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The Socio-Cultural and Ecological Perspectives on Landscape and Gardening in Urban Environment: A Narrative Review


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This review offers a perspective on the role landscape and gardening play in urban settings from a socio-cultural, and ecological dimension. The practice of cultivating in gardens, parks and vacant lots, creates community spaces, and are increasingly becoming important to peoples’ experience of social and cultural wellbeing. In recent times, this has become a major focus of research in ecology, agriculture, urban design, landscape architecture, human geography, and sociology. Community gardening is one of the avenues toward revitalizing urban environments, and it provides a way of addressing multi-faceted urban problems ranging from limited food access to safety and community cohesion. That being said, it is necessary to continually evaluate the roles which society, ecology, and culture play in cities and landscape planning due to the dynamic nature of culture. This article aims to bring to the fore, the various factors of landscape and gardening practices in cities and the dynamics of cultural and ecological effects they have in building communities, reclaiming communities or engendering a personal place to thrive. A narrative review of the literature on peer-reviewed articles within the scope of the study was adopted as the research method.
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Contemporary Urban Affairs
2018, Volume 2, Number 2, pages 78 89
The Socio-cultural and ecological perspectives on
landscape and gardening in Urban Environment:
A narrative review
Chukwuemeke Patrick Uwajeh 1,*, Ikenna Stephen Ezennia 2
1 Department of Architecture, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, North Cyprus via Mersin10, Turkey
2 Department of Architecture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, PMB 5025, Anambra State, Nigeria
This review offers a perspective on the role landscape and gardening play in urban
settings from a socio-cultural, and ecological dimension. The practice of cultivating
in gardens, parks and vacant lots, creates community spaces, and are increasingly
becoming important to peoples’ experience of social and cultural wellbeing. In recent
times, this has become a major focus of research in ecology, agriculture, urban
design, landscape architecture, human geography, and sociology. Community
gardening is one of the avenues toward revitalizing urban environments, and it
provides a way of addressing multi-faceted urban problems ranging from limited food
access to safety and community cohesion. That being said, it is necessary to
continually evaluate the roles which society, ecology, and culture play in cities and
landscape planning due to the dynamic nature of culture. This article aims to bring
to the fore, the various factors of landscape and gardening practices in cities and the
dynamics of cultural and ecological effects they have in building communities,
reclaiming communities or engendering a personal place to thrive. A narrative review
of the literature on peer-reviewed articles within the scope of the study was adopted
as the research method.
CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2018) 2(2), 78-89. Doi: 10.25034/ijcua.2018.3673
Copyright © 2017 Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
As the world becomes more urbanized, the
practice of cultivating in gardens, parks and in
vacant lots, creates community spaces, and are
becoming increasingly important to peoples’
experience of social and cultural wellbeing. This
increase in world population continues to reveal,
the fact that our ecosystems and landscapes will
be more domesticated and designed to suit
human needs. In 1939, Carl Troll, a renowned
German physical geographer coined the term
‘landscape ecology,’ while studying the Miombo
savanna in southeastern Africa, discovered a
repeated patchwork or pattern composed of
grassland, termite mounds, shrubs, and tree
groups, which he called landscapes (Haber, 2004).
The term landscape was combined with ecology
*Corresponding Author:
Department of Architecture, Eastern Mediterranean University,
Famagusta, North Cyprus via Mersin10, Turkey
E-mail address:
A R T I C L E I N F O:
Article history:
Received 29 December 2017
Accepted 6 January 2018
Available online 15 January
Chukwuemeke Patrick Uwajeh , Ikenna Stephen Ezennia 79
by Troll due to his understanding of the
interrelationship between landscape and
environmental science introduced by Ernst
Haeckel in 1866. Although, Several authors have
classified it as follows: (i) landscape as regional
visual designation of the environment, and an
industrial or urban landscape; (ii) landscape as
evidence of history and cultural achievements, to
be cherished, preserved, and recognized as a
national identity; (iii) landscape as gestalt or
picture, as object of art and design, as symbol
conveying wellbeing and comfort, (iv) landscape
as part of everyday life, as a fabric of social,
economic or political activities, and medium of
advert (Haber, 2004; Meier, 2001; Winiwarter,
Ample scientific evidence suggests that
landscape assessment have extended various
fields and theories and techniques such as internet
survey technique (Roth, 2006), Fuzzy set theory
(Steinhardt, 1998), landscape ecological
assessment (Mörtberg, et al., 2007), and
psychophysical landscape assessment approach
(Daniel, 2001). Furthermore, local stakeholders
now take into consideration, the benefits of
evaluating visual and non-visual aspects of
different landscape settings (Soliva & Hunziker
A growing body of evidence has documented the
huge interest, shown by City dwellers, civil-society
organizations, and policymakers in food-
producing community gardens for their potential
to improve nutrition and public health, enhance
urban environmental quality, and provide
opportunities for urban residents to experience the
natural world (Alaimo, et al., 2008; Drake & Lawson
2015; Gregory, et al., 2015). Community gardens,
also regarded as urban agriculture, are public
spaces managed by member-volunteers who
grow food crops and or flowers, shrubs, and trees
in individual plots and communal growing spaces
(Cohen, et al., 2012). Community gardens can
transform under-utilized land into vibrant,
productive public space, engender a sense of
security in neighborhoods, and a strong
connection with the larger community (Poulsen, et
al., 2014).
Home gardens are an under-researched part of
the agricultural stocks of smallholders in many
parts of the world. Until recently, urban home
gardens have not received much attention
despite their critical importance to urban
livelihoods. Home gardens offer a perspective on
understanding rural-urban linkages since they are
frequently a landscape feature in both settings
and the exchanges of their products link the two
(WinklerPrins, 2002). Similarly, home gardens help
the preservation of tangible cultural heritage such
as food traditional cuisine, enhance cultural
sustainability, conservation and cultural vitality
(Mazumdar, & Mazumdar, 2012). More recently,
community gardens, have become a very
important urban planning tool to provide green
space in urban environments, improve access to
healthy foods, (Gregory, et al., 2015; Poulsen, et al.,
2014) and encourage local food production and
distribution (Pottinger, 2013).
There have been concerns on the aspect of
biodiversity in landscape research, due to the
global influx of diverse ornamental and non-native
plant species in landscape practice (van Kleunen,
et al., 2015), as well as how wild and cultivated
biodiversity in all forms is related to healthy diets
and nutrition (Powell et al., 2015). Consequently,
major challenges are arising in landscape design
in countries where the fastest global urbanization
is predicted for future decades, such as: India,
China, and South America (Elmqvist et al. 2013).
Therefore, the combination of native biodiversity
and regional native plant material, into new and
existing parks and landscape designs can
engender a holistic approach to creating
sustainable green infrastructure, preserving and
supporting native biodiversity, and preventing
further plant invasions (Müller, & Sukopp, 2016).
Developing and maintaining sustainable
landscapes remains a challenging and vital task
for scientists and numerous stakeholders. Thus,
landscape architecture and landscape ecology
must be fully involved in the crucial processes
employed towards accomplishing this task.
However, landscape architecture or landscape
ecology may not achieve its expected goal
without strategic intra and interdisciplinary
collaborations with other disciplines as well as the
Chukwuemeke Patrick Uwajeh , Ikenna Stephen Ezennia 80
art and science of studying the relationship
between spatial pattern and ecological
processes, which influence the production of
sustainable landscape architecture (Chen, & Wu,
Studies have shown that there are several benefits
and services provided by urban agriculture, which
can be observed through a framework of
“landscape multi-functionality,” which entails the
production of food resources, ecological services,
and socio-ecological functions, each of which
benefits the health of the surrounding community
(Lovell, 2010). Therefore, supporting and
expanding community gardens could benefit
many urban dwellers in neighborhoods where
people lack access to affordable healthy foods
and opportunities for interactions with nature
(Larson, et al. 2009; Miller, 2005). Research findings
from local distributions of cultivated vegetation
suggest that the social environment may
significantly influence these distributions.
Cultivated floras within settlements, vary with
social factors (Kendal, et al., 2012). These factors
include, land use (gardens, parks or streetscapes)
(Welch, 1994; Jim & Liu 2001; Martin, et al. 2004),
socioeconomic and lifestyle gradients (Martin et
al. 2004; Hope, et al. 2003; Luz de la Maza, et al.
2002) and with historical patterns of physical and
social development (Lubbe, et al. 2010; Jim & Liu
2001). People from different cultural backgrounds
cultivate different kinds of plants, suggesting that
places with very different cultures will have
different cultivated floras. This implies that as
people migrate to settlements around the world,
the cultivated floras of those settlements will
become more similar (Head, et al., 2004; Fraser, &
Kenney, 2000) and affords immigrants the
opportunity to re-create the natural environment,
history and culture left behind (Mazumdar, &
Mazumdar, 2012). Community gardening is one of
the avenues toward revitalizing urban
environments, and it provides a way of addressing
multi-faceted urban problems ranging from limited
food access, safety, community cohesion,
preservation of tangible cultural heritage (food-
traditional cuisine), to enhancing cultural
sustainability. That being said, it is necessary to
continually evaluate the roles which society,
ecology, and culture play in cities and landscape
planning due to the dynamic nature of culture.
1.1. Methodology
A narrative review of literature on peer reviewed
articles within the scope of study was adopted as
the research method. The criteria for the cities
selected in the reviewed articles were random.
However, it was paramount that all included
articles documented important finding related to
the social, cultural and ergonomic dimensions of
gardening and landscape practices in cities.
1.2. Aim and objectives
The aim of this article is to bring to the fore, the
various factors of landscape and gardening
practices in cities and the dynamics of cultural and
ecological effects they have in building, and
reclaiming communities or engendering a
personal place to thrive. The objective of this
review paper is to create a better knowledge of
the implications of the socio-cultural, and
ecological factors of landscape and gardens on
patterns of cultivated vegetation. This will
contribute to the understanding of how people
experience nature in an urban context and help
ecologists, sociologist, and professionals in urban
design towards better city planning, revitalization
as well as gentrification.
In order to understand the scope in which
landscape and gardens are discussed in this
article, an understanding of the definitions of
landscape, gardens, gardening and an
associated term such as farming within the scope
of study is clearly described.
1.2.1 Landscape
In recent years, Landscape has been holistically
defined in human geography as a term, which
seeks to unite the material and visible environment
as well as the immaterial and invisible mental
structures of the environment (Lindström, 2010).
While earlier studies on the landscape have
focused on the visual aspects, to the extent that
Daniels and Cosgrove, stated in The Iconography
of Landscape that “landscape is a cultural image,
a visual representation, structuring or symbolizing
of our environments” (Daniels & Cosgrove 2007).
Chukwuemeke Patrick Uwajeh , Ikenna Stephen Ezennia 81
However, it is important to note that, contrary to a
common misconception, landscape is not limited
to the visual aspects of the surrounding
environment, and neither can landscape be
equated to physical environment or “nature.”
(Lindström, 2010). Thus, viewing landscape
employs a rhythmic movement of the eyes, which
is also a code to reconstitute oneself, such that, a
person who beholds a landscape does not leave
it as the same person.
1.2.2 Gardens
A garden is a planned space, typically outdoors,
set aside for the display, cultivation, and
enjoyment of plants which also serves as a
supplementary food production system that is
managed and controlled by household members.
The most common form today is known as home
garden, which include both natural and man-
made materials. Nevertheless, the term garden
has traditionally been more generalized to include
those used to display wild animals in simulated
natural habitats, called zoological gardens.
(Klindienst, 2006; Turner, 2005). A household
garden can be consumption-or market-oriented,
but at least some of the produce will be consumed
by the household. As a supplementary production
system, the household garden is secondary to
both the primary source of household food,
whether from field production or purchase and to
household income, whether from sales of field
produce, wage labour or other sources. (Soleri, et
al., 1991). Gardening can sometimes be
misconceived as farming. That being said, studies
posit that there is no standard definition for ‘a
home garden’, and summarize the shared
perception by referring to it as ‘an intimate, multi-
story combinations of various trees and crops,
sometimes in association with domestic animals,
around homesteads', as well as for the partially
cultivation of vegetables, fruits, and herbs chiefly
for domestic consumption (Galhena, et al., 2013;
Kumar, & Nair, 2004). Therefore, home gardens
can be characterized by the following factors; (1)
it's close proximity to the residence; (2) high plant
diversity; (3) food production is supplementary
rather than a main source of family consumption
and income; (4) it occupies a small area; and (5)
it is a production system that can be practiced by
the impoverished minority; (Galhena, et al., 2013;
Brownrigg, 1985; Marsh, 1998).
Gardens for food producing purpose, can be
distinguished from farming, mainly by scale and
intent. Gardening is done on a smaller scale,
chiefly for the production of goods for the
gardener's own family or community and
sometimes pleasure. While farming takes place on
a larger scale, with a major motivation to produce
goods for profit. The overlap between these terms,
is due to the fact that some moderate-sized farms,
often called market gardening, can fit in either
category. Therefore, the main distinctions
between gardening and farming are as follows:
1. Scale.
2. Gardening can be a hobby or an income
supplement, but farming is generally
understood as a full-time or commercial
activity, usually involving more land and
quite different practices.
3. Gardening is labor-intensive and requires
little infrastructural capital, sometimes no
more than a few tools, while farming is
large-scale, often involves irrigation
systems, chemical fertilizers and machines.
However, this distinction is becoming
blurred with the increasing use of power
tools even in small gardens.
2. Socio-cultural Perspectives on landscape and
Studies have shown that the use of historical,
archaeological, ethnographic, and geophysical
methods to document the cultural landscapes of
cities can discover the complex social meanings
of the built environments (Nassaney, et al., 2001).
Humans build their cultural environments and
organized space in ways that helped declare their
identities, whether wealthy or impoverished, native
and immigrant, (Nassaney, et al., 2001; Yamin, &
Metheny, 1996; Nassaney, & Paynter, 1995; Paynter
et al., 1994). The reciprocal relationship of Culture,
its social aspects and its connection with
landscape ecology, flesh several important
principles in landscape ecosystems. Expanding on
this dynamic, it can be argued that culture is
embedded in landscape as such can change a
Chukwuemeke Patrick Uwajeh , Ikenna Stephen Ezennia 82
landscape, and are both encompassed by
landscape ecology. Four broad cultural principles,
proposed by Nassauer, (1995), which can serve as
a principle for landscape ecology include:
1. Human landscape perception, cognition,
and values directly affect the landscape
and are affected by the landscape.
2. Cultural concepts of nature are different
from scientific concepts of ecological
3. The appearance of landscapes
communicates cultural values.
4. Cultural conventions powerfully influence
landscape pattern in both inhabited and
apparently natural landscapes.
Immense urban development, extreme
competition for metropolitan space,
modernization, changing institutions and laws, and
the global industrialization of food has threatened
several pockets of gardens within cities with
extinction. With the emergence of the
environmental movements and the availability of
open space as a result of unsuccessful urban
renewal, community gardens have resurged in
many American cities (Breslav 1991). Many of the
gardens are in low-income areas and have been
known as safe havens that provide residents with
a sense of nature, community (Schmelzkopf, 1995).
Conversely, Paul Kaldian elucidates further on
garden extinctions with his study on Istanbul’s
bostans (market gardens). In his comments, he
emphasized from a historical perspective, the
contribution of bostans in the cities landscape and
garden practice, the value attached to them by
the people and their contribution to the food and
employment needs of Istanbul (Kaldjian, 2004). As
such, there is a relationship between urban design,
food systems, and the ways in which the new
‘‘food-related’’ developments can contribute to
changing perceptions of the city (Pourias, et al.,
2016; Irvine, 2012).
Several studies have documented the cultural
influence of plant species in garden practice and
layouts (Davoren, et al., 2016; Nemudzudzanyi et
al. 2010; Graham & Connell 2006; Head et al.
2004). A study in Southern Africa revealed that
domestic gardens are influenced by culture,
consisting of indigenous knowledge structured
systems and processes, used in managing of plant
species with similar uses or functions
(Nemudzudzanyi et al. 2010). Similarly, immigrants
in Southern California designed their backyard
gardens to create distinctive cultural spaces, while
their front yard mostly mirrored typical Southern
Californian garden landscapes (Mazumdar &
Mazumdar 2012). However, Chinese migrants
settling in Melbourne, Australia prefer to maintain
the existing Australian garden as is to better fit in
with societal preferences (Levin, 2012).
3. Biodiversity in home Gardening
Biodiversity has been a hot topic for research in
garden ecology. Home gardens have been
recognized as sources of agricultural biodiversity’s,
maintained and enriched by farmers’ practices,
particularly for their plant and seed exchange
across the world (Aguilar-Støen, et al., 2009;
Clarke, et al., 2014). Also, home gardens are
complex multi-layer systems of trees, shrubs, and
annual vegetation around homesteads (Kumar &
Nair 2004; Mitchell, & Hanstad, 2004), designated
as universal landscapes across the world, with an
estimated 1536 % of residential land in the UK,
India, Africa, and China occupied by home
gardens (Huai, et al., 2011; Jaganmohan, et al.,
2012; Cilliers, et al., 2012). The variations in garden
biodiversity can be high, within a single urbanized
region, due to the socioeconomic or cultural status
of residents (Clarke, et al., 2014; Lubbe et al. 2011;
Cilliers et al. 2012; Jaganmohan et al. 2012). As
such, these ecosystems are gradually becoming a
key research focus in human-natural systems
(Kirkpatrick, et al., 2007), with an increased
scientific mandate for the classification of home
garden plant species abundance, plant diversity
in community, and ecosystem factors such as
functioning, and services (Huai, & Hamilton, 2009).
This is consistent with findings in home garden
research which focus on plant species
composition and diversity (Coomes, & Ban, 2004),
socioeconomic importance and contribution to
income generation (Méndez, et al., 2001), plant
uses and their role in subsistence economy and
natural resource management as in the case of
Mexico (Blanckaert, et al., 2004; Del Angel-Pérez,
& Mendoza, 2004), household food supply (Wezel
Chukwuemeke Patrick Uwajeh , Ikenna Stephen Ezennia 83
and Bender 2003), sustainability of food systems
and the natural environment (Powell et al., 2015)
as well as increased demand for food abundance
and biodiversity (Clarke, & Jenerette, 2015). By
integrating ecological and cultural factors related
to garden biodiversity, Beumer, & Martens, (2015)
proposed a framework that aims to engage
citizens in experiencing and exploring biodiversity
and ecosystem services in their own domestic
outdoor spaces. In the same vain, studies have
suggested that, experiencing urban biodiversity
can potentially stop the loss of global biodiversity,
if people have direct contact with nature (Müller,
& Kelcey, 2010). It is easier to find space in urban
landscapes within private or semi-private outdoor
spaces such as gardens, patios, courtyards,
balconies and roof terraces. As such, a lot of
citizens may perhaps have their main experiences
with urban biodiversity in their own gardens
(Beumer, & Martens, 2015; Cilliers 2010; Millard
4. Ecological Perspectives on Landscape
Globally, a striking result of human population
increase, is the domestication of landscapes and
its ecosystems (Kareiva, et al., 2007). As urban
centers increasingly become the primary habitat
for humans, so does our landscapes become more
designed to suite human needs (Wu, 2008). It is
important to further develop Landscape ecology,
enough to be well integrated into other disciplines
(Chen, & Wu, 2009). Similarly, several studies posit
that landscape ecology should play a critically
important role in developing and maintaining
sustainable landscapes and different regions
(Forman, 1990; Musacchio, & Wu, 2004; Wu, 2006;
Naveh, 2007; Nassauer, & Opdam, 2008; Chen, &
Wu, 2009). Several researchers have proposed
conceptual frameworks towards landscape
ecology. For example, Laura Musacchios’,
conceptual framework which outlines the scope
and boundaries of cultivating deep care as a key
concept and ties it to scholarly research concepts
such as landscape perception, landscape
sustainability, resilience science, and ecosystem
services (Musacchio, 2013). In the same vein, a
study suggests four basic models of ideal
landscapes, for ecological planning in Mount
Lushan National Park as: (a) model of fairyland, (b)
model of artist, (c) model of statistic psychology
and (d) model of Feng-shui. The study further
iterated sub-models as follows: Kunlunshan model,
Penglai model, Pot Sky model, Xumishan model,
Peach Blossom Land model, and Endocentric
Settlements model, etc., due to the influence of
cultural dynamics, era change, geographical
environment, as well as other external factors (Xu,
et al., 2009). They further document that to
achieve a sustainable landscape architecture in
china, a proposed framework built on the
philosophy of Unity of Man with Nature and
Chinese landscape and architectural traditions as
well as integrating the principles and methods of
landscape ecology and sustainability science
must be adopted. See (Fig.1). Likewise, a design
strategy for the biological core of Perth in
southwestern Australia by Catharina Sack,
provides a relevant example of how novel
ecosystems can be designed. She suggested a
new approach to transforming current
development practices, using neo-baroque
design strategies, and how it can be used to
structure, create resilient and productive novel
ecosystems grounded in a critical and indigenous
aesthetic of botanical complexity (Sack, 2013).
Figure. 1. Conceptual framework for a sustainable Chinese landscape
architecture. Source (Xu, et al., 2009).
Table 1 presents the literature review findings from
selected studies on the landscape ecology in most
Table 1. Summary of the literature review and findings from selected studies on the socio-cultural and ecological perspectives in
landscape and gardens.
Socio-Cultural perspectives in landscape and Gardens
Pourias, et al.,
Davoren, et
al., (2016).
North South
Tanaka, &
Krasny, (2004).
New York City.
Ecological perspectives in landscape and Gardens
Xu, et al.,
Chen, & Wu,
Müller, &
Seburanga, &
Zhang, (2013).
Sayers, (2003)
Chukwuemeke Patrick Uwajeh , Ikenna Stephen Ezennia 85
5. Conclusion
It is important to further develop Landscape
ecology, enough to be well integrated into other
disciplines, as cities increasingly become the
primary habitat for humans, and landscapes
become more designed to suit human needs.
Therefore, the investigations into Landscape
ecology can broaden and consolidate its
transdisciplinary basis. Despite the strong public
interest in urban community gardens as sources of
healthy food, diverse ornamental plant species,
and sites for environmental stewardship, there is
minimal research on the ecological characteristics
affecting food production in these gardens and
gardeners planting and management practices,
especially in developing countries. Gardens can
help to reintroduce nature into the city and
participation in urban gardening experiences can
allow urban dwellers to reconnect emotionally,
spiritually and psychologically with plants, and soil.
Asides the potentials community gardens have, to
breathe life into vacant urban lots, and the
provision of healthy local food, they can also
transform the community itself through ecological,
educational, social, and economic opportunities.
Thus, community gardens contribute to a
biologically diverse urban ecosystem and provide
valued ecosystem services in food insecure
regions. A bridge from ecosystem research will
serve as suitable starting point for landscape
research, to human ecology and the humanities in
general, by approximation of selected facts and
findings. Due to years of adaption by plant species
to landscapes, altering their features, a biocultural
approach is probably best suited to understand
and manage most of the biodiversity today
existing at the landscape level. Furthermore, it is
imperative that garden planning and placement
by local government authorities should favor
ethnic food production for impoverished minority
communities. Finally, it is very important to
continually evaluate the roles which society,
ecology, and culture play in cities and landscape
planning due to the dynamic nature of culture.
6. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Prof. Dr. Naciye
Doratli for her kind assistance during the
preparation of this manuscript as part of a PhD
course taken under her and the insightful
comments that contributed significantly to the
This research did not receive any specific grant
from funding agencies in the public, commercial,
or non-for-profit sectors.
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... Urban gardening experiences can help people reconnect with plants and soil emotionally, spiritually, and psychologically. Cultural and ecological aspects affect the reclaiming and formation of communities besides establishing a personal space to thrive -indicating the union of cross-cutting principles, such as design and culture, with conserving the urban environment [35]. Community gardening is one of the ways to revitalize urban surroundings, and it offers a solution to a variety of issues ranging from food security to safety and community cohesiveness. ...
... The cluster analysis output is a dendrogram that supports and validates the eight design principles of public space, 3 Fig. 4. The dendrogram contains several clades with numerous leaves pointing to a particular design principle that Fig. 3 exhibits. For example, leaves located atop the figure, such as (women, crime, safety, site, and children) indicate the importance of safety and security in a public space [27,35]. Many leaves validate the design & aesthetics principle; thus, good urban design is central to the functionality of public spaces. ...
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Public spaces are central to the wellbeing of city residents, but what exactly are the design principles that ensure the vitality of public space? How do professionals rank these principles? Do they share a common understanding of theory and praxis? Using a mixed research methodology, we attempt to answer these questions. We first identified eight design principles by reviewing 31 documents listed on ScienceDirect. The review suggested four core design principles and four cross-cutting design principles. Fulfilling all eight principles is challenging; therefore, we prepared a questionnaire distributed among design professionals to determine their priorities using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). We corroborated the results with interviews. Participants disagree on the rank of the eight principles. However, the four core principles topped the list because they align with the pillars of sustainable development. Possible reasons for the inconsistency include specialization, gender, and years of experience. The inability to differentiate between the theory of and theory in planning is another possible explanation. The AHP is a reliable decision-making tool and might foster citizen participation in developing design plans. Future research agenda must address limitations of the present inquiry, such as linkages between governance and the institutional setting of society on the one hand and its public spaces on the other.
... Sebuah tinjauan naratif literatur pada artikel peer review dalam lingkup studi diadopsi sebagai metode penelitian. Kriteria untuk yang dipilih dalam artikel yang ditinjau secara acak (Uwajeh & Ezennia, 2018). Pemilihan berbagai literatur disesuaikan dengan kajian yang ditulis, khususnya berkenaan dengan unsur-unsur biologi dan karakteristik teknologi pendidikan. ...
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Teknologi pendidikan merupakan rumpun keilmuan dalam memfasilitasi belajar dan meningkatkan kinerja untuk memecahkan masalah pendidikan. Keilmuan ini secara tertulis berbicara mengenai sumber belajar sebagai upaya dalam pemecahan tersebut. Sumber belajar diklasifikasikan menjadi enam, yakni (1) pesan, (2) bahan, (3) orang/manusia, (4) alat, (5) teknik/metode, dan (6) latar/lingkungan. Unsur-unsur alami dalam biologi juga mampu didayagunakan sebagai sumber belajar yang dapat digunakan untuk pembelajaran. Mulai dari struktur, fungsi, pertumbuhan, evolusi, persebaran hingga taksonominya berperan sebagai sumber belajar yang tidak hanya terpaku dalam bidang biologi saja namun bidang lainnya juga yang saling berkaitan. Maka dari itu, penulis tertarik mengkaji kajian unsur-unsur biologi yang dapat digunakan sebagai sumber belajar dengan mengedepankan analisis karakteristik teknologi pendidikan. Karakteristiknya terdiri dari (1) pendekatan sistem, (2) pendayagunaan sumber belajar, dan (3) orientasi pada pebelajar. Harapannya dari tulisan ini dapat menjadi suatu alternatif bacaan dalam memilih serta menggunakan unsur-unsur biologi dan dikembangkan dengan landasan karakteristik teknologi pendidikan.
... Sebuah tinjauan naratif literatur pada artikel peer review dalam lingkup studi diadopsi sebagai metode penelitian. Kriteria untuk yang dipilih dalam artikel yang ditinjau dengan kriteria khusus di dalamnya (Uwajeh & Ezennia, 2018). Pencarian dilakukan pada database google scholar, artikel yang direview dalam bahasa Inggris, artikel terbit pada jurnal, artikel hasil penelitian dan topik tentang blended learning dan life-based learning. ...
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Penulisan ini bertujuan untuk memberikan penjabaran terkait dengan penerapan blended learning dalam lingkungan belajar berbasis kehidupan pada masa pasca pandemi. Pembelajaran secara daring baik disadari maupun tidak, telah menjadikan keterampilan guru dalam mengembangkan pembelajaran dapat meningkat secara perlahan. Hal ini menyebabkan terdapat perubahan kultur belajar baru yang mulai memasuki pada orientasi pada kehidupan. Perubahan ini juga terkuatkan dengan adanya rencana kebijakan untuk melaksanakan pembelajaran secara tatap muka. Maka dari itu, penulis tertarik untuk menelaah blended learning yang kemungkinan akan terjadi sebagai jawaban dalam mendukung kultur belajar baru pasca pandemi. Telaah ini bersifat “pengejawantahan” yang berarti penulis berusaha memberikan pendapat mengenai perwujudan proses blended learning dengan orientasi pada belajar berbasis kehidupan sebagai solusi alternatif bagi guru dalam mengembangkan pembelajaran nantinya. Harapannya tulisan ini mampu memberikan pandangan yang terakumulasi dengan berbagai riset yang ada, sehingga dapat dijadikan referensi alternatif bagi penelitian selanjutnya.
... Home gardens play an essential role in sustainable development, landscaping, environmental quality, and citizens' lifestyle-health in urban ecosystems (Jim and Chen 2006;Uwajeh and Ezennia 2018;Glatron and Granchamp 2018). Due to water scarcity and aridity, citizens are discouraged from practicing home gardening, especially in the Middle Eastern countries (Dare et al. 2017). ...
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New water-conserving irrigation technologies are vital in arid countries. We investigated the effects of (i) soil substrates made of Smart Capillary Barrier Wick (SCB-W), consisting of silt loam blocks surrounded by sand-sheathes and irrigated with a sand wick cylinder (WC) as compared to a control (homogenous soil irrigated by the same wick system, HW), (ii) WC diameters (2.54 cm vs. 1.27 cm), and (iii) 2-cm sand mulch layer on soil–water dynamics during wetting–drying cycles. Field experiments with pots and HYDRUS (2D/3D) modeling were performed in two consecutive phases (with and without sand mulch). Analysis of variance at p < 0.05 was used to assess significant differences in measured water contents, θ, between the two substrates. For the wetting/drying cycles, the modeled and measured θ are in satisfactory/tolerable agreement, as documented by the model evaluation criteria, which are within acceptable ranges (the root mean squared error, RMSE 0.01–0.06; Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient, NSE 0.51–0.97, and Willmott index, d = 0.97–1). SCB-W wets the soil substrate about two times faster than HW during the wetting cycles (p < 0.05). Reducing the WC diameter prolonged the wetting time by 1 and 2 days for SCB-W and HW, respectively, the same trend of two times faster wetting of SCB-W compared to HW was maintained. SCB-W showed higher θ storage (by 44.3–52.4%) at the bottom part of the composite than HW (p < 0.05). The sand mulch layer reduced evaporation and resulted in 20 and 38.9% higher θ during the drying cycle for both the bottom and top sensors, respectively, in both substrates (p < 0.05). SCB-W could improve water conservation in home gardens.
... Home gardens, as a key component of urban ecosystems, address multi-faceted issues including sustainable development, food security, landscape and environmental quality, life style preferences, and citizens' health (Jim and Chen, 2006;Uwajeh and Ezennia, 2018). They generate several ecosystem services including, household food and nutritional security (Algert et al., 2016;Boncodin et al., 2000;De la Cerda and Mukul, 2008;Ferdous et al., 2016;Fernandes and Nair, 1986;Galhena et al., 2013;Mok et al., 2014;Scheromm, 2015;Whitney et al., 2017;Wunder, 2013), physical and mental health promotion (Da Silva et al., 2016;Mitchell and Hanstad, 2004;Mok et al., 2014;Scheromm, 2015;Twiss et al., 2003), enhanced social relationships (Peters et al., 2010;Reyes-García et al., 2012;Schupp and Sharp, 2012;Vogl-Lukasser and Vogl, 2004), an expression of identity and ownership and connection with nature (Freeman et al., 2012;Kiesling and Manning, 2010;Lindemann-Matthies and Brieger, 2016;Scheromm, 2015;Wunder, 2013), education (Ambusaidi et al., 2017;Da Silva et al., 2016), mitigation of climate change by balancing atmospheric oxygen and carbon dioxide (Gill et al., 2007;Lin et al., 2017;Mitchell and Hanstad, 2004;Niinemets Ülo and Josep Peñuelas, 2008), urban microclimatic regulation (Anguluri and Narayanan, 2017;Cameron et al., 2012;Gill et al., 2007), reduced particulate air pollution (Jayasooriya et al., 2017;Nowak et al., 2006;Selmi et al., 2016;Yang et al., 2005), rainwater retention (Cameron et al., 2012), soil moisture and groundwater recharge (Cameron et al., 2012), and flood control (Cameron et al., 2012). ...
Omani home-gardens are jeopardized by the poor agronomic practices and unqualified gardeners. This study aimed to find: (i) gardening characteristics, practices and gardener’s perception to irrigation water management, soil preparation-fertility, (ii) determinants of use of water saving methods (WSM), and (iii) reasons for garden adoption. A questionnaire was distributed and 125 responses received from residents of individual houses. Substantial differences were detected in garden composition and diversity of plants (ornamentals, lawn grass, crops and medicinal plants). Cultivation in ground and in pots with organic fertilizers is practiced. Educational level, garden size, cultivation of ornamental plants and vegetables, increasing water bill, and willingness to purchase irrigation tools were significant positive determinants in using WSM. The age of homeowners, type of plants (grass and fruits), and status of the person taking care of the garden were negative determinants. The top gardening motives were: aesthetic, shading, joy of hobby, source for food, physical exercise and protecting environment. The top five reasons for non-gardening were: pavement of the yard (commonly practiced by local building designers), lack of free land (construction of the house occupied most of the possessed urban plot), adverse weather, high water bill and lack of knowledge about gardening. Our results set a foundation for future studies on better planning and management of urban green areas and associated water resources in Oman and the neighboring Gulf countries.
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With the increase of the world's population and the densification of urban spaces, urban residents are getting disconnected from natural green spaces. Association with natural and green spaces, one of the basic needs of people, is directly related to health benefits (e.g. physiological and mental). However, health researchers argue that the health benefits of urban green spaces are associated with people's constant exposure to such spaces. Therefore, designers must identify and employ the factors that encourage people to use these places more frequently. Hence, traditional garden architecture, which is a legacy reflecting the cultural values of each country in organizing the natural environment, can be a good source for extracting the types of designs that create the context for individuals' constant communication with such places. In this regard, to answer the question of "whether the architecture of Iranian gardens can serve as a guide for designing urban green space or not", we used aesthetic analysis and identified the factors that create a sense of beauty in Iranian gardens. Semiotic analysis assisted us in evaluating the used symbols and signs in the garden architecture. To understand the concept of garden architecture, which makes the Iranian garden a distinct place, we used a phenomenological analysis method.
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Allotment gardens have existed in Europe for 170 years and have changed their functions over time. While the scholarly literature emphasizes the economic, social and ecological benefits of allotment gardens, little is known about today's allotment gardeners, especially in different geopolitical environments. This paper describes allotment gardeners' profiles based on empirical data obtained from surveys conducted in two countries with, on the one hand, a long tradition of allotment gardens and, on the other hand, a recent history of belonging to two different geopolitical regions: Poland and West Germany. Inspired by the cultural-geographical approach that acknowledges that the gardening practice is influenced by culture and based on the method of non-hierarchical "k-means" clustering, this paper identifies characteristics of today's allotment gardeners from the region of Westphalia-Lippe in Germany and of Wielkopolska in Po-land. Significant differences in profiles were factored together in the statistical analysis based on garden practices and the meanings attributed to these practices as reported by the gardeners in the survey. As a result, German gardeners can be described first and foremost as urban farmers and ecologists, while Polish allotmenteers seem to prefer using their gardens for leisure (as well as a holiday retreat) and for ornamental purposes. Results can inform municipalities, stakeholders and garden organizations who are interested in adjusting existing allotment garden areas to meet future needs. However, in both countries the community of gardeners cannot be conclusively defined, as it is subject to further development, triggered by a generational change in many allotment gardens. For instance, in the context of the recent COVID-19 crisis, a significant increase in demand for allotment plots has been reported in both countries, which again confirms their role in times of crisis. Zusammenfassung Kleingärten existieren in Europa seit 170 Jahren und haben ihre Funktionen im Laufe der Zeit verändert. Wäh-rend die wissenschaftliche Literatur die wirtschaftlichen, sozialen und ökologischen Vorteile von Kleingärten betont, ist wenig über die heutigen Kleingärtner-/innen bekannt, insbesondere in unterschiedlichen geopoliti-schen Umgebungen. Dieser Beitrag beschreibt das Profil der Kleingärtner/-innen auf der Grundlage empirischer Daten, die aus Umfragen in zwei Ländern gewonnen wurden, die einerseits eine lange Kleingartentradition und andererseits eine jüngere Geschichte der Zugehörigkeit zu zwei unterschiedlichen geopolitischen Regionen auf-weisen: Polen und Westdeutschland. Inspiriert durch einen kulturgeographischen Ansatz, der anerkennt, dass Vol. 152, No. 1 · Research article
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Inspired by her own family’s immigrant history, master gardener Patricia Klindienst traveled the country, gathering stories of urban, suburban, and rural gardens created by people rarely presented in American gardening books: Native Americans, immigrants from across Asia and Europe, and ethnic peoples who were here long before our national boundaries were drawn. In The Earth Knows My Name, she writes about the beautiful yards and fields she discovered, each one an island of hope, offering us a model—on a sustainable scale—of a truly restorative ecology. “It lifts my heart to find the kind of intelligence, grace, and regard that are in this book’s pages.” —Barry Lopez, author of Artic Dreams
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Tropical homegardens, one of the oldest forms of managed land-use systems, are considered to be an epitome of sustainability. Although these multispecies production systems have fascinated many and provided sustenance to millions, they have received relatively little scientific attention. The objective of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on homegardens with a view to using it as a basis for improving the homegardens as well as similar agroforestry systems. Description and inventory of local systems dominated the 'research' efforts on homegardens during the past 25 or more years. The main attributes that have been identified as contributing to the sustainability of these systems are biophysical advantages such as efficient nutrient cycling offered by multispecies composition, conservation of bio-cultural diversity, product diversification as well as nonmarket values of products and services, and social and cultural values including the opportunity for gender equality in managing the systems. With increasing emphasis on industrial models of agricultural development, fragmentation of land holdings due to demographic pressures, and, to some extent, the neglect – or, lack of appreciation – of traditional values, questions have been raised about the future of homegardens, but such concerns seem to be unfounded. Quite to the contrary, it is increasingly being recognized that understanding the scientific principles of these multispecies systems will have much to offer in the development of sustainable agroecosystems. Research on economic valuation of the tangible as well as intangible products and services, principles and mechanisms of resource sharing in mixed plant communities, and realistic valuation and appreciation of hitherto unrecognised benefits such as carbon sequestration will provide a sound basis for formulating appropriate policies for better realization and exploitation of the benefits of homegardens.
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There is growing public interest and participation in food-producing urban community gardens in North America, yet little research has examined agricultural production and ecological processes in these spaces. We describe the agroecological and social characteristics of 61 food-producing gardens in New York City, drawing on gardener interviews, land-use maps, plant species inventories, arthropod scouting, and soil sampling and analysis. Gardens contained agricultural crops, food production infrastructure, ornamental plants, and recreational areas in varying proportions, indicating that gardens serve multiple and distinct purposes depending on community needs and interests. On average, gardeners devoted the greatest proportion of garden area (44 %) to food production, and supplied a large share of their households’ produce needs from their community gardens. Solanaceae, Brassicaceae, and Cucurbitaceae crops dominated food crop areas, hindering effective crop rotation to prevent disease and pest problems. Most gardeners grew crops in raised beds constructed with clean fill and compost. These soils generally had sandy textures, low water-holding capacity, high organic matter levels (with a large proportion from recent inputs) and excessive nutrient levels. Soil water content at field capacity increased exponentially with total soil carbon, suggesting that organic matter enhances water-holding capacity. Insect pest densities greatly exceeded action thresholds in nearly all gardens for aphids and whiteflies on Brassica crops, aphids on Cucurbit crops, and two-spotted spider mites on tomatoes. Predator and parasitoid densities were generally low (less than one per plant on average), perhaps partially due to low floral and woody perennial cover in most gardens (12 % and 9 % on average, respectively). Dominant groups of natural enemies were minute pirate bugs, spiders, and parasitoid wasps. A wide variety of people of differing experience levels, incomes, and ethnicities participate in community gardening in NYC, and most gardens host multiple languages. Promising directions for urban gardening research, education, and practice include: 1) Cover cropping to improve soil quality and nutrient management, and diversify crop rotations; 2) Improving access to soil testing and guidance on appropriate use of soil amendments, 3) Enhancing habitat for arthropod natural enemies that provide biological control of insect pests with floral and woody perennial plantings; and 4) Incorporating ecological knowledge and inquiry-based approaches into gardening workshops, educational materials, and technical support, and offering these resources in multiple languages.
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Over the last two decades, home garden studies have markedly increased in both developed and developing countries. However, garden design and its influence on the overall biodiversity of the urban green infrastructure remains a neglected aspect of home garden research. Home garden surveys were conducted in the North West and Gauteng Provinces of South Africa to contribute to this research focus. The two questions asked in this paper were: (1) Are Batswana garden designs associated with socioeconomic status (SES)? (2) Are the different garden designs characterized by specific plant species richness patterns? We hypothesized that SES influences garden design and that, as the SES of Batswana residents increases, the garden design changes from tshimo to colonial. Our results indicated that garden design reflected less cultural influences and took on a more Westernized colonial design appearance with improvement of SES of Batswana inhabitants. Tshimo gardens tended to have more native and utilitarian species. In contrast, colonial gardens have more alien ornamental species. In affluent areas, sampled Batswana gardens completely changed from a tshimo to colonial garden design. This change indicates that improved socioeconomic status overrides traditional cultural practices. © 2015 International Consortium of Landscape and Ecological Engineering and Springer Japan
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All around the globe, humans have greatly altered the abiotic and biotic environment with ever-increasing speed. One defining feature of the Anthropocene epoch is the erosion of biogeographical barriers by human-mediated dispersal of species into new regions, where they can naturalize and cause ecological, economic and social damage. So far, no comprehensive analysis of the global accumulation and exchange of alien plant species between continents has been performed, primarily because of a lack of data. Here we bridge this knowledge gap by using a unique global database on the occurrences of naturalized alien plant species in 481 mainland and 362 island regions. In total, 13,168 plant species, corresponding to 3.9% of the extant global vascular flora, or approximately the size of the native European flora, have become naturalized somewhere on the globe as a result of human activity. North America has accumulated the largest number of naturalized species, whereas the Pacific Islands show the fastest increase in species numbers with respect to their land area. Continents in the Northern Hemisphere have been the major donors of naturalized alien species to all other continents. Our results quantify for the first time the extent of plant naturalizations worldwide, and illustrate the urgent need for globally integrated efforts to control, manage and understand the spread of alien species.
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Because a large proportion of the urban forest grows on private property, it is necessary to have broad community support for urban forestry. As people from all over the world live in Canadian cities, it was hypothesized that people with different cultural backgrounds would have different perceptions of the urban forest. This hypothesis was tested by (1) researching different landscaping traditions; (2) interviewing members of four different communities; and (3) conducting vegetation inventories. Inventory and interview data provided a consistent picture of the four communities. The British community reacted the most positively to shade trees, they also expressed the greatest willingness to plant shade trees, had the most shade trees per square meter on their properties, and were the only group that liked naturalized parks (hiking paths). The Chinese community showed less yard maintenance than the other communities, and many of the Chinese indicated that they did not want to add trees to their property. The Chinese responded more favorably than the other groups to photographs depicting landscapes free of trees. Italian and Portuguese communities emphasized fruit trees and vegetable gardens, and responded negatively toward shade trees when these were in conflict with their gardens. These cultural differences are largely consistent with the traditional use of trees in British, Mediterranean and Chinese landscaping, and appear to be maintained among North American immigrant populations.
When considering the most frequent invasive exotic plants on an international scale, it is evident that the majority are ornamentals and that they were deliberately introduced in relation to landscape design. Although there are worldwide numerous lists of invasive exotic plants—which means plants that have harmful effects on native biodiversity—an assessment of the contribution of different landscape design styles on plant invasions has not been done. We used the extensive database on the history of introduction and naturalization of alien plants into natural habitats of Central Europe (Lohmeyer and Sukopp, Agriophyten in der Vegetation Mitteleuropas in: Schriftenreihe Vegetationskunde 25, 1992; Nachtrag: Braunschweiger Geobotan Arbeiten 8:179–220, 2001) to examine how many alien ornamental plants there are in the different natural habitats; and how many of them are invasive exotic plants and—in contrast—how many have not spread significantly. Also, we researched contributions by different landscape design styles to these plant invasions since medieval times. Of the estimated 12,000 alien plant species introduced into Central Europe since the Neolithic period, 279 taxa (2.3 %) are currently identified as being naturalized in natural habitats; 103 (0.86 %) of these naturalized taxa are ornamentals, and of these, 40 (0.33 %) are invasive exotic plants. Our investigation has shown a correlation between the frequency of plant invasions and changes in landscape-design styles. Evaluating the impact of plant invasions through horticulture and landscape design on native biodiversity, our study illustrates that it is significantly lower in Central Europe than in other parts of the world.