a super-high-density Arbequina orchard, under a drip irrigation system, throughout the ripening process. For this objective, physicochemical, nutritional and sensory parameters were studied. In addition, the oxidative stability, pigment content and colour evolution of olive oil were analysed during the ripening process. Results: Free acidity increased slightly throughout the ripening process, while peroxide value and extinction coefficient decreased. Total phenol content and oxidative stability showed a similar trend, increasing at the beginning of ripening up to a maximum and thereafter decreasing. α-Tocopherol and pigment contents decreased with ripening, leading to changes in colour coordinates. Sensory parameters were correlated with total phenol content, following a similar trend throughout the maturation process. Conclusion: By sampling and monitoring the ripeness index weekly, it would be possible to determine an optimal harvesting time for olives according to the industrial yield and the physicochemical, nutritional and sensory properties of the olive oil.
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An increasing application of DNA fingerprinting in modern food biotechnology is the authentication of species and cultivars in commercial edible products. In this work we describe the genetic authentication of apple fruits from “Annurca” and “Annurca Rossa del Sud”, the leading varieties of the Italian Campania region, in two different highly-processed foodstuffs, nectar and purée. The identification was based on fluorescent-based capillary electrophoresis and automated size estimation of polymorphic DNA microsatellites. We selected 4 Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) able to distinguish 17 different apple accessions. Each SSR proved to be suitable to authenticate the presence of Annurca as ingredient in the analysed apple derivatives. This study represents the first application of DNA technology to the identification of apple cultivars in the agro-food chain.
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Three olive cultivars (Oliva Nera di Colletorto, Noccioluta, and a probably a new local genotype) from two strictly related areas of Molise region (south-centre of Italy) were characterized by combining molecular data (eight SSRs analyzed on leaves) and morphological features (thirty-one parameters from leaves, drupes and pits). Both molecular and morphological analyses have shown a very good separation of the three endemic cultivars. A high correlation between morphological and molecular data was found using Mantel's test. The morphological traits of pits were less influenced by environmental pressure than the leaves and drupes; therefore, the pits are more affected by genetic control and might be considered a helpful tool for cultivar characterization and identification. Potential and limitations of three statistical models computed to perform cultivar identification by morphological measures is also discussed. We demonstrated that molecular and morphological analyses are useful for distinguishing new accessions and studying local varieties to preserve genetic diversity, even at small geographical scale in such an unequivocal way; hence the methodology could be proposed as a tool to discriminate widespread cultivars, with long genetic distances.
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Fruits from three Tunisian cultivars of Olea europea L. grown in the southeast of Tunisia were harvested at the maturity stage of ripeness and immediately processed with a laboratory mill. There are as yet no data on the chemical composition of virgin olive oils from the southeast of Tunisia, an area characterized by an arid condition of growth for olive trees. Our results showed significant differences in the analytical parameters examined for the three cultivars such as fatty acid composition, total phenols and o-diphenols, and the content of chlorophylls and carotenoids, confirming the importance of genetic factors in the chemical characteristics of the oil. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was applied to the analysis of volatile compounds of virgin olive oils. Forty-eight compounds were isolated and characterized by GC-RI and GC-MS, representing 94.1–98.1% of the total amount. (E)-Hex-2-enal, the main compound extracted by SPME, characterized the olive oil headspace for all samples. So, it was clearly shown that there were qualitative and quantitative differences in the proportion of volatile constituents from oils of the various cultivars.
Article
Chemlali olive oil has been blended with oils obtained from Oueslati and Chetoui varieties to improve the quality of the former one. Parameters such as acidity, acids compositions, phenol content, oxidative stability and volatile compounds were characterised for various blends Chemlali × Oueslati and Chemlali × Chetoui. The accumulation of volatiles originating from the lipoxygenase pathway in the monovarietal oils was different and closely dependent on the genetic store of each variety. The concentrations appeared to proportionally vary according to the relative proportion of each monovarietal oil in the mixtures. The blending process improved fatty acids by increasing the oleic acid content and decreasing the palmitic and linoleic acids levels of Chemlali oil. At 40% blending, oleic acid increased from 54% to 62%, while palmitic acid decreased from 18.59% to 16% when Oueslati and Chetoui olive oil was used.
Article
Fatty acid compositional data for Greek virgin olive oils from 24 years of harvest and various regions and cultivars were evaluated using chemometric methods. Non-parametric discriminant analysis after proper transformation of the data seems to be a suitable approach to characterise the oils according to the geographical origin and may produce a scientific basis for the assignment of an ‘appellation d'origine’ trade mark.
Article
Seven polymorphic microsatellites were developed in olive. Six of them came from a genomic library enriched for GA and CA repeat sequences. They showed single locus polymorphism in a set of 23 olive cultivars (from six to nine alleles per locus). Three different pairs of loci were sufficient to discriminate all cultivars. The other polymorphic primer pair was designed from a published sequence for olive lupeol sgutase and revealed just two alleles. The seven primer pairs were tested on two accessions of five other species of the Oleaceae and three, EMO2, EMO13 and EMO90, revealed polymorphism in two, four and three species, respectively.
Article
The purpose of this investigation was to study differences in the chlorophyll, carotenoid, and phenolic fractions of virgin olive oils from the Arbequina variety cultivated in different olive growing areas of Spain. Virgin olive oil from Lleida was less heavily pigmented, and these oils showed more negative values for the ordinate a* (of the CIELAB colorimetric system). Pheophytin a was the major chlorophyll pigment, and lutein was the major component of the carotenoid fraction in all oils analyzed. The chlorophyll a concentration in virgin olive oils from Lleida was 700 μg kg−1, but was 175 μg kg−1 in oils from Jaén, and 200 μg kg−1 in oils from Tarragona. Finally, the chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratio was 9 in oils from Lleida and around 0.6 in the other two Arbequina olive oils. In relation to the phenolic fraction, the hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol contents were significantly higher in olive oils from Jaén (grown at higher altitude and precipitation rates). The secoiridoid derivatives showed a significantly higher concentration in olive oils from Tarragona, probably due to the low altitude where they grow, and finally the ratio of (dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to tyrosol)/lignans had a value of 1.4 in olive oils from Lleida, whereas this value was around 0.7 in the other Arbequina olive oils.
Article
The present study focuses on the influence of the olive crushing technique on the minor composition of olive pastes and their corresponding virgin olive oils since these compounds are strongly related to their quality and characteristics. Two different cultivars, Arbequina and Cornicabra—known for their different minor component composition—were processed at laboratory scale using hammer mills at various breakage forces and grid hole diameters, a blade cutter and a mortar. Crushing and kneading produce a profound change in the composition of the phenolic compounds in the olive paste and in the final oil. Hydroxytyrosol derivatives in virgin olive oil were most affected by the crushing conditions. The stronger the crushing conditions (i.e. hammer crushers using smaller grid holes and a higher rotation speed), the higher the phenolic content in both olive paste and oil in both varieties. Interestingly, the effect on volatile compounds of milder or stronger crushing conditions was opposite to that described for the phenolic compounds. KeywordsCrushing–Kneading–Olive paste–Virgin olive oil–Minor components
Article
Fifteen microsatellite loci were used to genotype 108 accessions of cultivated olive, Olea europaea L. ssp. europaea var. europaea, and eight of O. europaea L. ssp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) Ciferri, from the germplasm collection of the United States Department of Agriculture in Davis, California. Number of alleles per locus ranged from 3, for locus IAS-pOe12_A, to 16, for locus ssrOeUA-DCA11, with an overall mean of 9.93. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.175, for locus UDO99–019, to 0.937, for locus GAPU89, with a mean of 0.640. The cluster analysis using the Unweighted Pair Group Method using Arithmetic mean (UPGMA) method displayed thirteen clusters within seven main groups that can be partially described by common geographic origin or fruit use, though overlap among these groups was common. The locus-wise total gene diversity (H T) ranged from 0.319, at UDO99–019, to 0.847, at ssrOeUA-DCA3, with an overall mean of 0.696. Most of the gene diversity was partitioned within clusters, with proportions (H S/H T) ranging from 0.633, at IAS-pOe12_B, to 0.848 at GAPU89 per locus, with a mean of 0.759. The principal components analysis explained 24.8% of the total variation along the first two components. Projection of accessions onto the first two principal components produced affinities generally in agreement with the results of the UPGMA cluster analysis. The California cultivar ‘Mission’ clustered closely with Iberian cultivars and may represent clonal selections adapted to local growing conditions. The results show significant diversity but low levels of differentiation among olive cultivars within the collection.
Article
The chemical composition of Cornicabra virgin olive oils (n=181) from five successive crop seasons (from 1994/95 to 1998/99) and its relationship with quality and oxidative stability is examined. The main characteristics of Cornicabra olive oils were: a high oleic acid (80.4±1.0%, as mean and standard deviation) and low linoleic acid content (4.5±0.6%); high campesterol level (4.2±0.2%), exceeding the EU Regulation upper limit of 4%; large total phenol content (ranging from 19 to 380 mg/kg as caffeic acid for the commercial oils, and from 180 to 614 mg/kg for the Abencor oils), and oxidative stability ranging from 9 to 143 h, by Rancimat, for the commercial oils and from 18 to 193 h for the Abencor oils. Sensory evaluation showed that the total score of 35% of commercial Cornicabra olive oil was lower than the limit of 6.5 established for the ‘extra-virgin’ category, whereas the minimum score observed for Abencor oils was 6.8. This means that, although the majority of the chemical parameters fell within the limits established for the maximum olive oil category, with a few exceptions, significantly more of these olive oils fail the sensory minimum requirements for the highest category.
Article
Twenty-three important Ligurian olive accessions corresponding to 16 cultivars were studied using 12 SSR markers and 40 Mediterranean cultivars were included in the study in order to investigate the relationships between Ligurian and Mediterranean germplasm. All SSRs produced polymorphic amplifications. One hundred and forty-nine alleles were found in the 63 accessions analysed. Twenty-two alleles were specific to germplasm from Liguria and of these 12 were unique to single cultivars. Heterozygosity and discriminating power calculated in this regional germplasm were high on average (0.70 and 0.74) and not so much lower than the values in the total sample that includes cultivars from different Mediterranean countries (0.77 and 0.88 respectively). No cases of genetic identities were found between Ligurian and Mediterranean accessions. Several cases of homonyms and synonyms within the Ligurian germplasm were explained. Cluster analysis generally revealed a clear discrimination of the profiles from Liguria and Italy with respect to the cultivars from other Mediterranean countries. Only one Ligurian cultivar, “Negrea”, appeared to have a different origin, grouping with the Mediterranean cultivars.This study improved the knowledge about the Ligurian olive germplasm and highlighted the richness of olive genetic resources in small traditional areas of cultivation as Liguria.
Article
Olive cultivars are diversified but nothing is known on their origins and if they are local or introduced in any regions. The study aims to determine which traits may help to identify native from introduced cultivars and oleaster trees. We compared cultivars and oleasters from North Tunisia to determine their relationships based on morphological traits, oil composition and SSR genotyping at seven loci. We used those parameters to examine 32 cultivar trees from 17 denominations and 70 oleaster trees sampled. We used multivariate analysis, enabling to retain the best variables, to establish relationships among trees based on morphological and pomological parameters. Gas chromatography was used to determine fatty acid composition of 30 cultivar trees and 13 oleaster trees. We determined for one cultivar Gerboui the steady drupe, pit morphological and oil composition variation ranges in six different contrasted agro-systems. SSR genotyping was performed in polyacrylamide gels after fluorescent labelling. Based on morphology, oleaster trees from agro-ecosystems clustered broadly in an intermediate position between cultivars and oleasters from natural ecosystems. SSR revealed that the feral and genuine oleasters plus cultivars are always overlapping. Relationships between cultivars are displayed in two dendrograms. They revealed six and three main clusters based on Unweighted Pair Group Method (UPGMA) and Ward algorithm, respectively. They mix olive cultivar and oleaster trees suggesting kinship relationships between some cultivar and some oleaster trees. In contrast, on PCA, some morphological parameters split our sample approximately between olive and oleaster trees. Oil composition was similar between cultivar and oleaster trees. Kinship relationships between cultivar and oleaster trees based on molecular polymorphisms suggested that olive cultivars may have origin in local oleasters. Oil composition as fruit descriptors and drupe size appeared inefficient to discriminate between olive and oleaster trees, in comparison to SSR. Our results suggested several domestication events for the olive. It is important to know which cultivars have local origin to promote and sale products from Tunisia as from all around the Mediterranean basin.
Article
Cultivar identification is a primary concern for olive growers, breeders, and scientists. This study was aimed at examining the SSR markers retrieved from the literature and currently used in olive study, in order to select those most effective in characterizing the olive accessions and to make possible the comparison of data obtained by different laboratories. Olive microsatellite profiles were assessed by four independent laboratories, which analyzed 37 pre-selected SSR loci on a set of 21 cultivars. These SSR markers were initially tested for their reproducibility, power of discrimination and number of amplified loci/alleles. Independent segregation was tested for each pair of SSRs in a controlled cross and the allelic error rate was quantified. Some of them were finally selected as the most informative and reliable. Most of the alleles were sequenced and their sizes were determined. Profiles of the reference cultivars and a list of alleles with their sizes obtained by sequencing are reported. Several genetic parameters have been analysed on a larger set of cultivars allowing for a deeper characterization of the selected loci. Results of this study provide a list of recommended markers and protocols for olive genotyping as well as the allelic profile of a set of reference cultivars that would be useful for the establishment of a universal database of olive accessions.
Article
A small insert genomic library of Olea europaea L., highly enriched in (GA/CT) n repeats, was obtained using the procedure of Kandpal et al. (1994). The sequencing of 103 clones randomly extracted from this library allowed the identification of 56 unique genomic inserts containing simple sequence repeat regions made by at least three single repeats. A sample of 20 primer pairs out of the 42 available were tested for functionality using the six olive varieties whose DNA served for library construction. All primer pairs succeeded in amplifying at least one product from the six DNA samples, and ten pairs detecting more than one allele were used for the genetic characterisation of a panel of 20 olive accessions belonging to 16 distinct varieties. A total of 57 alleles were detected among the 20 genotypes at the ten polymorphic SSR loci. The remaining primer pair allowed the amplification of a single SSR allele for all accessions plus a longer fragment for some genotypes. Considering the simple sequence repeat polymorphism, 5.7 alleles were scored on average for each of the ten SSR loci. A genetic dissimilarity matrix, based on the proportion of shared alleles among all the pair-wise combinations of genotypes, was constructed and used to disentangle the genetic relationships among varieties by means of the UPGMA clustering algorithm. Graphical representation of the results showed the presence of two distinct clusters of varieties. The first cluster grouped the varieties cultivated on the Ionian Sea coasts. The second cluster showed two subdivisions: the first sub-cluster agglomerated the varieties from some inland areas of Calabria; the second grouped the remaining varieties from Basilicata and Apulia cultivated in nearby areas. Results of cluster analysis showed a significant relationship between the multilocus genetic similarities and the geographic origin of the cultivars.