Article

Effect of multiple spawning on female reproductive output and offspring quality in a freshwater caridean shrimp with direct development

Authors:
  • University of Buenos Aires y IBBEA, CONICET-UBA
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Abstract

The decline with age in components of fitness is variable among different taxa and includes changes in fertility and brood quality. In this study, we selected individuals of Neocaridina davidi, a freshwater shrimp with direct development, to analyze juvenile quality and female reproductive performance over successive spawnings, both of which are correlated with female age. Given the high costs of reproduction in species with direct development, we hypothesized that female reproductive performance and juvenile quality decrease in later spawns. Two experiments were performed. In Experiment 1, we evaluated the reproductive performance of females of N. davidi and the quality of juveniles (through a food restriction test) over the first six successive spawnings. In Experiment 2, we analyzed the lipid and protein contents in juveniles from the third, fourth, and fifth spawns, after feeding them daily or starving them for 8 d or 12 d after hatching. Female mortality was observed throughout Experiment 1, along with a decrease in the proportion of ovigerous females over successive spawns. However, the interval between spawnings and the number and size of newly hatched juveniles were similar among spawns. Moreover, females that spawned many times had a reproductive efficiency similar to those that spawned few times, as evidenced by a similar percentage of broods successfully hatched and a similar percentage of broods with more than 28 juveniles among all spawns. Overall, these results may indicate a partial effect of multiple spawning on female reproductive performance. Growth, survival, and biochemical composition of food-restricted juveniles showed similar or even higher values in later spawns as compared to the first spawns. This is, to our knowledge, the first empirical demonstration in a decapod crustacean with direct development that, although the percentage of ovigerous females decreases over time, other reproductive variables and juvenile performance do not decline in successive spawnings, at least for the initial six consecutive spawns.

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... Survival to stress test has been likewise used for the assessment of offspring quality in response to different broodstock diets, assuming that shrimps' physiological state will determine their performance when exposed to adverse conditions (Rodríguez-González et al., 2014). Specifically, food restriction tests evaluate juvenile resistance to temporary starvation, which is directly related to maternal body reserves (Harrison, 1990;Marciano, Tropea, & López Greco, 2018). In addition, the quantification of lipid droplets in the perigastric organ can been used as an estimate of larvae energy reserves for evaluating larval endotrophic potential and their nutritional vulnerability (Espinoza, Guzmán, Bascur, & Urzúa, 2016). ...
... Temperoni, López Greco, & Tropea, 2018;Marciano et al., 2018;. The second one was a commercial diet specifically formulated for crustaceans with a similar market value, and the third one was a commercial diet for ornamental fish which had a lower cost than the others. ...
... Temperoni, López Greco, & Tropea, 2018;Marciano et al., 2018;. The second one was a commercial diet specifically formulated for crustaceans with a similar market value, and the third one was a commercial diet for ornamental fish which had a lower cost than the others. ...
Article
The red cherry shrimp Neocaridina davidi is a popular freshwater ornamental species traded worldwide for aquarium keeping. Its aquaculture generally relies on commercially available feeds. This study evaluated the effect of three commercial diets (A, B and C) on its female reproductive performance and offspring quality. Relative realized fecundity and egg size did not differ among treatments. However, egg carotenoid content was 40% and 52% lower in eggs from brooders fed B and C, respectively, than in those from brooders fed A, which had the highest carotenoid content. This suggests that dietary carotenoids directly affected egg carotenoid content. They also appeared to influence embryo survival, as relative actual fecundity was 59% and 47% lower for B and C compared to A, although this difference was not statistically significant. Although juvenile I weight was similar for all diets, the amount of lipid droplets in the perigastric organ region in juveniles I from brooders fed B, was about 20% lower than in the others. Offspring survival to the food restriction test was similar for all diets. However, the weight of 32-day-old juveniles was lower when brooders were fed C which had the lowest n-3 PUFAs content, but the highest content of linoleic acid.
... Some studies have suggested that the improvement of reproductive traits with the age of the female could be related to the increase in body size, which allows the production of more offspring (DelGiudice et al., 2007;Tsujimoto et al., 2016). In decapod crustaceans, some studies suggest that senescent females have higher-quality offspring (Verísimo et al., 2011;Marciano et al., 2018), whereas others have found that the age of the female does not affect fecundity or egg size (Arcos et al., 2003;Graham et al., 2012). ...
... In decapods, successive spawns can produce maternal nutrient depletion; and the biochemical composition of eggs usually changes, affecting the brood condition (Boucard et al., 2004;Yu et al., 2007;Tropea and López Greco, 2015;Marciano et al., 2018). In a study by Marciano et al. (2021), the old ovigerous females of L. uruguayensis sampled at the end of the reproductive season were spawning for the second time in the season, and their clutches showed, on average, 30% less content of total protein and lipid. ...
Article
This study aimed to evaluate the factors modulating the female reproductive performance of the fiddler crab Leptuca uruguayensis (Nobili, 1901) during the short reproductive season of a temperate population. We proposed two modulating factors: the age of females (young and old) and the periods of the reproductive season (beginning, middle, and end); we then evaluated the fecundity, reproductive output, egg volume, and biochemical composition of eggs. The fecundity of L. uruguayensis was affected by the size of females, a variable related to their age. Although young females showed lower fecundity, the reproductive output was not affected by the age or by the periods of the reproductive season, suggesting a constant reproductive effort, proportional to female size. The egg volume decreased, and carotenoid content increased at the end of the season for both female ages, probably as a consequence of variations in food availability and changes in the breeding strategies during the season. However, the content of protein and lipids in the egg clutches decreased at the end of the season only in old females spawning for the second time in the season. The main differences in the reproductive parameters were recorded between the beginning and the end of the reproductive season, probably because in these periods females exclusively use one of the breeding strategies. Finally, we determined that both factors, that is, female age and the periods of the short reproductive season, can modulate the reproductive performance of L. uruguayensis in temperate estuaries.
... The experimental period and the food treatments (see below) of the nutritional stress test were defined based on previous results on starvation resistance of N. davidi juveniles (Pantaleão et al., 2015;Marciano et al., 2018). The mentioned authors have demonstrated that mortality is above 70% when juveniles are starved for more than 20 days. ...
... The mentioned authors have demonstrated that mortality is above 70% when juveniles are starved for more than 20 days. In addition, Marciano et al. (2018) have demonstrated that there is an inflexion point in the survival of juveniles at day 32 when they are initially starved between eight and 12 consecutive days, with respect to daily fed juveniles. ...
Article
This study aimed at evaluating the effect of one generation of full-sibling mating on traits related to the fitness of the gregarious freshwater shrimp Neocaridina davidi, both under optimal and stressful (i.e. starvation) laboratory conditions. Females were maintained either with their brothers (Inbreeding treatment) or non-brothers (Outbreeding treatment), and the first and second broods were used to evaluate egg production and juvenile quality, respectively. The latter was analyzed in a 60-day period following hatching under optimal rearing conditions, and in a 20-day period following hatching under food deprivation conditions. All surviving females from both treatments mated and spawned, indicating that mating with brothers was as likely as mating with non-brothers. With respect to offspring production, inbreeding had no effect on fecundity and fertilization success, but negatively affected the number of hatched juveniles. These results suggest that egg loss was higher in inbred clutches, possibly due to lower embryonic survival. On the other hand, the effect of inbreeding on growth was absent for embryos and for juveniles under optimal rearing conditions, while it was significant for juveniles starved for 10 consecutive days following hatching. Inbreeding depression for survival was only detected in juveniles from stages S8-S9 under optimal rearing conditions. Overall, the present results show that N. davidi fitness decreases after one generation of full-sibling mating. The use of a potentially weak food deprivation protocol and/or the evaluation of only one inbred generation could explain the absence or subtle inbreeding depression for some of the evaluated traits. No evident relationship between life-history traits and the existence and magnitude of inbreeding was found when comparing our results with those previously reported in high-fecundity marine crustaceans and low-fecundity terrestrial crustaceans.
... The freshwater caridean shrimp Neocaridina davidi (Bouvier, 1904) or 'red cherry', which originates from Asia, is the most popular ornamental shrimp that is bred in aquaria due to its attractive bright red coloration, high resistance to stressful thermal conditions, and tolerance to temporal starvation (Baliña, Temperoni, López Greco, & Tropea, 2018;Marciano, Tropea, & López Greco, 2018;Pantaleão et al., 2015;Pantaleão, Gregati, Costa, López Greco, & Negreiros-Fransozo, 2017;Tropea, Stumpf, & López Greco, 2015;Turkmen & Karadal, 2012;Vázquez, Colpo, Sganga, & López Greco, 2017;Włodarczyk et al., 2017). Klotz, Miesen, Hüllen, and Herder (2013) and Pantaleão et al. (2017) have demonstrated that this species has an extremely abbreviated post-embryonic development and an absence of planktonic larval stages. ...
... hypertrophied cheliped). However, some authors cultivate N. davidi (Marciano et al., 2018;Pantaleão et al., 2017;Tropea et al., , 2018 and Neocaridina denticulata (Kenny et al., 2014) in the presence of Java moss (Vesicularia sp.) as shelter to reduce the social interactions and mortality during the molting process. In the current study, consumption of conspecifics was not observed among animals, but faeces, exuviae and death specimens were not removed from the aquaria. ...
Article
Neocaridina davidi is a popular shrimp in the aquarium industry; however, information regarding its husbandry is scarce. In this study, we investigated the contribution of biofilm to its life cycle, comprising three successive phases: (1) the evaluation of biofilm growth on plastic nets (PN), plastic sheets (PS) and agrovelo (AV); (2) the reproduction of adult shrimp to get juveniles (JI); and (3) the effects of biofilm on the survival and growth performance of JI. Trials were performed in aquaria with zero water exchange and natural environmental conditions. Biofilm was composed mainly of microalgae, diatoms, cyanobacteria and ciliates and used as the sole diet. Survival, biomass and biochemical reserves of JI reared in this culture system were significantly higher in the presence of PN and AV substrates. The occurrence of ovarian maturation and egg incubation of female shrimp in these treatments indicate that biofilm supplied the energy required for somatic growth and fecundity. Harvested females also displayed the size and the red pigmentation associated with premium pricing. Based on these results, it is concluded that N. davidi can complete the life cycle and display characteristic life history traits in a low‐cost biofilm technology system without losing economic value as ornamental species.
... This species can be easily maintained in aquaria and has many biological characteristics that make it suitable for cultivation, such as high tolerance to starvation and a wide range of water temperatures; additionally they can tolerate cultivation with a high density of conspecifics (Baliña, Temperoni, López Greco, & Tropea, 2018;Pantaleão et al., 2015;Tropea, Stumpf, & López Greco, 2015;Vazquez, Delevati-Colpo, Sganga, & López-Greco, 2017). On the other hand, this species has a short life cycle with direct development and females produce several successive spawnings with the same brood quality (Marciano, Tropea, & López Greco, 2018;Sganga, Tropea, Valdora, Statti, & López-Greco, 2018;. Despite all the studies mentioned above, there is scarce information about modulating factors of N. davidi color that might enhance its commercial value in the aquaculture market. ...
... The total carotenoid content was determined spectophotometrically by a method modified after Renstrøm, Borch, and Liaaen-Jensen (1981) and Torrissen and Naevdal (1984). This commercial food exhibits optimal results in terms of growth, reproduction, and survival in laboratory conditions (Baliña et al., 2018;Marciano et al., 2018;Sganga et al., 2018;Vazquez et al., 2017). The rearing conditions mentioned above were based on previous studies with this species . ...
Article
Neocaridina davidi, the “red cherry” shrimp, is becoming popular in trade markets because of the reddish coloration of females. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of background substrate color, and the presence of shelters on N. davidi female pigmentation and astaxanthin content. In the first experiment juveniles were assigned to one of three treatments: white, red, or black background substrate. After 90 days, females exposed to the black background showed higher astaxanthin content and relative carapace colored area than those exposed to white and red backgrounds. The second experiment evaluated the presence of shelters with white or black backgrounds. Juveniles were assigned to one of four treatments: white background with shelters (WS), white background without shelters (WWS), black background with shelters (BS), and black background without shelters (BWS). After 90 days the presence of shelters did not influence either the color nor total astaxanthin content. Females exposed to BWS and BS had higher astaxanthin content and relative carapace colored area than those exposed to WWS and WS. Growing N. davidi with black substrates could be a low cost and easy method to improve its economic value. Furthermore, this species could be cultivated as a pigment‐enriched food source for other aquatic species.
... However, only a few studies have addressed the relationship between broodstock condition, and its reproductive performance or offspring quality in N. davidi. evaluated the effect of water temperature on reproduction and offspring quality of the RCS; analysed egg and juvenile quality over successive spawnings; Kohal, Fereidouni, Firouzbakhsh and Hayati (2017) studied the effect of the inclusion of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis meals on reproductive performance; and Marciano, Tropea and López Greco (2018) analysed the relationship between maternal age and female reproductive performance and juvenile quality. ...
... Weight increment for the period 0-30 days was higher in second spawnings as compared to first ones. Similar results were obtained for this species by Marciano et al. (2018). However, this tendency was reverted during the 30-60 days period, since it was higher in first spawns than in second ones. ...
Article
Maternal colouration based on carotenoids has been proposed to negatively affect offspring quality in several taxa, since females might trade off their limited carotenoid resources between body colouration and eggs. This study investigated in the ornamental “red cherry” shrimp (Neocaridina davidi) the relationship between maternal colouration and female reproductive performance, as well as offspring quality. Females selected displayed a broad array of body colour, from less coloured to intensely red coloured and were paired with transparent males. The first two spawning events of each female were studied and compared. The number of newly hatched juveniles was associated to maternal weight, but not to maternal colouration. Offspring quality was measured in terms of survival at the end of the 90‐day growth period, weight and length increment for 0–30 days and 30–60 days periods, and protein, lipid and glycogen contents in 30‐day‐old offspring. Yet, neither of these variables was associated to maternal colouration. These results indicate that there is no trade‐off between maternal colouration and offspring quality in this species. Furthermore, no association was found between maternal and offspring colouration, evaluated at a similar age. However, body colouration in 180‐day old females was significantly higher than in 90‐day‐old females, indicating that female colouration is strongly influenced by age.
... Previous studies have addressed several aspects of N. davidi's reproduction and growth (Marciano et al., 2018;Sganga et al., 2016;, 2019, early development (Pantaleão et al., 2015(Pantaleão et al., , 2017, the use of formulated diets to enhance growth and colour Tomas et al., 2020), dietary supplementation with the algae Spirulina platensis (Namaei Kohal et al., 2018) and optimal density for maximum growth (Vazquez et al., 2017). ...
Article
The effect of different substrates on growth, sexual ratio, number of ovigerous females and survival of the red cherry shrimp, Neocaridina davidi, was analysed to enhance its culture. Recently hatched juvenile shrimps were exposed to 4 different substrates: Vesicularia sp., Ceratophyllum sp., Cabomba sp. and a green plastic net. Growth was analysed over 90 days with shrimps being weighed every 30 days. While maximum size was similar for all treatments, maximum relative growth rate and instantaneous growth was significantly greater and peaked earlier, respectively, in shrimps cultured with Vesicularia sp. Additionally, substrate had no effect on female and male final body weights or their biochemical composition (lipid and protein content). Sexual proportion was slightly biased towards males in all treatments. Survival was highest with Vesicularia sp. (90%) and similar among the remaining treatments (nearly 60%). Shrimps grown with Ceratophyllum sp. presented the lowest proportion of ovigerous females at 10% compared to 30–48% for other treatments. Overall, shrimp culture was significantly influenced by substrates. We hypothesize that Vesicularia sp. could enhance shrimp survival by supporting an environment free of pathogens; or that the periphytic community itself could provide benefits.
... Several studies have demonstrated how easily this species can be cultured and maintained under laboratory conditions, due to its natural hardness to starvation (Pantaleão et al., 2015) and high tolerance to a condition of conspecific density (Vazquez, Delevati Colpo, Sganga, & López Greco, 2017). Moreover, female reaches sexual maturity approximately 50 days after hatching at 28ºC (Tropea, Stumpf, & López Greco, 2015) and displays a short life cycle with direct development, producing several successive spawnings with the same offspring quality (Marciano, Tropea, & López Greco, 2018;Sganga, Tropea, Valdora, Statti, & López Greco, 2018;. Black background substrate and diets rich in high carotenoid content increase the astaxanthin accumulation in chromatophores, and also enhance the reddish coloration of N. davidi females Tomas, Sganga, & López Greco, 2019). ...
Article
This study analysed the effects of three temperatures (20, 24 and 28ºC) on survival, body coloration, carotenoid content, body weight, biochemical composition and spermatophore quality in the shrimp Neocaridina davidi. In all treatments, survival was >90%. Female body coloration and total carotenoid content, for both males and females, did not statistically differ among treatments. Female weight was similar for the three temperatures, while male weight was higher at 20ºC and 24ºC. Total lipid content was higher in female and male shrimps raised at 20ºC. Total protein content was higher in females exposed at 28ºC, but in contrast, males showed the lowest value at the same temperature. The histological and histochemical analyses of the male reproductive system did not reveal differences among treatments. At 20ºC, a delay in ovaries maturation was observed, as well as a smaller amount of ovigerous females at the end of the experimental period. Hence, these results suggest that a temperature range from 20ºC to 28ºC is adequate for satisfactory growth, with no change being exerted on spermatophore quality, body female coloration or carotenoid content, but biochemical composition was affected. Nevertheless, the lowest temperature had a clear impact on the metabolism and reproduction of N. davidi.
... Besides being an attractive and colourful ornamental species, N. davidi could be used as a live feed for farmed fish or other aquatic species with ornamental purposes, due to the countless biological characteristics that make it suitable for cultivation, such as being easily maintained in aquaria and presenting high tolerance to starvation and density condition, and to a wide range of water temperatures (Baliña, Temperoni, López Greco, & Tropea, 2018;Pantaleão et al., 2015;Tropea, Stumpf, & López Greco, 2015;Vazquez, Delevati-Colpo, Sganga, & López-Greco, 2017, among others). Above all, this species has a short life cycle with direct development and females produce several successive spawnings with the same brood quality (Marciano, Tropea, & López Greco, 2018;Sganga, Tropea, Valdora, Statti, & López Greco, 2018;. ...
Article
In aquarium industry trade markets, Neocaridina davidi, the “red cherry” shrimp, is one of the most attractive ornamental shrimps due to the striking reddish coloration of females. Five commercial diets formulated for ornamental species were evaluated over a 90-day period in N. davidi males and females, based on survival, biochemical composition, body weight, carotenoid content and body coloration. Furthermore, histological and histochemical analyses of the male reproductive system were performed to evaluate the spermatophore quality. In all treatments, survival was >80%, and protein content was similar in both female and male shrimps. Lipid content was higher in females and males fed on a diet having the highest lipid level. Carotenoid content was higher and body coloration was brighter in females and males fed on a diet containing the highest carotenoid level. Histological and histochemical analyses of the spermatophore structure and composition showed no differences among diets, suggesting that the five commercial diets are adequate for satisfactory growth and spermatophore quality of N. davidi. The diverse sources and quantities of carotenoids in the highest carotenoid level diet render it more suitable for colour enhancement of this species.
... A low nutritional vulnerability is very relevant when the organism starts to eat exogenous food, because it is a phase usually related to a bottle neck survival feature in aquaculture (Anger, 2001;Calvo et al., 2012Calvo et al., , 2018. Therefore, to expose early juveniles to a physiologically stressful situation, such as starvation or restriction feeding, is also a commonly used tool to evaluate offspring quality in crustaceans (Anger, 2001;Racotta et al., 2003, b;Marciano et al., 2018). ...
Article
The aim of this work is to study the feasibility to induce compensatory growth in Cherax quaricarinatus crayfish at an early stage of development under high density, the typical conditions of nursery phase. An advantageous characteristic of this species is the capacity to face temporary starvation, especially at early stages of development. This would help to design feeding strategies avoiding overfeeding, and diminishing operating costs in aquaculture. In this sense, during the last 8 years it was analyzed in this species the application of intermittent feeding, known as unfavorable feeding condition followed by daily feeding (favorable feeding condition). This alternative feeding protocol was used in the present study to trigger compensatory growth. Juveniles weighing 0.07 ± 0.01 g were distributed in 2 feeding regimes: C (control): juveniles fed daily during 60 days, and IF (intermittent feeding): juveniles deprived of food for 4 days and then fed for the following 4 days, these 4 days’ cycles were repeated during the first 20 days, on day 21 they were daily fed until day 60. Juveniles were stocked in each tank under 0.0096 crayfish/cm² density, and zootechnical and biochemical parameters were evaluated throughout 60 days. A very suitable and similar survival (~ 65%) was maintained between feeding regimes, and the previously unfavorable feeding condition did not promote greater aggression among juveniles. There was a small compensatory response, but no recovery occurred probably because the favorable feeding condition was too short to trigger a strong compensatory response. Hyperphagia and improvement of feed conversion were not observed in juveniles of IF, suggesting that the high density was the key for these primary compensatory mechanisms to be absent. The competition for food, could have affected and changed the priority in allocating energy resources for accelerated growth. Lipids and glycogen content from body mass were strongly depleted after unfavorable feeding condition, but there was almost a 100% recovery during favorable feeding condition. We suggest that this response was detrimental to body mass as a priority and as a strategy for juveniles to extend survival during the ‘double’ nutritional stress caused by intermittent feeding and high density. The applicability of this alternative feeding strategy during an intensive production system can be viable, however, some changes must be considered in order to trigger compensatory growth. We suggest that a long-term of the favorable feeding condition could trigger a strong compensatory response if the high density tested in the study is maintained. We believe that juveniles of the current study had to face two nutritionally stressful factors: food restriction and high density. This could change the priority in allocation of energetic reserves and then the other suggestion would be to reduce the density if the same alternative feeding protocol is maintained.
... Less attention has been paid on freshwater groups and no published data are available for caridean shrimps. Neocaridina davidi is a freshwater caridean shrimp that spawns many times over the year under laboratory conditions (Tropea & L opez Greco, 2015;Marciano, Tropea & L opez Greco, 2018). The spermatophore attached by males to the ventral surface of females during mating is rapidly used to fertilize eggs, decreasing the chances of numerous mattings with the same or different males. ...
Article
In diverse invertebrate species, sperm quantity and quality are positively correlated with male size, egg fertilization rates being consequently affected by paternal weight. This factor may also have an indirect effect on egg quality, because females could adjust the quantity of yolk stored in oocytes before spawning according to their partner attractiveness. The objective of this study was to determine whether paternal weight influences egg production in a freshwater crustacean with external egg fertilization, the caridean shrimp Neocaridina davidi. Virgin females weighing 60–100 mg were paired with virgin males weighing 20–50 mg. The number (total and fertilized), size (volume, wet and dry weight) and carotenoid content of eggs were recorded for each pair. Paternal weight was not associated to any of the evaluated egg variables, while maternal weight showed a positive correlation with egg number and a negative correlation with egg carotenoid content. The percentage of fertilized eggs was similar and near 100% for all paternal sizes, which indicates that small mature males provided enough good-quality sperm to fertilize almost all the oocytes laid by females, similarly to larger males. The relatively low fecundity of N. davidi females may explain, at least in part, the absence of sperm limitation even under a hypothetical decrease in sperm supply by smaller males. In addition, paternal weight had no effect on egg volume, weight and carotenoid content, which suggests that females do not modulate the total amount of biochemical reserves allocated to the maturing ovary as a function of their partner size. Present results are the starting point for a future evaluation of sperm production, in terms of quantity and quality, in males of different size and physiological condition.
... Neocaridina davidi (BOUVIER, 1904), known as the red cherry shrimp, is a colorful freshwater atyid species, native to streams and lakes in Asia (Cai, 1996), and is of commercial interest in the aquaculture industry because of several attributes that makes this popular species very suitable for culture. There are several studies about its reproductive biology (Kohal, Fereidouni, Firouzbakhsh, & Hayati, 2018;Marciano, Tropea, & López Greco, 2018;Pantaleao, Gregati, Costa, López Greco, & Negreiros Fransozo, 2017;Tropea, Stumpf, & López Greco, 2015). ...
Article
This study aims to analyze the functional anatomy of the male reproductive system in Neocaridina davidi, a very popular ornamental species of caridean shrimp. Mature males were cold-anaesthetized and their reproductive systems were dissected for histological and histochemical analysis, while the spermatozoa and spermatophore wall ultrastruc-ture were analyzed under transmission electron microscopy. The male reproductive system consisted of two coiled testes, which were continuous with the vasa deferentia. Testes were positioned on the dorsal side of the cephalothorax above the hepatopan-creas, and comprised seminiferous tubules where spermatogenesis occurred. Each vas deferens (VD) was a long tube dorsolaterally positioned with respect to the hepatopan-creas, and increased in diameter at the distal end. Three regions could be recognized in the VD: proximal, middle, and distal. The proximal region had a cylindrical epithelium with secretory cells. The middle region (or typhlosole) had a dorsal fold (or typhlosole) with a thick columnar epithelium and high secretory activity. The spermatophore was a continuous cord with three acellular layers, which were mainly characterized by the presence of neutral glycoconjugates and proteins. The sperm morphology was distinct from the inverted cup-shaped spermatozoa observed in the majority of caridean shrimps. The spermatozoa in specimens of N. davidi were spherical in shape, with a cross-striated, single, short spike, and arranged in clusters of three or four sperm cells. The composition of the spermatophore, and the arrangement and form of the sperma-tozoa, seem to be unique in comparison to other species of Caridea.
... Sganga, personal observation). Females spawn several times throughout a life span of 1.5 years under culture conditions (Barbier 2010;Marciano et al. 2018). Although the mating system has not been reported for the species, laboratory observations seem to indicate that it corresponds to the "pure search mating system" described by Correa and Thiel (2003). ...
Article
The relationship between parental mass and female reproductive output, as well as offspring quality, was studied in the red cherry shrimp (Neocaridina davidi (Bouvier, 1904)) under controlled laboratory conditions. Adult males and females of the same age were paired combining different shrimp masses. The number of hatched juveniles from large females was higher than that from small ones, but no influence of paternal mass was detected on this variable. Both the mass of newly hatched juveniles and their growth increment during a 60-day period were similar for all parental masses. Shrimps reached sexual maturity at the end of the growth period in all treatments, and their biochemical reserves (glycogen, lipid, and protein concentrations) were not associated with maternal and paternal masses. However, lipid concentration was higher in female offspring than in male offspring. The present results show that, unlike maternal mass, paternal mass had no effect on female reproductive output and offspring quality, suggesting that the contribution of males to offspring development was adequate regardless of male size.
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This study evaluated the starvation resistance of the shrimp, Neocaridina davidi during the first and the third juvenile stages (named here as JI and JIII) by means of the estimation of point-of-no-return (PNR50). Two experiments were conducted with increasing numbers of days without food and two controls (one with continuous feeding, CF; the other, with continuous starvation, CS). Time to the first molt and number of molts did not differ among the treatments beginning at JI or JIII. Nevertheless, longer periods of starvation influenced growth and survival of juveniles beginning the starvation as JI, but these effects were not observed in JIII. The estimated values of PNR50 for JI and JIII were 16.15 ± 0.31 and 9.44 ± 0.26 days, respectively. The early stages of the life cycle are more tolerant to starvation than other decapods previously studied. Such ability indicates a great potential of this species for aquaculture.
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Fecundity of the Japanese mitten crab Eriocheir japonica was investigated at Tsuyazaki Beach, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. The numbers of eggs and hatched larvae counted in the laboratory were com bined and categorized by the number of ovipositions. When the number of oviposition could not be directly counted, it was estimated based on the appearance of the egg mass. The fecundity increased with increasing carapace width(CW)and decreased in the later ovipositions. It was estimated to range from120, 000(40mm in CW)to600, 000(70mm)in the first oviposition, 80, 000to300, 000in the second one and20, 000to80, 000in the third one. Females oviposit up to three times within one reproductive season and die without further moulting. Considering the energetic cost of migration, it may be more profitable to consume all accumulated energy within one reproductive season, and spawn many offspring while they are not ex hausted just after migration. Potential lifetime fecundity can be estimated from the total fecundity; it ranged from230, 000(40mm in CW)to980, 000(70mm). When compared to other marine grapsid crabs, maturity size and fecundity of the first oviposition of E. japonica are both larger, but the regression line describing the CW-fecundity relationship is similar to those of other grapsid crabs. Large fecundity per brood with large maturity size compensates for the decrease in their brooding time and lifetime fecundity.
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About 90% of the extant species of the Decapoda live in oceans and adjacent coastal and estuarine regions, and most of them pass through a complex life history comprising a benthic (juvenile-adult) and a planktonic (larval) phase. The larvae show a wide array of adaptations to the pelagic environment, including modifications in functional morphology, anatomy, the molting cycle, nutrition, growth, chemical composition, metabolism, energy partitioning, ecology, and behavior. Due to these adaptive traits, which are the principal subject of this volume, decapod larvae are more like unrelated holoplanktonic organisms rather than resembling the conspecific benthic juveniles and adults. Emphasis is here on the lesser known anatomical, bioenergetic, and ecophysiological aspects of larval life, because morphology has already extensively been documented in the literature. Changes in biological parameters (e.g. rates of feeding, growth, metabolism) are shown in successive developmental stages, within individual stages, and as repsonses to environmental factors. Particular attention is paid to interrelationships between intrinsic phenomena (molting cycle, organogenesis, growth) and the overlaying effects of extrinsic factors (e.g. food, temperature, salinity, pollution). Concluding from the available data, we may identify major bias and gaps in our present knowledge of larval biology. For instance, biochemical, physiological, and anatomical aspects have been investigated much less than larval morphology, ecology, and behavior, and bioenergetic parameters have largely been studied as isolated physiological traits rather than attempting to quantify the overall partitioning of chemical energy. Little is known also about intraspecific variability within or between separate populations. This remains a major challenge for larval biologist, because knowledge of phenotypic plasticity and genetical divergence, e.g. in larval morphology or stress tolerance, is of utmost importance for the understanding of evolutionary adaptation and speciation. In particular, early ontogenetic adaptations to extreme or unpredictable ecological conditions are important in the evolutionary transitions from marine to limnic or terrestrial environments. We also need more comparisons between field and laboratory observations in order to ”calibrate” data from the field with those obtained under controlled conditions; inversely, those comparisons should help to identify ”domestication effects” and other artifacts that are potentially pertinent to laboratory data. Furthermore, future research should increasingly consider effects which persist through successive life-history phases, e.g. those of embryonic acclimatization on larval stress tolerance, or the significance of larval condition for later settlement and recruitment success.
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Evolution drives, and is driven by, demography. A genotype moulds its phenotype's age patterns of mortality and fertility in an environment; these two patterns in turn determine the genotype's fitness in that environment. Hence, to understand the evolution of ageing, age patterns of mortality and reproduction need to be compared for species across the tree of life. However, few studies have done so and only for a limited range of taxa. Here we contrast standardized patterns over age for 11 mammals, 12 other vertebrates, 10 invertebrates, 12 vascular plants and a green alga. Although it has been predicted that evolution should inevitably lead to increasing mortality and declining fertility with age after maturity, there is great variation among these species, including increasing, constant, decreasing, humped and bowed trajectories for both long- and short-lived species. This diversity challenges theoreticians to develop broader perspectives on the evolution of ageing and empiricists to study the demography of more species.
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The influence of starvation on larval development of the spider crabHyas araneus (L.) was studied in laboratory experiments. No larval stage suffering from continual lack of food had sufficient energy reserves to reach the next instar. Maximal survival times were observed at four different constant temperatures (2°, 6°, 12° and 18 °C). In general, starvation resistance decreased as temperatures increased: from 72 to 12days in the zoea-1, from 48 to 18 days in the zoea-2, and from 48 to 15 days in the megalopa stage. The length of maximal survival is of the same order of magnitude as the duration of each instar at a given temperature. “Sublethal limits” of early starvation periods were investigated at 12 °C: Zoea larvae must feed right from the beginning of their stage (at high food concentration) and for more than one fifth, approximately, of that stage to have at least some chance of surviving to the next instar, independent of further prey availability. The minimum time in which enough reserves are accumulated for successfully completing the instar without food is called “point-of-reserve-saturation” (PRS). If only this minimum period of essential initial feeding precedes starvation, development in both zoeal stages is delayed and mortality is greater, when compared to the fed control. Starvation periods beginning right after hatching of the first zoea cause a prolongation of this instar and, surprisingly, a slight shortening of the second stage. The delay in the zoea-1 increases proportionally to the length of the initial fasting period. If more than approximately 70 % of the maximum possible survival time has elapsed without food supply, the larvae become unable to recover and to moult to the second stage even when re-fed (“point-of-no-return”, PNR). The conclusion, based on own observations and on literature data, is that initial feeding is of paramount importance in the early development of planktotrophic decapod larvae. Taking into account hormonal and other developmental processes during the first moult cycle, a general hypothesis is proposed to explain the key role of first food uptake as well as the response pattern of the zoea-1 stage to differential starvation periods.
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Late zoeal and early postlarval stages of vent shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata, Chorocaris chacei and Alvinocaris markensis), sampled from the water column above the Broken Spur vent site (mid-Atlantic Ridge), contained large amounts of bright orange coloured Lipid in their thoracic and abdominal regions. The lipid comprised 75 to 82% wax ester, containing predominantly 16:0 and 18:1 fatty alcohols. In contrast, wax esters were found to be absent in samples of adult vent shrimp (R. exoculata and A. markensis). Substantial wax-ester reserves are a recognised adaptation to a prolonged bathypelagic, planktotrophic existence in deep-sea organisms where food is scarce and they have to survive extended periods without feeding. This characteristic is clearly of benefit to larval vent shrimp, which appear to be the main dispersal phase in the life history of these organisms, whose adult stages inhabit a strikingly ephemeral environment which is discontinuous in both space and time.
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In this study, we determined the influence of the time broodstock spend in reproduction, and the effect of consecutive spawnings (spawning order) on larval quality of Litopenaeus vannamei. Spawns were sampled at days 1–4, 18–20 and 38–40 after unilateral eyestalk ablation and ordered according to the number of spawns or spawning order (1–11) of each female. Larvae were reared individually to 2-day-old postlarvae (PL2); spawn and larval quality was determined in terms of fecundity, fertilization, hatching, morphometric traits, ammonium stress resistance applied at zoea, salinity stress resistance applied at postlarval stages, and survival during culture. Fecundity was not affected by consecutive spawns, whereas it increased with time spent in production. Nauplii length and survival to zoea and mysis stages decreased with time spent in production, whereas no consistent influence of consecutive spawning was observed. Survival to PL2, and to the ammonia and salinity stress tests did not decrease with increasing time in production or spawning order. This study separated the specific influence of time spent in production (which negatively affects larval quality) and consecutive spawns (which had no effect or had an inconsistent effect), and reinforced previous suggestions that selection of females with multiple spawn capacity would be desirable for production purposes.
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This article proposesan easy to implement cluster-based method for identifying groups of nonhom ogeneous means. The method overcomes the common problem of the classical multiple-comparison methods that lead to the construction of groups that often have substantial overlap. In addition, it solves the problem of other cluster-based methods that do not have a known level of significance and are not easy to apply. The new procedure is compared by simulation with a set of classical multiple-comparison methods and a cluster-based one. Results show that the new procedure compares quite favorably with those included in this article.
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The present study analyzed the effects of consecutive spawnings on egg quality in a homogeneous domesticated population of Litopenaeus vannamei under optimal maturation conditions. A multidisciplinary approach was used to evaluate egg quality and female condition, using production, morphometric, biochemical, and histological criteria. For this purpose, 106 individually tagged females were stocked with males in maturation tanks, and productivity variables were recorded over 36 days. Biochemical composition of eggs, hemolymph, hepatopancreas, and ovaries was also analyzed. Results indicate that about half (48%) of females did not spawn, 18% spawned once, 15% spawned twice, 11% spawned three times, and 8% spawned four times or more. Variables associated with reproductive quality, such as number of eggs per spawn, fertilization rate, and egg diameter, were not affected by consecutive spawnings. Fourth-spawn eggs had significantly higher levels of total lipids, triacylglycerides, and total proteins than first-spawn eggs. First-spawn eggs from females that by the end of the production period had spawned four or more times had higher triacylglycerides and vitellin levels than first-spawn eggs from females that had three or less spawns. This indicates that triacylglycerides and vitellin could be used as predictors of female reproductive performance. Significantly higher condition index (weight to length ratio) was observed for females that spawned four or more times. No significant difference was observed in biochemical composition of hepatopancreas and ovaries as a function of the effect of number of spawns. This study indicates that egg quality and physiological condition of females were not affected by consecutive spawnings, and that females with multiple spawn capability are desirable for greater reproductive performance. Production variables and biochemical composition of first-spawn eggs and some morphometric characteristics of females may be used as indicators of multiple spawn capability.
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Quality of newly hatched larvae (NHL) of Maja brachydactyla in captivity has been characterized throughout the year to evaluate their availability for mass production. Spawning took place every month and NHL were collected and analyzed to estimate individual dry weight (DW) and proximate biochemical composition (protein, carbohydrate and lipids). Lipid class, fatty acid composition, amino acid profile, mineral and vitamins A, E and C contents were analyzed seasonally. NHL obtained throughout the year are a potential source for aquaculture purposes, since the increment in the relative protein and lipid (especially phospholipids and n-3 PUFA) content might compensate the decrease in DW of larvae hatched from broodstock kept during one year in captivity. However, the decrease in vitamins A and E as well as in certain essential amino acids (Lys, Val, and His) and trace elements (Cu and Fe) of NHL at the end of the year might be indicative of a nutritional deficiency in broodstock diets.
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As is true for many fish and invertebrate fisheries, stock–recruitment relationships remain poorly understood for most commercially important species of lobsters and crabs. This paper gives a critical overview of advances in assessing the relative importance of pre- and post-settlement processes to the recruitment of 14 commercially and/or ecologically important lobsters and crabs. Three case studies (western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus, blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, and the American lobster, Homarus americanus) are used to illustrate where standard fishery survey methods, combined with field experiments, have provided insights into the form of stock–recruit relationships and the ecological processes that influence them. It is notable that larval supply-dominated cases, such as that of P. cygnus, may be less common than those dominated by post-settlement processes, such as C. sapidus, in which strong compensatory processes lead to non-linear spawner-to-recruit or juvenile-to-recruit relationships. In other cases, such as H. americanus, the influence of post-settlement controls remains controversial. Significant settler or juvenile-to-recruit linkages have been reported more often than spawner-to-recruit relationships, most likely because pre-settlement processes often mask the latter. Innovative field experiments, early life stage monitoring and spatial modeling have improved our understanding of the influence of competition, predation, cannibalism, sociality and movements to the demography of some of these species. Field experiments have been more widely used by American and Australian than European investigators. Ecological experiments are not a panacea, though, and can lead to misinterpretation, especially of the relative importance of mortality and emigration. Uncertainties about age and the relevant spatial scale at which to evaluate stock–recruitment relationships have posed further challenges. This review underscores the need to design ecological studies at a geographic scale that will better reveal the stock–recruitment relationship.
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This review focuses on the different criteria currently used to assess offspring quality of penaeid shrimp and the factors that affect this characteristic. The term ‘larval quality’ generally refers to the physiological condition of the larvae and is related to survival and growth rates during several larval developmental stages. The criteria fit into five general categories, depending on the approach used: biochemical, morphological, behavioral, production and survival to stress tests. Several variables at the broodstock management level are known or suspected to affect larval quality. These include variables that can be more easily controlled by producers or researchers than others. Broodstock nutrition is probably the best reviewed aspect and is supported by many papers on the metabolism of several components during maturation, use of fresh vs. artificial food and specific requirements of particular components, such as lipids and vitamins. Endocrine control of reproduction has been widely studied in crustaceans. Eyestalk ablation still represents the most commonly used endocrine manipulation to induce maturation and spawning. Other alternatives are considered although few evaluate larval quality and none has been used in production. More recently, the use of captive broodstock and genetic improvement programs have gained importance. The effect of other biological characteristics of shrimp, such as age and size, season of the year when induced to intensive maturation conditions, time spent in maturation tanks and consecutive spawnings are also considered.
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This study analyzed the quality of recently spawned eggs and of juveniles over five and six consecutive spawns, respectively, in a caridean shrimp Neocaridina davidi with direct development. The potential energetic antagonism between reproduction and somatic growth was also evaluated. The number of eggs per spawn per female was highest in the first spawn, while the number of recently hatched juveniles per spawn per female declined in the sixth spawn. Lower lipid concentration and energy content were detected in eggs of the fourth and fifth spawns, which may indicate for the first time a decrease in maternal provisioning as a result of multiple spawning in a decapod with direct development. This result had no effect on the size of eggs or of recently hatched juveniles, nor on the growth performance of juveniles during a 30-day period following hatching. Lipids were the most abundant biochemical component of eggs, followed by proteins and glycogen; the relative proportion of each component was probably related to embryonic development type. Egg volume was unsuitable as an indicator of nutrient content, as no correlation was found between these variables. The physiological costs of reproduction were evident from the lower energy content of females that reproduced versus females that remained virgin. The lower body weight of the reproductive females at the end of the experiment showed that allocation of resources to reproduction occurred at the expense of somatic growth. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical demonstration of a decapod with direct development.
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Two experiments were conducted co-feeding Penaeus vannamei broodstock with frozen Artemia biomass. In the first experiment, animals were fed natural diets supplemented with squid (treatment SQ), Artemia (A), or enriched Artemia (EA). In the second experiment, animals received a supplement of Artemia enriched with different products; rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and cholesterol (treatment L), rich in vitamin c, vitamin e, and astaxanthin (treatment V), or a complete enrichment (treatment LV). In experiment 1, treatment SQ gave poor results for most parameters. Supplementation with Artemia resulted in higher survival, higher maturation frequency, a higher incidence of repeated spawns, and an improved larval quality. The best results were obtained in the treatment that received enriched Artemia. In experiment 2, the highest reproductive performance was obtained through enrichment of Artemia with both lipids and vitamins (LV). By reducing the concentration of PUFA and cholesterol in the enrichment product, a decline in egg fertilization, a lower incidence of repeated spawns, and a lower egg production per female was observed. High vitamin levels played a positive role only when provided in combination with high levels of PUFA and cholesterol. If not, symptoms of oversaturation occurred.
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A protein determination method which involves the binding of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 to protein is described. The binding of the dye to protein causes a shift in the absorption maximum of the dye from 465 to 595 nm, and it is the increase in absorption at 595 nm which is monitored. This assay is very reproducible and rapid with the dye binding process virtually complete in approximately 2 min with good color stability for 1 hr. There is little or no interference from cations such as sodium or potassium nor from carbohydrates such as sucrose. A small amount of color is developed in the presence of strongly alkaline buffering agents, but the assay may be run accurately by the use of proper buffer controls. The only components found to give excessive interfering color in the assay are relatively large amounts of detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, and commercial glassware detergents. Interference by small amounts of detergent may be eliminated by the use of proper controls.
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Experiments were conducted comparing the reproductive performance of Penaeus monodon fed either a fresh frozen diet of squid and mussel or one of two moist artificial diets developed at the Bribie Island Aquaculture Research Centre (BIARC). Diet formulation and biochemical composition are presented, including proximate and fatty acid analysis. Reproductive performance was measured over a 42 day period. Spawner survival, fecundity and hatch rate varied with experimental period but were not affected by the test diets. Diets did however effect the number of spawns per prawn. Prawns fed one of the artificial diets (BIARC2) spawned on average 1.4 times more than prawns fed the squid-mussel control diet. Also, survival of larvae (to protozoea 1) from prawns fed the BIARC2 diet averaged 74.6% while larvae from prawns fed the control diet averaged only 39.5%. The improvement in survival was particularly evident for successive spawns. Thus the artificial diet BIARC2, while not affecting all aspects of reproductive performance resulted in higher overall larvae production than did the control diet of squid-mussel.
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The effect of broodstock age on the consecutive spawning performance of wild-caught ablated Penaeus semisulcatus females was assessed for four age groupings (6, 8, 12, 14 months old). Age groupings were determined from time series size data (carapace length measurements) of the broodstock population. Spawning performance of the four age groupings was assessed in terms of the percentage of females spawning, eggs per spawning and hatch rates per spawning. The percentage of females spawning decreased more rapidly over consecutive spawnings for the 14-month age grouping than for the three younger age groupings. Additionally, a smaller percentage of the 6-month-old females spawned than 8- or 12-month-old females across all consecutive spawnings. The number of eggs produced per spawning declined with consecutive spawnings from the older spawners (12 and 14 months old), but not from the younger spawners (6 and 8 months old). The hatch rate did not decline with consecutive spawnings from any of the four age groupings, although the overall mean hatch rates were lower for the 6-month-old females than the older females. These results suggest that broodstock age (and/or size) affects the consecutive spawning performance of P. semisulcatus. Consequently, the reproductive performance expected from ablated shrimps over time in a hatchery may differ depending on the age of the broodstock.
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This study aimed at evaluating the effects of two starvation modes (fasting-feeding mode and feeding-fasting mode) on survival, growth and development of mysis larvae of Exopalaemon carinicauda. It showed that food restriction significantly affected the survival, growth and development in both starvation modes. With the extension of initial starvation period, a significantly reduced survival rate during metamorphosis was observed. In the fasting-feeding mode, the duration of metamorphosis was extended and the body lengths of the individuals, which experienced successful metamorphosis to the post-larval stage 1, were much shorter. In the feeding-fasting mode, the extension of initial feeding period led to dramatically increased survival rate and body lengths, while there was no significant difference in duration of metamorphosis of those groups that reached to post-larval stage. The 50% point-of-no-return and the 50% point-of-reserve-saturation were 3.85 days and 4.81 days respectively. The results of this study indicate that E. carinicauda mysis have the ability to withstand or recover from relatively extended starvation, but to ensure the success of commercial seedling, timely and adequate feeding is necessary. The information obtained from this study could provide a basis to optimize the feeding schedule of artificial seedling of E. carinicauda.
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Tiger prawns, Penaeus esculentus Haswell (mean wt 20.8 ± 0.3 g, range 13.9–27.7 g) contained 1–2% extractable lipid, 13% protein (biuret method) and 71–74% water (wet wt). In 21 days, the weight of fed prawns increased by 3% and that of starved prawns decreased by 4.4%. Protein was the major energy source during 14 days of starvation, with a loss of 550 mg of total protein compared with a loss of 84 mg of total lipid. The absolute amount of water present remained constant. Of three different tissue compartments, abdomen, cephalothorax, and digestive gland, the abdomen contributed the most protein (330 mg) and lipid (35 mg) during 14 days of starvation. Digestive gland, although containing the largest percentage wet wt of lipid, accounted for only 8.3% of the total lipid in the prawn, and contributed only 18 mg of lipid in 14 days of starvation. Lipid concentration in the digestive gland increased during early premoult (stage D4) and dropped in late premoult (stage D4). Resting oxygen consumption rate remained constant at ≈0.1 ml · g−1 · h−1 at 25°C during 21 days of starvation.
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In a series of three experiments, we tested the effects of short-term food variability on the larval development of Petrolisthes cabrilloi. We first reared seven sibling clutches of zoeae at 198C in 10 constant food rations (ranging 2-40 Artemia nauplii d 21 ) to determine maximal and minimal values for age and size at metamorphosis to the megalops stage. Mean age at metamorphosis ranged between 18.3-38.0 d after hatching and correlated negatively with food. Mean dry mass of megalopae ranged between 71.8-296.0 mg and correlated positively with food. The effect of food ration overwhelmed the small variation among clutches. Data from this experiment involving non- varying food rations were applied to a model of metamorphosis in variable environments to make quantitative predictions for more complicated regimes in which food varies during development. We tested the predictions by performing two experiments in which larvae were switched between high-food and low-food rations at various developmental stages and at controlled times. Size at metamorphosis was plastic throughout the entire larval period, but plasticity in the timing of metamorphosis was lost during the final 20-30% of the larval period. More impor- tantly, data from the variable feeding regimes were within 95% confidence intervals for 14 of the 16 model predictions for age and size at metamorphosis. The model allowed the results of relatively simple experiments involving several nonvarying food rations to be extrapolated to more complicated scenarios involving short-term food variability.
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The objective of this study was to investigate the nutritional vulnerability of stage III juveniles of the freshwater crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. The point-of-reserve-saturation (PRS50), the point-of-no-return (PNR50) and the compensatory growth capacity in intermittently fed individuals were determined. The juveniles were subjected to different feeding protocols for the PRS–PNR experiment and the intermittent feeding experiment. Fifty percent of the juveniles were able to successfully molt to the following stage (PRS50) after 3.53 feeding days and failed to molt to the following stage (PNR50) after 4.28 starvation days. In the intermittent feeding experiment, stage III juveniles achieved similar growth and survival compared to those kept under the continuous feeding regimen. Full compensatory growth occurred during the restriction period in the initially fed group and during the refeeding period in the initially starved group. This is the first study on PRS, PNR and compensatory growth in a subtropical freshwater crayfish. Moreover, it shows that stage III juveniles are unable to molt to the following stage without feeding, requiring at least two feeding days to molt and survive. Feeding seems to be necessary at the beginning of stage III, when energy reserves are probably accumulated. On the other hand, the capacity to fully compensate may lead to a reduction in the amount of food supplied, thereby diminishing the costs of production and improving water quality. In conclusion, the high level of compensatory growth capacity, together with the values of PNR50 and PRS50 obtained in this study, could serve as useful indices for assessing brood quality and food quality in aquaculture.
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The inland prawn genus Macrobrachium Bate, 1868, is supposed to have originated from marine ancestors sometime in the beginning of the Pleistocene and since then its members have invaded freshwaters to different degrees. As such, these prawns are found to occupy almost all types of aquatic bodies right from purely marine through estuarine, riverine to impounded waters. Consequently, they have evolved various types of developmental patterns. Based on information available on more than 40 species, three basic types of larval developmental patterns can abe recognized in this genus viz., Prolonged or Normal Type (with 8 to 20 stages), Partially Abbreviated Type (with 2 or 3 stages) and Completely Abbreviated Type (with only 1 stage). However, there are several species showing transitional developmental patterns. Thus, the process of freshwaterization seems to be still continuing in the genus. Incidentally, the above knowledge can be applied in prawn culture as a basis for selection of a suitable candidate for forage species.
Article
Although the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus females can spawn up to 5 times during a reproductive season, only larvae hatched from the first brood are normally used for larval culture in commercial hatcheries. With the increasing price of swimming crab broodstock and decreasing availability of wild stock, there are increasing interests in the possible utilization of the second brood for larval culture. However, to date, no detailed study has been conducted to assess the reproductive performance and offspring quality from the second brood of female P. trituberculatus. The present study was conducted to compare reproductive performance and offspring quality of the first (1st) and the second brood (2nd) produced by female P. trituberculatus during a reproductive season. No significant differences in several important reproductive parameters, including percentage of females spawned, percentage of berried females successfully hatched, egg production per female and fecundity per unit body weight, was found between the first and the second brood. However, the first brood had significantly higher individual egg wet weight (1st = 40.54 µg; 2nd = 31.40 µg), egg dry weight (1st = 13.51 µg; 2nd = 10.55 µg) and hatchability (1st = 78.41%; 2nd = 66.04%), and significantly higher survival (1st = 88.31%; 2nd = 65.38%) and faster development (1st = 3.82 days; 2nd = 4.34 days) from zoea I to zoea II and showed better starvation resistance in newly hatched larvae (1st = 5.03 days; 2nd = 2.98 days) than the second brood (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the newly hatched zoea I from the first brood also had significantly higher total lipids, 16:1n− 7, 18:1n− 9, threonine (Thr) and arginine (Arg) contents, but lower levels of 18:0 and histidine (His) (P < 0.05) as compared to those of the second brood. These biochemical differences are likely linked to different larval quality of the first and the second brood.
Large decapod eggs have a relatively high lipid content and low density when compared with small eggs. This relationship is probably a consequence of abbreviated development in those species with large eggs.
Article
Relative body size has long been recognized as a factor influencing repro-ductive success in fishes, but maternal age has only recently been considered. We monitored growth and starvation resistance in larvae from 20 female black rockfish (Sebastes melan-ops), ranging in age from five to 17 years. Larvae from the oldest females in our experiments had growth rates more than three times as fast and survived starvation more than twice as long as larvae from the youngest females. Female age was a far better predictor of larval performance than female size. The apparent underlying mechanism is a greater provisioning of larvae with energy-rich triacylglycerol (TAG) lipids as female age increases. The volume of the oil globule (composed primarily of TAG) present in larvae at parturition increases with maternal age and is correlated with subsequent growth and survival. These results suggest that progeny from older females can survive under a broader range of environmental conditions compared to progeny from younger females. Age truncation commonly induced by fisheries may, therefore, have severe consequences for long-term sustainability of fish populations.
Article
For production of shrimp larvae in a commercial hatchery, multiple spawning of females is highly desirable, provided spawn quality is not affected. Using biochemical and production approaches, 349 females were individually followed, and 69 spawns were sampled over a 3-month period. The quantity of eggs and nauplii per spawn was greater in females with multiple spawns. Several indicators of spawn quality, such as fertilization and hatching rates, per cent of viable spawns, and morphometric characteristics of eggs and nauplii were not affected by consecutive spawns. Analyses of egg and nauplii biochemical composition indicate that adequate transfer of nutrients to eggs is not compromised with successive rematurations and spawnings. Strategies that focus on the selection of shrimp with multiple spawning capacities could be a promising approach to increasing larvae production.
Article
A 2-month feeding trial was conducted toevaluate the reproductive performance andoffspring quality of mud crab (Scyllaparamamosain) females fed either a mixture offresh food items (squid, shrimp, trash fish andArtemia biomass) or two experimentaldiets developed for penaeids. Before testinitiation, mud crab females with an averageindividual wet weight of 200–300 g wereacclimated for 2–3 days and reared together inone concrete tank of 2.0 × 0.5 × 8 m untilspawning. After spawning, the spent spawnerswere unilaterally eyestalk ablated and randomlydivided (20 animals/treatment) over three tanksof the same size and subjected to the dietarytreatments. Spent spawners were used toeliminate the effect of feeding history. There were only minor differences inreproductive performance between dietarytreatments. No differences were observed in theduration of the latency period from eyestalkablation to spawning. Fecundity was onlymarginally higher for the broodstock fed thecontrol diet. Also egg quality seemed onlyslightly affected by the treatments. Egghatching rates were slightly higher in crabsfed the formulated diets compared to thosecrabs fed the fresh diet. The onlystatistically significant difference (p < 0.05) observed however was in egg hatchingrate between the control diet and diet A2. Incontrast, the crabs fed the fresh diet producedstronger larvae as determined by a starvationtest. We therefore conclude that artificial dietsresulted in reproduction success comparable tothe use of fresh food. The nutritionalcomposition of the artificial diets couldhowever be improved in order to produce larvaeof optimal quality. Based on our researchfindings, the protein level and n-3 HUFA levelin the diet warrants further investigation inthis respect.
Article
Penaeus vannamei larval quality in terms of biochemical composition and survival was studied throughout a spawning period. Spawns from broodstock at three different times during a commercial production period were sampled (15, 45, and 75 days after ablation). Biochemical composition of eggs, nauplii, 15-day old postlarvae (PL15), and growth and survival during culture were determined. As the days after ablation increased, a reproductive exhaustion of spawners was reflected in the energy reserves of the eggs produced. Overall larval performance during culture and survival was considerably higher in recently ablated spawners (15 days) and decreased in spawners 45 and 75 days after ablation. At PL15, a test for larval resistance to a salinity stress was applied that showed a decreased PL condition related to reproductive exhaustion of spawners: survival to stress decreased from 89% in recently ablated to 68% in larvae produced 45 days after ablation, and to 39% in larvae produced to the end of the spawning period. Nauplii condition index (NCI), calculated from nauplii triacylglycerol (TG) levels, percentage of viable nauplii, and nauplii length declined in nauplii produced with spawners sampled 45 and 75 days after ablation. This study demonstrated that reproductive exhaustion of shrimp spawners occurs and it becomes largely evident as time after ablation increases: spawner exhaustion is reflected in the quality of the larvae produced.
Article
Adult spiny lobster females were starved for a 3-week period then fed either a squid or beef-based diet for 5 months during ovarian maturation to ascertain the pattern of lipid and fatty acid usage, deposition and resilience to change in the digestive gland, ovary and tail muscle. Phyllosoma larvae resulting from these broodstock and animals from the wild were subject to an activity test (1 h exposure to temperature and salinity stresses) to ascertain their competency at hatch. Larval competency was validated with a period of culture. Prior to and during the feeding period, broodstock lipid concentration was extremely high in the digestive gland (66–74% of tissue dry weight [dw]), moderate in the ovary (38–43% dw) and low in the tail muscle (5–8% dw). The lipid profiles of the digestive gland, ovary and tail muscle were dominated by triacylglycerol (TAG, 90%), polar lipid (PL)/triacylglycerol (52/43%) and polar lipid (90%), respectively. The digestive gland lipid content was reduced by starvation but increased by the end of the feeding period, suggesting this organ is used as an energy (lipid) reservoir. By the completion of the study, the fatty acid profile of the digestive gland closely resembled that of the diet. By contrast, the concentration of lipids and fatty acids in the ovary and tail muscle remained relatively stable independent of diet, although the ovary size and lipid content increased concomitant with maturation. Phyllosoma resulting from the broodstock dietary treatments and animals from the wild had similar lipid class profiles; polar lipids and sterols constituted over 98% of the total lipid. While their fatty acid profiles were similar, phyllosoma from wild broodstock had a lower content of all major fatty acids (except 20:4n−6) were larger, attained higher survival (up to stage IV) and had lower inactivity counts (stress index). During this study, the temperature and salinity parameters used in the activity test were modified to improve the predictive capacity of the test.
Article
Life-history patterns in marine, limnic, and terrestrial brachyurans are reviewed to discern special adaptations associated with transitions in life style. Among marine crabs, the Grapsidae have been especially successful invading freshwater and terrestrial environments, in particular a group of closely related neotropical Sesarminae species, which has evolved through a conspicuous radiation process. Compared with marine grapsid crabs, freshwater and terrestrial species show the following tendencies: (1) increasing habitat specialization, (2) reduced geographic range (endemism), (3) low fecundity, (4) brood protection, (5) large egg size, (6) unusually high carbon contents and C:N ratios in eggs and early larvae (indicating an enhanced lipid content), (7) abbreviated larval development, (8) high larval tolerance of physico-chemical stress, (9) nutritional independence (lecithotrophy), (10) no or only little larval growth, (11) possibly energy saving mechanisms in exuvial and respiratory losses of larvae. Most of these tendencies were found also in two semiterrestrial species with intermediate life histories, Sesarma curacaoense and Armases miersii. Factors selecting for these life-history traits are discussed. Among them, there may be two major driving forces in the evolution of freshwater and land crabs: (1) food-limitation in freshwater/terrestrial breeding habitats selects for large egg size, lecithotrophy, and abbreviated larval development; (2) once adaptations to the adult habitat have evolved in the larvae (for instance, in semiterrestrial species with an abbreviated, partially lecithotrophic larval development, as in S. curacaoense and A. miersii), intense pelagic predation in the shallow coastal fringe should select against an export strategy (offshore transport of larvae), and thus for larval retention in and continued adaptation to non-marine environments.
Article
A protein determination method which involves the binding of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 to protein is described. The binding of the dye to protein causes a shift in the absorption maximum of the dye from 465 to 595 nm, and it is the increase in absorption at 595 nm which is monitored. This assay is very reproducible and rapid with the dye binding process virtually complete in approximately 2 min with good color stability for 1 hr. There is little or no interference from cations such as sodium or potassium nor from carbohydrates such as sucrose. A small amount of color is developed in the presence of strongly alkaline buffering agents, but the assay may be run accurately by the use of proper buffer controls. The only components found to give excessive interfering color in the assay are relatively large amounts of detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, and commercial glassware detergents. Interference by small amounts of detergent may be eliminated by the use of proper controls.
Article
A simple, rapid, and precisecolorimetric method for total serum lipids based on the sulfo-phospho-vanillin reaction is described. The method uses 0.10 ml. of serum and the resulting chromogen follows Beer’s law at 540 mμ. up to lipid concentrations of 1,000 mg. per 100 ml. The colorimetric method gives good agreement with a gravimetric-extraction method and has a coefficient of variation of 3.5%. The simplicity, speed, and reliability of the proposed method makes it suitable for large-scale analyses.
Effects of different diets on reproductive performance and HUFA composition of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) broodstock during second spawning
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