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West Sumatra is an important region in Indonesia in the context of traditional architectural heritage, especially mosques. There are 39 historical mosques registered as cultural heritage monuments in West Sumatra, 31 of which were surveyed for this study. Five had been completely renewed without leaving any trace of the original structure, while the location of one could not be identified. All mosques were mapped and a total of 25 were analyzed based on their architectural elements: (1) floor level, (2) main building material, (3) roof type, and (4) minaret. From the analysis, a typological tendency in the historical mosques of West Sumatra was identified. The discussion in this article focuses on the correlation between combinations of the four architectural elements in relation to their location. As a result, the architectural characteristics of the historical mosques in West Sumatra were identified.
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1Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering/January 2018/8
A Typological Study of Historical Mosques in West Sumatra, Indonesia
Bambang Setia Budi*1 and Arif Sarwo Wibowo2
1 Assistant Professor, School of Architecture, Planning and Policy Development, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
2 Assistant Professor, School of Architecture, Planning and Policy Development, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
Abstract
West Sumatra is an important region in Indonesia in the context of traditional architectural heritage,
especially mosques. There are 39 historical mosques registered as cultural heritage monuments in West
Sumatra, 31 of which were surveyed for this study. Five had been completely renewed without leaving any
trace of the original structure, while the location of one could not be identied. All mosques were mapped
and a total of 25 were analyzed based on their architectural elements: (1) floor level, (2) main building
material, (3) roof type, and (4) minaret. From the analysis, a typological tendency in the historical mosques of
West Sumatra was identied. The discussion in this article focuses on the correlation between combinations
of the four architectural elements in relation to their location. As a result, the architectural characteristics of
the historical mosques in West Sumatra were identied.
Keywords: typology; historical mosque; tiered roof; bagonjong roof; traditional architecture
1. Introduction
The 7.6 Richter scale earthquake which occurred
in Padang, the capital of West Sumatra, on September
30th 2009, destroyed many buildings. Some collapsed
and some sunk to the ground. It was reported that more
than 67,760 buildings were damaged or had collapsed,
and more than 500 people died or were injured. Many
historical mosques were damaged by the earthquake.
Balai Pelestarian Peninggalan Purbakala Batusangkar,
the government institution in charge of urban heritage
and historical preservation in Batusangkar, had
previously documented some historic properties, but no
research or scientic publications had been completed
on the heritage mosques of West Sumatra.
This research used primary data from a eld survey
taken during eight days in October 2009, two to three
weeks after the earthquake. Data collected from the
survey included pictures, building measurements of
selected mosques, and interviews with the imams
(mosque priests) and mosque administrators. The
survey was undertaken based on the list of cultural
heritage properties in the Province of West Sumatra,
Riau and Kepulauan Riau that was published in
2007 by Balai Pelestarian Peninggalan Purbakala
Batusangkar, Departemen Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata.
Thirty-one historical mosques out of the 39 listed in
the book were surveyed. The mosques were located in
Kota1 Padang, Kota Bukittinggi, Kota Payakumbuh,
Kota Padang Panjang, Kota Pariaman, Kabupaten2
Pariaman, Kabupaten Agam and Kabupaten Tanah
Datar. These regions are mostly located in the coastal
and hinterland areas of West Sumatra. From the 31
surveyed mosques, ve were already replaced by a new
construction that was totally different from the original
one and the location of one, called Surau3 Gadang
Bintungan Tinggi in Kabupaten Pariaman, could not be
identied. Therefore, Surau Gadang Bintungan Tinggi
is excluded from the analysis but still listed in the
tables.
The objective of this study was to clarify the
typology of the historical mosques in West Sumatra
based on important architectural elements. The
elements that were analyzed are: floor level, main
building material, roof type and minaret.
Floor level and main building material are the two
most important elements that differentiate the mosques
from those on Java Island, although most of them
have wood as the main building material. The main
building material refers to the material used for the
walls and columns. Apart from the walls, the roof is
the most dominant element to express the architectural
style and typology of mosques all over the Indonesian
archipelago and also Southeast Asia. From the 15th
until the 20th century, the typology of mosques in
Southeast Asia is characterized by a tiered roof style.
The minaret is also an important element contributing
*Contact Author: Bambang Setia Budi, Assistant Professor,
School of Architecture, Planning and Policy Development,
Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10,
Bandung, 40132 Indonesia
Tel: +62-22-2504962 Fax: +62-22-2530705
E-mail: bambang@ar.itb.ac.id
( Received October 6, 2015 ; accepted November 14, 2017 )
DOI http://doi.org/10.3130/jaabe.17.1
2 JAABE vol.17 no.1 January 2018 Bambang Setia Budi
to the overall shape of the building. Even though
they are important as well, the plan composition and
structural system are excluded from the discussion in
this article.
In the context of topographical conditions, West
Sumatra displays a very different character between
the coastal area and the hinterland. It is plausible that
during the early Islamic period in Indonesia, people
in the coastal area received the teaching of Islam
more intensively compared to those in the hinterland
because of easier access. The hinterland, known as
Bukit Barisan, is mountainous. This topographical
condition restricted access and communication
between the coastal area and the hinterland. The area is
located at the boundary of Pariaman-Agam and Tanah
Datar-Padang Panjang, stretching lengthwise from the
hinterland area to the coastal area. (Fig.2.)
Fig.1. Position of West Sumatra in the Context of Indonesia and
Southeast Asia.
(Source: Syahra, 1995)
Fi g.2. Bukit Barisan (mountain/hill range) Position and
Administrative Boundary in West Sumatra
Table 1. Historical Mosques in West Sumatra
Kota/Kabupaten Name Year Roof Mina-
ret Floor Mate-
rial
1
Kota Padang
Masjid Raya Ganting 1805 B1 bt Ground Brick
2 Masjid Muhammadan Early 19th
CD bt Ground Brick
3 Kota Bukittinggi Masjid Surau Gadang  ? ? ? ?
4 Kota Payakumbuh Masjid Gadang Balai Nan
Ampek 1840 A1 a Stage Wood
5Kota Padang
Panjang
Masjid Asasi Nagari
Gunung 1770 A1 a Stage Wood
6 Kota Solok Surau Latiah 1902 C5 a Stage Wood
7
Kota Pariaman
Masjid Raya Padusunan  B2 ctb Ground Brick
8 Masjid Raya Badano Circa 19th
CB1 db Ground Brick
9 Masjid Raya Kurai Taji  B2 dt Ground Brick
10 Masjid Raya Pariaman
(Surau Pasar)  B4 bb Ground Brick
11 Kab. Pasaman Surau Raja Sontang  A2 (?) a Stage Wood
12
Kab. Agam
Masjid Raya Bingkudu 1823 A1 ct Stage Wood
13 Masjid Tua Kubag Putih  ? ? ? ?
14 Masjid Raya Taluak 1860 A1 ct Ground Brick
15 Masjid Tua Pincuran
Gadang
End of
17th C A1 cb Ground Brick
16 Masjid Agung Koto Baru
(Al-Hikmah) 1807 ? ? ? ?
17 Masjid Siti Manggopoh 1802 B3 ctb Ground Brick
18 Masjid Tuo Koto Baru Early 19th
CB5 cb Ground Brick
19 Masjid Gobah  ? ? ? ?
20 Masjid Syaikh Karim
Amrullah
Early 20th
C? ? ? ?
21 Surau Buya Hamka Mid- 20th
CB6 a Ground Brick
22
Kab. Tanah Datar
Surau Nagari Lubuk Bauk 1896 C1 a Stage Wood
23 Masjid Raya Limo Kaum 1710 C4 a Stage Wood
24 Masjid Tuanku
Pamansiangan Circa 1800 A1 a Stage Wood
25 Masjid Rao-Rao 1913 C2 ct Ground Brick
26 Masjid Sa`adah 1917 C2 ct Ground Brick
27
Kab. Pariaman
Surau Gadang Bintungan
Tinggi
End of
19th C A1 a Stage ?
28 Masjid Pakandangan 1887 A2 a Ground Brick
29 Surau Atap Ijuk Sicincin 1860 A1 a Stage Wood
30 Surau Gadang Syaikh
Burhanuddin
Circa 17th
CC3 a Stage Wood
31 Masjid Taqwa Kampung
Dalam  B3 bt Ground Brick
32 Masjid Tua Batang
Piaman  A1 a Stage Wood
33 Surau Ambacang  A3 a Ground Brick
34 Kab. Pesisir
Selatan
Masjid Al-Imam Koto
Baru  ? ? ? ?
35 Kab. Solok Masjid Tua Kayu Jao 1657 A1 a Stage Wood
36 Kab. Solok Selatan Masjid 60 Kurang Aso Circa 18th
CA2 a ? Wood
37 Masjid Raya Koto Baru  ? ? ? ?
38 Kab. Sawah Lunto Surau Tinggi Calau  ? ? ? ?
39 Kab. Dharmasraya Masjid Tua Siguntur  A1 a ? Brick
= Totally renewed/unidentied
= Un-surveyed
Roof
A = Tiered roof
A1= 3-level tiered roof
A2= 4-level tiered roof
A3= 2-level tiered roof
B = Tiered roof + octagonal roof +
dome
B1= 2-tiered + 3 octagon + dome
B2= 3-tiered + 3 octagon + dome
B3= 3-tiered + 2 octagon
B4= 2-tiered + 3 octagon
B5= 3-tiered + 2 octagon + dome
B6= 1-tiered + 1 octagon + dome
C = Tiered roof + bagonjong/crown
shaped roof
C1= 2-tiered + 1 bagonjong (4 sides) + octagon
(crown)
C2= 4-tiered + 1 bagonjong (4 sides, crown)
C3= 2-tiered + 1 bagonjong (2 sides)
C4= 5-tiered + octagon (crown)
C5= 1-tiered + 1 bagonjong
D = Without tiered roof or others
Minaret
a = Without minaret
b = Twin minaret bt = twin minaret at East side
bb = twin minaret at West side
c = Single minaret
ct = single minaret at East side
cb = single minaret at West side
ctb = single minaret at East and West side
d = Mixed Twin and Single minaret dt = bt + ct (twin at East + single at East side)
db= bb + ctb (twin at West + single at East and West)
3JAABE vol.17 no.1 January 2018 Bambang Setia Budi
2. Traditional House in West Sumatra
In West Sumatra, the Minangkabau is a local ethnic
group living in this area. According to Dawson and
Gillow (1994), Minangkabau territory was once a large
kingdom that spread over most of central Sumatra
and encompassed Jambi, Bengkulu, and Palembang.
However, with the coming of Islam in the fourteenth
century, the Minangkabau were gradually pressed back
and reduced to several kingdoms in the hinterland in
West Sumatra.
The Minangkabau traditional house has multiple
gables and rises at the tip of the roof or curves upward
at the edges called bagonjong. This type of roof can
also be seen on a rice barn, which is usually located
in front of the house. The main building material of
the house and its rice barn are wood. Raised oors are
used in all of these buildings. The raised oor can be
as tall as two to three metres. See Fig.4.
The Minangkabau traditional houses are rectangular
in plan. This is different from a mosque, which has a
square plan in general. The roof of the house is usually
lower than the roof of a mosque, which rises at one
point at its topmost part. See Fig.5.
3. Spatial Elements of Mosques
The spatial elements that exist in almost every
mosque in Southeast Asia are: (1) the main prayer
hall, (2) the mihrab, and (3) the roof with its structural
system. These three elements also predominantly exist
in mosques or surau in West Sumatra.
3.1 Main Prayer Hall
Because of its main function for ritual prayer, this
space must be available in every mosque in the world.
During the early Islamic period, the main prayer hall
was seen as a space limited by boundaries with a
particular enclosure. The roof was not an important
element at the time; only a small part of the mosque
was covered by a roof, called suffah4.
Although most of the mosques had walls, their
presence was not as important as the roof (shelter). The
space in traditional mosques in Southeast Asia is based
on a combination of oor (ground or raised oor) and
roof. Walls have a function in strengthening the spatial
denition of the main prayer hall.
3.2 Mihrab
The mihrab is known as the space for the imam
to lead the congregation in prayer and to deliver his
sermon or lecture, which also indicates the direction
of qibla/Mecca. This space is available in every
traditional mosque in Southeast Asia, including Java
and West Sumatra, with variations in shape and size.
For almost all mosques in the world, this part is also
the most important and interesting element, different
from mosques during the early Islamic period, when it
was less elaborate.
Fig.5. Mosque in a Traditional Village in West Sumatra, Circa
1910, Presumably Near Fort de Kock (Source: KITLV)
Fig.3. Location of Historical Mosques in West Sumatra
Fig.4. Minangkabau Traditional House and Rice Barn
Presumably in a Village Near Fort de Kock, 1890-1900
(Source: KITLV)
4 JAABE vol.17 no.1 January 2018 Bambang Setia Budi
3.3 Roof
The roof is one of the most important elements
that affects the space of the main prayer hall. From
an architectural viewpoint this element is even more
important, as it determines the overall shape of the
building. For most traditional mosques in Southeast
Asia, the roof is the most dominant element that shows
the expression of the building, from the outside as
well as in the interior. Many Southeast Asian historical
mosques, especially in Java and Sumatra, have a
unique overlapping pyramidal tiered roof, with a
changing slope that gets steeper towards the rooftop, in
many variations.
The roof structure and construction system that form
its shape have many variations in supporting column
type, wood joint technique, etc. A square plan and four
central main columns is a common composition for
mosques in Java and Sumatra. This article focuses on
the exterior appearance and shape of the roof of the
historical mosques in West Sumatra.
4. Typological Analysis and Distribution of
Historical Mosques
There were 39 mosques listed in the list of cultural
heritage properties in the Province of West Sumatra,
Riau and Kepulauan Riau published by Balai
Pelestarian Peninggalan Purbakala Batusangkar,
Departemen Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata in 2007.
Thirty-one mosques were surveyed but only 25 were
analyzed because five were totally renewed and the
location of one could not be identified. Because
of time limitations and distance constraints, eight
mosques remained unsurveyed, located in Kota Solok
(one mosque), Kabupaten Pasaman (one mosque),
Kabupaten Pesisir Selatan (one mosque), Kabupaten
Solok (one mosque), Kabupaten Solok Selatan (one
mosque), Kabupaten Sawah Lunto (one mosque) and
Kabupaten Dharmasraya (one mosque). However, all
39 mosques were listed for general comprehension.
Even though data of the unsurveyed mosques can be
retrieved from secondary data, this article will only
focus on the 25 surveyed mosques. The location of
every mosque listed in Table 1. can be seen in Fig.3.
4.1 Floor
The oor level/type of these historical mosques can
be divided into two types: (1) ground oor type, and (2)
raised oor type with the oor raised 60-90 cm from
the ground. From the 25 analyzed mosques, 16 (64%)
were categorized as the rst type and nine (36%) as the
second type (Table 1.). Based on their location (Fig.6.),
we can see that the mosques located in the coastal area,
especially Kota Padang, Kota Pariaman, Kabupaten
Agam, were mostly categorized as the ground floor
type, with the exception of Bingkudu Mosque in
Kabupaten Agam. Meanwhile in the hinterland,
most belonged to the raised oor type, with only two
mosques, in Tanah Datar, identified as ground floor
type, i.e. the Rao-Rao Mosque and the Sa'adah Mosque
(Fig.8.). These two mosques also had some similarities
in roof shape and inside space composition. They were
also built in adjacent years, 1913 and 1917. Mosques
in the hinterland, such as in Kota Payakumbuh,
Kabupaten Solok, Kabupaten Tanah Datar, and
Fig.6. Mapping of Historical Mosques in West Sumatra Based
on Floor Type
Notes: = Ground oor
= Raised oor
Fig.7. Masjid Raya Padusunan (left), a Ground Floor Type
Mosque. Masjid Tua Batang Piaman (right), a Raised Floor
Type Mosque
Fig.8. Masjid Rao-Rao (left). Masjid Sa'adah (right)
5JAABE vol.17 no.1 January 2018 Bambang Setia Budi
Kabupaten Pariaman, were of the raised floor type
with a variation in the stage (open/hollow and closed/
covered).
4.2 Main Building Material
The main building material in this article refers to
the material used for walls and columns. Based on their
main building material, the historical mosques in West
Sumatra can be divided into two categories: (1) brick
and (2) wood. From 25 mosques analyzed in this article
16 (64%) had brick and nine (36%) had wood as their
main building material (Table 1., Fig.10.). The number
of mosques with brick and wood as their main building
material was equivalent to the number of mosques
in the ground floor and raised floor type categories
respectively. The brick mosques were the same ones as
those categorized as ground oor type mosques and the
wooden mosques were those categorized as raised oor
type mosques. Because of this relationship between
floor type and main building material, the location
distribution for the main building material category is
exactly the same as for the oor type category.
4.3 Roof
The roofs of the historical mosques in West Sumatra
can be divided into four categories:
1. Tiered roof (A type)
2. Tiered roof + octagonal roof + dome (B type)
3. Tiered roof + bagonjong roof (C type)
4. Without tiered roof or other shape (D type)
Every roof type had several variations in shape,
composition, and proportion. Type A is a tiered roof
and has variations in the amount of layers, such as:
two-tiered roof (A3), three-tiered roof (A1), up to
four-tiered roof (A2) (Fig.12.). The tiered roofs of the
historical mosques in West Sumatra display a very
steep roof slope and a distinctly curved shape at the
bottom part of the roof.
The most common roof shapes of the historical
mosques in West Sumatra were three-tiered roofs.
Four-tiered roofs were usually found on mosques that
had a verandah and/or breezeway on the periphery that
should be covered. The only two-tiered roof was found
in the Surau Ambacang case. The tiered roof (A type)
mosques were mostly found in the hinterland, such as
Kota Payakumbuh, Kota Padang Panjang, Kabupaten
Tanah Datar, and the hinterland part of Kabupaten
Agam and Kabupaten Pariaman.
The B type has several variants, such as: two-tiered
roof + three octagonal roof levels + dome (B1); three-
tiered roof + three octagonal roof levels + dome (B2);
three-tiered roof + two octagonal roof levels (B3); two-
tiered roof + three octagonal roof levels (B4); three-
tiered roof + two octagonal roof levels + dome (B5);
one-tiered roof + one octagonal roof level (B6). Some
examples are shown in Fig.13. The combination of all
three roof elements (tiered, octagonal roof and dome)
is only available in West Sumatra and is not found in
any other region in Indonesia. The B type roofs were
mostly found in the coastal area.
The C type roof consists of a tiered roof + bagonjong
style roof. This type has several variants, such as two-
tiered roof + one bagonjong (at four sides) + octagonal
roof (crown) (C1); two-tiered roof + one bagonjong
(four sides, crown) (C2); two-tiered roof + bagonjong
Fig.9. Mapping of Historical Mosques in West Sumatra Based
on the Main Building Material
Notes: = Brick as the main material
= Wood as the main material
Table 2. Correlation between Roof Style and its Location in
West Sumatra
Type Description Total Location
A Tiered roof 10 Hinter-
land
BTiered roof + octagonal roof +
dome 9 Coastal
C Tiered roof + bagonjong 5Hinter-
land
D Without tiered roof or others 1 Coastal
Fig.10. Masjid Raya Ganting (left), Brick Wall Mosque.
Masjid Bingkudu (right), Wooden-Structure Mosque
6 JAABE vol.17 no.1 January 2018 Bambang Setia Budi
(two sides) (C3); five-tiered roof + octagonal roof
(crown) (C4); and one-tiered roof + one bagonjong (two
sides) (C5) (Fig.14).
The bagonjong roof style has several variations, such
as curved only in two directions (commonly used in
traditional houses) and curved in four directions. The
bagonjong roof constitutes the top roof along with the
crown expression. The C type roof is specic to West
Sumatra and cannot be found elsewhere. This kind
of roof is actually a combination of an overlapping
sloped roof with Southeast Asian characteristics and a
bagonjong roof. The C type roof mosques were mostly
in the hinterland, especially in Kabupaten Tanah Datar.
The D type roof is a category for a mosque roof
without any tiered (plain single layer) or any other
type of roof other than the ones mentioned before.
This type is found on the Muhammadan Mosque in
Kota Padang, constructed by an Indian merchant at the
beginning of the 19th century (Fig.16.). In this case,
the roof is not an important element of the façade. It
is understandable that this mosque has a very different
expression compared to the mosques built by local
people. Mosques mapped based on roof type can be
seen in Fig.11.
Fig.11. Mapping of Historical Mosques in West Sumatra
Based on Roof Type
Notes:
A type = tiered roof (variant: A1, A2, A3)
B type = tiered roof + octagonal roof + dome (variant: B1, B2, B3,
B4, B5, B6)
C type = tiered roof + bagonjong (variant: C1, C2, C3, C4, C5)
D type = no tiered roof or others
Fig.12. From Left to Right: Masjid Tuanku Pamansiangan (A1-
3-tiered), Masjid Asasi Nagari Gunung (A1-3-tiered), Masjid
Pakandangan (A2-4-tiered), Surau Ambacang (A3-2-tiered)
Fig.13. From Left to Right: Masjid Padusunan (B2), Masjid
Badano (B5), Masjid Kurai Taji (B2)
Fig.14. From Left to Right: Surau Gadang Syaikh
Burhanuddin (C3), Masjid Rao-Rao (C2), Masjid Sa'adah (C2)
Fig.15. Masjid Limo Kaum (left).
Surau Nagari Lubuk Bauk (right)
Fig.16. Masjid Muhammadan in Padang (D type)
7JAABE vol.17 no.1 January 2018 Bambang Setia Budi
4.4 Minaret
Based on the number and character of minarets, the
historical mosques in West Sumatra can be categorized
as follows:
1. Without minaret (a-type)
2. Twin minarets (b-type)
3. Single minaret (c-type)
4. Mixed twin and single minaret (d-type)
The a-type, referring to historical mosques without
minaret, is the most common type in West Sumatra.
Eleven mosques out of 25 (44%) were without a
minaret. Still a considerable number, eight mosques
(32%), had a single minaret (c-type). Meanwhile, there
were four mosques (16%) with twin minarets (b-type),
and two mosques (8%) were of the mixed twin and
single minaret (d-type). Mosques without minarets
were mostly found in the hinterland area, such as Kota
Payakumbuh, Kota Padang Panjang, Kabupaten Tanah
Datar and Kabupaten Pariaman (Figs.12. and 15.).
Based on location, the b-type can be divided into
two sub-categories: twin minarets located at the east
side of the mosque (bt) and twin minarets located at the
west side (bb). Three mosques were categorized as bt
and one as bb. The mosques with twin minarets were
mostly found in the coastal area (Figs.18. and 20.).
The single minaret mosque (c-type) also has
several variants: minaret located at the east side (ct);
minaret located at the west side (cb); and minarets
located at the east and west side (ctb). Two mosques
were categorized as cb, both located at Kabupaten
Agam. Meanwhile, the ct variant was found in four
mosques: two in Kabupaten Agam and the other two
in Kabupaten Datar. The single minaret type mosques
were mostly found in the hinterland area (Fig.19.).
The d-type has two variations: twin minarets at the
east side + single minaret at the east side (dt code:
mixed bt + ct), and twin minarets at the west side
+ single minaret at the west and east side (db code:
mixed bb + ctb). Both variants of this type could be
found in two mosques in Kota Pariaman in the coastal
area.
Fig.17. Mapping of Historical Mosques in West Sumatra Based
on the Number and Character of Minarets
Notes:
a-type = without minaret
b-type = twin minarets (variant: bt, bb)
c-type = single minaret (variant: ct, cb, and ctb)
d-type = mixed: twin and single minarets (variant: dt, db)
Fig.18. Masjid Raya Ganting, with Temporary Post-earthquake
Shelter (left). Masjid Raya Pariaman (right)
Fig.20. Masjid Badano (left). Masjid Raya Kurai Taji (right),
Twin of the Minarets that Collapsed during the 2009 Earthquake
Fig.19. Masjid Raya Bingkudu (left). Masjid Taluak (right).
Source: KITLV
8 JAABE vol.17 no.1 January 2018 Bambang Setia Budi
5. Conclusion
Historical mosques in the coastal area of West
Sumatra usually have the following characteristics:
brick walls, a ground oor, piled roof with octagonal
roof and dome, twin minarets or mixed/combination
minaret style. Meanwhile, in the hinterland the
historical mosques have wood as their main building
material, a raised floor, tiered roof with or without
bagonjong, and single minaret or without minaret.
These characteristics very clearly differentiate the
historical mosques in the coastal area from those in the
hinterland area.
Every area developed its own style, not only
limited to the coast or hinterland, but also more or
less elaborated depending on the characteristics of the
area. Tiered roofs with bagonjong were mostly found
in the hinterland and are a specific characteristic of
the historical mosques in West Sumatra that cannot be
found in any other place in Southeast Asia.
Mosques with wood as their main building material
have similar characteristics with the traditional house
of Minangkabau in West Sumatra, indicated by its
raised floor and roof that rises at the topmost part,
while some of them are even bagonjong at the top of
the roof.
This research developed a new hypothesis about the
original building materials of the historical mosques
in West Sumatra. Originally, all historical mosques in
West Sumatra, whether in the coastal or the hinterland
area, had wood as the main building material, a raised
floor, and tiered roof style as mostly found in the
hinterland. Brick walls, a ground floor, additional
octagonal roof and dome, with twin or mixed minarets
were developed only later in the coastal area.
Notes
1 Kota means city
2 Kabupaten means regency
3 Surau means small mosque
4 Suffah means shelter. This place is used for learning Al-Quran, like
madrasah
References
1) Alam, R.H. (1998) Sejarah Masjid-Masjid Kuno di Indonesia.
Badan Litbang Agama Departemen Agama R.I.
2) Balai Pelestarian Peninggalan Purbakala Batusangkar (2007)
Daftar Benda Cagar Budaya Tidak Bergerak dan/atau Situs
Provinsi Sumatera Barat, Riau, dan Kep. Riau. Departemen
Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata.
3) Budi, Bambang Setia (2004), A Study on the History and
Development of the Javanese Mosque – part 1: A Review of
Theories on the Origin of the Javanese Mosque, Journal of Asian
Architecture and Building Engineering (JAABE), Vol. 3, No. 1,
Mei, pp.189-191.
4) Budi, Bambang Setia (2006), A Study on the History and
Development of the Javanese Mosque – Part 3: Typology of Plan,
Structure and Its Distribution, Journal of Asian Architecture and
Building Engineering (JAABE), Vol. 5, No. 2, November, pp.229-
236.
5) Dawson, Barry and John Gillow (1994) The Traditional
Architecture of Indonesia. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd.
6) Hadi, W. (2007) Sejarah Perkembangan Surau di Minangkabau.
Materi Pelatihan Pemberdayaan Gerakan Kembali ke Surau.
Padang.
7) Josselin de Jong, P.E. de (1984) Minangkabau and Negeri
Sembilan. New York: AMS Press.
8) Mansur, M.D. et al. (1970) Sedjarah Minangkabau, Djakarta:
Bhatara.
9) Rais, Zaim (2001), Against Islamic Modernism, the Minangkabau
Traditionalist Responses to the Modernist Movement, Jakarta:
Logos.
10) Syahra, R. (1995) The Minangkabau World: Its History and
Identity. Indonesian Student Association Symposium in
Queensland. University of Queensland, St. Lucia Old.
11) Zein, A.B. (1999) Masjid-Masjid Bersejarah di Indonesia. Jakarta:
Gema Insani Press.
Table 3. Correlation between Minaret Type and Location in
West Sumatra
Type Description Total Location
a Without minaret 11 Hinter-
land
b Twin minarets 4 Coastal
c Single minaret 8 Hinter-
land
d Mixed twin and single minaret 2 Coastal
Fig.21. Masjid Siti Manggopoh, with Minarets Located at the
East and West Side of the Mosque (ctb variant)
...  Prayer hall: a prayer hall is the main space of mosques where is the place of worship and prostration. It is generally open without partition and large space where Muslims can pray together (Budi, 2006;Budi and Wibowo, 2018).  Mihrab: The niche in the qibla wall of a mosque is a space for the leader of the prayer (Imam); in fact, the earliest mosque that was developed from the house of the Prophet in Medina does not use this element. ...
...  Mihrab: The niche in the qibla wall of a mosque is a space for the leader of the prayer (Imam); in fact, the earliest mosque that was developed from the house of the Prophet in Medina does not use this element. But later mihrab became an important space of mosque architecture in the Muslim world (Budi, 2006;Budi and Wibowo, 2018). ...
... The study concluded that mosque transformation within each characteristic display different types. Moreover, Budi and Wibowo (2018) studied the typology of historical mosques in West Sumatra, Indonesia. The study surveyed and analysed the architectural elements of mosques as the main research methodology focusing on floor plan level, main building material, roof type, and minaret of 31 traditional architectural heritage mosques. ...
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This paper aims at critically reviewing a number of theories and previous studies on the origin of the Javanese mosque. Some theories have been put forward by Dutch archeologists and historians since the 1930s, and were subject to debate until 1960s. Beyond this time, the debate was continued by an Indonesian archeologist in 1962/1963 and a French scholar in 1985. All of these theories will be reviewed as there are some doubts and unclear parts. The problems of each theory will be explained and discussed. Based on this review and critique, the most reliable theory will be asserted with new arguments and some evidence from Javanese temple reliefs.
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A record of the traditional architecture of the Tembe peoples has never been fully published. This paper outlines the fruits of five years original field research carried out with the late Barrie Biermann during the early 1980s. The history of the Tembe people (or Tembe-Tonga as they are sometimes known) in Maputaland is briefly traced from the time they crossed over the frontier between Natal and Mozambique in 1896. Tembe handling of space conforms, in general terms, to African traditional patterns but it is the surprising subtlety and richness of architectural detail which is unique. The use of available materials and novelty of resolution in the richly decorated interiors is without precedent and is surveyed through the documentation of five settlements. Two of these had the last remaining stockaded enclosures in southern Africa which contributed to creating harmonious environments blending into the indigenous habitat. Conditions have changed significantly in Maputaland. The traditional builders are gone and their work is slowly passing into the realm of history.
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This thesis studies the response of the traditionalist Muslim groups of Minangkabau, Indonesia, to the modernist movement of the early decades of this century. In their effort to lay the foundations of a rational and progressive Muslim society and rediscovery the true ethics of Islam, the modernists had called for fresh ijtihad. The traditionalists rejected the possibility, or necessity, of new ijtihad and insisted that Islam had been perfectly articulated in the authoritative works of the scholars, especially those of the four schools of law, and that every Muslim must simply adhere to them. The traditionalists argued that the methods of the modernists' not only endangered the authority of the four schools, they threatened to undermine the age-old notion of a harmonious balance between Islam and adat, the two ideological foundations of Minangkabau society. To the traditionalists, therefore, the struggle against the modernists was at once a defense of the classical schools of law and of the harmony of Islam and adat in Minangkabau.
Minangkabau and Negeri Sembilan
  • P E Josselin De Jong
  • De
Josselin de Jong, P.E. de (1984) Minangkabau and Negeri Sembilan. New York: AMS Press.
Against Islamic Modernism, the Minangkabau Traditionalist Responses to the Modernist Movement
  • Zaim Rais
Rais, Zaim (2001), Against Islamic Modernism, the Minangkabau Traditionalist Responses to the Modernist Movement, Jakarta: Logos.
The Minangkabau World: Its History and Identity. Indonesian Student Association Symposium in Queensland
  • R Syahra
Syahra, R. (1995) The Minangkabau World: Its History and Identity. Indonesian Student Association Symposium in Queensland. University of Queensland, St. Lucia Old.
Masjid-Masjid Bersejarah di Indonesia
  • A B Zein
Zein, A.B. (1999) Masjid-Masjid Bersejarah di Indonesia. Jakarta: Gema Insani Press.
Sejarah Perkembangan Surau di Minangkabau. Materi Pelatihan Pemberdayaan Gerakan Kembali ke Surau. Padang
  • W Hadi
Hadi, W. (2007) Sejarah Perkembangan Surau di Minangkabau. Materi Pelatihan Pemberdayaan Gerakan Kembali ke Surau. Padang.
The Traditional Architecture of Indonesia. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd
  • Barry Dawson
  • John Gillow