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Evaluation of Taste, Total Phenols and Antioxidant for Fresh, Roasted, Shade dried and Boiled leaves of Edible Arum palaestinum Bioss

  • The Hebrew University - Hadassah Medical School

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ABSTRACT: Arum palaestinum is one of the famous wild plants that have been used since the ancient time in the Palestinian folk food and medicine. However, it needs particular cooking steps to decrease its numbing taste. We investigated the impact of cooking, measures on taste, total phenols and antioxidant activity of wild A. palaestinum by using an Alpha-Astree Electronic tongue (ET), which is used for food taste assessment. In this study, the A. palaestinum was cooked in different ways. We used Folin Ciocalteu’s process to compare total phenols, where radical scavenging assay was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity using 2, 2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH). Our results showed that a very significant discrimination of the samples with different distances between groups (p-values < 0.001) in the ET results coupled with the principal component analysis (PCA). The samples were in the following order in term of numbing taste: Fresh > dried > cooked. Moreover, the pattern discrimination index between (A and C), (B and C) and (A and B) were 88%, 96.36%, and 98%, respectively, which suggests that C and A are the most similar preparations in term of taste, while B is the worst one. Our results reveal that the cooking and dried A. palaestinum showed a lower numbing taste by ET, while the antioxidant activities showed a marked correlation with the total phenolic contents. As a result, we concluded that the oven dried preparing method (home roasting) for A. palaestinum is the most efficient method for consumption or preparing bioactive supplements for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical supplements.
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Research Article
Marmara Pharm J 2018;22(1): 52-58
How to cite this article: Qneibi M, Jaradat N, Zaid AN, Abu-Khalaf N,
Natsheh A, Hussein F. Evaluation of taste, total phenols and antioxidant for
fresh, roasted, shade dried and boiled leaves of edible Arum palaestinum
Bioss. Marmara Pharm J. 2018; 22 (1): 52-58.
Received:04.10.2017 / Accepted:29.11.2017
Corresponding Author: Mohammad Qneb
Phone: +970 (9) 2345113
ABSTRACT: Arum palaestnum s one of the famous wld plants that have been used snce the ancent tme n the Palestnan folk
food and medcne. However, t needs partcular cookng steps to decrease ts numbng taste. We nvestgated the mpact of cookng,
measures on taste, total phenols and antoxdant actvty of wld A. palaestnum by usng an Alpha-Astree Electronc tongue (ET),
whch s used for food taste assessment. In ths study, the A. palaestnum was cooked n dfferent ways. We used Foln Cocalteus
process to compare total phenols, where radcal scavengng assay was used to evaluate the antoxdant actvty usng 2, 2-dphenyl-
1-pcrylhydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH). Our results showed that a very sgnfcant dscrmnaton of the samples wth dfferent dstances
between groups (p-values < 0.001) n the ET results coupled wth the prncpal component analyss (PCA). The samples were n the
followng order n term of numbng taste: Fresh > dred > cooked. Moreover, the pattern dscrmnaton ndex between (A and C),
(B and C) and (A and B) were 88%, 96.36%, and 98%, respectvely, whch suggests that C and A are the most smlar preparatons n
term of taste, whle B s the worst one. Our results reveal that the cookng and dred A. palaestnum showed a lower numbng taste by
ET, whle the antoxdant actvtes showed a marked correlaton wth the total phenolc contents. As a result, we concluded that the
oven dred preparng method (home roastng) for A. palaestnum s the most effcent method for consumpton or preparng boactve
supplements for nutraceutcal and pharmaceutcal supplements.
KEYWORDS: Arum palaestnum; antoxdants; total phenolc content; edble wld plants
formulatons manufacturers, and recent trends of adequate
nutrton wth specfc health effects s rasng [1].
Edble wld herbs have always played a sgnfcant role n the
folk tradtons of the Medterranean regon [2]. In the past
decade, numerous scentfc experments have evaluated the
gatherng and consumpton of edble wld plants n several
countres n the Medterranean regon [6] such as Cyprus [3],
Greece [4], Span [5], Italy [7], Turkey [8], and France [9].
Around 31 speces of plants that belong to genus Solomons lly
were classfed n nature. One of the most tradtonal ones s Arum
palaestnum Boss. (Solomon’s lly). Ths speces s a perennal
herbaceous plant belongng to the Araceae famly. Ths famly has
about 1000 members dstrbuted manly n the Medterranean
regons. A. palaestnum (Lfe n Arabc) s also known as
Solomon’s Lly, Black Calla, Prest’s Hood and Palestnan Arum.
Ths plant grows wldly n Palestne, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syra
[10]. Varous speces of Solomon’s lly was and stll used as food
and as folk medcne n the Medterranean Sea Regons [11].
Hgh daly consumpton of plants whch are rch n actve
antoxdant compounds manly phenols has been assured
to be correlated wth lower mortalty rate and ncdence of
several degeneratve dseases such as dabetes, cardovascular
dseases, and cancer [1, 2].
Phytochemcals as phenols are commonly founded n both edble
and non-edble plants, and they have been reported to have
varous pharmacologcal actvtes, ncludng antoxdant [3, 4].
Edble plants crude extracts plentful n phenols are ncreasng of
nterest n the food and pharmaceutcal ndustral supplements
because they slow oxdatve degradaton of fats and ols thereby
mprove the healthy nutrtonal value and the qualty of food [5].
The value of the antoxdant components of edble plants
that mprove health style and prevent cancer and coronary
heart dsease s also ncreasng the nterest among
consumers, scentsts, food supplements and pharmaceutcal
Evaluation of taste, total phenols and antioxidant for fresh,
roasted, shade dried and boiled leaves of edible Arum
palaestinum Bioss
Mohammad Qneb1*, Nidal Jaradat2, Abed Naser Zad2, Nawaf Abu-Khalaf3, Abdel – Razzak Natsheh4, Fatma Hussen2
1 Department of Bomedcal Scences, Faculty of Medcne and Health Scences, An-Najah Natonal Unversty, Nablus, Palestne.
2 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medcne and Health Scences, An-Najah Natonal Unversty, Nablus, Palestne.
3 Department of Agrcultural and Bologcal Engneerng, Faculty of Engneerng, Palestne Techncal Unversty, Kadoore, Palestne.
4 Department of Computer Informaton Systems, Faculty of Engneerng and Informaton Technology, An-Najah Natonal Unversty, Nablus, Palestne.
Marmara Pharm J 2018;22(1): 52-58
Research Article
In Palestne, a large number of wld edble herbals are wdely
dstrbuted throughout the country and consumed n varous
ways. For example, the leave of Arum palaestnum, whch s
used by herbal practtoners and local rural healers n the
treatment of several dseases such as a cough, constpaton,
heartburn, urnary tract nfectons, cancer, dabetes,
hemorrhods, atheroscleross, ameba and kll worms n the
gastrontestnal tract [12, 13].
The phytochemcal screenng of Solomons lly plants
showed that these plants contan alkalods, polyphenols,
glycosdes (flavonods, saponn, and cyanogenc groups),
proanthocyandns, 2-heptanone, ndoles, p-cresol, (E)-
caryophyllene, monoterpenes, and two undentfed
sesquterpenes and lectn [14, 15]. Isoprenods or terpenods
consst manly of soprene unts and have antbacteral,
antfungal, antvral and antprotozoal actvtes [16]. Also,
the solaton and structural elucdaton of a novel pyrrole
alkalod were nvestgated and showed t has antcancer
actvty aganst breast carcnoma cells, hepatocarcnoma, and
lymphoblastc leukema [17, 18].
However, ths plant has a strong and fastdous numbng
taste. As a result, the Palestnan folk food dred the Solomon’s
lly and cooked to mnmze ths drawback. Nonetheless,
ths step may negatvely mpact the phytochemcal and
therapeutc outcome of ths plant. In ths study, we attempted
to assess the phytochemcal actvtes of Solomons lly
before and after beng cooked, where the taste of the tested
samples has been evaluated usng Alpha-Astree electronc
tongue (ET). The taste of Solomons lly plays a sgnfcant
role n patent complance and consequently therapeutc
effectveness. Tradtonally, the taste assessment of a food
product s usually conducted on human panelsts, yet ths
may be costly and tme-consumng. Snce then many relable
and predctve methods have been developed to evaluate
food tastes n vtro [1-5, 7]. ET s consdered one of the most
useful and precse methods for ths purpose. It conssts some
low-selectve and cross-senstve sensors and uses advanced
mathematcal procedures for sgnal processng based on the
multvarate analyss, e.g., pattern recognton (PARC) and
artfcal neural networks (ANNs) [6, 8-10]. Also, t does
not need sample preparaton, where the same samples can
be measured several tmes snce there s no change n ther
characterstcs after the frst tral of measurements [11-13].
ET has been used n: () botechnology applcatons, ()
food ndustry, () olve ol authentcaton and adulteraton,
(), and most mportantly, oral pharmaceutcal product
evaluaton [12, 14-23].
In the entre world, tremendous resources are beng nvested
n dagnoss, preventon, and treatment of cancer and
degeneratve cardovascular dsease by usng safety edble
and medcnal plants [2].
Dscoverng and screenng for potental antcancer and
antoxdant agents from natural edble plants stll n the
recent tme s the man scope for many of the nutraceutcal
and pharmaceutcal nsttutons [3].
2.1. Total phenols screening results for four Solomon’s lly
prepared samples
Phytochemcal phenols are class of secondary metabolc
compounds found n the plants and have been approved
that they have varous physologcal and bologcal actvtes
ncludng antbacteral, antvral, ant-nflammatory,
antallergenc and antoxdant actvtes [24, 25].
The absorbance of standard compound (Gallc acd) at λmax
=765 nm n Arum palaestnum presented n Table 1 and
Fgure 1.
Table 1. Absorbance of standard compound (Gallc acd)
Absorbance at λmax =765nm Gallc acd concentraton (mg/ml)
0.051 0.1
0.099 0.2
0.168 0.3
0.231 0.4
0.287 0.5
0.544 1
Figure 1. Standard calbraton curve for gallc acd
Solomon’s lly leaves four extracts (fresh, boled, shade
dred and oven dred) exhbted hgh phenolc contents as
presented n Table 2. The hghest total phenolc contents were
n the fresh, and oven-dred Solomon’s lly leaves were 53.07
mg GA/g extract, whle the total phenolc contents n boled
Solomon’s lly leaves was 24.05 mg GA/g extract and the
contents n shade dred Solomons lly leaves was the lowest
Marmara Pharmaceutical Journal
Qneibi et al.
The impact of processing condition on the wild Arum palaestinum plant
Marmara Pharm J 2018;22(1): 52-58
Research Article
Marmara Pharmaceutical Journal
Qneibi et al.
The impact of processing condition on the wild Arum palaestinum plant
(17.14 mg GA/g extract) as shown n Fgure 2. These results
showed that the bolng process and shade dryng methods
of preparatons damagng most of the phenolc contents n
Solomon’s lly leaves.
Table 2. Total phenolc contents n the fresh, boled, shade
dred and oven dred (roasted) Solomon’s lly leaves
Figure 3. IC50 Value for Trolox and dfferent A. palaestnum
2.3. ET assessment
Three prepared Solomons lly products were ncluded n ths
study. Prncpal component analyss (PCA) showed a clear
dscrmnaton of the samples as shown n Fgure 4. Two
major components were suffcent for descrbng the total
varaton of the data. The frst prncpal component (PC1)
A. palaestnum extract Total phenolc contents
(mg GA/g extract), ±SD
Fresh Solomon’s lly extract 53.07±0.12
Roasted (oven dred) Solomon’s lly extract 53.07±0.12
Boled Solomons lly extract 24.05±0.32
Shade dred Solomon’s lly extract 17.14±0.22
SD stands for standard devaton
Figure 2. Total phenolc content of dfferent A. palaestnum
2.2. In vitro antioxidant properties of the extraction
DPPH has been utlzed wdely as a free radcal to evaluate
reducng compounds and t s a useful reagent for estmat ng n-
vtro free radcal scavengng actvtes of the phytochemcals.
As shown n (Fgure 2), all the four Solomons lly prepared
samples exhbted ratable scavengng propertes aganst
DPPH radcals and t was clear that the oven dred Solomon’s
lly leaves (roastng method of preparaton) were proven to
be the most powerful antoxdant wth IC50 value 14.55±2.06
µg /ml (Table 3 and Fgure 3), as ther radcal-scavengng
actvtes were sgnfcantly dfferent from any other knds of
Solomon’s lly prepared methods. However, the shade dred
samples exhbted the lowest radcal scavengng actvty wth
IC50 value 63.09±2.38 µg /ml comparng to Trolox standard
compound whch had IC50 value 2.1±2.03 µg/ml.
Table 3. IC50 value of dfferent A. palaestnum leaves extracts
A. palaestnum extract IC50 value (µg /ml),
± SD
Fresh Solomon’s lly leaves extract 45.7±1.47
Boled Solomons lly leaves extract 31.62±3.52
Oven dred (roasted) Solomon’s lly leaves extract 14.55±2.06
Shade dred Solomon’s lly leaves extract 63.09±2.38
Figure 4. In vtro taste assessment of cooked and fresh
Solomon’s lly usng ET and prncpal component analyss
Marmara Pharm J 2018;22(1): 52-58
Research Article
explaned 79.4% and the second prncpal component (PC2)
explaned 20.4%. The two PCs explaned about 100%.
In the entre world, tremendous resources are beng nvested
n dagnoss, preventon and treatment of cancer and
degeneratve cardovascular dsease by usng safety edble
and medcnal plants.
Dscoverng and screenng for potental antcancer and
antoxdant agents from natural edble plants stll n the
recent tme the man scope for many of the nutraceutcal
and pharmaceutcal nsttutons [26, 27]. In a study whch
was conducted by Jaradat and Abualhasan, they found that
varous Solomon’s lly speces such as A. Doscordes, A.
elongatum, and A. hygrophlum have more potent antoxdant
actvty n comparson wth the studed Solomons lly speces.
Ther values were 6.7, 4.7, and 6.9 µg /ml, respectvely [28], n
comparson wth fresh, boled, oven dred, and shade dred
Solomon’s lly speces, they were 45.7, 31.6, 14.5, and 63.1 µg
/ml, respectvely. In another study whch was conducted by
Al-Mustafa and Al-Thunbat [20], they found that the IC50 of
the methanolc extracton of A. palaestnum was 24.3±1.0 ug/
ml, whle our results were 45.7, 31.6, 14.5, and 63.1 µg /ml for
the fresh, boled, oven dred, and shade dred A. palaestnum
speces, respectvely. These results showed that the boled and
shade dred methods were less potent, whle the oven dred
method was more potent as an antoxdant n comparson to
prevous studes [20].
Evaluaton of taste by ET revealed a sgnfcant dfference
between these products (p-value < 0.05). The followng test
descrbes three parameters, whch are dstance, p-value, and
pattern dscrmnaton ndex (%). The lower the dstance
between samples the lower the dfference n the taste between
them (Fgure 4). Moreover, the ET calculates the % pattern of
dscrmnaton between the tested samples. Ths ndex takes
nto account the dfference between the centers of gravty and
dsperson of each group. The closer the ndex to 100%, the
greater the dstance between the centers of gravty and the
smaller the dsperson wthn groups (Alpha MOS, 2009). As
t can be seen from the results n Fgure 4, the dstance between
groups was dfferent. In fact, the dstance between A and C
was 73.85, whle between B and C t was 156 and between A
and B t was 195. Ths may ndcate hgher taste smlarty
between the frst two products (A and C) than between B and
C or between A and B. Moreover, the pattern dscrmnaton
ndexes between A and C, B and C and between A and B were
88.16%, 96.36%, and 98%, respectvely, whch suggests that A
and C are the closest taste snce they had the shorter dstance
and the lowest % ndex of dscrmnaton pattern. All these
comparsons were statstcally sgnfcant snce the p-values
were < 0.05 n all cases. Therefore, the cookng method would
be a sutable tool to mnmze the numbng taste of Solomons
lly, but t may negatvely mpact the phytochemcal and
therapeutc outcome of ths mportant plant. In fact, t may
Table 4. Percentage nhbton actvty by Trolox and dfferent A. palaestnum Extracts
% nhbton by Trolox,
% nhbton by fresh
Solomon’s lly leaves
extract, ±SD
% nhbton by
Solomon’s lly leaves
oven dred extract,
% nhbton by
Solomon’s lly
leaves shade dred
extract, ±SD
% nhbton by
Solomon’s lly leaves
boled extract, ±SD
138.62 ±1.23 30.86±1.22 32.3±2.33 28.98±2.22 29.93±1.1
249.53±1.78 32.93±1.32 32.69±2.12 28.98±2.35 29.93±1.71
359.81±1.36 32.93±1.36 34.93±2.22 31.3±2.65 29.93±1.33
578.81±2.25 38.76±1.55 34.93±1.98 33.62±2.56 34.47±1.22
788.16±2.21 38.76±1.84 35.26±1.52 34.2±2.31 34.47±1.35
10 97±2.01 43.12±1.55 41.34±2.51 34.2±2.65 34.47±2.01
20 97±2.33 43.12±1.51 45.19±2.1 34.2±2.67 46.49±2.31
30 97.5±2.12 48.32±1.09 48.39±2.21 41.1±2.69 46.49±2.36
40 98.76±2.14 48.32±1.52 53.84±1.98 42.31±2.35 52.2±2.37
50 98.76±2.11 51.23±1.33 71.32±1.77 51.01±2.13 52.2±1.74
80 98.76±2.35 51.34±1.58 77.42±1.68 51.01±1.99 60.11±2.39
100 98.76±2.41 51.34±1.74 88.56±2.28 56±2.02 60.11±2.33
Marmara Pharmaceutical Journal
Qneibi et al.
The impact of processing condition on the wild Arum palaestinum plant
Marmara Pharm J 2018;22(1): 52-58
Research Article
be a relatonshp between the taste and the antoxdant
actvty. Consderng both A and C were subjected to harsher
preparaton condtons than C. Ths may cause a loss of
phytochemcal agents that are responsble for the antoxdant
actvty durng the cookng and shade dryng of the leaves;
as a result, they showed closer antoxdant actvty as can be
shown n Table 4.
The cooked and dred Solomon’s lly showed lower numbng
taste as revealed by ET. The antoxdant actvtes showed a
marked correlaton wth the total phenolc contents. At the
same tme, total phenols and antoxdant actvty depend on the
cookng or the plant’s preparaton method. However, the oven
dred preparng method (home roastng) for Solomon’s lly s the
most effcent method for consumpton or preparng boactve
supplements for nutraceutcal and pharmaceutcal supplements.
5.1. Collection and preparing plant materials
Arum palaestnum leaves were collected n March 2015
from the mountans of Bethlehem and Jerusalem regons
of the West Bank/Palestne. The plant was botancally
dentfed n the Department of Pharmacy at An-Najah
Natonal Unversty. A voucher specmen was deposted
n the Herbarum of the Pharmaceutcal Chemstry and
Technology Dvson (Laboratory of Pharmacognosy). The
Arum palaestnum herbarum code s (Pharm-PCT-246).
5.2. Solomons lily leaves experimental samples preparing
5.2.1. Shade dried Solomon’s lily leaves
The leaves were washed several tmes usng dstlled water
and then dred n the shade at room temperature untl all
the plant’s parts became well dred. After dryng, the plant
materals were powdered well by usng a grnder and placed
nto a well-closed contaner.
5.2.2. Fresh Solomon’s lily leaves
The leaves were washed several tmes usng dstlled water,
cut n small slces and kept n the refrgerator for further use.
5.2.3. Roasted Solomons lily leaves (oven dried method)
The leaves were washed several tmes usng dstlled water
and then dred n the oven at 150 ºC for 5 mnutes, then t
was powdered well by usng a grnder and placed nto a well-
closed contaner.
5.2.4. Boiled Solomon’s lily leaves
The fresh Solomon’s lly leaves were prepared and cooked n the
same way as for consumpton. In bref, the fresh green leaves
were cleaned and washed several tmes usng dstlled water,
and then cut nto small peces. 10 grams of them placed n the
beaker wth 100 ml mll-Q water and boled for 30 mnutes,
the produced mxture kept under the hood untl t dred. Then
t mantaned n a well-closed contaner for further use.
5.3. Instrumentation
An alpha-Astree (Alpha MOS, Toulouse, France) was used
to assess the taste. It s composed of seven sensors. The ET
was equpped wth a 16-poston auto-sampler, an automatc
strrer, and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. For multvarate
data analyss a software package (chemometrcs) (Alpha
MOS, Toulouse, France), whch also automatcally collected
and stored the sensors’ outputs sgnal (Alpha MOS, 2009)
was used.
Shaker devce (Memmert shakng ncubator, Germany),
rotary evaporator (Hedolph OB2000 Hedolph VV2000,
Germany), spectrophotometer (Jenway 7135, England),
grnder (Moulnex model, Uno, Chna), balance (Rad wag,
AS 220/c/2, Poland), flter paper (Machnery-Nagel, MN 617
and Whatman no.1, USA), were used for ths study.
5.4. Chemical Reagents
5.4.1. For antioxidant evaluation:
Methanol was purchased from Lobacheme (Inda).
(DPPH) 2, 2-Dphenyl-1-pcrylhydrazyl was ordered from
Sgma-Aldrch (Germany). Trolox (6-hydroxy – 2, 5, 7, 8 –
tetramethychroman-2 carboxylc acd) was purchased from
Sgma-Aldrch (Denmark).
5.4.2 For total phenolic content:
Foln-Cocalteu and NaHCO3 reagents were purchased from
Sgma Aldrch(Germany), and methanol purchased from
Lobacheme (Inda).
5.5. Preparation of plant extracts for antioxidant
About 10 g of the grounded plant was soaked n 0.1 Lter of
methanol (99%) and put n a shaker devce at 100 rounds per
mnute for 72 hours at room temperature, and then stored
n the refrgerator for four days to mnmze any potental
degradaton of the phytochemcals. The extracts were then
fltered usng flter papers and concentrated under vacuum
on a rotator evaporator. The crude extract was stored at – 4
ºC for further use.
Marmara Pharmaceutical Journal
Qneibi et al.
The impact of processing condition on the wild Arum palaestinum plant
Marmara Pharm J 2018;22(1): 52-58
Research Article
5.6. Antioxidant activity
A stock soluton of a concentraton of 1 mg/ml n meth-
anol was frstly prepared for the plant four samples
extracts and Trolox. The workng solutons of the followng
concentratons (1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 80, 100 g/
ml) were prepared by seral dluton wth methanol from the
stock soluton. DPPH was freshly prepared at a concentraton
of 0.002% w/v. The DPPH soluton was mxed wth methanol
and the above-prepared workng concentraton n a raton
of 1:1:1 respectvely. The spectrophotometer was zeroed
usng methanol as a blank soluton. The frst soluton of the
seres concentraton was DPPH wth methanol only. The
solutons were ncubated n the dark for 30 mnutes at room
temperature before the absorbance readngs were recorded
at 517 nm. The percentage of antoxdant actvty of the
Solomon’s lly leaves four samples, and the Trolox standards
were calculated usng the followng formula [29]:
Percentage of nhbton of DPPH actvty (%) = (A-B)/A
A = optcal densty of the blank,
B = optcal densty of the sample.
The antoxdant half maxmal nhbtory concentraton (IC50)
for the plant samples and the standard were calculated usng
BoDataFt edton 1.02 (data ft for bologst).
The antoxdant actvty was reported as a percentage of
nhbton. The nhbton of Solomon’s lly leaves four
samples, and Trolox standard at dfferent concentraton was
plotted and tabulated, and the IC50 for each of them was
calculated usng the BoDataFt fttng program n whch the
sgmodal fttng model was the adapted model.
5.7. Determination of total phenolic content in the
different plant extracts
Total phenolc content n the plant four samples methanolc
extracts was determned usng spectrophotometrc method
[30] wth some modfcatons. 1 mg/ml aqueous solutons
for methanolc extract were prepared n the analyss. The
reacton mxture was prepared by mxng 0.5 ml of plant
extract from four samples soluton, 2.5 ml of 10% Foln-
Cocalteu’s reagent dssolved n water and 2.5 ml of 7.5% of
the NaHCO3 aqueous soluton.
The four Solomon’s lly leaves samples were after that ncubated
n a thermostat at 45 ºC for 45 mn then the absorbance was
estmated usng spectrophotometer at wavelength 765 nm.
All the four plant samples were prepared n trplcate for each
analyss, and the mean value of absorbance was obtaned, and
the same procedure was repeated for the standard soluton
of gallc acd, and the calbraton lne was construed. Based
on the measured absorbance, the concentraton of gallc acd
equvalent expressed regardng (mg of GA/g of extract).
5.8. In vitro assessment of taste using ET
Based on the manufacturers recommendaton, before
samples were analyzed, the seven sensors were gone through
condtonng, calbraton and dagnostc process. Cleanng
of the sensor array was done between each measurement
usng pure dstlled water. Three samples of Solomons lly
were mxed wth suffcent volume of dstlled water. Each
sample was measured n trplcate. Data acquston and
data processng was acheved wth AlphaSoft software.
Multvarate data analyss was used to analyze data.
Authorship statement
M.Q., N.J. conceved the concept and desgned the study;
Supervson – M.Q., N.J.; Resource – N.J., A.Z., Materals –
N.J., A.Z.; Data Collecton and/or Processng – M.Q., N.J.,
A.Z., N.K., A.N., F.H.; Analyss and/or Interpretaton – M.Q.,
N.J., A.Z., N.K., A.N., F.H.; Lterature Search – M.Q., N.J.,
A.Z., N.K., A.N., F.H.; Wrtng – M.Q., N.J., A.Z.; Crtcal
Revews – M.Q., N.J., A.Z.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors declared no conflct of nterest n the manuscrpt.
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Marmara Pharmaceutical Journal
Qneibi et al.
The impact of processing condition on the wild Arum palaestinum plant
... It has been used in many applications, e.g. biotechnology, agriculture and environment [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]. Moreover, ET was used for quality assessment of some taste chemicals that influence the tea [29] and herbal medicinal plants mixtures quality [30]. ...
... From data analysis viewpoint, it can be that both MVDA techniques managed to get the same interoperation of results. This study produced results which corroborate the findings of a great deal of the previous work in using ET for herbal products, tea [9,29,31], biotechnology and pharmaceutical applications [14,19,20,23,27]. Moreover, the present study extends the knowledge of using ET for different applications. ...
... 24,35 However, in our study, the TPC, TFC and TTC contents were greater with FL than SDL pointing towards the inactivation or degradation of certain phytochemicals during drying. The proposition is strengthened by the earlier observations revealing the loss of various essential oils and other compounds during drying of Arum palaestinum 30 Our study also encompasses a number of antioxidative assays of different principles as it has been evinced that the effectiveness of antioxidants is better arbitrated through diverse analyses. 28 In all the antioxidant assays, FL extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than SDL and the observation was also in agreement with several studies performed on different plants. ...
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Piperaceae is a highly diverse and large family composed of five genera of which Piper and Peperomia are the most abundant. The current study endeavours five Piper species (Piper betle, Piper nigrum, Piper longum, Piper chaba and Piper retrofractum) and one species of Peperomia (Peperomia pellucida) concerning their phytochemical contents, antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Besides their economic uses, these plants also possess curative properties that have been exploited ethnomedicinally since the primaeval days. The methanolic extracts of both fresh (FL) and shade dried (SDL) leaves of these plants showed the presence of various phytochemicals. Among the studied plants, polyphenols like total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and total tannins (TTC) contents were maximum in P. betle FL extract (TPC:39.50±0.99 mg GAE/ g extract, TFC: 19.40±0.57 mg QE/ g extract and TTC 11.08±0.11 mg GAE/g extract) and significantly higher than the others. Antioxidant efficacies of the extracts by total antioxidant activity (TAA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ability to scavenge different radicals (DPPH, ABTS, NO and SO), were also highest in P. betle. The study also highlighted the strong antibacterial activities of the extracts against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. P. betle FL extract showed the highest activity representing the maximum zone of inhibition (24.65±0.21 mm) and lowest MIC/MBC values (0.58±0.04/0.65±0.07 mg/ml) against E. coli. These findings exhibit the potential of these plant extracts, especially P. betle, in the prospective exploration of plant-derived antioxidants and therapeutic uses of these plants for developing novel antibacterial drugs.
... Metal oxide semiconductors (MOS) are the most common materials that e-noses are made of, they are sensitive and have a long life (Oates et al., 2020). E-nose signals are complex, and for revealing them they are needed to be analysed using multivariate data analysis (MVDA) (Qneibi et al., 2018;Abu-Khalaf et al., 2018Al Ramahi et al., 2019;Abu-Khalaf and Abu Rumaila, 2020). ...
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Dried oregano (Origanum syriacum L.) is a common product in the Mediterranean diet and it has wide culinary applications. The quality and functional ingredients profile of oregano is highly affected by drying technology. This study was aimed to discriminate different quality traits of air, solar, and freeze-dried oregano by employing electronic nose (e-nose), chromameter, and sensory analysis. E-nose signals were analysed by using multivariate data analysis (MVDA). Our findings showed that the e-nose signal exhibited different clusters for all groups by using principal component analysis (PCA). Moreover, there were clear differences in the colour index (L*a*b*) between groups. Freeze-dried oregano exhibited significantly lower L*-values than air and solar-dried oregano. Sensory analysis showed that there were clear differences between solar and freeze-dried oregano. In this context, f-dried thyme had significantly lower values of colour acceptance (4.80 vs. 7.57, p<0.05), degree of freshness (5.57 vs. 7.14, p<0.05), taste acceptance (5.46 vs. 6.75, p<0.05), and overall acceptance (5.75 vs. 7.19, p<0.05) than solar-dried thyme, respectively. In conclusion, e-nose and chromameter were effective tools to discriminate between different types of dried oregano
... 14 Furthermore, ET was used to assess effectively the taste of Arum palaestinum, which is one of the famous wild plants used in the medical applications. 14,15 Many analytical methods are available in the literature to assess the amount of cefdinir (CR), alone or in combination with other drugs, in the available pharmaceutical products. [16][17][18] In addition, many other methods are available to assess its concentration in the biological fluids. ...
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Background: Electronic tongue (ET) is a well-established technology that is used to detect the taste of a food or a medicinal product and to differentiate between different products based on their tastes. In addition, it can be used to monitor environmental parameters and biochemical and biological processes. Purpose: This study aims to assess any correlation between the results of pharmacopeial quality control (ie, assay, impurities, and dissolution, etc) and ET analysis for reconstituted cefdinir (CR) suspension over 10 days (ie, shelf-life). Methods: The reconstituted CR suspension was tested for several quality attributes such as dissolution behavior, pH, assay, related substances, and microbial contamination. An HPLC analytical method was verified and then used for chemical analysis. The taste of CR reconstituted suspension was followed over 10 days and was then compared with the quality control results. Moreover, Pearson's correlation test was used to find a correlation between chemical analysis results and ET results. Results: Pearson's test of correlation showed a significant correlation (p-value <0.05) between the conventional chemical analysis results (% of CR, % of preservative, % of released CR, % of total impurities and % of total undefined impurities in the reconstituted suspension) with the change of their taste (ie, % pattern discrimination index). ET was able to correlate the results of stability of CR suspension with the change in the taste of the suspension during the shelf life of the reconstituted suspension. Conclusion: The obtained results may suggest the use of ET as a new tool for a rapid assessment of the general quality of a suspension. Moreover, such results would suggest the use of ET to identify fake or substandard products, especially those have been stored under inappropriate storage conditions.
... The L. dentata essential oil (LEO) was found to have antimicrobial, carminative antispasmodic, antidepressant, antioxidant, anticholinesterase, and anti-inflammatory effects [26][27][28][29][30][31][32]. Oral preparations of LEO exhibit anxiolytic and calming effects with a faster onset of efficacy than firstchoice anxiety treatments like serotonin reuptake inhibitors and benzodiazepines [33]. ...
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Lavandula dentata L. and Origanum syriacum L. essential oils have numerous health benefits and properties, such as possessing common components with a variant degree of depressive actions in the central nervous system. We investigated the depressive property of these oils on AMPA receptors, which are responsible for most of the fast-excitatory neurotransmission in the CNS and play a critical role in synaptic plasticity. Since excessive activation of AMPARs has been linked to neurotoxicity leading to various pathologies, we hypothesize that these oils have a neuroprotective role by acting directly on the kinetics of AMPARs. Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) and patch-clamp electrophysiology, the essential oils of L. dentata flowers and O. syriacum leaves were characterized and the whole cell currents were measured with and without the administration of the oils onto HEK293 cells. The current study results showed that the biophysical properties of AMPA receptor subunits showed a decrease in desensitization rate of GluA1 and GluA2 homomers, using O. syriacum , while administering L. dentata oil decreased the desensitization rate of GluA1 and GluA2 homomers, as well as GluA1/2 heteromers. As for the deactivation rate, both oils slowed the deactivation kinetics of all AMPA receptor subunits. Intriguingly, between the two oils, the effect of desensitization and deactivation was of a greater significance for L. dentata oil than O. syriacum . Our data suggest that the two oils contain components that are essential to identify, as those active components underlie the oils’ neuronal depressive properties reported, and to extract them to synthesize a potent neuroprotective drug to treat neurological diseases potentially.
... Recently, this class of naturally occurring compounds received global scientific attention due to their various therapeutic activities. However, many studies on flavonoids have approved their potentials in treatment of different diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, oxidative stress, allergy, viral infections, cancer, bacterial inflammations, and others (3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9). Naringin flavonoid is a secondary metabolic product found in high amounts in immature citrus fruits as kumquat, pumelo, grapefruit, trifoliate orange, and sour orange, especially in their seeds, peels and in the fleshy parts of their fruits, which give them a bitter taste (10). ...
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Background: The semi-synthesis of drugs from natural products is still limited and complicated. Recently, there has been compelling global need to develop novel and potential antibacterial and antioxidant agents. Objectives: The current study aimed at semi-synthesizing new derivatives from naringin, to verify their chemical structures and assess their antibacterial and antioxidant potentials. Methods: The semi-synthesis of naringin was conducted in the presence of hydrazone and oxime derivatives in acidic solution, while elemental and spectral analytical methods were used to verify the chemical structures of the semi-synthesized molecules. Also, to assess their antibacterial activity, the micro-broth dilution method with different American type culture collection (ATCC) strains as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and clinical isolate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were utilized. Moreover, 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was used to assess the antioxidant activity of the derived compounds. Results: Three new hydrazone and oxime compounds were semi-synthesized from naringin and their chemical structures were identified by 13CNMR, IR, MS, and 1HNMR.Amongthe semi-synthesized compounds, the (2a) molecule showed the best antibacterial activity with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 62.5 �g/mL. Also, this compound exhibited the best antioxidant activity with IC50 3.7 �g/mL, in comparison with the other studied samples. Conclusions: Hydrazone (2a) compound could be used as a potent antioxidant and bacterial agent. Further studies are required to investigate other therapeutic effects of the (2a) molecule.
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Background: Palestine is a rich land with wild edible plants which used from the ancient times as food and medicine. Arum is a valuable genus of medicinal plants which is used in the ethnic medicine for treatment of cancer or consumed as integrated food. This work aimed to evaluate and compare the phytoconstituents, total phenols contents and free radical scavenging potential for Arum dioscoridis, Arum elongatum, Arum hygrophilum and Arum palaestinum a members of Palestinian flora. Methods: Phytoconstituents screened by using standard analytical methods, total phenols determined by using Folin Ciocalteu's method and antioxidant activities were assessed by DPPH assay. Results: The crude extracts of Arum plant studied species revealed the presence of several biologically active phytochemicals with the highest quantity of saponin, alkaloid, phenols and flavonoids. For A. dioscoridis, A. elongatum, A. hygrophilum and A. palaestinum free radical scavenging activities were 6.7±0.75µg/ml, 19.9±0.63µg/ml, 9.9±0.49µg/ml, and 6.9±0.62µg/ml respectively, while the IC50 for Trolox was 4.8±0.39µg/ml as well as the total phenols contents for these species were 60.07 ±0.12, 27.49 ±0.32, 41.75±0.12 and 53.17±0.22 (mg GAE/g extract), ±SD respectively. Conclusion: The antioxidant activities in the studied Arum plant species showed a marked correlation with their total phenols contents. A. dioscoridis and A. palaestinum had the highest antioxidant activities with high contents of total phenols and they can be used as perfect choices for manufacturing of pharmaceutical, cosmeticeuticals and nutraceutical formulations.
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In recent years, Mediterranean diet has been promoted as a model for healthy eating. One of the main characteristics of the Mediterranean diet is an abundance of plant food as fruits, vegetables, whole-grain cereals, nuts, and legumes. This paper compiles and evaluates the ethnobotanical knowledge currently available on wild edible plants sold in the local markets and traditionally used for human consumption in Izmir, a province on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The information about the use of wild edible plants was collected from 18 different open-air-markets in the city during two-year period, through unstructured interviews. In this study, a total of 46 wild edible plant taxa were established and also plant parts used, ethnographic data related to vernacular names, traditional tools and recipes were recorded. Family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of taxa (7), followed by Apiaceae (6), Polygonaceae, Liliaceae and Lamiaceae (4), Amaranthaceae and Brassicaceae (2). The study showed that the plants used are either eaten raw, cooked by boiling in water, frying in oil or baked to be served as dishes such as stew, salad as hot drink. During this ethnobotanical research, it was verified that wild edible plants play an important role in diet in Izmir. However, it was observed that the transfer of folk uses of these plants decreased in the last generations. In this context, the ethnobotanical research about wild edible plants should be extended to other areas of Turkey in order not only to preserve the traditional knowledge related to plants, but also to make it available for future generations as well.
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Arum palaestinum Boiss. populations are in danger of extinction in the wild. Thus, there is a need to establish a reliable strategy for multiplying this valuable medicinal plant. In the present study, seeds and tissue culture of A. palaestinum were subjected to biochemical, molecular and phytochemical analysis. Obtained results indicated that the best medium for shoots proliferation was Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 5 mg/L benzyl adenine (BA) and 0.1 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). The regenerated shoots were rooted on half strength MS medium containing 1 mg/L NAA and 2 g/L charcoal. Tissue culture derived plantlets were successfully acclimatized under ex vitro conditions. Protein analysis referred that, the difference in protein profiles in the examined samples suggests that a real genetic change might have occurred. Obtained results of the inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) revealed variation between the regenerated plants and mother plant while the phytochemical investigation revealed that, 10 phenolic compounds (seven flavones, one flavonol and two phenolic acids) were identified using HPLC analysis and five compounds were detected in the plant for the first time. Genetic characterization and chemical investigation of seeds and in vitro cultures reported herein, is the first report for A. palaestinum.
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This study designed to evaluate antioxidant activity, screen the existence of phytogenic chemical compounds and to determine the total flavonoid and phenol contents of the Ephedra alata. to prove its utilization in the Palestinian folk medicine for treatment of cancer. Total flavonoid contents of the plant were determined by using rutin reference standard method and total phenols determined by using Folin Ciocalteu method while antioxidant activity evaluated by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate assay. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of cardiac glycosides, reducing sugars, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and alkaloids. The total phenolic content in the ethanolic extract was 19.175 mg gallic acid while was the highest in the methanolic extract which was 47.62 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder. The total flavonoid content of the plant was 0.519 mg RU/g in the aqueous extract and 5.44 mg RU/g in the ethanolic extract while was the highest in the methanolic extract 54.66 mg RU/g. In the same time the E. alata methanolic extract showed that it has high antioxidant activity and powerful oxygen free radical scavenging abilities as well as the IC50 for the plant was almost equivalent to the Trolox standard antioxidant which justified its uses in the Palestinian traditional medicines and could represented as a good candidate for further biological and chemical analysis, and can be further subjected for isolation of the therapeutically active compounds with anticancer activity and also for further pharmacological evaluations.
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The status of medicinal plants in the high mountains of northern Jordan was evaluated. A total of 227 plant species belonging to 54 genera and 60 families were recorded. The survey is based on field trips conducted in the areas that include Salt, Jarash, Balka, Amman and Irbid governorates. Line transect method was used; collection of plant species was done and voucher specimens were deposited. A map for the target area was provided; the location of the study area grids in relation to their governorate was included.
Natural plants products are one of the famous and commonly utilized remedies used in fighting diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate antioxidant activity of plants commonly used in Palestine (Urtica urens, Rumex cyprius and Borago officinalis). Free radical scavenging activity method was evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazylhydrate. The result show that the overall antioxidant activity of Rumex cyprius was the highest among the plants, followed by Urtica urens, and Borago officinalis; respectively. The (IC50) values of the methanolic extracts were 29.70 +/- 0.60 mu g/ml, 5.07 +/- 0.49 mu g/ml, 39.92 +/- 0.52 mu g/ml for Urtica urens, Rumex cyprius and Borago officinalis respectively. The results of this study revealed that these edible plants have high antioxidant activity and therefore they can provide natural sources of antioxidants and can be useful in preventing various diseases including cancer. These exhibited properties propose that such plants extracts can possibly be used as natural preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries and further characterization of Rumex cyprius constituents is needed.
For decades, organic agriculture developed strategies to produce plant and animal foods with mandatory high standards based on certification at the production and processing levels. This coincided with the growing demand of consumers for accessible, environmentally-friendly, nutritional and safe foods. In this context, although limited and difficult to generalise due to the existence of many conflicting factors, comparative studies have been dedicated to the nutritional content and safety characteristics of organic vs. conventional foods. In this chapter, we review the main characteristics of organic foods in terms of their nutritional, safety and health aspects. The main findings of this review are: (i) a number of organic plant products tend to contain more dry matter, some minerals (Mg) and antioxidants (phenolics/flavonoids, salicylic acid); (ii) organic cow and chicken meats and cow’s milk contain more omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids; (iii) the vast majority (94–100 %) of organic food does not contain any residues of synthetic pesticides; (iv) organic vegetables contain significantly less nitrates; and (vi) organic cereals generally contain less protein but overall comparable mycotoxin levels are the same as conventional ones. Additionally, some health studies have highlighted benefits from organic dairy products for ectopic allergy in young children and some positive health indications in animals. Potential methods to evaluate the authenticity and quality of organic foods are discussed. Overall, it appears that organic agricultural systems, just like pioneers in sustainable agriculture, have already proven to be capable of growing foods with high quality standards, but scientific evidence regarding the effects of organic foods on health is still lacking.
Saponins are a large and structurally diverse class of phytochemicals that consist of a nonpolar steroidal or triterpenoid skeleton that is glycosylated by varying numbers of sugar residues at different positions. Steroidal saponins exhibit a large range of biological activities, including cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, hemolytic, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Saponins possessing a steroidal skeleton are usually divided into two main structural categories, namely, spirostanol and furostanol saponins. However, the open-chain steroidal glycosides represent a further structural class with numerous representatives, some of which possess potent cytotoxic activity. Different patterns of steroid oxygenation and glycosylation in furostanol, spirostanol, and open-chain steroidal saponins generate considerable structural diversity, which may account for their wide range of observed biological activities. The structures and stereochemistry of steroidal saponins are typically elucidated via a combination of multistage mass spectrometry, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and chemical degradation and synthesis.
Nowadays, there has been a universal propensity to application of natural phytochemicals accessible in diverse intrinsic rich sources such as fruits, leaves, branches as well as roots of different plants because of existence of substituents with bioactive potentials, well-being advantages and functional ingredients. The preservative consequence of many herbs and spices are proposing the existence of compositions with varied remedial specifications in their structures. Plants are classified by geographical status and inharmonious territory that created further than several thousands herbages with various advantages. The various superiority of herbaceous infusions, such as antidiabetic, anti-carcinogenic, antimicrobial and antioxidant are appeared in diverse functions. Phenolic as well as secondary metabolite components have been reported as the major components having health superiority, and follow this, superb relationship between those advantages and various measured antioxidant values, such as reducing power, scavenging and inhibition capability of free radicals, and metal gelation activity are observed. Hence, the current review intends to debate the effectual fragments of medicinal plants with vulnerary potentials and explains their mechanism of functions.