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EXTRAORDINARY RAINFALLS IN GDANSK (NORTHERN POLAND) IN THE 21ST CENTURY

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In the 21st century Gdansk had been affected by two rainfall events with a total precipitation amount of over 120 mm each. Rainfall parameters exceeded the regional values of the rain occurring once every 100 years. At the meteorological station of Gdansk University of Technology, July 9 th 2001 was recorded 123.5 mm and July 14 th 2016, 150.8 mm rainfall (within 24 hour observation period). Despite the same seasons of summer months and a duration of about 16 hours, both rains were characterised by different course and causes of their occurrence. The study compared the causes, course and consequences of these extraordinary rainfall events. In the paper the precipitation parameters were compared with the depth-duration-frequency curve (DDF curve) which were determined on the basis of actual rainfall events that occurred in the 20 th century in the northern Poland. It was found that the analysed rainfalls significantly exceed the theoretical dependence, primarily due to the total amount of precipitation, which accounted for 190% of normal rain in July as well as due to the duration of the phase of the most intense rain (up to 8 hours in year 2016). The two mentioned rainfall episodes were also compared with other rain indicators. One of the rain indicators used in Poland is Chomicz's rainfall intensity 12 grade scale. This scale classifies rainfall episode as normal rain, storm, heavy storm or torrential rain. Both events are partially classified as torrential rain with grade U5. It is worth noting that the losses after the flood of 2016 were tallied many times lower than after the rainfall event in 2001. It was possible due to massive investment in storage reservoirs on both the natural water and storm sewer systems. Development of the land surface in Gdansk also takes into account the need to better retention of rainwater. It should be noted that the above two events significantly exceeded the parameters of the precipitation that occurs once in 100 years. The mentioned rainfalls occurred at an interval of only 15 years. It seems to be a proof that the climate changes must be taken into account when estimating the size of precipitation for current and future activities.
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International Symposium on Water Management and Hydraulic Engineering
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EXTRAORDINARY RAINFALLS IN GDANSK (NORTHERN POLAND) IN THE 21ST
CENTURY
WOJCIECH SZPAKOWSKI 1, 2
1 Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Gdansk University of Technology,
11 Narutowicza str. 80-233 Gdansk, Poland, wszp@pg.gda.pl
2 Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Gdansk University of Technology,
11 Narutowicza str. 80-233 Gdansk, Poland, mszyd@pg.gda.pl
Abstract
In the 21st century Gdansk had been affected by two rainfall events with a total precipitation amount of
over 120 mm each. Rainfall parameters exceeded the regional values of the rain occurring once every
100 years. At the meteorological station of Gdansk University of Technology, July 9th 2001 was recorded
123.5 mm and July 14th 2016, 150.8 mm rainfall (within 24 hour observation period). Despite the same
seasons of summer months and a duration of about 16 hours, both rains were characterised by different
course and causes of their occurrence. The study compared the causes, course and consequences of these
extraordinary rainfall events.
In the paper the precipitation parameters were compared with the depth-duration-frequency curve (DDF
curve) which were determined on the basis of actual rainfall events that occurred in the 20th century in
the northern Poland. It was found that the analysed rainfalls significantly exceed the theoretical
dependence, primarily due to the total amount of precipitation, which accounted for 190% of normal
rain in July as well as due to the duration of the phase of the most intense rain (up to 8 hours in year
2016).
The two mentioned rainfall episodes were also compared with other rain indicators. One of the rain
indicators used in Poland is Chomicz's rainfall intensity 12 grade scale. This scale classifies rainfall
episode as normal rain, storm, heavy storm or torrential rain. Both events are partially classified as
torrential rain with grade U5.
It is worth noting that the losses after the flood of 2016 were tallied many times lower than after the
rainfall event in 2001. It was possible due to massive investment in storage reservoirs on both the natural
water and storm sewer systems. Development of the land surface in Gdansk also takes into account the
need to better retention of rainwater.
It should be noted that the above two events significantly exceeded the parameters of the precipitation
that occurs once in 100 years. The mentioned rainfalls occurred at an interval of only 15 years. It seems
to be a proof that the climate changes must be taken into account when estimating the size of
precipitation for current and future activities.
Keywords: rainfall, torrential rain, urban flood, DDF curve
Introduction
Gdansk is a city where nearly half a million inhabitants live. Gdansk with Sopot and Gdynia creates an
800 thousand inhabitant agglomeration which is situated in northern Poland and adheres to the shoreline
- The coastal zone includes the lowest part of agglomeration with a gentle altitude gradient called "lower
terrace". This area consists of Vistula Split, Vistula Delta Plain and the eastern part of Kashubian Coast.
The mean temperature is equal 9OC and 1OC for the winter season. The mean period of possible ground
frosts is from the 12th of October to the 10th of May. The mean annual amount of precipitation for the
period 1987-2005 does not exceed 480 mm [1].
- The edge zone of Kashubian Lakeland with a steep terrain gradient, ground altitude varies from 10 to
150 m a.s.l. This region is partially covered with Tricity Landscape Park which protects the forest areas.
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Due to the natural slopes the edge zone of Kashubian Lakeland divides the agglomeration on two parts:
lower and upper terrace.
- The Eastern part of Kashubian Lakeland with a gentle gradient of altitude called "upper terrace". The
mean temperature registered in the Gdansk - Rebiechowo airport meteorological station is equal 7.5OC
what is 1.5OC lower than in the lower part of Gdansk. The mean temperature for the winter season is
equal -1.1OC. The mean period of possible ground frosts is from the 2st of September to the 26th of May
what is more than a month longer period of possible ground frosts compared with the sea shore area.
The mean annual amount of precipitation for the period 1982-2005 exceeds 570 mm [1].
Figure 1. The localisation of Gdansk height zones based on numerical terrain model [2]
The mean monthly value of precipitations is the highest for July and is not much more than 70 mm. Over
60 mm is a mean monthly value for August. The smallest month values of precipitation are for February
and March (about 25 mm). Analysing the rain data collected in Gdansk after the World War II, in the
21st century rain events which caused damages in the Gdansk urban area occur one or twice a year in
contrast to the 20th century when such events occurred more seldom [3]. Two extraordinary rainfall
events with a daily sum of precipitation over 100 mm have affected Gdansk in the last twenty years (the
9th July 2001 and the 14th July 2016). Mentioned above the most spectacular two rainfalls are described
below in details.
Methods
3.1 Meteorological causes
Meteorological causes of a dramatic rain which occurred the 9th July 2001 were related to a cold
atmospheric front which moved from west to east of Europe (Fig. 2). For few days preceding the rain
event, all Poland rest in hot and dry air mass with the maximal temperatures over 30OC. One day earlier,
the weather began to change. The region of Baltic and northern Europe started to be affected by the low-
pressure areas situated in southern Norway and the Gulf of Gdansk. The northern part of the continent
rest in a hot and humid tropical air mass while the central part was under the impact of warm mass of
polar air. The dominant direction of the wind was the western direction. The forecasts of the synopticists
did not predict any significant rainfall. Convection processes of air mass indicated the possibility of
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typical storms with low rainfall intensity. However, throughout the day the atmospheric front increased
in strength, resulting in precipitation above 100 mm [4].
Figure 2. Synoptic analysis of Central and North Europe from the 9th July 2001 12:00UTC [4].
The causes of the second rain event were slightly different. On the 14th and the 15th July 2016 a shallow
low-pressure area moved from south-east to the north of Poland. A wide system of atmospheric fronts
was arising (Fig. 3).
The eastern part of the country was in a hot and humid tropical air mass while the rest of the country
was under the impact of warm mass of polar air. Over the Gulf of Gdansk, the extremely warm air from
the east, initially linked with the warm atmospheric front which was transformed in occluded front,
flowed in. Precipitation lasted continuously for 14 to 17 hours (approx. from 10:30 UTC on the 14th July
until 3:00 UTC 15th July 2016) in the whole area of Tricity agglomeration. From the Gulf of Gdansk
400 kilometers to the western part of Poland (Poznan region) a continuous rain zone with daily sum of
rain about 90 mm was formed. In the Gdansk agglomeration the orographic processes caused much
stronger rain. The daily sum of precipitation in the edge zone of Kashubian Lakeland (Gdansk - Oliwa
forest) reached 170 mm. This value was measured by the municipal monitoring system of Gdansk
managed by the Gdanskie Wody Company [6]. Above recorded value exceeded twice monthly
precipitation average for July which is estimated with a value of 75 mm.
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Figure 3. Synoptic analysis with the satellite image of cloud cover made by the Institute of Meteorology and
Water Management, National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB) from the 15th July 2016 00:00UTC [5].
3.2 Spatial and temporal distribution of rainfalls
The rain observed on the 9th July 2001 covered the central and southern part of Gdansk. The rain gauge
situated on upper terrace (Rebiechowo airport) registered daily sum of rain equal 127.7 mm. The same
height of rain was registered on Gdansk University of Technology (GUT) rain station (123.5 mm) and
Gdansk Port Polnocny (118.0 mm). It is interesting that in Gdynia and Hel only 20 -40 mm of rain was
collected during the whole day (Fig. 4) [7].
The rain which occurred on 9th July 2001 started falling the earliest among all Gdansk rain stations in
the upper terrace (at 9:00 UTC). During the first 4 hours only 10 mm of rain was registered. The main
precipitation occurred between 13:00 and 19:00 UTC when it fell nearly 80 mm of rain. The rain was
much less intensive during the last 5 hours of rain duration.
The different course of the rain was registered by the lower situated meteorological stations in Gdansk.
The rain at GUT station started falling at 14UTC and the maximal intensity appeared on first impulse of
rainfall with 33 mm of rain during the first hour and 85 mm of rain during the first four hours of rainfall
(Fig. 5). The most intense phase of rain lasted 100 minutes when 65 mm of rain was registered [8]. The
similar course of rain was registered at Port Polnocny station where from 14:40 to 17:00 UTC 82 mm
of rain was collected.
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Figure 4. . Isohyets of rainfalls July 9 2001 and July 14 2016 against the Gdansk height zones
The rain observed on the 14th July 2016 covered much larger area compared to the event of 2001. The
total daily rainfall in close proximity to the Gulf of Gdansk does not exceed 100 mm. In the region of
the edge zone of the Kashubian Lakeland, the total daily precipitation exceeded 150 mm reaching 170.2
mm in Oliwa rain-gauge [6]. Exceptional precipitation was registered in the area of Ogrodowa street
where the total rain height was only 130 mm. It should be noted however, that this station is located in
a valley surrounded by moraine hills. In the southern part of the Gdansk
part of upper terrace total daily rainfall exceeded 100 mm while in the northern part, (Gdansk Osowa)
amount of precipitation was about 160 mm (Fig. 4). At the stations of the University of Gdansk located
in the Kashubian Lakeland (approximately 20 - 30 km on west from Gdansk) the daily sum of rain on
13th-15th July 2016 did not exceed 50 mm [9]. Similarly, meteorological stations located on the east
side of the Vistula river recorded 25-40 mm daily rain, what was not an exceptional occurrence.
The course of rain on the 14th July 2016 resembled the rain evolution at Gdansk Rebiechowo in 2001
but the rain duration time and temporal distribution was similar to each other in almost all rain gauges
in Gdansk Gdynia and adjacent pluviometers located in the proximity to Gdansk agglomeration. The
time of rainfall was equal approximately to 16 hours. Taking into account the recorded rain sum in
function of rain duration, three stages of temporal distribution can be distinguished (Fig. 5).
- First stage the initial, lasted 260 minutes from about 10:40 to about 15:00 UTC. This stage is
characterized by low intensity of precipitation. The sum of precipitation at this stage was 8.4 mm;
- Second stage - the middle, lasted 480 minutes from about 15:00 to about 23:00 UTC characterized by
high intensity of precipitation. The sum of precipitation at this stage was 130.4 mm.;
- Third stage the final, lasted 220 minutes from about 23:00 UTC to the end of the rain. This stage is
characterized by low intensity of precipitation. The sum of precipitation at this stage was 12.0 mm;
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Figure 5. . Hydrogram of rainfalls July 9 2001 and July 14 2016 registered at Gdansk University of Technology
(GUT) meteorological station
The basic classification of storm selection for a single rainfall episode, is adopted based on Chomicz's
rainfall intensity scale which is popular in Poland [10].
(1)
where
(2)
Figure 6. Rain sum curve of the 9th July 2001 (bolded line) and 14th July 2016 rainfall event (dotted line) and
maximum totals of precipitations at predetermined time curve of 14th July 2016 (dashed line) against Chomicz
scale curves U0-11 [10]
Uk is the upper limit value of rainfall depth for kth grade of Chomicz's scale [mm], t is the time of rain
duration [min]. The boundary between storms and torrential rains is grade k=5 on that scale. Area A0
means heavy rains, A1-2 storms, A3-4 heavy storms and B torrential rains (Fig. 6).
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According to the Figure 6 it is worth mentioning that for the rain event of the 9th of July 2001 the sum
rain curve and the maximum totals of precipitations at predetermined time curve have the same plot,
because the maximal intensity of rain occurred at the beginning of rain event. Taking into consideration
the course of the rain's sum curves for both rainfall events analyzed rains did not exceed the U5 curve of
Chomicz's scale and can be categorized as a heavy storm. However, due to the course of the middle
stage expressed be the curve of maximum totals of precipitation at predetermined time, the rainfall of
14th July 2016 is undoubtedly classified as a torrential rain. The rainfall of 9th July 2016 is also considered
as a torrential rain because of the local curve peak at the 220 minute of rain, which touch the U5
Chomicz's curve. It should be noted that the Chomicz's criterion is considered as a preliminary,
indicative criterion and has mainly descriptive significance.
3.3 Probability of exceedance evaluation
In the analyses of randomly occurring single rainfalls the rain model proposed by Bogdanowicz and
Stachy commonly called IMGW formula [11] were used. The IMGW rain model was published in the
end of the last century and is commonly used in Poland. It was established on the basis of maximum
annual precipitation data registered by 20 meteorological station in the period of 1960 1990. According
to the authors, the formula can be used for establishing the probability of exceedance of rainfall episodes
[11]. The maximal precipitation depth P [mm] with the probability of exceedance p[-]
depending on the duration time t [min] is as follows:
(3)
the location and the scale for the north-western part of Poland is defined
as:
(4a)
(4b)
(4c)
(4d)
Figure 7. Rain sum curve of the 9th July 2001 (dashed line) and 14th July 2016 (dotted line) together with depth-
duration-frequency curve for IMGW probability of occurrence 1% formula (continuous line) [11].
Calculations show that the course of both recorded rainfalls at the Gdansk University of Technology
rain station (9th July 2001 and 14th July 2016) exceeded the probability of the rain occurrence of 1% after
3 hours (for event of July 2001) and 8 hours of rain (for event of July 2016) (Fig. 7). Taking into
consideration the maximum total sum of precipitation of rain July 14 2016 beetwen 6th and 9th hour of
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rainfall theoretical value of rainfall intensity for 100 years return time were also exceeded. Due to the
fact that the middle stage with the highest rain intensity lasted up to 8 hours, the total sum of precipitation
over 130 mm nearly doubled the theoretical values of IMGW for the probability of occurrence of 1%.
At the Gdansk official website maximum annual sum of daily rainfall o
Rebiechowo from 1974 to 2013 containing the value of 14 July 2016 is presented [12]. Meteorologic
station Rebiechowo started operating in the 1973 along with the opening of the airport at this location.
The probability of exceedance curve was calculated according the Pearson distribution with maximum
likelihood estimation (MLE) and the limit of 85% confidence interval (Fig. 8).
Figure 8. -2013)
containing the value of 14 July 2016. The curve of probability of exceedance according the Pearson distribution
with maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and the limit of 85% confidence interval, source: [12]
It is worth noticing that since year 1974 two rain episodes from 2001 and 2016 years are characterised
with significantly higher daily sum of rain compared to other years. Calculated sum of daily rain with
amount of 163,9 mm was determined in the cited publication [12] as a value corresponding to 500 years
return time rain event. In the 21st century Gdansk was also touched by 3-days rain that occurred from
the 27th to 29th of September 2010. The total sum 150 mm was collected at Gdansk Matemblewo rain
gauge [13]. GUT meteorological station registered in the same time not much less than 100 mm of
rainfall.
Flood losses
As was mentioned above rainfalls which provoke losses occurred one or twice every year in the XXI
century. Many precipitation causes only infrastructure losses which are not so difficult to cover by the
Gdansk authorities or house holders. Damages of drainage and stormwater system are repaired during
current maintenance of the network. More serious losses in the property of city inhabitants are most
often reported in places where the edge zone of Kashubian Lakeland passes into a flat seaside terrace.
As a result of the rapid decrease of surface slope, the water that flows from the upper parts of the city
fill cellars of houses located in local depressions.
The biggest losses were recorded as a result of the rainfall of July 9, 2001. The cost of repairing urban
infrastructure amounted to 200 million PLN (50 million Euro). Flood affected 300 families living in
Gdansk. The largest losses in Gdansk occurred in the following locations [14]:
- Destruction of the Radunia Channel embankment in 5 places for a distance of 10 kilometers and in
consequence inundation of Vistula Delta Plain area which is located below the sea level;
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-
creek and sinking the main intersection Grunwald
time of filling the streets with water one fatality was noted;
- and in consequence suspension of train traffic for a week;
After the flood of 2001 authorities of Gdansk with participation of polish government and European
Union funds implemented flash flood protection system of the city. Actually the system, among others,
consist of 49 reservoirs with retention volume, 24 drainage and canalization pump stations over 640 km
of rainwater drainage collectors. All these actions have resulted in a loss of only 10 million as a result
of rainfall which occurred in July 2016. Contrary to earlier rain episode, the losses were recorded in the
north part of Gdansk where one reservoir was destroyed in the watershed of Oliwski stream. The reason
was much smaller rain which fall in 2001 in the Oliwski stream basin compared to 2016. During the rain
of the 14th of July 2016 this part of Gdansk was touched by the highest sum of rain in the whole
agglomeration. The second place in wchich flood losses occurred was Strzyza watershed situated in
central part of Gdansk. The most important destruction was a dam break in Nowiec reservoir This
surface resorvoir was also destroyed in a similar way in September 2010. As in year 2001, an intersection
Grunwaldzka and Slowackiego was flooded for many hours. Unfortunately, the most serious loss was
two fatalities in the same location as in year 2001.
During last 15 years a process of urbanization of lower terrace caused creation of many new office and
residential buildings with underground car places. Rainfall of 2016 filled a lot of this new underground
spaces and increased the losses of its inhabitants.
Conclusion
During the last 17 years Gdansk was two times affected by the extraordinary rainfalls which occurred
mid-month of July. The rain episode of the 9th of July 2001 was characterized by a daily sum of rain of
120 mm that fell only in central and southern part of Gdansk. Only three rain gauges registered in those
day the rain distribution in time. The rain course was different depending the height zone. The most
violent precipitations occurred in the lower part of Gdansk where over 80 mm of rain were collected by
ombrometer in two and a half hours. The result of the event were losses in infrastructure twenty times
higher comparing to the rainfall of the 14th July 2016.
The second analysed rain event in Gdansk was exceptional due to the area of occurrence of the
phenomenon. The entire agglomeration of Gdansk suffered losses. As was mentioned, thanks to the
neighboring cities. It is worth mentioning that this event was registered by a local rain gauge network
consist of twelve automatic pluviographs which were installed in whole city by the municipal Company
- Gdanskie Wody together with Gdansk University of Technology.
The analysis of the precipitation data was based on a comparison with existing rain model for a 1%
probability of occurrence corresponding to a return time 100 years. Analyses showed that for both
events, the rain course and its parameters does not correspond to the Polish models of precipitation
described by the DDF curve. The main reason is a long duration time of the most intensive phase of rain
about 8 hours. Both two rainfalls were classified as torrential because they are characterized by B1
number of Chomicz's scale.
It should be noted that the total sum of precipitation of the 14th of July 2016 for sixteen hours of rainfall
episode at the Gdansk University of Technology (150.8 mm) was 25% higher comparing to the rain of
July 2001. The sum of precipitation over 150 mm which was registered at GUT rain gauge and 170 mm
which was registered at Gdansk Oliwa rain station is one of the highest daily precipitation ever recorded
in central and northern Poland. However, there was no extreme rain intensity in its course, but due to
the duration of the rain, the total amount of precipitation was that high. Only a 15-year interval of "calm"
between years 2001 and 2016 which provoked the difficult moments in Gdansk's development, is a proof
of a climate change. And unfortunately, climate change affects mostly local communities that have
limited capacity to prevent hazards.
References:
[1] Owczarek M., Jakusik E., Wojtkiewicz A., Malik P.: Climate of Gdansk, 1981-2005 in: 200 years
of regular measurements and meteorological observations in Gdansk, IMGW - Institute of
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Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute, Warszawa, pp. 160-183, 2007
(in polish).
[2] Spatial Information System of Gdansk, www.gis.gdansk.pl, 10.05.2017.
[3] Szpakowski W., Influence of Meteorological Hazards on the Hydrological Network in Respect to
UEFA Euro 2012 Football Tournament in Gdansk in: Ecohydrological Methods in Water
Management, wyd. PG pp. 131-140, 2011.
[4] th of July 2001 in Gdansk
region, in: Flood in -68, 2003 (in
polish).
[5] IMGW - PIB (Institute of Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute),
www.pogodynka.pl, 15.02.2017.
[6] Gdanskie Wody Company, Hydrometeorological monitoring system of Gdansk, pomiary.gdmel.pl,
16.07.2016.
[7]
Gulf of Gdansk and its possible changes in the 21st century, in: Flood in
-55, 2003 (in polish).
[8] Weinerowska-Bords K., Development of Local IDF-formula Using Controlled Random Search
Method for Global Optimization, Acta Geophysica 63,1, DOI: 10.2478/s11600-014-0242-5, 2015.
[9] Gdansk University Meteorological Newsletter Borucino- -Ostrzyce, 76 ,125 July,
Gdansk 2016.
[10] Chomicz K.: Heavy rain and storms in Poland. News of the Hydrological and Meteorological
Service, t. 2, z.. 4. Warszawa 1951 (in polish).
[11] Bogdanowicz E., Stach J.: Maximum rainfall in Poland. Design characteristics. Research
Materials, s: Hydrology and Oceanology, 23. IMGW, Warszawa 1998 (in polish).
[12] Adamowicz P., Response of the President of Gdansk to Mr Andrzej Golec, General Prosecutor in
Gdansk on asked questions after the huge rainfall in Gdansk www.gdansk.pl/wiadomosci, 20 07
2016.
-Studnicka P.: The Influence Of Hydrological Data Quality On Estimating
The Runoff From City Catchment On The Example Of , Ecological
Engineering, Vol. 44, 139 153 DOI: 10.12912/23920629/60038, 2015 (in polish).
[14] Majewski W.: Urban flash flood in Gdansk - 2001. Case study, Meteorology Hydrology and Water
Management Research and Operational Applications, 4, 2 pp 41 - 49 2016.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
The aim of the study is to present the effective and relatively simple empirical approach to rainfall intensity-duration-frequency-formulas development, based on Controlled Random Search (CRS) for global optimization. The approach is mainly dedicated to the cases in which the commonly used IDF-relationships do not provide satisfactory fit between simulations and observations, and more complex formulas with higher number of parameters are advisable. Precipitation data from Gdańsk gauge station were analyzed as the example, with use of peak-overthreshold method and Chomicz scale for rainfall intensity. General forms of the IDF-function were chosen and the parameter calibration with use of CRS algorithm was developed. The compliance of the obtained IDFformulas with precipitation data and the efficiency of the algorithm were analyzed. The study confirmed the proposed empirical approach may be an interesting alternative for probabilistic ones, especially when IDFrelationship has more complex form and precipitation data do not match “typical” hydrological distributions
Influence of Meteorological Hazards on the Hydrological Network in Respect to UEFA Euro 2012 Football Tournament in Gdansk in: Ecohydrological Methods in Water Management, wyd. PG pp. 131-140
  • W Szpakowski
Szpakowski W., Influence of Meteorological Hazards on the Hydrological Network in Respect to UEFA Euro 2012 Football Tournament in Gdansk in: Ecohydrological Methods in Water Management, wyd. PG pp. 131-140, 2011. [4] th of July 2001 in Gdansk region, in: Flood in-68, 2003 (in polish).
Hydrometeorological monitoring system of Gdansk, pomiary.gdmel.pl, 16.07.2016. [7] Gulf of Gdansk and its possible changes in the 21st century
  • Gdanskie Wody
Gdanskie Wody Company, Hydrometeorological monitoring system of Gdansk, pomiary.gdmel.pl, 16.07.2016. [7] Gulf of Gdansk and its possible changes in the 21st century, in: Flood in-55, 2003 (in polish).
Heavy rain and storms in Poland. News of the Hydrological and Meteorological Service
  • K Chomicz
Chomicz K.: Heavy rain and storms in Poland. News of the Hydrological and Meteorological Service, t. 2, z.. 4. Warszawa 1951 (in polish).
Maximum rainfall in Poland. Design characteristics. Research Materials, s: Hydrology and Oceanology
  • E Bogdanowicz
  • J Stach
Bogdanowicz E., Stach J.: Maximum rainfall in Poland. Design characteristics. Research Materials, s: Hydrology and Oceanology, 23. IMGW, Warszawa 1998 (in polish).
Response of the President of Gdansk to Mr Andrzej Golec, General Prosecutor in Gdansk on asked questions after the huge rainfall in Gdansk www.gdansk.pl/wiadomosci, 20 07 2016. -Studnicka P.: The Influence Of Hydrological Data Quality On Estimating The Runoff From City Catchment On The Example Of
  • P Adamowicz
Adamowicz P., Response of the President of Gdansk to Mr Andrzej Golec, General Prosecutor in Gdansk on asked questions after the huge rainfall in Gdansk www.gdansk.pl/wiadomosci, 20 07 2016. -Studnicka P.: The Influence Of Hydrological Data Quality On Estimating The Runoff From City Catchment On The Example Of , Ecological Engineering, Vol. 44, 139 153 DOI: 10.12912/23920629/60038, 2015 (in polish).
Urban flash flood in Gdansk -2001. Case study, Meteorology Hydrology and Water Management Research and Operational Applications
  • W Majewski
Majewski W.: Urban flash flood in Gdansk -2001. Case study, Meteorology Hydrology and Water Management Research and Operational Applications, 4, 2 pp 41 -49 2016.
Influence of Meteorological Hazards on the Hydrological Network in Respect to UEFA Euro 2012 Football Tournament in Gdansk in: Ecohydrological Methods in Water Management
  • W Szpakowski
Szpakowski W., Influence of Meteorological Hazards on the Hydrological Network in Respect to UEFA Euro 2012 Football Tournament in Gdansk in: Ecohydrological Methods in Water Management, wyd. PG pp. 131-140, 2011.