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Abstract

The present study was designed to reveal whether long-term consumption of bitter apricot seeds causes changes in lipid profile and other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The study group consisted of 12 healthy adult volunteers (5 females and 7 males). The average age of women was 41.60 ± 11.28 years and the average age of men was 36.71 ± 13.70 years. Volunteers consumed 60 mg kg⁻¹ of body weight of bitter apricot seeds divided into 8–12 doses daily for 12 weeks. Volunteers were recruited from the general population of Slovak Republic. After 12 weeks, mean body weight of the participants increased from 77.34 to 78.22 kg (P > 0.05). The average total cholesterol levels decreased from 4.86 mmol L⁻¹ at the beginning of the study to 4.44 mmol L⁻¹ at the end of the study (P < 0.05). We did not observe any significant increase in high-density cholesterol (from 1.55 to 1.60 mmol L⁻¹). The average low-density cholesterol levels decreased from 2.93 mmol L⁻¹ at the beginning of the study to 2.31 mmol L⁻¹ at the end of the study (P < 0.001). Concentration of triglycerides increased significantly over the 12-week intervention period from 0.84 to 1.17 mmol L⁻¹. After the intervention, the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level decreased from 1.92 to 1.23 mg L⁻¹, but results were non-significant (P > 0.05). Creatine kinase serum levels increased from 2.31 to 2.77 mg L⁻¹ (P > 0.05) over the 12-week intervention period. The results suggest that regular intake of bitter apricot seeds may be considered potentially useful for prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

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... [18] Consequently, bitter apricot kernels exhibited a wide range of biological activities including antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-asthmatic, analgesic as well as in the prevention of heart diseases including atheresclerosis. [19][20][21] Diverse studies have reported the beneficial properties of apricot seeds [22] and their cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin on the treatment of female reproductive disorders such as endometriosis [23] and breast cancer. [24] Studies have also demonstrated the potential effect of short-term oral application of apricot kernels on renal structure in rabbits [25] , their influence on secretion of anterior pituitary hormones in female rabbits [26] , and their effect on endocrine profile. ...
... [9,11,12,34] However, very few studies have evaluated the effects of apricot seed consumption on human lipid profile and other risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) so far. Our previous reports described the effects of bitter apricot seeds consumption on body composition [35,36] , blood serum lipids and other risk factors for CVD [22,35] in healthy volunteers. Previous, an in vivo study was designed to reveal whether apricot seeds and amygdalin are able to cause changes in the endocrine profile and thus alter the key physiological and reproductive functions including ovarian steroidogenesis and their steroid hormones derived from cholesterol using rabbits as a biological model. ...
... The blood serum level of HDL-C did not change significantly after short-term apricot seeds consumption, too. In our previous studies [22,35] , consumption of bitter apricot seeds at 60 mg.kg À1 body weight also caused significant reductions (P < 0.05) in T-C and LDL-C levels in healthy volunteers after 6 and 12 weeks of consumption. ...
Article
Natural products have been attracting increasing attention in human diet, both due to the possible negative effects of synthetic food additives on human health and the increased consumer perception. Apricot seeds contain a wide variety of bioactive components and their consumption is associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of consumption of bitter apricot seeds on blood lipid and endocrine profile in Slovak women (n = 18, 41.60 ± 11.28 years) of reproductive age. Volunteers consumed 60 mg.kg-1 of body weight of bitter apricot seeds divided into 8-12 doses daily for 42 days. During the experiment, three blood collections were carried out (at the beginning of the experiment - day 0, and after 21 and 42 days of consumption apricot seeds). Lipid profile was measured in terms of - total cholesterol (T-C, enzymatic photometric method), low-density cholesterol (LDL-C, calculated using the Friedewald equation), high-density cholesterol (HDL-C, direct clearance method), triglycerides (TG, enzymatic colorimetric method) whereas endocrine profile - follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P4), 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone, and androstenedione was assessed by ELISA. The blood levels of T-C, HDL-C and T-C did not change significantly (P > 0.05), however, the level of LDL-C decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after 42 days. On the other hand, there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase of T-C and TG after 21 days. The blood level of FSH, testosterone and androstenedione increased significantly (P < 0.05) although the levels of LH, PRL, P4 and E2 did not change (P > 0.05) after 42 days. The level of PRL and testosterone significantly (P < 0.05) increased and E2 significantly decreased after 21 days of apricot seeds consumption. The study suggests that daily consumption of apricot seeds may affect plasma lipid and endocrine profile in women of reproductive age.
... taste into sweet, semi-bitter and bitter cultivars Kopčeková et al., 2018). ...
... In general, the consumption of apricot seeds is limited because of various levels of the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin (Miller, Anderson, & Stoewsand, 1981;Kolesárová et al., 2017;Tatli, Eyüpoğlu, & Hocagil, 2017). Amygdalin content in bitter apricot seeds has been reported to be approximately 3 or 4 % by weight (Hayta & Alpaslan, 2011), and amygdalin may even rise up to 8 % in these seeds (Kopčeková et al., 2018). Amygdalin is hydrolyzed in the process of digestion releasing two molecules of glucose, one molecule of benzaldehyde and one molecule of toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN; Yiğit, Yiğit, & Mavi, 2009;Lee et al., 2014). ...
Article
Apricot seeds due to the presence of cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin belong to the popular “alternative cancer cures", although anticancer effect of amygdalin remains controversial. This in vivo study points to the effect of long‐term peroral administration of bitter apricot seeds on bone microstructure of rabbits since chronic amygdalin toxicity in relation to bone parameters has not been investigated yet. Rabbits (n = 16) were randomly divided into four experimental groups of 4 animals each. Three experimental groups S1, S2 and S3 received commercial feed for rabbits mixed with crushed bitter apricot seeds at doses 60, 300 and 420 mg/kg bw during five months, respectively. The control (C) group received no apricot seeds. The long‐term consumption of apricot seeds had no impact on total body weight, femoral weight and femoral length of rabbits. Also, microcomputed tomography (3D analysis) of cortical and trabecular bone tissues did not reveal any significant impact of amygdalin toxicity on relative bone volume, BMD, cortical bone thickness, bone surface, trabecular number, thickness, and their separation. On the other hand, histological (2D) analysis demonstrated evident changes in cortical bone microstructure consistent with a decreased density of secondary osteons in the middle part of substantia compacta due to a replacement of Haversian bone tissue by plexiform bone tissue, vasoconstriction in the primary osteons' vascular canals, Haversian canals, and decreased sizes of secondary osteons in rabbits from S1, S2 and S3 groups. These negative changes are associated with different vascularization and biomechanical properties of cortical bones.
... Amygdalin (D-mandelonitrile-b-D-gentiobioside) is composed of two molecules of glucose, one benzaldehyde, which is an analgesic agent, and one hydrocyanic acid, that is considered an antineoplastic compound (7). This natural substance itself is non-toxic, but when decomposed by some enzymes, it produces hydrogen cyanide (8). ...
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Amygdalin is most commonly occurring cyanogenic glycoside. It is found in seeds of many plant species. Our study was aimed to reveal whether pure intramuscularly injected amygdalin or apricot seeds peroral exposure cause changes in bone microstructure of rabbits. Twenty clinically healthy 5 months-old male rabbits were segregated into five groups. Animals from groups A1 and A2 were intramuscularly injected with amygdalin at doses of 0.6 and 3 mg/kg b.w. daily for 28 days. The groups S1 and S2 received commercial feed for rabbits mixed with crushed bitter apricot seeds at doses of 60 and 300 mg/kg b.w. during 28 days. The control (C) group did not receive any amygdalin. Intramuscular and peroral amygdalin administration did not affect total body weight, femoral length and femoral weight of rabbits. Similarly, microcomputed tomography (3D analysis) has shown that amygdalin had insignificant effect on relative bone volume, bone mineral density, cortical bone thickness, bone surface, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, trabecular separation. However, histological (2D analysis) revealed evident changes in compact bone microstructure of amygdalin-exposed rabbits consistent with a different vascularization and changed biomechanical properties. We can conclude that subacute exposure to amygdalin (both intramuscular and peroral) at the doses used in our study influenced compact bone remodeling.
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Polyphenols-rich food has been utilized to induce a positive effect on human health. Considering that fruit and vegetable by-products (seeds, pomace, and peels) are sources of polyphenols, previous studies have investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with food by-products on cardiometabolic disorders, such as high fasting blood glucose, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Endothelial dysfunction has also been considered a cardiometabolic parameter, given that it precedes cardiovascular disease. However, there is a scarcity of narrative reviews reporting the effect of food by-product supplementation on cardiometabolic disorders in animal and human clinical trials. In this sense, the present narrative review aims to investigate the impact of fruit and vegetable by-product supplementation on cardiometabolic disorders in humans and animals, exploring the possible mechanisms whenever possible. Research articles were retrieved based on a search of the following databases: PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using the following keywords and synonyms combined: (“fruit by-products” or “food waste” or “pomace” or “bagasse” or “seeds” or “waste products”) AND (“heart disease risk factors” or “endothelial dysfunction” or “atherosclerosis”). It was shown that fruit and vegetable by-products could efficiently improve cardiometabolic disorders in patients with chronic diseases, including hypertension, type II diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Such effects can be induced by the polyphenols present in food by-products. In conclusion, food by-product supplementation has a positive effect on cardiometabolic disorders. However, further studies investigating the effect of food by-products on cardiometabolic disorders in humans are still necessary so that solid conclusions can be drawn.
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The present review summarizes the current knowledge on the provenance and properties, metabolism and toxicity, mechanism of action, physiological, and therapeutic roles of amygdalin—a molecule present in the seeds of apricot and other plants—with an emphasis on the action of amygdalin on reproductive processes, particularly in the female. Amygdalin influences physiological processes including female reproduction at various regulatory levels via extra- and intracellular signaling pathways regulating secretory activity, cell viability, steroidogenesis, proliferation, and apoptosis. On the other hand, while being metabolized in the body, amygdalin releases significant amounts of cyanide, which may lead to acute health hazard in those individuals who may be at risk. Despite some contradictions in the available data about benefits and toxic effects of amygdalin, its potential applicability at low doses may present a promising tool for regulation of various reproductive and other physiological processes including disease management primarily in cancer phytotherapy, animal production, medicine, and biotechnology. However, further research involving carefully designed dose–response studies is required to overcome the possible side effects of amygdalin and assure its safety as a therapeutic agent.
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Amygdalin is a plant glucoside isolated from the stones of rosaceous fruits, such as apricots, peaches, almond, cherries, and plums. To investigate the pain-relieving activity of amygdalin, we induced pain in rats through intraplantar injection of formalin, and evaluated the antinociceptive effect of amygdalin at doses of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 10.0 mg/kg-body weight by observing nociceptive behavior such as licking, biting and shaking, the number of Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the spinal cord, and the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the plantar skin. The intramuscular injection of amygdalin significantly reduced the formalin-induced tonic pain in both early (the initial 10 min after formalin injection) and late phases (10-30 min following the initial formalin injection). During the late phase, amygdalin did reduce the formalin-induced pain in a dose-dependent manner in a dose range less than 1 mg/kg. Molecular analysis targeting c-Fos and inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) also showed a significant effect of amygdalin, which matched the results of the behavioral pain analysis. These results suggest that amygdalin is effective at alleviating inflammatory pain and that it can be used as an analgesic with anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.
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Increased interest in the potential cardio-protective effects of fruit and vegetables is currently unsupported by systematic reviews of the reported associations of these foods with risk. All ecological, case-control, cohort studies and unconfounded trials in humans were eligible for inclusion. Eligible outcomes were symptomatic coronary heart disease, stroke and total circulatory disease. Only studies of diet that reported on fresh fruit and vegetables or a nutrient which could serve as a proxy (reversing the usual direction of inference) were included. MEDLINE (1966-1995) and EMBASE (1980-1995) were searched using the terms cerebrovascular disorder, coronary heart disease, fruit(s) and vegetable(s) as keywords. Personal bibliographies, books and reviews were also searched, as were citations in located reports. For coronary heart disease nine of ten ecological studies, two of three case-control studies and six of 16 cohort studies found a significant protective association with consumption of fruit and vegetables or surrogate nutrients. For stroke three of five ecological studies, none (of one) case-control study and six of eight cohort studies found a significant protective association with consumption of fruit and vegetables or surrogate nutrients. For total circulatory disease, one of two cohort studies reported a significant protective association. No attempt was made to arrive at a summary measure of the association because of the differences in study type, study quality and the different exposure measures used. Although null findings may be underreported the results are consistent with a strong protective effect of fruit and vegetables for stroke and a weaker protective effect on coronary heart disease. Greater use of food-based hypotheses and analyses, would complement existing nutrient-based analyses and help guide the search for underlying causes.
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This study analyses the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) associated with food intake patterns. A cohort study with follow-up in 1996 for first admission to hospital for a CHD diagnosis or death caused by CHD (280 cases). Three food patterns were identified from a food frequency questionnaire: (1) a predefined healthy food index; (2) a prudent diet (reflecting frequent intakes of wholemeal cereals, fruit and vegetables); and (3) a Western food pattern (reflecting frequent intakes of meat products, butter and white bread) derived by factor analysis. Both factor scores had a mean of zero and a standard deviation of 1. Copenhagen County, Denmark. A random sample of 7316 adults participated in health examinations conducted either in 1982-1984, 1987, or 1991-1992. The healthy food index and the Western pattern were not associated with CHD. The prudent pattern was associated with a decreased risk of CHD (Hazard ratio (HR per score unit increase)=0.85; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.75, 0.96), but the association vanished (HR=1.06; 95% CI, 0.93, 1.21) after controlling for confounding. Body mass index (BMI) modified the effect of the prudent and the Western patterns on CHD risk, suggesting an inverse association between both patterns and CHD in persons with low BMI, while the risk of CHD seemed to be positively related to the prudent and the Western pattern in those with high BMIs. This study showed no association between dietary patterns and CHD risk, but suggests that BMI modifies the relation between diet and CHD risk.
Article
Background: Increased interest in the potential cardio-protective effects of fruit and vegetables is currently unsupported by systematic reviews of the reported associations of these foods with risk. Method: All ecological, case-control, cohort studies and unconfounded trials in humans were eligible for inclusion. Eligible outcomes were symptomatic coronary heart disease, stroke and total circulatory disease. Only studies of diet that reported on fresh fruit and vegetables or a nutrient which could serve as a proxy (reversing the usual direction of inference) were included. MEDLINE (1966-1995) and EMBASE (1980-1995) were searched using the terms cerebrovascular disorder, coronary heart disease, fruit(s) and vegetable(s) as keywords. Personal bibliographies, books and reviews were also searched, as were citations in located reports. Results: For coronary heart disease nine of ten ecological studies, two of three case-control studies and six of 16 cohort studies found a significant protective association with consumption of fruit and vegetables or surrogate nutrients. For stroke three of five ecological studies, none (of one) case-control study and six of eight cohort studies found a significant protective association with consumption of fruit and vegetables or surrogate nutrients. For total circulatory disease, one of two cohort studies reported a significant protective association. No attempt was made to arrive at a summary measure of the association because of the differences in study type, study quality and the different exposure measures used. Conclusions: Although null findings may be underreported the results are consistent with a strong protective effect of fruit and vegetables for stroke and a weaker protective effect on coronary heart disease. Greater use of food-based hypotheses and analyses, would complement existing nutrient-based analyses and help guide the search for underlying causes.
Article
Consumption of healthy dietary patterns has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Dietary intervention targets disease prevention, so studies increasingly use biomarkers of underlying inflammation and MetS progression to examine the diet-health relationship. The extent to which these biomarkers contribute to the body of evidence on healthy dietary patterns is unknown. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of healthy dietary patterns on biomarkers associated with adiposity, insulin resistance, and inflammation in adults. A systematic search of Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (all years to April 2015) was conducted. Inclusion criteria were: randomized controlled trials; effects of dietary patterns assessed on: C-reactive protein (CRP), total adiponectin, high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, adiponectin:leptin, resistin, or retinol binding protein 4. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to assess the weighted mean differences (WMD) in change or final mean values for each outcome. Seventeen studies were included in the review. These reflected research on dietary patterns associated with the Mediterranean diet, Nordic diet, Tibetan diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern was associated with significant reductions in CRP (WMD:-0.75 (−1.16, −0.35), p=0.0003). Non-significant changes were found for all other biomarkers. This analysis found evidence for favorable effects of healthy dietary patterns on CRP, with limited evidence for other biomarkers. Future research should include additional randomized controlled trials incorporating a greater range of dietary patterns and biomarkers.
Article
Background— Although recent studies have indicated that nut consumption may improve levels of blood lipids, nuts are not generally recommended as snacks for hyperlipidemic subjects because of their high fat content. Furthermore, the effective dose is still unknown. Methods and Results— The dose-response effects of whole almonds, taken as snacks, were compared with low-saturated fat (<5% energy) whole-wheat muffins (control) in the therapeutic diets of hyperlipidemic subjects. In a randomized crossover study, 27 hyperlipidemic men and women consumed 3 isoenergetic (mean 423 kcal/d) supplements each for 1 month. Supplements provided 22.2% of energy and consisted of full-dose almonds (73±3 g/d), half-dose almonds plus half-dose muffins, and full-dose muffins. Fasting blood, expired air, blood pressure, and body weight measurements were obtained at weeks 0, 2, and 4. Mean body weights differed <300 g between treatments. The full-dose almonds produced the greatest reduction in levels of blood lipids. Significant reductions from baseline were seen on both half- and full-dose almonds for LDL cholesterol (4.4±1.7%, P=0.018, and 9.4±1.9%, P<0.001, respectively) and LDL:HDL cholesterol (7.8±2.2%, P=0.001, and 12.0±2.1%, P<0.001, respectively) and on full-dose almonds alone for lipoprotein(a) (7.8±3.5%, P=0.034) and oxidized LDL concentrations (14.0±3.8%, P<0.001), with no significant reductions on the control diet. No difference was seen in pulmonary nitric oxide between treatments. Conclusions— Almonds used as snacks in the diets of hyperlipidemic subjects significantly reduce coronary heart disease risk factors, probably in part because of the nonfat (protein and fiber) and monounsaturated fatty acid components of the nut.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities of water, methanol, and ethanol extracts of sweet apricot and bitter almond kernels. The fruit extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activities using various antioxidant methodologies including phosphomolybdenum assay (total antioxidant capacity), free radical scavenging assay, ferric ion reducing power, and β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching test system. The antioxidant capacity of the sweet apricot kernels was better than those recorded for bitter almond ones. The highest total antioxidant activity (59.53 mg/g dry extract), ferric ion reducing power (1.626), antioxidant index (67%), total phenolic content (3.290 mg/g dry extract), and total lycopene content (4.70mg/mL) were detected in the aqueous extract of sweet apricot kernels. The antimicrobial activities of the above extracts were also tested against some pathogenic microorganisms using a disc-diffusion method. Additionally, the extracts of sweet apricot and bitter almond kernels could inhibit the growth of human breast (MCF-7), colon (HCT-116), and hepatocellular (Hep-G2) carcinoma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner with different sensitivity between cell lines. The overall results indicate promising baseline information for the potential uses of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) fruit extracts in the treatment of infectious diseases and tumors.
Article
The growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis brought by amygdalin and activated with β-d-glucosidase were tested for cytoactivity in HepG2 cells. The MTT viability assay showed that all samples had effects on HepG2 proliferation in dose and time response manners. IC50 of stand-alone amygdalin and activation with β-d-glucosidase on the proliferation of HepG2 cells for 48 h were 458.10 mg/mL and 3.2 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, apoptotic cells were determined by AO/EB (acridine orange/ethidium bromide) fluorescent staining method and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining flow cytometry cell cycle analysis. With increasing of amygdalin concentration and the incubation time, the apoptotic rate was heightened. Compared with the control, there was significant difference (p < 0.01). Together, these findings indicate that amygdalin had no strong anti-HepG2 activity; however the ingredients of amygdalin activated with β-d-glucosidase had a higher and efficient anti-HepG2 activity. It was therefore suggested that this combination strategy may be applicable for treating tumors with a higher activity.
Article
Four minor components, along with the major cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin and prunasin, were isolated from Prunus persica seeds (Persicae Semen; Tounin), and characterized as mandelic acid glycosides (beta-gentiobioside and beta-D-glucoside) and benzyl alcohol glycosides (beta-gentiobioside and beta-D-glucoside). The anti-tumor promoting activity of these compounds was examined in both in vitro and in vivo assays. All of the compounds significantly inhibited the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation induced by tumor promoter. In addition, they produced a delay of two-stage carcinogenesis on mouse skin that was comparable in potency to (-)-epigallo-catechin gallate from green tea. Structure-activity relationships indicated that a substituent at the benzylic. position with glycosidic linkage affected the in vitro and in vivo activities with an order of enhancing potency, CN<COOH<H.
Article
CVDs, including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, currently represent the major causes of mortality and morbidity all over the world. In Europe, CVDs are responsible for 43% of deaths in men and 55% in women and for 30% of all deaths before the age of 65 years. CVD burden could be substantially reduced by early diagnosis and appropriate measures, since atherosclerotic lesions may be substantially improved in response to measures taken. CVD results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors; some factors vary between different ethnic groups. Plasma lipid profile is an important, but certainly not the only, risk factorfor CVD. Prevention includes healthy lifestyle: no smoking, weight control, physical activity, and healthy dietary intake; control of blood pressure, plasma glucose, and inflammation is important; The Mediterranean diet is a good example of healthy dietary pattern. Components of the Mediterranean diet may be adapted to nutritional habits of different countries, taking into account differences of taste and culture.The benefits of a healthy lifestyle exceed, but are additive to, those of medical treatment.
Article
The isomaltose trichloroacetimidate 7 was synthesized in five steps from d-amygdalin. The key step in this series of reactions was the acid catalyzed rearrangement of the inter-glycosydic bond to give the thermodynamically more stable α-anomer. The reaction was also applied to different di-, tri-, and tetrasaccharide derivatives of amygdalin giving the corresponding rearrangement products.
Article
The antioxidant properties of peeled, defatted and roasted apricot kernel flours were evaluated by determining radical scavenging power (RSP), anti-lipid peroxidative activity (ALPA), reducing power (RP), total phenolic content (TPC), assessed by DPPH test, β-carotene bleaching method, iron (III to II) reducing test and Folin method, respectively. Browning degree of the samples was also measured and found to increase almost linearly with the roasting time. Contrary to browning degree, RSP, RP and TPC did not increase linearly but showed a maximum for 10 min of roasting. Roasting reduced the ALPA values, thus unroasted sample showed the highest ALPA value. RSP, RP and TPC measurements of all samples, were in high correlation (at least, r = 0.92).
Article
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential cardioprotective effects of apricot kernel oil (AO) on the myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) of rat model in vivo. The rats were divided into five groups: sham-operated, IR, low dose AO-treated IR (LD-AO+IR), medium dose AO-treated IR (MD-AO+IR) and high dose AO-treated IR (HD-AO+IR). All rats were provided with food and water ad libitum. The LD-AO+IR, MD-AO+IR and HD-AO+IR groups were given a daily dose of 2, 6 and 10 ml kg(-1)BW(-1) of AO, respectively, for 14 days prior to the IR operation. Tetrazolium chloride staining revealed that infarct size and the ratio of infarct weight to the total heart weight were decreased significantly in the three AO-treated groups compared to the IR group. The serum creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities also demonstrated similar beneficial effects. Myocardial catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and constitutive nitric oxide synthase activities, as well as NO concentrations, were all increased, whereas malondialdehyde content and inducible nitric oxide synthase were decreased in AO-treated rats. These findings suggest that apricot kernel oil has potent cardioprotective effects, and could be developed as a nutriment for the treatment and prevention of myocardial infarcts.
Article
Fourteen apricot genotypes grown under similar cultural practices in Trans-Himalayan Ladakh region were studied to find out the influence of genotype on antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) of apricot kernel. The kernels were found to be rich in TPC ranging from 92.2 to 162.1 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g. The free radical-scavenging activity in terms of inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) ranged from 43.8 to 123.4 mg/ml and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) from 154.1 to 243.6 FeSO(4).7H(2)O μg/ml. A variation of 1-1.7 fold in total phenolic content, 1-2.8 fold in IC(50) by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and 1-1.6 fold in ferric reducing antioxidant potential among the examined kernels underlines the important role played by genetic background for determining the phenolic content and antioxidant potential of apricot kernel. A positive significant correlation between TPC and FRAP (r=0.671) was found. No significant correlation was found between TPC and IC(50); FRAP and IC(50); TPC and physical properties of kernel. Principal component analysis demonstrated that genotypic effect is more pronounced towards TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) content in apricot kernel while the contribution of seed and kernel physical properties are not highly significant.
Article
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in the regulation of T cell-mediated immune responses in atherosclerosis, a chronic autoimmune-like disease. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of amygdalin on atherosclerosis of apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice, and to explore its immune regulatory function by stimulation of Tregs. To evaluate the anti-atherosclerotic effect of amygdalin and for in vivo Treg expansion/activation analysis, ApoE(-/-) mice received intraperitoneal injections of amygdalin, and this therapy resulted in a comparatively 2-fold decrease in triglyceride (TG), 1.5-fold decrease in total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein (LDL). By comparing the vessel areas, lumen areas, plaque areas, and aortic plaque coverage percentage, the effects of amygdalin on pre-existing lesions were assessed. Studies on IL-10 and TGF-β indicated that mice treated with amygdalin had increased expression of Treg-related cytokines. Meanwhile, flow cytometry and real-time PCR data showed that mice treated with amygdalin had higher percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells than untreated mice and increased expression of forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) gene. Our data showed amygdalin could attenuate the development of atherosclerosis by suppressing inflammatory responses and promoting the immunomodulation function of Tregs. The effects of amygdalin ultimately resulted in the enlarged lumen area and the loss of atherosclerotic plaque. All these data indicated the therapeutic potential of amygdalin in preventing and/or treating of atherosclerosis.
Article
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the single largest cause of death in the developed countries and is one of the leading causes of disease burden in developing countries. In 2001, there were 7.3 million deaths due to CHD worldwide. Three-fourths of global deaths due to CHD occurred in the low- and middle-income countries. The rapid rise in CHD burden in most of the low- and middle-income countries is due to socio-economic changes, increase in lifespan, and acquisition of lifestyle-related risk factors. The CHD death rate, however, varies dramatically across the developing countries. The varying incidence, prevalence, and mortality rates reflect the different levels of risk factors, other competing causes of death, availability of resources to combat cardiovascular disease, and the stage of epidemiologic transition that each country or region finds itself. The economic burden of CHD is equally large but solutions exist to manage this growing burden.
Article
To determine whether the lipid abnormalities observed in obese adolescents are associated with insulin resistance. We evaluated the relationship between lipid levels and insulin resistance in 82 obese adolescents. Insulin resistance was assessed by fasting insulin level and sum of the insulin values after an oral glucose tolerance test in all 82, and were compared with data from 40 nonobese adolescents. Whole-body glucose uptake during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia (M value) was performed in 19 of the obese adolescents and compared with that of 24 nonobese young adults. The obese adolescents had significantly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (3.09 +/- 0.73 mmol/L; 119 +/- 28.2 mg/dl) and triglycerides (1.22 +/- 0.62 mmol/L; 108 +/- 54.6 mg/dl) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (0.94 +/- 0.24 mmol/L; 36 +/- 9.1 mg/dl) when compared with values in the nonobese subjects. M values were significantly depressed in the obese compared with the nonobese subjects. Adiposity significantly correlated with low HDL-C and elevated triglyceride values. From the variables representing insulin resistance, the strongest correlation with the abnormal lipid profile was found for the M value. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the M value was the only step entered into the relationship for triglycerides and LDL-C, and both M value and fasting insulin were entered for HDL-C. In obese adolescents the degree of insulin resistance explains a significant portion of the variance in the levels of triglycerides, LDL-C, and HDL-C.
Article
To estimate by how much and how quickly a given reduction in serum cholesterol concentration will reduce the risk of ischaemic heart disease. Data on the incidence of ischaemic heart disease and serum cholesterol concentration were analysed from 10 prospective (cohort) studies, three international studies in different communities, and 28 randomised controlled trials (with mortality data analysed according to allocated treatment to ensure the avoidance of bias). Decrease in incidence of ischaemic heart disease or mortality for a 0.6 mmol/l (about 10%) decrease in serum cholesterol concentration. For men results from the cohort studies showed that a decrease of serum cholesterol concentration of 0.6 mmol/l (about 10%) was associated with a decrease in incidence of ischaemic heart disease of 54% at age 40 years, 39% at age 50, 27% at 60, 20% at 70, and 19% at 80. The combined estimate from the three international studies (for ages 55-64 years) was 38% (95% confidence interval 33% to 42%), somewhat greater than the cohort study estimate of 27%. The reductions in incidence of ischaemic heart disease in the randomised trials (for ages 55-64 years) were 7% (0 to 14%) in the first two years, 22% (15% to 28%) from 2.1-5 years, and 25% (15% to 35%) after five years, the last estimate being close to the estimate of 27% for the long term reduction from the cohort studies. The data for women are limited but indicate a similar effect. The results from the cohort studies, international comparisons, and clinical trials are remarkably consistent. The cohort studies, based on half a million men and 18,000 ischaemic heart disease events, estimate that a long term reduction in serum cholesterol concentration of 0.6 mmol/l (10%), which can be achieved by moderate dietary change, lowers the risk of ischaemic heart disease by 50% at age 40, falling to 20% at age 70. The randomised trials, based on 45,000 men and 4000 ischaemic heart disease events show that the full effect of the reduction in risk is achieved by five years.
Article
Since inflammation is believed to have a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular events, measurement of markers of inflammation has been proposed as a method to improve the prediction of the risk of these events. We conducted a prospective, nested case-control study among 28,263 apparently healthy postmenopausal women over a mean follow-up period of three years to assess the risk of cardiovascular events associated with base-line levels of markers of inflammation. The markers included high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum amyloid A, interleukin-6, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (sICAM-1). We also studied homocysteine and a variety of lipid and lipoprotein measurements. Cardiovascular events were defined as death from coronary heart disease, nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke, or the need for coronary-revascularization procedures. Of the 12 markers measured, hs-CRP was the strongest univariate predictor of the risk of cardiovascular events; the relative risk of events for women in the highest as compared with the lowest quartile for this marker was 4.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 2.2 to 8.9). Other markers significantly associated with the risk of cardiovascular events were serum amyloid A (relative risk for the highest as compared with the lowest quartile, 3.0), sICAM-1 (2.6), interleukin-6 (2.2), homocysteine (2.0), total cholesterol (2.4), LDL cholesterol (2.4), apolipoprotein B-100 (3.4), HDL cholesterol (0.3), and the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (3.4). Prediction models that incorporated markers of inflammation in addition to lipids were significantly better at predicting risk than models based on lipid levels alone (P<0.001). The levels of hs-CRP and serum amyloid A were significant predictors of risk even in the subgroup of women with LDL cholesterol levels below 130 mg per deciliter (3.4 mmol per liter), the target for primary prevention established by the National Cholesterol Education Program. In multivariate analyses, the only plasma markers that independently predicted risk were hs-CRP (relative risk for the highest as compared with the lowest quartile, 1.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.1) and the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (relative risk, 1.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.9). The addition of the measurement of C-reactive protein to screening based on lipid levels may provide an improved method of identifying persons at risk for cardiovascular events.
Article
Atherosclerosis is the deposition of plaques containing cholesterol and lipids in arterial walls. Atherosclerosis causes cardiovascular disease that lead to heart attacks and stroke. Mortality from these diseases is the leading cause of death in the U.S. Atherogenisis starts with the uptake of oxidized LDL by endothelial macrophages, the accumulation of foam cells in the intima of the artery and the formation of fatty streaks. Research indicates that consumption of flavonoids in foods and beverages may decrease the risk of atherosclerosis. In vitro and in vivo experiments with flavonoids demonstrate that flavonoids are dietary antioxidants and inhibit LDL oxidation, inhibit platelet aggregation and adhesion, inhibit enzymes involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism that affect the immune response to oxidized LDL and their uptake by endothelial macrophages, may induce endothelium-dependent vassorelaxation, and may increase reverse cholesterol transport and decrease total and LDL cholesterol. Cranberries contain both hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. The cranberry flavonoids belong to three groups: anthocyanins, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins. This article reviews the literature on the effects of flavonoids on atherosclerosis with an emphasis on the potential effects of the flavonols and proanthocyanidins in cranberries.
Article
Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been shown to elevate C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Several inflammatory biomarkers, including CRP, are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. However, whether the effect of HRT on CRP represents a clinical hazard is unknown. To assess the association between baseline levels of CRP and interleukin 6 (IL-6) and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and to examine the relationship between baseline use of HRT, CRP, and IL-6 levels as they relate to subsequent vascular risk. Prospective, nested case-control study of postmenopausal women, forming part of the Women's Health Initiative, a large, nationwide, observational study. Among 75 343 women with no history of cardiovascular disease or cancer, 304 women who developed incident CHD were defined as cases and matched by age, smoking status, ethnicity, and follow-up time with 304 study participants who remained event free during a median observation period of 2.9 years. Incidence of first myocardial infarction or death from CHD. Median baseline levels of CRP (0.33 vs 0.25 mg/dL; interquartile range [IQR], 0.14-0.71 vs 0.10-0.47; P<.001) and IL-6 (1.81 vs 1.47 pg/mL; IQR, 1.30-2.75 vs 1.05-2.15; P<.001) were significantly higher among cases compared with controls. In matched analyses, the odds ratio (OR) for incident CHD in the highest vs lowest quartile was 2.3 for CRP (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.7; P for trend =.002) and 3.3 for IL-6 (95% CI, 2.0-5.5; P for trend <.001). After additional adjustment for lipid and nonlipid risk factors, both inflammatory markers were significantly associated with a 2-fold increase in odds for CHD events. As anticipated, current use of HRT was associated with significantly elevated median CRP levels. However, there was no association between HRT and IL-6. In analyses comparing individuals with comparable baseline levels of either CRP or IL-6, those taking or not taking HRT had similar CHD ORs. In analyses stratified by HRT, we observed a positively graded relationship between plasma CRP levels and the OR for CHD among both users and nonusers of HRT across the full spectrum of baseline CRP. These prospective findings indicate that CRP and IL-6 independently predict vascular events among apparently healthy postmenopausal women and that HRT increases CRP. However, use or nonuse of HRT had less importance as a predictor of cardiovascular risk than did baseline levels of either CRP or IL-6.
Article
Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains the leading cause of mortality in industrialized countries and is rapidly becoming a primary cause of death worldwide. Thus, identification of the dietary changes that most effectively prevent CHD is critical. To review metabolic, epidemiologic, and clinical trial evidence regarding diet and CHD prevention. We searched MEDLINE through May 2002 for epidemiologic and clinical investigations of major dietary factors (fat, cholesterol, omega-3 fatty acids, trans-fatty acids, carbohydrates, glycemic index, fiber, folate, specific foods, and dietary patterns) and CHD. We selected 147 original investigations and reviews of metabolic studies, epidemiologic studies, and dietary intervention trials of diet and CHD. Data were examined for relevance and quality and extracted by 1 of the authors. Compelling evidence from metabolic studies, prospective cohort studies, and clinical trials in the past several decades indicates that at least 3 dietary strategies are effective in preventing CHD: substitute nonhydrogenated unsaturated fats for saturated and trans-fats; increase consumption of omega-3 fatty acids from fish, fish oil supplements, or plant sources; and consume a diet high in fruits, vegetables, nuts, and whole grains and low in refined grain products. However, simply lowering the percentage of energy from total fat in the diet is unlikely to improve lipid profile or reduce CHD incidence. Many issues remain unsettled, including the optimal amounts of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, the optimal balance between omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fats, the amount and sources of protein, and the effects of individual phytochemicals, antioxidant vitamins, and minerals. Substantial evidence indicates that diets using nonhydrogenated unsaturated fats as the predominant form of dietary fat, whole grains as the main form of carbohydrates, an abundance of fruits and vegetables, and adequate omega-3 fatty acids can offer significant protection against CHD. Such diets, together with regular physical activity, avoidance of smoking, and maintenance of a healthy body weight, may prevent the majority of cardiovascular disease in Western populations.
Article
The metabolic syndrome describes a high-risk population having 3 or more of the following clinical characteristics: upper-body obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL, hypertension, and abnormal glucose. All of these attributes, however, are associated with increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). We evaluated interrelationships between CRP, the metabolic syndrome, and incident cardiovascular events among 14 719 apparently healthy women who were followed up for an 8-year period for myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, or cardiovascular death; 24% of the cohort had the metabolic syndrome at study entry. At baseline, median CRP levels for those with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 characteristics of the metabolic syndrome were 0.68, 1.09, 1.93, 3.01, 3.88, and 5.75 mg/L, respectively (P(trend) <0.0001). Over the 8-year follow-up, cardiovascular event-free survival rates based on CRP levels above or below 3.0 mg/L were similar to survival rates based on having 3 or more characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. At all levels of severity of the metabolic syndrome, however, CRP added prognostic information on subsequent risk. For example, among those with the metabolic syndrome at study entry, age-adjusted incidence rates of future cardiovascular events were 3.4 and 5.9 per 1000 person-years of exposure for those with baseline CRP levels less than or greater than 3.0 mg/L, respectively. Additive effects for CRP were also observed for those with 4 or 5 characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. The use of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome had minimal impact on these findings. These prospective data suggest that measurement of CRP adds clinically important prognostic information to the metabolic syndrome.
Article
“Life is the art of drawing sufficient conclusions from insufficient premises”—Samuel Butler The French paradox is the observation of low coronary heart disease (CHD) death rates despite high intake of dietary cholesterol and saturated fat.1,2 The French paradox concept was formulated by French epidemiologists3 in the 1980s. France is actually a country with low CHD incidence and mortality (table 1). The mean energy supplied by fat was 38% in Belfast and 36% in Toulouse in 1985–86.4 More recently, in 1995–97, the percentage of energy from fat was 39% in Toulouse according to a representative population survey. View this table: Table 1 Age standardised coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and event rate in selected European regions (men, aged 35–64 years) The first source of error could come from an underestimated CHD mortality. According to this hypothesis, French physicians may not declare all the CHD deaths as CHD. If standardised data—for example those provided by the MONICA (monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease) project—are used, the results concerning CHD attack and mortality rates show that France is at a low risk for CHD (table 1). Under certification of CHD deaths in France is a possible bias, but after correction, it remains a low bias. Thus, validated data on CHD mortality and incidence show that France is characterised by CHD risk, corroborating the first part of the French paradox definition. In correlation studies, measures that represent characteristics of an entire population (consumption of animal fat, daily milk, and alcohol) are used to describe disease (CHD mortality). Limitations of correlational studies are the inability to link exposure with disease in particular individuals, the lack of ability to control the effects of potential confounding factors, and the use of average exposure levels rather than actual individual values. Numerous correlation studies have been carried out …
Article
Armeniacae semen is the seed of Prunus armeniaca L. var. ansu MAXIM which is classified into Rosaceae. In traditional oriental medicine, Armeniacae semen has been used for the treatment of pain and inflammatory diseases. In this study, the effect of Armeniacae semen extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation was investigated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, prostaglandin E2 immunoassay, and nitric oxide detection on mouse BV2 microglial cells. In the present results, Armeniacae semen extract suppressed prostaglandin E2 synthesis and nitric oxide production by inhibiting the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated enhancement of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression in BV2 cells. These results show that Armeniacae semen exerts anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects probably by suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expressions.
Article
Salicin in the bark extract of Salix alba and amygdalin in the fruit extract of Semen armeniacae were each separated by slow rotary counter-current chromatography (SRCCC). The apparatus was equipped with a 40-L column made of 17 mm i.d. convoluted Teflon tubing. A 500g amount of crude extract containing salicin at 13.5% was separated yielding 63.5 g of salicin at 95.3% purity in 20h using methyl tert-butyl ether-l-butanol (1:3) saturated by methanol-water (1:5) as a stationary phase and methanol-water (1:5) saturated by methyl tert-butyl ether-1-butanol (1:3) as a mobile phase. A 400g amount of crude extract containing amygdalin at 55.3% was isolated to yield 221.2g of amygdalin at 94.1% purity in 19h using ethyl acetate-1-butanol (1:2) saturated by water as a stationary phase and water saturated by ethyl acetate-1-butanol (1:2) as a mobile phase. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 50 ml/min. The results show that industrial SRCCC separation of salicin and amygdalin is feasible using a larger column at a higher flow rate of the mobile phase.
Article
Results of previous randomised trials have shown that interventions that lower LDL cholesterol concentrations can significantly reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and other major vascular events in a wide range of individuals. But each separate trial has limited power to assess particular outcomes or particular categories of participant. A prospective meta-analysis of data from 90,056 individuals in 14 randomised trials of statins was done. Weighted estimates were obtained of effects on different clinical outcomes per 1.0 mmol/L reduction in LDL cholesterol. During a mean of 5 years, there were 8186 deaths, 14,348 individuals had major vascular events, and 5103 developed cancer. Mean LDL cholesterol differences at 1 year ranged from 0.35 mmol/L to 1.77 mmol/L (mean 1.09) in these trials. There was a 12% proportional reduction in all-cause mortality per mmol/L reduction in LDL cholesterol (rate ratio [RR] 0.88, 95% CI 0.84-0.91; p<0.0001). This reflected a 19% reduction in coronary mortality (0.81, 0.76-0.85; p<0.0001), and non-significant reductions in non-coronary vascular mortality (0.93, 0.83-1.03; p=0.2) and non-vascular mortality (0.95, 0.90-1.01; p=0.1). There were corresponding reductions in myocardial infarction or coronary death (0.77, 0.74-0.80; p<0.0001), in the need for coronary revascularisation (0.76, 0.73-0.80; p<0.0001), in fatal or non-fatal stroke (0.83, 0.78-0.88; p<0.0001), and, combining these, of 21% in any such major vascular event (0.79, 0.77-0.81; p<0.0001). The proportional reduction in major vascular events differed significantly (p<0.0001) according to the absolute reduction in LDL cholesterol achieved, but not otherwise. These benefits were significant within the first year, but were greater in subsequent years. Taking all years together, the overall reduction of about one fifth per mmol/L LDL cholesterol reduction translated into 48 (95% CI 39-57) fewer participants having major vascular events per 1000 among those with pre-existing CHD at baseline, compared with 25 (19-31) per 1000 among participants with no such history. There was no evidence that statins increased the incidence of cancer overall (1.00, 0.95-1.06; p=0.9) or at any particular site. Statin therapy can safely reduce the 5-year incidence of major coronary events, coronary revascularisation, and stroke by about one fifth per mmol/L reduction in LDL cholesterol, largely irrespective of the initial lipid profile or other presenting characteristics. The absolute benefit relates chiefly to an individual's absolute risk of such events and to the absolute reduction in LDL cholesterol achieved. These findings reinforce the need to consider prolonged statin treatment with substantial LDL cholesterol reductions in all patients at high risk of any type of major vascular event.
Article
Thirty-seven apricot varieties, including four new releases (Rojo Pasión, Murciana, Selene, and Dorada) obtained from different crosses between apricot varieties and three traditional Spanish cultivars (Currot, Mauricio, and Búlida), were separated according to flesh color into four groups: white, yellow, light orange, and orange (mean hue angles in flesh were 88.1, 85.0, 77.6, and 72.4, respectively). Four phenolic compound groups, procyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonols, and anthocyanins, were identified by HPLC-MS/MS and individually quantified using HPLC-DAD. Chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids, procyanidins B1, B2, and B4, and some procyanidin trimers, quercetin 3-rutinoside, kaempferol 3-rhamnosyl-hexoside and quercetin 3-acetyl-hexoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, and 3-glucoside, were detected and quantified in the skin and flesh of the different cultivars. The total phenolics content, quantified as the addition of the individual compounds quantified by HPLC, ranged between 32.6 and 160.0 mg 100 g(-1) of edible tissue. No correlation between the flesh color and the phenolic content of the different cultivars was observed.
Article
Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Phytochemicals, especially phenolics, in fruits and vegetables are suggested to be the major bioactive compounds for the health benefits. However, the phenolic contents and their antioxidant activities in fruits and vegetables were underestimated in the literature, because bound phenolics were not included. This study was designed to investigate the profiles of total phenolics, including both soluble free and bound forms in common fruits, by applying solvent extraction, base digestion, and solid-phase extraction methods. Cranberry had the highest total phenolic content, followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, pineapple, banana, peach, lemon, orange, pear, and grapefruit. Total antioxidant activity was measured using the TOSC assay. Cranberry had the highest total antioxidant activity (177.0 +/- 4.3 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of fruit), followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, peach, lemon, pear, banana, orange, grapefruit, and pineapple. Antiproliferation activities were also studied in vitro using HepG(2) human liver-cancer cells, and cranberry showed the highest inhibitory effect with an EC(50) of 14.5 +/- 0.5 mg/mL, followed by lemon, apple, strawberry, red grape, banana, grapefruit, and peach. A bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion.
Article
We examined whether edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one), a free radical scavenger, exerts its protective effect on coronary microvessels after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in vivo. Ninety-minute coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion was performed in 16 open-chest dogs with and without edaravone administration. Coronary small artery (> or = 100 microm in size) and arteriolar (< 100 microm) vasodilation, in the presence of endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine) or -independent (papaverine) vasodilators, was directly observed using intravital microscopy before and after I/R. I/R impaired microvascular vasodilation in response to acetylcholine, whereas administration of edaravone preserved the response in microvessels of both sizes, but to a greater extent in the coronary small arteries. No significant changes were noted with papaverine administration. In the edaravone group, the fluorescent intensity from reactive oxygen species (ROS) was lower, whereas nitric oxide (NO) intensity was higher relative to controls in the microvessels of the ischemic area. In conclusion, edaravone preserves coronary microvascular endothelial function after I/R in vivo. These effects, which were NO-mediated, were attributed to the ROS scavenging properties of edaravone.
Article
Several studies have well confirmed the contribution of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of methotrexate (MTX)-induced damage in the small intestine. Many agents have been tried experimentally to reduce or inhibit the oxidative stress. To our knowledge, there is no study about apricot consumption on the MTX-induced damage in the small intestine. The aim of this study was to determine the possible protective effects of apricot and beta-carotene on MTX-induced intestinal damage in rats. The rats were randomly divided into seven groups as follows; I-control group; II-apricot group; III-beta-carotene group; IV-MTX group; V-apricot+MTX group; VI-beta-carotene+MTX group and VII-apricot+beta-carotene+MTX group. In the MTX group; fusion and shortening in the villus, epithelial desquamation, crypt loss, inflammatory cell infiltration in the lamina propria, goblet cell depletion and microvillar damage were observed in the small intestine. Parallel to histological results, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were found to be increased, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GP-x) activities and glutathione (GSH) content were decreased in the MTX group. However, single or combined application of apricot and beta-carotene ameliorated all of these hazardous effects in antioxidant system in MTX-treated groups. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that apricot and/or beta-carotene treatment may protect the impairment of oxidative stress and ameliorate MTX-induced intestine damage at biochemical and histological levels.
World Health Organization: Geneva
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