Article

Ghosting and destiny: Implicit theories of relationships predict beliefs about ghosting

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  • St. Mary's College of Maryland
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Abstract

Two studies examined how implicit theories of relationships are associated with ghosting (i.e., ending a relationship by cutting off all contact). Previous research on implicit theories of relationships has identified two types of beliefs, destiny and growth, and the present research examines how these implicit theories are associated with ghosting perceptions, intentions, and behaviors. Study 1 was an exploratory study conducted on Mechanical Turk that focused on romantic relationships (N = 554). Study 2 was a confirmatory study conducted on Prolific Academic that aimed to replicate the romantic relationship findings and extended the research to friendships (N = 747). Stronger destiny beliefs, compared to weaker destiny beliefs, were positively associated with feeling more positively toward ghosting, having stronger ghosting intentions, and having previously used ghosting to terminate relationships. Stronger growth beliefs, compared to weaker growth beliefs, showed the opposite pattern with perceptions of acceptability and intentions to use ghosting. Taken together, the present research provides an important first step in understanding how implicit theories relate to relationship termination strategies and, specifically, the process of ghosting.

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... What distinguishes ghosting from other breakup strategies is the lack of an explicit explanation or declaration of dissolution to the breakup recipient. As a result, the ghosted partner is not immediately aware of what has happened and is left to interpret on their own what the absence of communication might mean (Freedman, Powell, Le, & Williams, 2018). While ending a relationship through avoidance may not be novel, building extensive technologically-mediated connections between partners is, meaning that dissolving relationships by severing these networks may be an increasingly typical aspect of modern relationship dissolution (LeFebvre, 2017). ...
... female, 82% over the age of 30, 79% white), and found that approximately 13% of the responders had previously been ghosted by a partner and 11% reported having ghosted a partner themselves (Moore, 2014). More recently, Freedman et al. (2018) found that 25.3% of a sample of 554 participants (49% female, M age = 33.86, SD age = 10.62, ...
... Much of the existing ghosting literature has used qualitative data to provide definitions and preliminary descriptive information of the phenomenon (LeFebvre et al. 2019;Koessler et al., 2019) and only one study has been published that uses a theoretical perspective to explain when ghosting is used to dissolve a romantic relationship (Freedman et al., 2018). Freedman et al. (2018) investigated the association between implicit theories of relationships and ghosting behaviors, intentions, and perceptions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ghosting, or avoiding technologically-mediated contact with a partner instead of providing an explanation for a breakup, has emerged as a relatively new breakup strategy in modern romantic relationships. The current study investigated differences in the process of relationship dissolution and post-breakup outcomes as a function of breakup role (disengager or recipient) and breakup strategy (ghosting or direct conversation) using a cross-validation design. A large sample of participants who recently experienced a breakup was collected and randomly split into two halves. Exploratory analyses were conducted in Sample A and used to inform the construction of specific hypotheses which were pre-registered and tested in Sample B. Analyses indicated relationships that ended through ghosting were shorter and characterized by lower commitment than relationships that ended directly. Recipients experienced greater distress and negative affect than disengagers, and ghosting disengagers reported less distress than direct disengagers. Ghosting breakups were characterized by greater use of avoidance/withdrawal anddistant/mediated communication breakup tactics and lessopen confrontation and positive tone/self-blame breakup tactics. Distinct differences between ghosting and direct strategies suggest developments in technology have influenced traditional processes of relationship dissolution.
... Running head: Ghosting and Orbiting 5 Freedman et al. (2019) investigated the association between ghosting and implicit theories of relationships. The authors observed that individuals with stronger destiny beliefs about romantic relationships (e.g., believing in soul mates) were more likely to perceive ghosting as an acceptable practice to end both short-and long-term relationships, compared with individuals with weaker destiny beliefs. ...
... On the other hand, experiencing ostracism can take the form of ghosting and orbiting. In both cases, individuals are ignored by their former partners, who avoid any attempt of communication (Freedman et al., 2019;LeFebvre, 2017). Indeed, Freedman et al. (2019) proposed valuable parallelism between ghosting and ostracism. ...
... In both cases, individuals are ignored by their former partners, who avoid any attempt of communication (Freedman et al., 2019;LeFebvre, 2017). Indeed, Freedman et al. (2019) proposed valuable parallelism between ghosting and ostracism. The authors argued that the two phenomena share similar characteristics (e.g., the behavior of ignoring someone) and have similar consequences (e.g., negative emotionality and threatens to fundamental psychological needs), claiming further research on this topic. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ghosting is the practice of ending a relationship without explaining to the partner and avoiding any communication attempts. Orbiting is identical to ghosting, but the disengager still visibly follows the former partner on social media. Despite the increasing attention that ghosting and orbiting have gained in the popular press, they remain largely unexplored phenomena in scientific inquiry. In this work, we explored the psychological and behavioral reactions to ghosting and orbiting from the victim's perspective, comparing them to the experience of being rejected through direct communication. Participants were randomly assigned to recall one of three conditions (ghosting, orbiting, and rejection), and the reports of 208 young adults were analyzed through qualitative thematic content analysis. The results described different stages of reactions that follow event detection and that are respectively characterized by 1) surprise and confusion, 2) anger, sadness, and guilt, 3) attempts of relational repair, 4) acceptance. The specificities of being a victim of ghosting and orbiting are presented, comparing them with social rejection. The results are discussed in the light of the existing literature on social exclusion, suggesting that ghosting and orbiting can be considered forms of ostracism. Connections between the proposed stage model and traditional relationship dissolution theories are highlighted, and relevant implications for future research and interventions are presented.
... Ghosting occurs through one technological means or many by, for example, not responding to phone calls or text messages, no longer following partners or blocking partners on social network platforms. Ghosting differs from other relationship dissolution strategies insofar as it takes place without the ghosted mate immediately knowing what has happened, who is left to manage and understand what the partner's lack of communication means [8] and is unable to close the relationship [9]. Ghosting prevalence has been examined mostly in US adults. ...
... Ghosting prevalence has been examined mostly in US adults. Prevalence rates range between 13% and 23% for those adults who have been ghosted by a romantic partner [8,10]. In Spain, 19.3% have reported having suffered ghosting at least once in the past year [11]. ...
... Other studies have investigated which factors are associated with ghosting. The relation of ghosting with implicit theories was analyzed by Freedman et al. [8], who found that the participants reported a more frequent acceptability of ghosting, more ghosting intentions, and ghosting being used more in the past. These authors also reported firmer destiny beliefs (i.e., steady and invariable relationships). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aimed to examine differences in three psychological constructs (satisfaction with life, loneliness, and helplessness) among adults experiencing ghosting and breadcrumbing. A sample of 626 adults (303 males and 323 females), aged from 18 to 40 years, completed an online survey asking to indicate whether someone they considered a dating partner had ghosted or breadcrumbed them in the last year and to complete three different scales regarding satisfaction with life, loneliness, and helplessness. The results showed than those participants who had indicated experiencing breadcrumbing or the combined forms (both breadcrumbing and ghosting) reported less satisfaction with life, and more helplessness and self-perceived loneliness. The results from the regression models showed that suffering breadcrumbing would significantly increase the likelihood of experiencing less satisfaction with life, and of having more feelings of loneliness and helplessness. However, no significant relation was found between ghosting and any of the examined psychological correlates.
... Ghosting is often perceived as an unacceptable relationship termination strategy, but a large proportion of individuals have experienced ghosting in a romantic context (Freedman et al., 2019;Koessler et al., 2019b;LeFebvre et al., 2019;Timmermans et al., 2020). Yet less is known about individual differences in ghosting experiences. ...
... Attachment orientation is an important individual difference associated with romantic relationship quality (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007;Simpson, 1990) and reactions to relationship dissolution (Halpern-Meekin et al., 2012;Madey & Jilek, 2012) but has yet to be explored in the context of ghosting. Another individual difference associated with ghosting is implicit theories of relationships (i.e., destiny and growth beliefs; Freedman et al., 2019). The present studies attempt to extend our understanding of individual differences in ghosting by examining attachment, and replicate prior results linking implicit theories of relationships and ghosting experiences. ...
... There are multiple strategies couples can take to dissolve their relationships (Baxter, 1982;Collins & Gillath, 2012;Sprecher et al., 2010). Ghosting is a relationship dissolution strategy that is a modern-day manifestation of avoidance/withdrawal. Ghosting has been defined as unilaterally dissolving a relationship by cutting off communication (Freedman et al., 2019;Koessler et al., 2019b;LeFebvre, 2017). Although avoidance/ withdrawal has been recognized as a dissolution strategy for some time (Baxter, 1982), ghosting often occurs via the ceasing of technology-mediated communication (e.g., not texting, unfriending, blocking on social media; LeFebvre, 2017). ...
Article
Ghosting is a dissolution strategy where the initiator ends all communication with the other person, ignoring attempts to reestablish the interaction. We examined the associations between attachment (i.e., anxiety/avoidance) and ghosting, and replicated previous work on implicit theories of relationships (i.e., growth/destiny) and ghosting. Study 1 ( N = 165) was an exploratory analysis of attachment and ghosting experiences, with those previously ghosted by a romantic partner reporting higher anxiety than those not previously ghosted by a romantic partner. Those who had ghosted a partner reported more avoidance than those who had not previously ghosted a partner. Study 2 ( N = 247) was a pre-registered replication of Study 1 and replication of ghosting and implicit theories. Study 3 was pre-registered and replicated the findings from Studies 1 and 2 with a substantially larger sample ( N = 863). Specifically, individuals who had been ghosted or had both ghosted and been ghosted reported significantly higher anxiety than those who had ghosted or had no prior ghosting experience. Individuals who had ghosted or had both ghosted and been ghosted reported significantly higher avoidance than those with no prior ghosting experience. Similarly, individuals who had ghosted or had both ghosted and been ghosted reported significantly higher destiny beliefs than those who had been ghosted or had no prior experience with ghosting. Finally, a meta-analysis across the three studies examined the strength of the associations between ghosting experiences and attachment. Taken together, these studies consistently demonstrate an association between attachment anxiety and being ghosted, as well as destiny beliefs and ghosting a romantic partner.
... Bevan, Pfyl, & Barclay, 2012;Weisskirch & Delevi, 2012), one dissolution strategy that is still open for exploration is ghosting. Ghosting involves withdrawing access to a partner temporarily or permanently by cutting off mobile phone communication, SNS interactions, and/or other modes of communication without preamble, which eventually results in the termination of a relationship (LeFebvre, 2017;Freedman, Powell, Le, & Williams, 2018). Popular media outlets (e.g. ...
... But despite its popularity, only a few scholars have studied it. Freedman et al. (2018) identified the conditions by which ghosting is considered an acceptable form of ending a relationship (i.e. ending short-term relationships, long-term ones), and establishing associations between personal belief orientations and the acceptability of ghosting. ...
... While previous studies (i.e. Freedman et al., 2018;Koessler, 2018;LeFebvre et al., 2019) showed that ghosting was more likely to occur when less time and effort were invested into a relationship, the current findings indicate otherwise. Ghosting was observed in both short-term dating relationships and long-term romantic relationships of participants. ...
Thesis
Despite its popularity among the youth as a romantic relationship dissolution strategy, ghosting is ripe for further discussion. Scholarly investigations on ghosting remain scarce, and existing ones tend to view it from a Western lens. This qualitative study offers a new perspective by exploring how ghosting is understood and experienced by Filipinos whose social behaviors are rooted in an interdependent self-construal, cultural values such as hiya and pakikiramdam, and a preference for indirect communication. Ten emerging adult participants were interviewed on their experiences of ghosting. Thematic analysis was used to describe the cognitive, affective, and behavioral aspects of their experiences, and the resulting themes were organized to mirror the phases of their ghosting experiences and relationships. Results show that pre-ghosting, mid-ghosting, and post-ghosting experiences are tied to different psychological mechanisms and Filipino values which are connected to an interdependent person's desire for intrapersonal and relational harmony. Implications for theory and practice as well as directions for future research are offered.
... Previous research indicates that mediated breakups (e.g., breaking up over text messaging; changing the Facebook relationship status) are often viewed as inappropriate (Gershon, 2010;Starks, 2007). Yet, a more recent study on ghosting showed that it might depend on the level of contact and kind of relationship with the ghoster, with ghosting being perceived as more acceptable when no physical contact or intimacy has taken place and the (dating) relationship lasted only 2 days or less (Freedman et al., 2019). Still, while ghosting might be considered an appropriate relationship dissolution strategy in some situations, it is important to note that relationship dissolution often induces strong emotional (e.g., anger, sadness, anxiety) and physical (e.g., loss of appetite and trouble sleeping) reactions (Morris & Reiber, 2011). ...
... With regard to experiencing ghosting as painful, some scholars argue that ghosting in an online-only context might be less painful, as these relationships have not required considerable investments from those involved, there has been no physical contact, and opportunities to find other potential partners are still prominent (Freedman et al., 2019;Merkle & Richardson, 2000). MDAs provide a unique context to study ghosting behavior, as it allows for studying ghosting behavior within different stages of relationship formation, ranging from those who are merely in the initiation phase and have been restricted to online conversations only, to those who managed to have actual committed relationships that also took place in face-to-face contexts. ...
... MDAs provide a unique context to study ghosting behavior, as it allows for studying ghosting behavior within different stages of relationship formation, ranging from those who are merely in the initiation phase and have been restricted to online conversations only, to those who managed to have actual committed relationships that also took place in face-to-face contexts. Although it is often presumed that online-only contexts are less painful (e.g., Freedman et al., 2019), it has not been studies which aspects of the relationship or relationship stage can contribute to hurtful ghosting experiences. Aside from the nature of the contact (faceto-face versus online only, short versus long) and the degree of physical intimacy as proposed by Freedman et al. (2019), predictions of Expectancy Violations Theory (i.e., the intensity of the contact and unexpectedness of the ghosting; Burgoon, 1993) may also contribute to experiencing ghosting as painful. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores 328 mobile daters’ (63% females; 86% heterosexuals) experiences with ghosting, using both open- and close-ended questions. First, we used thematic analysis to explore mobile dating app users’ motivations to ghost, the reported consequences of experiencing ghosting and reported strategies to cope with having been ghosted. Next, quantitative analyses were carried out to predict the likelihood of ghosting other users and which factors contribute to experiencing ghosting as more painful. As both our qualitative and quantitative analyses suggest, experiencing ghosting on a dating app can be quite painful and has an impact on users’ self-esteem and mental well-being. However, our findings on ghosters’ motives also stress a nuanced perspective on ghosting behavior, given that it is not necessarily done with harmful or conscious intent. As such, our findings also hold practical implications given that insights into mechanisms to cope with ghosting can help dating app users to rationalize their ghosting experience and thus limit its impact.
... Ghosting differs from others relationship dissolution strategies in that there is a lack of an explicit explanation or announcement of termination to the ghosted partner (Koessler, Kohut & Campbell, 2019). The ghosted partner is left to manage and understand what his/her partner's lack of communication means (Freedman, Powell, Le & Williams, 2019). Additionally, ghosting may generate insecurity in ghosted partners wherein they are unable to obtain closure (LeFebvre et al., 2019). ...
... Ghosting prevalence has been examined mostly among US adults. Prevalence rates range between 11% and 29% for those adults who have ghosted a romantic partner (Freedman et al., 2019;LeFebvre et al., 2019;Moore, 2014). ...
... Additionally, previous research has also found that cutting off contact was considered one of the least desirables ways to end a relationship (Collins & Gillath, 2012;Freedman et al., 2019) and ghosting may have a negative impact on not only those who have experienced it, but also on those who have initiated it, such as breakup distress (Koessler et al., 2019). Romantic relationships contribute to the sense of emotional and social attachment and are important to develop a positive self-concept (Bylsma, Cozzarelli, & Sumer, 1997). ...
Article
Ghosting is a relationship dissolution strategy in which the ghoster elects to cease all forms of communication with their partner without explanation. The partner tends to be unaware that they are being ghosted. As a result, the ghosted partner is left to manage and understand what lack of his/her partner’s communication means. The present study was designed to explore if people who are ghosted are more likely to ghost others by analyzing to what extent ghosting initiation is correlated with ghosting victimization, and by also examining to what extent intentions to ghost are related to ghosting behaviors (both being ghosted and being a ghoster). It also examined the relations between ghosting initiation behavior and intention and individual, interpersonal and relationship factors, such as self-esteem, sense of power, moral disengagement, assertiveness, empathy concern and conflict resolution styles. Data were collected from 626 adults (mean age = 29.64 years; SD = 8.84) using online surveys. This study confirmed a close connection between ghosting initiation and ghosting victimization, and a moderate one between ghosting initiation and intentions to ghost. However, the majority of the examined factors did not correlate with ghosting behavior and intention, or displayed weak relations. The present findings suggest that ghosting is an emerging phenomenon in modern communication that warrants further investigation.
... The first of which has to do with implicit theories of relationships. Freedman, et al. (2019) used the dichotomy between fixed mindsets (the relationship will either work or not) and growth mindsets (relationships grow with time and effort) to explain the phenomenon. They found that participants with a fixed mindset, or stronger beliefs in destiny, were 63.4% more likely to think that ghosting is an acceptable way to end a long-term relationship, whereas participants with growth mindsets, or stronger beliefs in growth, were 38.4% less likely to think that ghosting is an acceptable way to end a long-term relationship (Freedman, et al., 2019). ...
... Freedman, et al. (2019) used the dichotomy between fixed mindsets (the relationship will either work or not) and growth mindsets (relationships grow with time and effort) to explain the phenomenon. They found that participants with a fixed mindset, or stronger beliefs in destiny, were 63.4% more likely to think that ghosting is an acceptable way to end a long-term relationship, whereas participants with growth mindsets, or stronger beliefs in growth, were 38.4% less likely to think that ghosting is an acceptable way to end a long-term relationship (Freedman, et al., 2019). ...
... Many ghostees in the present study used some explanation (i.e., not having enough in common, political difference, etc.) to indicate that their relationship was destined for failure. This is in alignment with the findings of Freedman, et al. (2019) that stronger destiny beliefs are associated with greater likelihood of thinking ghosting is an acceptable relationship termination strategy. It could be that developing destiny beliefs makes being ghosted easier to accept, but the direction of the relationship is unclear at this time. ...
Article
Utilizing the Narrative Paradigm (Fisher, 1984) and thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006), the present study seeks to explore and analyze stories of being ghosted from the perspective of young adults and to identify the themes that may animate these experiences. Recorded qualitative interviews with 21 young adults who had previously been ghosted resulted in 4 emergent themes: a) justifications b) confusion over responsibility c) avoiding future vulnerability and d) contribution of technology. Findings are consistent with previous research concerning ghosting and attachment theory, destiny beliefs, implicit theories of relationships, the role of technology, and more. Directions for future research and limitations of the present study are discussed.
... Therefore, based on the theoretical models of rejection and ostracism (Smart Richman & Leary, 2009;Williams, 2009), the present study investigated the psychological consequences of ghosting and orbiting, two increasingly frequent relationship dissolution strategies (Freedman et al., 2019) typically enacted through SNSs. Specifically, we compared ghosting, orbiting, and rejection victims on the typical reactions to social exclusion, namely the threat of basic psychological needs, rejection-related emotions, construals, and aggressive inclination. ...
... Literature about cognitive reappraisal showed that reframing the event helps individuals reinterpret their emotional reactions, reducing the distress (Gross, 1998;Troy et al., 2010), even in the relationship dissolution context . The lack of information and the uncertainty in which ghostees are in pushes them to look for possible reasons underlying the ghosters' decision to break up (Freedman et al., 2019;LeFebvre, 2017;. ...
... Specifically, the breakup was perceived as less fair when the disengager was a friend rather than a romantic partner. This result contrasts with (Freedman et al., 2019), who found that ghosting in friendship was perceived as more acceptable than in romantic relationships. However, differently from Freedman and colleagues, we asked participants to think deeply about a specific breakup that occurred to them. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ghosting and orbiting occur when a relationship is ended unilaterally by suddenly withdrawing from all communication and without explanation. However, in orbiting, the disengager still follows the victims on social networking sites after the breakup. With the advent of the digital era, these practices have become increasingly common, gaining attention from psychology research. Within the theoretical framework of social exclusion, the present study (N = 176) investigated victims’ consequences of ghosting and orbiting, considering the two breakup strategies as instances of ostracism. Participants were invited to fill an online survey and randomly assigned to recall an episode of ghosting, orbiting, or rejection. Following the recall task, participants completed a series of questionnaires to measure the typical outcomes threatened by ostracism (i.e., emotions, basic psychological needs, breakup’s cognitive evaluation, and aggressive inclinations). The results showed a consistent pattern across most of the constructs measured. Specifically, ghosting led to worse outcomes than rejection, whereas the disengagers’ ambiguous signals characterizing orbiting seemed to buffer the victims partially from the consequences of relationship dissolution. Results are discussed in the light of social exclusion literature, adding to the growing research on ghosting.
... What distinguishes ghosting from other breakup strategies is the lack of an explicit explanation or declaration of dissolution to the breakup recipient. As a result, the ghosted partner is not immediately aware of what has happened and is left to interpret on their own what the absence of communication might mean (Freedman, Powell, Le, & Williams, 2018). While ending a relationship through avoidance may not be novel, building extensive technologically-mediated connections between partners is, meaning that dissolving relationships by severing these networks may be an increasingly typical aspect of modern relationship dissolution (LeFebvre, 2017). ...
... female, 82% over the age of 30, 79% white), and found that approximately 13% of the responders had previously been ghosted by a partner and 11% reported having ghosted a partner themselves (Moore, 2014). More recently, Freedman et al. (2018) found that 25.3% of a sample of 554 participants (49% female, M age = 33.86, SD age = 10.62, ...
... Much of the existing ghosting literature has used qualitative data to provide definitions and preliminary descriptive information of the phenomenon (LeFebvre et al. 2019;Koessler et al., 2019) and only one study has been published that uses a theoretical perspective to explain when ghosting is used to dissolve a romantic relationship (Freedman et al., 2018). Freedman et al. (2018) investigated the association between implicit theories of relationships and ghosting behaviors, intentions, and perceptions. ...
Preprint
Ghosting, or avoiding technologically-mediated contact with a partner instead of providing an explanation for a breakup, has emerged as a relatively new breakup strategy in modern romantic relationships. The current study investigated differences in the process of relationship dissolution and post-breakup outcomes as a function of breakup role (disengager or recipient) and breakup strategy (ghosting or direct conversation) using a cross-validation design. A large sample of participants who recently experienced a breakup was collected and randomly split into two halves. Exploratory analyses were conducted in Sample A and used to inform the construction of specific hypotheses which were pre-registered and tested in Sample B. Analyses indicated recipients experienced greater distress and negative affect than disengagers, and ghosting disengagers reported less distress than direct disengagers. Ghosting breakups were characterized by greater use of avoidance/withdrawal and distant/mediated communication breakup tactics and less open confrontation and positive tone/self-blame breakup tactics. Distinct differences between ghosting and direct strategies suggest developments in technology have influenced traditional processes of relationship dissolution. Preprint here: https://psyarxiv.com/nt5r4/
... -Participant describing engaging in ghosting Nearly everyone experiences relationship dissolution (Eastwick et al., 2008), often causing distress for both recipients and initiators (Eastwick et al., 2008;Sprecher, 1994;Sprecher et al., 1998). Although there are multiple methods for dissolving relationships (Baxter, 1982;Collins & Gillath, 2012), one relatively prominent method of relationship termination is "ghosting," or ending a romantic relationship by unilaterally severing all contact (Freedman et al., 2019;Koessler et al., 2019b;LeFebvre, 2017;LeFebvre et al., 2019). Past research has focused mostly on characteristics of ghosters (Freedman et al., 2019;Powell et al., 2021), motivations behind ghosting (Koessler et al., 2019b;LeFebvre et al., 2019Manning et al., 2019), and consequences of being ghosted (Koessler et al., 2019a;LeFebvre & Fan, 2020;Navarro et al., 2020). ...
... Although there are multiple methods for dissolving relationships (Baxter, 1982;Collins & Gillath, 2012), one relatively prominent method of relationship termination is "ghosting," or ending a romantic relationship by unilaterally severing all contact (Freedman et al., 2019;Koessler et al., 2019b;LeFebvre, 2017;LeFebvre et al., 2019). Past research has focused mostly on characteristics of ghosters (Freedman et al., 2019;Powell et al., 2021), motivations behind ghosting (Koessler et al., 2019b;LeFebvre et al., 2019Manning et al., 2019), and consequences of being ghosted (Koessler et al., 2019a;LeFebvre & Fan, 2020;Navarro et al., 2020). However, beyond documenting the uncertainty and distress experienced by those who have been ghosted (Koessler et al., 2019a;LeFebvre & Fan, 2020), less attention has been paid to the specific emotional experiences resulting from ghosting. ...
... Ghosting has been the topic of an abundance of media attention (Borgueta, 2016;Roth, 2018;Safronova, 2015;Steinmetz, 2016;Tannen, 2017) and the focus of a growing number of studies (e.g., Freedman et al., 2019;Koessler et al., 2019bKoessler et al., , 2019aLeFebvre, 2017;LeFebvre et al., 2019;Manning et al., 2019;Navarro et al., 2020;Pancani et al., 2021;Powell et al., 2021;Timmermans et al., 2020). Previous research indicates that 20-25% of adults surveyed have engaged in ghosting or were themselves ghosted (Freedman et al., 2019) and is the method of rejection more than one-third of the time on dating apps (Halversen et al., 2021;De Wiele & Campbell, 2019). ...
Article
Although ghosting (i.e., unilaterally ending a relationship by ceasing communication) has only recently entered the lexicon, it is a regularly used form of relationship dissolution. However, little research has examined the emotional experiences of ghosting, particularly the experiences of those on both sides of the ghosting process. In a multi-method study, participants who had both ghosted and been ghosted in previous romantic relationships (N = 80) provided narratives of their experiences and completed questionnaires. The narrative responses were analyzed by coders and by using LIWC. Ghosters and ghostees used similar overall levels of positively and negatively valenced words to describe their experiences, but ghosters were more likely to express guilt and relief, whereas ghostees were more likely to express sadness and hurt feelings. Ghostees also experienced more of a threat to their fundamental needs - control, self-esteem, belongingness, meaningful existence - than ghosters.
... Although romantic relationship rejectors use both direct and indirect strategies, indirect strategies are often viewed as the less acceptable (Freedman et al., 2019), less compassionate choice, and lead to increased negative emotions for the rejection target (Baxter, 1982;Collins & Gillath, 2012;Sprecher et al., 2010; however, see Koessler et al., 2019a for evidence that distress does not differ based on breakup strategy). As such, in this project we chose to compare explicit rejection to ghosting. ...
... Ghosting, as an indirect rejection strategy, has gained a great deal of attention recently (Freedman et al., 2019;Koessler, Kohut, & Campbell, 2019b, 2019aLeFebvre, 2017;LeFebvre et al., 2019;LeFebvre, Rasner, & Allen, 2020;LeFebvre & Fan, 2020;Manning, Denker, & Johnson, 2019;Navarro, Larrañaga, Yubero, & Víllora, 2020a, 2020bPancani et al., 2021;Powell, Freedman, Williams, Le, & Green, 2021;Thomas & Dubar, 2021;Timmermans, Hermans, & Opree, 2020). Ghosting can occur at any point in a romantic interaction (e.g., upon connecting on a dating app, after years of committed dating; Koessler et al., 2019a) but is a particularly common rejection strategy among individuals on dating apps (De Wiele & Campbell, 2019;Timmermans et al., 2020). ...
... Ghosting can occur at any point in a romantic interaction (e.g., upon connecting on a dating app, after years of committed dating; Koessler et al., 2019a) but is a particularly common rejection strategy among individuals on dating apps (De Wiele & Campbell, 2019;Timmermans et al., 2020). Studies vary in the reported rates of individuals who have experienced ghosting, as either the initiator or the recipient (Freedman et al., 2019;Koessler et al., 2019b). But all reports may be underestimations of the actual rates due to negative attitudes toward the use of ghosting (Freedman et al., 2019;LeFebvre, 2017). ...
Article
Considerable research has examined how people feel when interpersonally rejected. Less attention has been paid to the rejectors, especially on how they reject. Rejection methods can range from direct (i.e., informing the target) to indirect (i.e., ghosting), and the method and motives regarding rejection strategies are important because rejected targets often react negatively to rejection, sometimes even violently. It is imperative, therefore, to understand why people reject the way they do, especially when their rejections may yield unexpected negative consequences. A key factor that may influence rejection method decisions, particularly in the context of romantic rejections, is the gender of the target. Drawing on prior research indicating that men are perceived as more dangerous, in this registered report we hypothesized that bisexual individuals may be more likely to endorse ghosting if the target is a man, especially when safety concerns are made salient. A pilot study supported this hypothesis in a sample of mostly heterosexual individuals. The main study tested this hypothesis in a sample of bisexual individuals in order to manipulate target gender as a within-subjects variable and to better understand romantic rejection processes in an understudied sample. Overall, we found that safety concerns may make individuals more likely to engage in ghosting, but how that decision interacts with target gender was less clear.
... Ghosting, the act of cutting off all communication with a partner without informing them of your intention to do so and ignoring their attempts to reconnect (Freedman et al., 2019;Koessler et al., 2019b, LeFebvre, 2017, has received a great deal of attention in the popular press. Several press articles have discussed how common the phenomenon is among unmarried individuals (Borgueta, 2016;Engle, 2019). ...
... Several press articles have discussed how common the phenomenon is among unmarried individuals (Borgueta, 2016;Engle, 2019). However, research on the topic has reported wide ranges for the frequency of ghosting (Freedman et al., 2019;Koessler et al., 2019b;LeFebvre et al., 2019;Timmermans et al., 2020), especially in romantic relationships. For example, in a sample of emerging adults aware of the term of ghosting, only 4% of the sample had no prior experiences with ghosting (LeFebvre et al., 2019). ...
... However, like other avoidance and withdrawal tactics (T. J. Collins & Gillath, 2012), it is generally perceived to be less acceptable than other methods of ending a relationship (Freedman et al., 2019). Moreover, recipients of ghosting experience more distress, uncertainty, and other negative emotions than when the relationship is ended more directly (Koessler et al., 2019a;LeFebvre & Fan, 2020;Pancani et al., 2021). ...
Article
In this project, we explored descriptive and injunctive norms of ghosting and whether norms differed based on prior experiences with ghosting in romantic relationships. Ghosting is the act of unilaterally ceasing communication with a partner to dissolve a relationship. Perceived norms contribute to intentions and behaviors, but scholars have not previously investigated individuals’ perceived norms of ghosting (i.e., how common they think it is, how they think others react to ghosting). Adults (N = 863) on Prolific, residing in the United States, completed an online survey assessing their knowledge of, experience with, and perceived norms about ghosting in romantic relationships. A portion of these analyses were pre-registered on Open Science Framework. Descriptive norms regarding adults in general (i.e., societal-level) and their friends (i.e., personal-level) differed based on participants’ prior experience with ghosting in romantic relationships. Some injunctive norms at both the societal- and personal-levels also differed based on prior experience with ghosting in romantic relationships. Participants with prior ghosting experience thought ghosting of romantic partners was more common than those with no prior experience. Regardless of prior ghosting experience, participants tended to believe that individuals felt embarrassed/inadequate after being ghosted by a romantic partner. These analyses provide understanding about descriptive and injunctive norms regarding ghosting in romantic relationships and may be helpful to dating app developers in how they frame messaging about ghosting.
... In many cases it is associated with self-confidence, frustration, social irritability, emotional stability and, at the same time, it has the potential to penetrate into cognitive deformations in both the personal and working life of an individual (Frankovský, Birknerová, Zbihlejová, 2015, Birknerová andBaranová, 2011). Ghosting can be considered ending any communication with someone you often met, spoke, wrote messages, or sent e-mail, on the ground that a person who lost interest in a contact (ghoster) left the victim of ghosting in a silent struggle with his/her own thoughts and without explanation (Koessler, 2018, Freedman, et al., 2018, UrbanDictionary, 2013, Vagaš, Škerháková, 2018. Simply said, ghosting is when someone who was in (regular) contact with you (like friend or colleague) suddenly unexpectedly interrupts contact with you without any explanation. ...
... Theoretical backgrounds and practical researches in the field of ghosting have found their representation in social relationships between men and women, while they have anchored and neglected working relationships in organizations (Esmen, 2018, Pilita, 2018, Freedman et al., 2018. Thus, the ghosting can be considered a social trend that is familiar to everyone, and is associated with people-to-people communication (Hill, 2018). ...
... On a sample of 332 respondents, it was found that 60% of respondents were direct participants of ghosting and up to 70% of respondents had experience with ghosting in past relationships. Koessler (2018) and Freedman et al. (2018) concluded that the length of the relationship between people affects the level of ghosting among concerned persons. The essence of ghosting explicitly imparts a certain sense of insecurity and ignorance among people, and therefore the ability to build good relationships between employees at the workplace can be distorted as well as social relationships between people. ...
Article
Full-text available
In Slovakia, there has been very little attention and research devoted to the issue of ghosting. The aim of the article is to enrich the relatively unknown ghosting issue and to propose a methodology for its assessment and prediction. The GIG methodology consists of 12 items that create a Global Indicator of Ghosting. The paper presents a verification of the methodology applied to identify gender differences. Attention is given to the inclusion of ghosting in the process of human resources re-education.
... These include the ease and frequency with which users can delete dating apps (Fitzpatrick & Birnholtz, 2018), the incentive to treat potential partners as commodities on these apps (Banks et al., 2017), and user perceptions of dating apps as a source of entertainment. Further, previous research has shown that ghosting is most negatively perceived when it is employed in serious, long-term relationships as opposed to short-term ones (Freedman et al., 2019;Manning et al., 2019). As such, ghosting strategies may be commonly used to reject potential partners on Bumble, where relationships typically exist in an early stage. ...
... People with a growth mindset, as opposed to those with a fixed mindset, are more likely to use social media for social interaction and identity expression (Song et al., 2019). Research has also found strong growth beliefs to be negatively associated with ghosting intentions and behaviors (Freedman et al., 2019). Taking these findings together, it is possible that users who socialize and self-disclose at high rates on dating apps are less likely to ghost a dating app match. ...
... It is also possible that frequent app users are less likely to self-disclose to a partner they ultimately reject due to stronger destiny beliefs. Individuals with stronger destiny beliefs (e.g., belief in soulmates) have reported higher ghosting behaviors and intentions than others (Freedman et al., 2019), and it is possible that these individuals use Bumble more often and quickly ghost partners that do not immediately spark a connection. ...
Article
Dating apps are an increasingly common element of modern dating, yet little research describes users’ experiences rejecting potential partners through these apps. This study examines how female Bumble users reject potential partners online in relation to self-disclosure, perceived partner disclosure, pre-rejection stress, and app usage. To investigate these issues, we conducted an online survey of 419 female Bumble users who had recently rejected someone through the app. Results revealed that women on Bumble employ ghosting strategies far more often than confrontational rejection and suggest that the degree to which women self-disclose, perceive a partner’s self-disclosure, and experience pre-rejection stress may impact their rejection strategies. This study informs the hyperpersonal model by demonstrating that reciprocal disclosure may characterize online dating interactions—even in relationships that fail to reach the face-to-face stage. However, results also broach the possibility of communication burnout in online dating, in which some users may lessen self-disclosure after extensive app usage.
... Breakups where initiators use indirect strategies are perceived as self-oriented and non-compassionate by non-initiators (Sprecher, Zimmerman, & Abraham, 2010). A contemporary breakup strategy, ghosting, uses undesirable forms of social rejection and ostracism to create physical and psychological distance (see Buriss, 2019;Freedman, Powell, Le, & Williams, 2018;Mehta, 2019). Ghosting ceases communication in an effort to withdraw access through media prompting a relationship breakup (LeFebvre, 2017). ...
... Conversely, ghosting has nuances inferring new conceptualizations and distinctions. Minimal scholarship (see Freedman et al., 2018;LeFebvre, Allen, et al., 2019;LeFebvre, Ramirez, et al., 2019) explored the concept and behavior surrounding ghosting. We highlight four nuances that draw similarities and differences from prior dissolution scholarship. ...
Article
Ghosting is the unilateral dissolution process of ceasing communication through media. When ghosted, non‐initiators are often left without the ability to navigate the resulting uncertainty or impending dissolution processes. Utilizing uncertainty reduction theory and ambiguous loss, this investigation explores effective and ineffective strategies used to find answers, reduce uncertainty, and navigate post‐dissolution consequences. Employing two studies from Amazon's Mechanical Turk, a thematic analysis to delineate and affirm categories—7 effective and ineffective strategies and 11 categories of personal and relational implications after being ghosted—was used. These studies provide insight about non‐initiators process to resolve their uncertainty and highlight ramifications from ambiguity that non‐initiators experience after being ghosted. These findings discuss connections to knowledge acquisition, closure processing, and consequences of ghosting.
... Ghosting is a relatively common and an indirect form of relationship termination (Banks et al., 1987;Baxter, 1984;Hill et al., 1976) where one person simply stops communicating with the other and often "unfriends" and "unmatches" them on social media (De Wiele and Campbell, 2019;LeFebvre, 2017;LeFebvre et al., 2019;Manning et al., 2019). Prior research has often been qualitative in nature, relying on small samples, and, when quantitative, it focused on outcomes like psychological health and predictors like relationship-destiny beliefs (Freedman et al., 2019;Koessler et al., 2019aKoessler et al., , 2019bNavarro et al., 2020;Tong and Walther, 2010). ...
... Long-term relationships are characterized by a degree of embeddedness and emotional connection (e.g., living together, family connections, children, shared finances) that may make ghosting exceedingly complicated. In contrast, short-term relationships lack substantial embeddedness and emotional connection making it easier and, thus more acceptable, to extract oneself via ghosting (Freedman et al., 2019;Koessler et al., 2019a;Manning et al., 2019). Therefore, we expect (1) ghosting will be more acceptable in the short-term than the long-term context (2) especially for those who have ghosted people in the past who themselves more likely to be higher on the Dark Triad traits and that (3) ghosting will be seen as more acceptable for those high in the Dark Triad traits in the short-term but not the long-term context. ...
Article
Researchers have extensively explored the early and middle stages of romantic and sexual relationships for those high on the Dark Triad traits (i.e., psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism) but they have generally missed the termination stage of relationships. In this study we examined (N = 341) the role these traits play in one termination strategy, ghosting. Ghosting is when a person discontinues a relationship through silence; it is considered an indirect form of relationship termination. We found that (1) those who reported ghosting someone in the past (vs. those who did not) found ghosting to be acceptable and were more Machiavellian and psychopathic, (2) ghosting was most acceptable in the short-term (vs. long-term) context especially for those who had previously ghosted someone, and (3) those high in the Dark Triad traits rated ghosting more acceptable to terminate short-term relationships, but not long-term ones. We also found that the correlations between acceptability and ghosting short-term partners and the Dark Triad traits was localized to narcissistic men with a similar-yet-weak effect for psychopathy. Results are discussed in relation to how ghosting may be primarily committed by people who are interested in casual sex where investment is low and may be part of the fast life history strategies linked to the Dark Triad traits.
... As for the prevalence of ghosting, the survey conducted with US adults by YouGov and the Huffington Post found that around 13% of the 1000 participants were ghosted by a partner and 11% informed ghosting a partner (Moore, 2014). In a series of studies, Freedman et al. (2019) found in a first sample of 554 US adults that 25.3% reported they had been ghosted and 21.3% had ghosted a dating partner. In a second sample of 747 participants, 23% informed that they had been ghosted and 18.9% reported having ghosted a dating partner. ...
... Of the 626 participants, 398 (63.6%) stated that they were unfamiliar with the term ghosting, and 539 (86.1%) were unfamiliar with the term breadcrumbing. Nonetheless after reading the definition of both these terms, 19.3% (121) stated having suffered ghosting and 23.2% (145) indicated they had initiated ghosting at least once in the last year. Of these participants, 2.9% (18) acknowledged that they had suffered ghosting more than 5 times in the past year and 2.9% (18) had initiated it more than 5 times in the last 12 months. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study is part of a large study analyzing the prevalence of ghosting and breadcrumbing in sample of Spanish adults aged between 18 and 40 years. The study was split into different papers to better organize and understand the data obtained. The present paper investigated the prevalence of ghosting and breadcrumbing and associations between ghosting and breadcrumbing behavior and online dating practices. The results showed that half the participants were unfamiliar with the terms ghosting and breadcrumbing. However, approximately two in every 10 participants reported having experienced and initiated ghosting, and slightly more than three in every 10 participants had experienced or initiated breadcrumbing in the last 12 months. Regression analyses showed that the use of online dating sites/apps, more short-term relationships, and practicing online surveillance increase the likelihood of experiencing, as well as initiating, ghosting and breadcrumbing.
... Ghosting: This describes the sudden disappearance of a person and the end of a relationship by cutting all contact (Freedman, Powell, Le, & Williams, 2018), whereby the ghosted person wonders what might have gone wrong. Collins and Gillath (2012) ascertained that avoidance/withdrawing from contact is the least appropriate method to end a relationship and it is related to attachment avoidance. ...
Chapter
The evolution of digital media over the last 20 years has led to changes in many areas of daily life. This also includes couple relationships, since a large proportion of romantic relationships are initiated via the internet or smartphone apps nowadays: in 2017, 30% of users in the USA (age 18–29) used online dating websites or apps (Statista, https://www.statista.com/statistics/706499/us-adults-online-dating-site-app-by-age/, 2018).
... There are other, more subtle and indirect ways of making someone feel excluded -ways that involve ignoring someone. These range from completely ignoring someone by refusing to acknowledge their presence physically (often called giving someone "the silent treatment" or "the cold shoulder"; Williams, 2001), to ignoring someone's calls, texts, and social media posts (colloquially called "ghosting"; e.g., Freedman, Powell, Le, & Williams, 2019;Hayes, Wesselmann, & Carr, 2018;Smith & Williams, 2004;Wolf, Levordashka, Ruff, Kraaijeveld, Lueckmann, & Williams, 2014). Some studies have found that refusing or not giving eye contact when someone would otherwise expect it can make them feel excluded. ...
Article
Full-text available
When someone focuses on their phone, rather than the person in front of them ("phubbing" or "technoference"), this can lead to feelings of exclusion and dissatisfaction. Few studies have examined this phenomenon experimentally using a confederate during face-to-face interactions, and to our knowledge the published research has yet to examine the role that attributional information may have on the effects of being phubbed. Thus, we conducted an experiment investigating how attributional information influenced the effects of phone use on feelings of exclusion and interactional quality during a face-to-face interaction. We randomly assigned 99 young adults into one of three conditions: no phone use, important use, or trivial use. In the phone conditions, the participant's interaction partner (a confederate) pulled out their phone 2 minutes into the interaction, gave either an important or trivial reason for use, and then interacted with their phone, making intermittent eye contact while continuing to interact with the participant. Phubbed individuals reported feeling more excluded, less close, and like the partner was more distracted in the phone use conditions, regardless of reason. However, individuals phubbed for an important reason reported feeling less excluded and like the partner was less distracted as compared with participants in the trivial condition. Results suggest that people take attributional information into account during the phubbing experience. Given the frequency of phone use during social interactions, these data suggest giving a good reason for use may help in relationships and interactions; yet, it may not alleviate all the potential negative effects.
... Method Participants Data for these analyses are from a larger study on behaviors in romantic interactions (Freedman et al., 2019). A total of 559 adults completed the study, but 5 failed the attention check and were excluded from the analyses. ...
Article
Full-text available
Emerging adults (EAs) use many phrases to refer to their romantic interactions. In two studies (N1 = 110; N2 = 222), EAs’ knowledge and perceptions of “talking” were examined. In Study 1, a majority of college students had heard of “talking,” and perceived “talking” as distinct from “friends with benefits” (FWB) and dating. In Study 2, about half of a broader EA sample had heard of “talking” and perceived “talking” as being significantly less emotionally and physically intimate, and less committed than dating; they did, however, perceived “talking” to be similar in some ways to being FWB. Additionally, EAs varied in their agreement regarding the what, why, and how of “talking.” Incorporating these results into youth relationship education programs may be beneficial to promoting healthy relationship development and reducing relational uncertainty.
... Individuals endorsing destiny beliefs place great emphasis on finding their ideal romantic match and judge their relationship longevity based on initial interpersonal attraction/chemistry (Freedman, Powell, Le, & Williams, 2018). These individuals are more likely to use maladaptive relationship coping strategies when their relationships face hardships (e.g., distance themselves from a partner after a negative event). ...
Article
Two studies were conducted to identify variables associated with hypothetical infidelity forgiveness and promote forgiveness by manipulating implicit theories of relationships (ITRs; destiny/growth beliefs). Study 1 assessed the relationship between the type of behaviour, sex of the forgiver, ITRs and infidelity forgiveness. Study 2 investigated the causal relationship between ITRs and infidelity forgiveness (including attachment insecurity as a moderator). Results revealed that male participants forgave a partner's infidelity to a greater extent than female participants and that solitary behaviours were rated as most forgivable, followed by emotional/affectionate and technology/online behaviours, and sexual/explicit behaviours as least forgivable. Male participants (not female participants) induced to endorse growth beliefs forgave a partner's emotional/affectionate and solitary infidelity to a greater extent than those induced to endorse destiny beliefs; attachment insecurity moderated this relationship. These results have important implications for researchers and practitioners working with couples in distress.
... This practice can include blocking someone on Facebook without explanation. Any relationship that has some form of technological mediation, such as keeping in touch on Facebook, has the risk of instant termination (Freedman, Powell, Le & Williams, 2018). ...
Book
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Fourth book in a series of books about the internet. This book covers many issues about Facebook and functions as a historical reference. All books can be downloaded at https://tinyurl.com/y46px3fr
... A better understanding of unplanned "unable to contact" exits, or participant "ghosting," is critical given the risk and vulnerability of young people diagnosed with serious mental health conditions. Ghosting occurs when an individual ends a relationship by withdrawing suddenly from all communication without explanation (Freedman et al., 2019). The 23% "unable to contact" exit rate observed in this study fell in the 12%-53% disengagement rate observed in multidisciplinary, community-based first episode psychosis care (Mascayano et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Objective: Increasingly, community mental health providers are implementing multidisciplinary treatment models blending child and adult evidence-based practices to boost young adult engagement. Although promising, limited research examines how and why young adults disengage from these new models. This study examines provider documentation of treatment discharges to create a more developmentally-attuned young adult service exit typology. Method: Service records of 18-25 year-olds (n = 124) who discharged from a young adult-tailored multidisciplinary treatment team over a 5-year period were analyzed. A research team conducted a systematic content analysis of discharge forms and service notes. Planned and unplanned exits emerged as primary categories, each having distinct subcategories with noted prevalent associated experiences. Results: Participants (n = 124) were enrolled between 7 days to 3.80 years (M = 11.41 months) prior to exit. Those with "planned" exits (n = 71) were enrolled longer than those with "unplanned" exits (n = 53), means respectively 13.17 versus 9.06 months. Planned exits included: transitions either to a lower, similar or higher level of care, a return to previous provider, or insurance issues. Moving outside team geographic area contributed to planned and unplanned exits. Unplanned exits were disproportionately found among participants who were Black, had justice involvement histories, and/or experienced housing instability or homelessness. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: Young adult service exits are complex; planned exits are not always positive and unplanned exits are not always negative. Provider and research use of this new service exit typology has particular implications for identifying engagement disparities-and further tailoring models to be more attractive, culturally responsive, and impactful with young adults. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Although the process of ghosting in non-romantic relationships is more or less similar to that of ghosting in romantic relationships (Freedman et al., 2019), the major difference is found in the social acceptability of ghosting in friendships and the varying levels of commitment, intimacy, and closeness. Answers provided by the participants' opinions varied on how they perceive ghosting in romantic relationships compared to ghosting in friendships. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ghosting is a popular term in mass media that has continued to baffle many with its ambiguity as a dissolution strategy. Multiple studies in the past have explored ghosting within romantic relationships, examining how this dissolution strategy has impacted the two parties involved: the initiator (ghoster) and the non-initiator (ghostee). However, it has been stated that ghosting can exist outside of romantic relationships as it may also occur within friendships or even if the relationship is questionably nonexistent. The objectives of the paper seek to understand how ghosting happens within these non-romantic relationships, its effects on the initiators and non-initiators, and its possible differences when compared to romantic relationships. Semi-structured interviews were conducted through video communication platforms on thirty respondents ages 18-25 who have experienced ghosting or been ghosted by a friend. Through the use of descriptive phenomenological qualitative study, the results revealed that 1) ghosting in non-romantic relationships occurs on technology-mediated channels, 2) the initiators experienced post-dissolution feelings of regret, 3) the non-initiators experienced feelings of uncertainty, 4) ghosting a friend is more socially acceptable than ghosting a romantic partner, and, 5) ghosting is more frequent in non-romantic relationships due to the lower levels of commitment and expectations. Other recurring themes, such as the common reasons behind ghosting for the initiators and ghosting as a justifiable means of dissolving the relationship, were also found.
... In their studies, Leung (2007), Tianjian (2010), and Yu, Li and Gou (2011), view time as one of the possible factors of communication breakdowns, which, in the long run, represents a tendency to slip into the modern issue known as ghosting. The foundations of the ghosting phenomenon were laid down by LeFebvre (2017), Freedman, Powell, Le and Williams (2018), LeFebvre, Allen, Rasner, Gastad, Wilms and Parrish (2019). They believe ghosting to be a certain technique, a way of breaking down communication without any signs, warnings or notices. ...
Article
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The aim of this study is to explore today’s unwillingness of students to communicate among themselves in the context of emotional intelligence and interpersonal skills. Our research was conducted on a sample of 387 students in Slovakia. The issue of communication tendencies is multifactorially conditioned the factors such as personality, education, emotional intelligence or social environment play a role here. Due to the multifactoriality of the issues dealt with, the study is focused on emotional intelligence and interpersonal skills. The outcome of this study is a demonstration of the correlations between the selected attributes of students’ emotional intelligence and interpersonal skills. Linear regression confirms a certain degree of prediction concerning unwillingness to communicate in terms of the following four factors: dominance, submissiveness, emotionality and sociability.
... The discussion above also points out the problem faced by the department at Islamic University while recruiting lecturer within 4 types of recruitment, the selection had been done could be messed up due to ghosting (Freedman, Powell, and Williams, 2019) of the applicant or the low standard of the lecturer themselves (Nyadanu at.al, 2015). In other hand, the existing candidate prepared by department took long period (Posthumus, Bozer, & Santora, 2016) to return from their study. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research is aimed to investigate how recruitment process conducted in Islamic university and what is the head of department policy in Islamic university in on recruitment process and in maintaining the quality of lecturer. A phenomenology approach was adopted. Data were gathered by conducting interviews with five participants which all is head of department (HOD) at Islamic universities n Indonesia. The data analyzed with grounded theory through three steps coding namely, open coding, axial coding and selective coding. The research found five themes related to recruitment process at Islamic university, namely main recruitment stages, recruitment types, applicant selection, recruitment problems and HOD decision. This research was aimed to seek the recruitment process at Islamic university. The future research should examine the impact of recruitment to the lecturer performances. The findings resulted in two implications. Theoretically, it is found that Islamic University had a unique distinction in recruitment process which is based on value and philosophy of the university. Practically, HOD decision in recruitment process should not be interfered, if there are potential candidate should be discussed in senate forum. This research focused on the recruitment process of lecturer at Islamic university and HOD policy on recruitment.
... The discussion above also points out the problem faced by the department at Islamic University while recruiting lecturer within 4 types of recruitment, the selection had been done could be messed up due to ghosting (Freedman, Powell, and Williams, 2019) of the applicant or the low standard of the lecturer themselves (Nyadanu at.al, 2015). In other hand, the existing candidate prepared by department took long period (Posthumus, Bozer, & Santora, 2016) to return from their study. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This research is aimed to investigate how recruitment process conducted in Islamic university and what is the head of department policy in Islamic university in on recruitment process and in maintaining the quality of lecturer. A phenomenology approach was adopted. Data were gathered by conducting interviews with five participants which all is head of department (HOD) at Islamic universities n Indonesia. The data analyzed with grounded theory through three steps coding namely, open coding, axial coding and selective coding. The research found five themes related to recruitment process at Islamic university, namely main recruitment stages, recruitment types, applicant selection, recruitment problems and HOD decision. This research was aimed to seek the recruitment process at Islamic university. The future research should examine the impact of recruitment to the lecturer performances. The findings resulted in two implications. Theoretically, it is found that Islamic University had a unique distinction in recruitment process which is based on value and philosophy of the university. Practically, HOD decision in recruitment process should not be interfered, if there are potential candidate should be discussed in senate forum. This research focused on the recruitment process of lecturer at Islamic university and HOD policy on recruitment.
... Zatiaľ, čo v zahraničí pribúdajú teoretické aj empirické výskumy, zamerané na túto problematiku (napr. LeFebvre, 2017;Freedman et al., 2018;LeFebvre et al., 2019;Manning, Denker, Johnson, 2019;Koesslerová, Kohut, Campbell, 2019;Vilhauer, 2020;Navarro et al., 2021), na Slovensku mierne zaostávame. Zo spoločenského hľadiska je dôležité zaoberať sa týmto novodobým fenoménom, pretože zatiaľ nie je zrejmé, prečo sa ghosting tak rozmohol medzi mladými ľuďmi, čo ich vedie k zvoleniu tejto stratégie a ani to, ako sa vysporiadať s takýmto rozchodom. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Cieľom bakalárskej práce bolo preskúmať súvis jednotlivých čŕt Temnej triády (machiavelizmus, narcizmus, psychopatia) a neistej vzťahovej väzby s výberom rozchodovej stratégie ghosting pri ukončení romantických vzťahov. Ďalej práca skúmala vplyv situačných faktorov (dĺžka vzťahu, vznik vzťahu) na výber ghostingu. Výskumný súbor tvorilo 762 vynárajúcich sa dospelých vo veku od 18-29 rokov (M = 23,7; SD = 2,84, ž = 53,1%; m = 46,9%). Na meranie vzťahovej väzby bola použitá česká verzia Škály prežívania blízkych vzťahov [ECR-R16 – Experiences in Close Relationships- Revised, Kaščáková a kol., 2016] a Škála „Krátka Temná Triáda“ [SD3 – Short Dark Triad, Paulhus, Jones, 2014]. Bakalárska práca potvrdila že obete ghostingu vykazujú signifikantne vyššiu mieru úzkostného pripútania oproti skupine obetí ghostingu a skupine ľudí, ktorí nemali žiadnu skúsenosť s ghostingom. U ghosterov bola prítomná signifikantne vyššia miera machiavelizmu oproti ostatným dvom skúmaným skupinám. Ďalej sa u ghosterov potvrdila signifikantne vyššia miera psychopatie v porovnaní s ľuďmi, ktorí nezažili ghosting. Významný rozdiel v črte narcizmus sme neidentifikovali. Zistili sme, že vzťahy, ktoré vznikli online, boli ukončené ghostingom signifikantne častejšie ako vzťahy vzniknuté offline, a že vzťahy ukončené ghostingom mali signifikantne kratšie trvanie ako vzťahy ukončené inak. _______________________________________________________________________________________ The aim of this bachelor thesis was to explore the relation of the Dark triad traits individually (machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy), and of the insecure attachment with choice of breakup strategy named ghosting when ending romantic relationships. The next aim was to explore the influence of situational factors (e.g., relationship length, relationship origination) on the choice of ghosting. The sample of participants consisted of 762 emerging adults, aged from 18 to 29 years (M = 23.7; SD = 2.84; f = 53,1%; m = 46,9%). We measured attachment with Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised scale [ECR-R16, Kaščáková et al., 2016] and Dark Triad traits with Short Dark Triad [SD3, Paulhus, Jones, 2014]. The bachelor thesis confirmed significantly higher rate of anxious attachment in a group of ghosted participants compared to the group of ghosters and group of participants, who never experienced ghosting. Ghosters also showed significantly higher rate of Machiavellianism compared to both study groups. The study also revealed significantly higher rate of psychopathy in the group of ghosters, compared to the group of participants who never experienced ghosting. No significant relation between narcissism and ghosting was identified. Relationships that originated online have ended in ghosting statistically more often, compared to relationships originated offline. Relationships that did end in ghosting were significantly shorter than relationships that ended differently.
... The discussion above also point out the problem faced by the department at Islamic University while recruiting lecturer within 4 types of recruitment, the selection had been done could be messed up due to ghosting (Freedman et al., 2019) of the applicant or the low standard of the lecturer themselves (Nyadanu et al., 2014). In other hand, the existing candidate prepared by department took long period (Posthumus, Bozer, & Santora, 2016) to return from their study. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research is aimed to investigate how recruitment process conducted in Islamic university and what is the head of department policy in Islamic university in on recruitment process and in maintaining the quality of lecturer. A phenomenology approach was adopted. Data were gathered by conducting interviews with five participants which all is head of department (HOD) at Islamic universities in Indonesia. The data analyzed with grounded theory through three steps coding namely, open coding, axial coding and selective coding. The research found five themes related to recruitment process at Islamic university, namely main recruitment stages, recruitment types, applicant selection, recruitment problems and HOD decision. This research was aimed to seek the recruitment process at Islamic university. The future research should examine the impact of recruitment to the lecturer performances. The findings resulted in two implications. Theoretically, it is found that Islamic University had a unique distinction in recruitment process which is based on value and philosophy of the university. Practically, HOD decision in recruitment process should not be interfered, if there are potential candidate should be discussed in senate forum. This research focused on the recruitment process of lecturer at Islamic university and HOD policy on recruitment.
... However, stronger destiny beliefs increase the likelihood of disengaging and distancing oneself from a relationship in response to a negative relationship event (Knee, 1998;Knee et al., 2003). As such, stronger destiny beliefs are linked to ending a relationship quicker when satisfaction is low early in the relationship (Franiuk et al., 2002;Knee, 1998), including using more withdrawal and avoidance strategies to end the relationships, such as ghosting (i.e., ending the relationship by unilaterally ending communication with the partner; Freedman et al., 2019;Koessler et al., 2019). Stronger destiny beliefs are also associated with being more likely to acknowledge their part in ending the relationship (Knee, 1998). ...
Article
Media has grown in popularity throughout time, and with it, so has media’s ability to influence those who watch it. Specifically, romantic media has the potential to influence personal romantic beliefs. However, to date, research has typically relied on self-reported questionnaires for determining associations. Therefore, the present study examined the influence of romantic reality media on a specific set of romantic beliefs (i.e., individuals’ implicit theories of relationships) using an experimental procedure. Participants from a small liberal arts college first completed an online, prevideo survey (N = 128) assessing their prior romantic media consumption and their current romantic beliefs. A subset of the participants (n = 81) then came into a computer lab and watched 1 of 3 videos: emphasizing growth beliefs, emphasizing destiny beliefs, or a nonromantic media video. Immediately after the video, participants filled out a postvideo survey assessing their romantic media consumption and postvideo romantic beliefs. Analyses revealed a significant 3-way interaction between implicit theories of relationships, wave of data collection, and video condition, Wilk’s λ = .80, F(2, 74) = 9.38, p < .001, ηp2 = .20. Specifically, participants who watched the growth video had a significant change in their implicit theories of relationships beliefs; there was not a significant change in beliefs for participants who watched the destiny video. Results are discussed in relation to cultivation theory, professional implications in the counseling fields, and future directions.
... However, stronger destiny beliefs increase the likelihood of disengaging and distancing oneself from a relationship in response to a negative relationship event (Knee, 1998;Knee et al., 2003). As such, stronger destiny beliefs are linked to ending a relationship quicker when satisfaction is low early in the relationship (Franiuk et al., 2002;Knee, 1998), including using more withdrawal and avoidance strategies to end the relationships, such as ghosting (i.e., ending the relationship by unilaterally ending communication with the partner; Freedman et al., 2019;Koessler et al., 2019). Stronger destiny beliefs are also associated with being more likely to acknowledge their part in ending the relationship (Knee, 1998). ...
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... Destiny and growth beliefs about one's relationship have been shown to shape a variety of relationship outcomes, including commitment, empathy, interpretation of conflict, and satisfaction (Franiuk et al., 2002;Freedman et al., 2018;Knee, 1998;Knee & Canevello, 2006;Knee et al., 2003;Schumann et al., 2014). With respect to sexual beliefs, in a series of cross-sectional, experimental, and daily experience studies with community couples, endorsing stronger sexual growth beliefs was often associated with greater sexual and relationship outcomes compared to holding stronger sexual destiny beliefs. ...
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Spokojnosť občanov môže byť determinovaná politickou kultúrou ako aj pohlavím, vekom a ďalším demografickými charakteristikami. Cieľom príspevku je teoretické rozpracovanie riešenej problematiky na úrovni miestnej samosprávy. Príspevok je fokusovaný na signifikantnosť ghostingu v samospráve ako aj jeho overenie prostredníctvom výskumu. Na základe 83 respondentov sme sa pokúšali overiť štatistický významný rodový rozdiel vo faktoroch spokojnosti občanov a ghostingom na úrovni miest a obcí. Dotazník obsahujúci päť položiek hodnotil skúseností občanov s ghostingom pri podávaní a riešení žiadostí na úrovni miest a obcí. Pomerne vysoké percento prieskumnej vzorky má skúsenosť s ghostingom vo forme neodpovedania na žiadosti či ignoranciu zo strany úradov. Výsledky preukázali súvislosti medzi spokojnosťou občanov a skúsenosťou s ghostingom. Ghostingu medzi občanmi a úradmi miestnej samosprávy je multifaktoriálny a môžu ho spôsobovať časová vyťaženosť úradov, konflikty medzi občanom a úradom a ďalšie.
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Hope is a ubiquitous experience in daily life and acts as a force to help individuals attain desired future outcomes. In the current paper, we review existing research on hope and its benefits. Building on this work, we propose a new model of hope in romantic relationships. Our model seeks to expand the study of hope, addressing limitations of past research by bringing hope into the interpersonal domain and adding a future‐oriented perspective. More specifically, we argue that relational hope encompasses three facets, including relational agency, relational pathways, and relational aspirations, or what we call the wills, ways, and wishes people have in their relationship. We outline specific ways that these three facets may promote well‐being in romantic relationships. First, we propose that relational agency—the motivation to achieve relational goals—fuels approach‐motivated goals, which in turn promotes higher quality relationships. Additionally, we posit that relational pathways—the perception of sufficient strategies to pursue relational goals—enhance self‐regulation to support effective communication and conflict management with a romantic partner. Finally, we propose that relational aspirations—the positive emotions felt in anticipation of future relationship outcomes—foster growth beliefs which in turn promote relationship maintenance and commitment over time. While our model posits that relational hope has many potential benefits for relationships, we also discuss key contexts in which hope may undermine relationships and well‐being. Overall, our proposed model of relational hope offers a new area of insight into how hope may shape well‐being in romantic relationships.
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The purpose of this study is to examine relational dissolution using the technique of ghosting. This qualitative study explores the emerging adults’ dissolution strategies leading up to and through enactment of disengagement through mediated contexts. Participants (N = 99) completed questionnaires about their ghosting familiarity and participation as initiators or noninitiators. The majority of participants reported participating in both roles. Five themes described why initiators chose to enact ghosting, and three themes chronicled their ghosting decision-making processes. Noninitiators illustrated how they realized ghosting occurred through three themes. This exploratory investigation offers a definitive definition of ghosting and a modern discussion of its contents to dissolution, communication, and romantic relationship development.
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This chapter examines the recent emergence of the ghosting phenomenon. The practices and strategies employed during ghosting have existed since new interactive technologies emerged. The terminology dates back over a decade and remains widely used in popular culture’s common vernacular. Therefore, this chapter initiates an overdue investigation of ghosting in relation to interpersonal dissolution communication and behaviors. Within this chapter ghosting is defined as: unilaterally ceasing communication (temporarily or permanently) in an effort to withdraw access to individual(s) prompting relationship dissolution (suddenly or gradually) commonly enacted via one or multiple technological medium(s). Practices employing ghosting strategies have existed since the introduction of new interactive technologies yet scholars have yet to thoroughly explore the phenomenon. In this chapter, we further conceptualize ghosting, discuss ghosting in relation to relationship dissolution strategies, and speculate on the emergence of ghosting and its outcomes for initiators and non-initiators. Then we offer conceptual implications that extend previous relational dissolution strategies applications, and provide practical suggestions for initiators and non-initiators. We conclude with a short section on future directions that explicates ghosting in interpersonal communication on social media. Overall, this chapter provides a springboard for future studies and challenges scholars to critically evaluate the implications and effects ghosting have on interpersonal dissolution strategies.
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The success of Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) as an online research platform has come at a price: MTurk has suffered from slowing rates of population replenishment, and growing participant non-naivety. Recently, a number of alternative platforms have emerged, offering capabilities similar to MTurk but providing access to new and more naïve populations. After surveying several options, we empirically examined two such platforms, CrowdFlower (CF) and Prolific Academic (ProA). In two studies, we found that participants on both platforms were more naïve and less dishonest compared to MTurk participants. Across the three platforms, CF provided the best response rate, but CF participants failed more attention-check questions and did not reproduce known effects replicated on ProA and MTurk. Moreover, ProA participants produced data quality that was higher than CF's and comparable to MTurk's. ProA and CF participants were also much more diverse than participants from MTurk.
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Because challenges are ubiquitous, resilience is essential for success in school and in life. In this article we review research demonstrating the impact of students’ mindsets on their resilience in the face of academic and social challenges. We show that students who believe (or are taught) that intellectual abilities are qualities that can be developed (as opposed to qualities that are fixed) tend to show higher achievement across challenging school transitions and greater course completion rates in challenging math courses. New research also shows that believing (or being taught) that social attributes can be developed can lower adolescents’ aggression and stress in response to peer victimization or exclusion, and result in enhanced school performance. We conclude by discussing why psychological interventions that change students’ mindsets are effective and what educators can do to foster these mindsets and create resilience in educational settings.
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Data quality is one of the major concerns of using crowdsourcing websites such as Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) to recruit participants for online behavioral studies. We compared two methods for ensuring data quality on MTurk: attention check questions (ACQs) and restricting participation to MTurk workers with high reputation (above 95% approval ratings). In Experiment 1, we found that high-reputation workers rarely failed ACQs and provided higher-quality data than did low-reputation workers; ACQs improved data quality only for low-reputation workers, and only in some cases. Experiment 2 corroborated these findings and also showed that more productive high-reputation workers produce the highest-quality data. We concluded that sampling high-reputation workers can ensure high-quality data without having to resort to using ACQs, which may lead to selection bias if participants who fail ACQs are excluded post-hoc.
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Ostracism means being ignored and excluded by one or more others. Despite the absence of verbal derogation and physical assault, ostracism is painful: It threatens psychological needs (belonging, self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence); and it unleashes a variety of physiological, affective, cognitive, and behavioral responses. Here we review the empirical literature on ostracism within the framework of the temporal need-threat model.
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The purpose of the present study is to explore how academic self‐concept and implicit theories of ability are related to four self‐regulation strategies—motivation/diligence, concentration, information processing, and self‐handicapping. The hypothesis is that academic self‐concept and an incremental theory of ability are (1) positively related to motivation/diligence, concentration, and information processing strategies, and (2) negatively related to self‐handicapping strategies. On the basis of inventories 168 teacher students and 60 sport students (a total of 178 females and 50 males) were scored on academic self‐concept, incremental and fixed theories of ability and the four self‐regulation strategies. Multiple regression analysis was used for each self‐regulation strategy as dependent variable, and with academic self‐concept and the ability theories as independent variables. Results revealed that an incremental theory had, as predicted, a positive relation with motivation/diligence and concentration, but had only trivial relations with information processing and self‐handicapping, whereas a fixed theory had only the predicted relation with self‐handicapping. As hypothesised, a high academic self‐concept was positively related to motivation/diligence, conception, and information processing and negatively to self‐handicapping. The findings may indicate that, in order to promote meta‐theoretical processing and prevent student from self‐handicapping, it is important to strengthen academic self‐concept, and to foster an incremental conception of ability among students.
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Perceived discrepancy between one’s ideal and actual partner has been shown to predict relationship satisfaction. The goal of two studies was to examine whether implicit theories of relationships moderate this association. In Study 1, data from 177 undergraduates in romantic relationships showed that the perception that one’s partner falls short of one’s ideal was generally linked to lower satisfaction, except under cultivation (high growth/low destiny). In Study 2, data from 61 couples showed (a) viewing one’s partner favorably was associated with more satisfaction but less so among those who were higher in growth belief; and (b) cultivation predicted increased positivity, whereas evaluation (high destiny/low growth) predicted increased hostility when discussing discrepancies in how they and their partner view the relationship. Results are discussed in terms of the controversy over idealization and authenticity in romantic relationships.
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Abstract Social networking sites are becoming a prevalent form of communication in the escalation of romantic relationships. An online survey (n=403) addressed emerging adults' experiences with Facebook and romantic relationships, particularly a unique affordance of Facebook: the ability to declare oneself as "In a Relationship" and actively link one's profile to a romantic partner's, commonly known as going Facebook official. Results identified common social perceptions of the meaning of this status (regarding commitment, intensity, and social response) and both interpersonal and social motives for posting it on Facebook. Additionally, sex differences were identified in perceptions of meaning, wherein women felt this status conveyed commitment and intensity moreso than men did. Implications of this discrepancy on heterosexual relationship satisfaction and the prevailing role of technology in romantic relationships are discussed.
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Belief in romantic destiny holds that potential relationship partners are either meant for each other or they are not. As hypothesized, a longitudinal study of romantic relationships revealed that the relation between initial satisfaction and relationship longevity was stronger for those who believe in romantic destiny. In addition, belief in destiny was associated with avoidance coping strategies in dealing with relationship stressors, and with taking more responsibility for ending the relationship. Belief in growth independency holds that successful relationships are cultivated and developed, and was associated with long-term approaches to dating, relationship-maintaining coping strategies and, once the relationship had ended, disagreeing that it seemed wrong from the beginning. Implications and future research avenues are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This review builds on self-control theory (Carver & Scheier, 1998) to develop a theoretical framework for investigating associations of implicit theories with self-regulation. This framework conceptualizes self-regulation in terms of 3 crucial processes: goal setting, goal operating, and goal monitoring. In this meta-analysis, we included articles that reported a quantifiable assessment of implicit theories and at least 1 self-regulatory process or outcome. With a random effects approach used, meta-analytic results (total unique N = 28,217; k = 113) across diverse achievement domains (68% academic) and populations (age range = 5-42; 10 different nationalities; 58% from United States; 44% female) demonstrated that implicit theories predict distinct self-regulatory processes, which, in turn, predict goal achievement. Incremental theories, which, in contrast to entity theories, are characterized by the belief that human attributes are malleable rather than fixed, significantly predicted goal setting (performance goals, r = -.151; learning goals, r = .187), goal operating (helpless-oriented strategies, r = -.238; mastery-oriented strategies, r = .227), and goal monitoring (negative emotions, r = -.233; expectations, r = .157). The effects for goal setting and goal operating were stronger in the presence (vs. absence) of ego threats such as failure feedback. Discussion emphasizes how the present theoretical analysis merges an implicit theory perspective with self-control theory to advance scholarship and unlock major new directions for basic and applied research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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The role of implicit theories in romantic relationships was investigated in two studies. People holding a soulmate theory, who believed that finding the right person is most important for a satisfying relationship, were compared to people holding a work–it–out theory, who believed that effort is most important for building a successful relationship. In Study 1, college students (N = 527) completed a set of questionnaires, including measures of relationship theories and functioning within romantic relationships. Approximately 8 months later, a subset of these students (N = 176) completed a second set of questionnaires for Study 1. The implicit theories were highly stable over time (r = .74). For soulmate theorists, feelings that one’s specific partner is ideal predicted relationship satisfaction and relationship longevity to a greater extent than for work–it–out theorists. Whereas Study 1 investigated people’s theories of relationships as ends of a bipolar continuum, a separate study explored people’s theories of relationships as two unipolar dimensions. Findings from Study 2 (N = 266) supported a representation of the theories as two negatively correlated factors, and supported findings from Study 1 highlighting the role of the interaction between the relationship theories and partner fit in predicting relationship satisfaction.
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Media commentators have suggested that recent school shootings were precipitated by social rejection, but no empirical research has examined this claim. Case studies were conducted of 15 school shootings between 1995 and 2001 to examine the possible role of social rejection in school violence. Acute or chronic rejection—in the form of ostracism, bullying, and/or romantic rejection—was present in all but two of the incidents. In addition, the shooters tended to be characterized by one or more of three other risk factors—an interest in firearms or bombs, a fascination with death or Satanism, or psychological problems involving depression, impulse control, or sadistic tendencies. Implications for understanding and preventing school violence are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 29:202–214, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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Why do some adolescents respond to interpersonal conflicts vengefully, whereas others seek more positive solutions? Three studies investigated the role of implicit theories of personality in predicting violent or vengeful responses to peer conflicts among adolescents in Grades 9 and 10. They showed that a greater belief that traits are fixed (an entity theory) predicted a stronger desire for revenge after a variety of recalled peer conflicts (Study 1) and after a hypothetical conflict that specifically involved bullying (Study 2). Study 3 experimentally induced a belief in the potential for change (an incremental theory), which resulted in a reduced desire to seek revenge. This effect was mediated by changes in bad-person attributions about the perpetrators, feelings of shame and hatred, and the belief that vengeful ideation is an effective emotion-regulation strategy. Together, the findings illuminate the social-cognitive processes underlying reactions to conflict and suggest potential avenues for reducing violent retaliation in adolescents.
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The belief that difficulties can lead to growth in relationships, or growth belief, has consequences for relationships (e.g., Knee, 1998). But what predicts change in this belief? We hypothesized that compassionate goals to support others (Crocker & Canevello, 2008) predict increased growth belief through increased need satisfaction. In Study 1, 199 college freshmen reported their friendship growth belief and goals. In Study 2, 65 roommate pairs reported their roommate growth belief, goals, and need satisfaction. Across studies, compassionate goals predicted increased growth belief. In Study 2, goals predicted increased perceived mutual need satisfaction, which predicted increased growth belief. Additionally, partners' compassionate goals predicted actors' increased growth belief. Results suggest that growth beliefs are shaped by goals - own and others'.
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This research investigated the role of children's implicit theories of peer relationships in their psychological, emotional, and behavioral adjustment. Participants included 206 children (110 girls; 96 boys; M age = 10.13 years, SD = 1.16) who reported on their implicit theories of peer relationships, social goal orientation, need for approval, depressive and aggressive symptoms, and exposure to peer victimization. Parents also provided reports on aggressive symptoms. Results confirmed that holding an entity theory of peer relationships was associated with a greater tendency to endorse performance-oriented social goals and to evaluate oneself negatively in the face of peer disapproval. Moreover, entity theorists were more likely than incremental theorists to demonstrate depressive and aggressive symptoms when victimized. These findings contribute to social-cognitive theories of motivation and personality, and have practical implications for children exposed to peer victimization and associated difficulties.