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Shortage of qualified staff and constant struggle for talents along with the retention of most valuable employees belong to the hottest personnel issues for the majority of organizations nowadays. HR marketing can significantly help in these areas. Within HR marketing human resources officers become those marketers who strive to keep their organization’s name in the minds of all stakeholders, thus drawing their attention to organization’s qualities as an employer, and in such a way winning by taking care of the most talented employees. The aim of this paper is to determine and evaluate the benefits resulting from employer branding and also to identify the trends conducive to the strengthening of an employer’s brand. The data were obtained using a questionnaire survey (n = 492) in the selected Czech organizations. The results show that employer branding is an important element in all economic sectors and businesses can build their brands by focusing primarily on the stability of their current employees, their continuous development and their retaining of the most valuable knowledge. The article focuses on new strategic trends in building employer’s good brand and attracting the most knowledgable workers.
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Hana Urbancová, Monika Hudáková
ISSN 2071-789X
Economics & Sociology, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2017
Hana Urbancová,
University of Economics and
Prague, Czech Republic,
Monika Hudáková,
School of Economics and
Management in Public
Bratislava, Slovak Republic,
Received: March, 2017
1st Revision: July, 2017
Accepted: October, 2017
DOI: 10.14254/2071-
ABSTRACT. Shortage of qualified staff and constant
struggle for talents along with the retention of most
valuable employees belong to the hottest personnel issues
for the majority of organizations nowadays. HR marketing
can significantly help in these areas. Within HR marketing
human resources officers become those marketers who
strive to keep their organizations name in the minds of all
stakeholders, thus drawing their attention to organization’s
qualities as an employer, and in such a way winning by
taking care of the most talented employees. The aim of
this paper is to determine and evaluate the benefits
resulting from employer branding and also to identify the
trends conducive to the strengthening of an employer’s
brand. The data were obtained using a questionnaire
survey (n = 492) in the selected Czech organizations. The
results show that employer branding is an important
element in all economic sectors and businesses can build
their brands by focusing primarily on the stability of their
current employees, their continuous development and their
retaining of the most valuable knowledge. The article
focuses on new strategic trends in building employer’s
good brand and attracting the most knowledgable workers.
JEL Classification
: M12,
M14, M54
: employer brand; HR marketing; employees;
organization; Czech Republic; employees’ retention.
Well-adjusted HR marketing is currently a trend that affects not only management of
the internal environment of an organization, but also impacting on its external environment.
Not only a logo, history, quality of products and services etc., but also employees are the most
important ambassadors of an employer’s brand (Edwards and Edwards, 2013). Since most of
employees act externally, they speak directly or indirectly about the organization in which
they are working: they may recommend company’s products and services to their friends and
familty, they present their company as a suitable employer to others etc. These are the
primary facts the employer should be interested in when there is the lack of talented
employees with sufficient competencies (Elving et al., 2012). Minchington (2016) states that
every organization may be involved in HR marketing at five levels, where the first one
includes discussion with one person only, most commonly an HR department representative,
responsible for addressing these issues. On the contrary, the fifth level is when all managers
have been trained in employer branding and are aware of the fact that any step in their
decision-making has a great impact on HR marketing. Working with employer’s brand and
developing an appropriate HR marketing strategy must, according to (Minchington, 2016),
Urbancová, H., Hudáková, H. (2017). Benefits of Employer Brand and the
Supporting Trends. Economics and Sociology, 10(4), 41-50. doi:10.14254/2071-
Hana Urbancová, Monika Hudáková
ISSN 2071-789X
Economics & Sociology, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2017
include a business strategy that places a comprehensive emphasis on three pillars: namely,
customers, employees and financial performance of the organization. Organizations that
prefer only one of the three parts are not sustainable in a long term (Minchington, 2016;
Grabara, 2013). However, it is necessary to realize that if HR marketing is to help build a
good employer brand, it must work only with true information with which current employees
as well as potential ones can go along with (Grabara, 2013).
It can be concluded from the research that employer’s brand has to pay attention to the
need to share organization’s core values so that to be perceived as an attractive employer, to
create space for developing talents of the current employees, to promote innovation, and to
build pride among staff for the products and services provided by this organization (Helm,
2011; Saini et al., 2014). Branding from the marketing point of view is used very often
according to (Neumeier, 2006) or (Keller, 2007), however, the term “employer branding” is
relatively new. Aaker (2003) states that most of the staff seeking work will give preference to
a renowned employer instead of an unknown organization. Just a good employer brand
strengthens the positive view of stability, prosperity and the good name of the subject in the
eyes of potential candidates as (Minchington, 2016) states. Employer branding is a complex
process which must impact all the existing and potential stakeholders as confirmed by
(Bursová, 2009) and (Van Mossevelde, 2014). Focus on employer branding in the field of
motivation and activation of employees matters and in search for new potential candidates for
various work positions in organizations the employer branding increases the number of
candidates for one position (Hučková, 2012; Bursová, 2009; Minchington, 2016). Wilden et
al. (2010) also support the previous statement, adding that employer branding is a set of
psychological, economic and functional benefits, which connect potential employees with
their employers. The knowledge of these benefits in every organization helps businesses
create an attractive and competitive employer brand, increase knowledge-sharing between
generations of employees and increase competitive advantage as confirmed by the results of
Van Mossevelde (2014), Wilden et al. (2010) or Urbancová et al. (2017). Therefore, the focus
should be on possibilities and the ways how to stimulate employer branding nowadays and in
the near future.
The aim of this paper is therefore to determine and evaluate the benefits resulting from
employer branding and also to identify trends conducive to strengthening of such a brand. The
partial aims are to find out whether there is a statistical dependence between the selected
qualitative characteristics and to propose measures to address these issues in the observed
The first chapter focuses on theoretical background; the second chapter treats the
methodological procedures used to obtain the results. The third chapter discusses these results
and also propose measures to be taken. The final section of the paper includes
recommendations, also indicating the limits and benefits of the current study, thus pointing at
directions for further research.
1. Literature review
An attractive employer brand is according to Pop (2008) a combination of the tangible
and intangible factors such as the package of employee benefits, the culture and work
environment, the management involvement, the image and reputation of the brand which is
confirmed by Helm (2011). Therefore an essential part of every contemporary organization is
its HR department, or more precisely performed HR activities. The emphasis placed on them
has been increasing from year to year, required performance, success and achievement of set
goals (Jenkins, 2009; Saxena, Jain, 2012). For this reason, the importance of a relatively new
discipline, namely HR marketing, has been increasing (Martin et al., 2011; Ng et al., 2010).
Hana Urbancová, Monika Hudáková
ISSN 2071-789X
Economics & Sociology, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2017
In connection with the aforementioned, the fundamental task of HR marketing can be
formulated, it means to ensure and promote developing a company’s good reputation thanks
to which the organization can differentiate from its competitors and thus to increase its
attractiveness as an employer.
On the one hand, HR marketing focuses on current employees to motivate and retain
them in the organization (Hitka et al., 2015; Love and Singh, 2011). On the other hand, its
objects of interest are potential employees, when it is necessary to target and approach
a particular group in an appropriate manner and then to win them for the organization
(Archana et al., 2014; Woźniak, 2015). Thanks to the war for talents, which is currently
taking place, the organization’s approach and its attractiveness are crucial (Hershatter and
Epstein, 2010). As a matter of fact, employees do not want to identify themselves only with
the job, but also with their employer.
Nevertheless, effective HR marketing includes much more than just the ability to
make the employer more attractive and to create a pleasant working environment (HR Forum,
2016). Ideally, the strategy of HR marketing should be incorporated and respected in all other
activities of human resources management. HR marketing is not only one of the elements of
human resources policy, nor only a tool of the HR department. It is a basis for building
relationships with employees, these relationships being based on a particular system,
investment and mutual approval and consent (Aggerholm et al., 2011).
However, it is necessary to point out that despite the growing importance of human
capital, not all organizations realize the importance of internal HR marketing and they still
focus only on external activities (Kazdová, 2014). Particularly current employees are
ambassadors and propagators of the employer brand who subsequently spread either positive
or negative “word-of-mouth” about their organization. It is therefore important how the
organization takes care of its employees, what working conditions it creates and what
employee benefits are available to staff (Woźniak, 2015). Aaker (2003) states that is
important to monitor the factors that currently form employer branding of the organisation.
HR marketing can be understood as the use of marketing approach in the field of
human resources. Basic differences between HR marketing and classic marketing consist in,
for example, the subject or object of interest, in market entities, a target market or the aim of
the given marketing type. However, HR marketing is closely linked with concepts such as
employer’s reputation, or employer’s brand, labour market, human capital and overall
business strategy. The benefits of HR marketing include an increase in company’s
competitiveness and employees’ engagement, decrease in financial and time demands of the
recruitment process, strengthening the employer brand, etc. (Ng et al., 2010, Saini et al.,
2014). The marketing elements used in human resources management can include for
example a marketing process, basic course of which can also be applied to the human
resources area. In addition to the marketing process, the S-T-P method may also be
mentioned, i.e. segmentation, targeting and positioning; in this case, however, each of these
steps applies to potential employees. Likewise, the 4Ps (product, price, place, and promotion)
or its extended modification of 6Ps are used. Also the customer relationship cycle can be
taken over from marketing and adapted for employees (HR Forum, 2016; Martin et al., 2011).
The effects of HR marketing can be measured by a number of quantitative indicators
(economic and socio-economic variables) and qualitative indicators, which relate to the
behaviour of employees themselves. The essential HR marketing tool is also HR survey that
aims to collect and evaluate all relevant information. Such information may come both from
the external and internal environments of the organization.
It can be summarized that recognizing the needs and wishes of both current and
potential employees is one of the key strategic challenges, because by their identification and
Hana Urbancová, Monika Hudáková
ISSN 2071-789X
Economics & Sociology, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2017
subsequent satisfaction the organization can build a good employer brand and achieve
a considerable competitive advantage and competitiveness in the labour market.
2. Methodological approach
Relevant scientific monographs and scientific articles in the Web of Knowledge and
Web of Science dealing with the current issues, namely employer branding and HR
marketing, were analysed within the secondary sources (see the list of references).
Primary data was obtained by an anonymous electronic survey targeted at Czech
organizations. To obtain data, a quantitative type of survey was conducted using the
questionnaire technique of data collection. The organizations were selected only for the given
research and their composition is random, it does not respect the exact division ratio in the
national economy. The questionnaire respected the ethical aspect and anonymity of
A total of 1041 randomly selected companies took part in the survey. They were
contacted by e-mail and the response rate was 47.36% (n=492). The questionnaire survey was
completed by persons responsible for human resources in an organization, mostly by CEO or
human resources department director. For potentially ambiguous questions, terms were
explicitly defined.
The structure of organizations participating in the survey was as follows:
Business sector: primary 3.3%, secondary 16.5% and tertiary 80.2%.
Majority ownership: Czech 74.2% and foreign 25.8%.
Organization size: <50 employees 40.4%, from 51 to 249 employees 27.4%,
250 employees and more 32.2%.
The ratio of men and women employed in the organization: more women than
men 36.4%, the same ratio (50:50) 18.9%, and more men 44.7%.
Closed or semi-open questions, which were compiled on the basis of the study of
literature, documents and other related research, were used to obtain answers (Anderson,
2012; Hebák et al., 2004). In order to evaluate the results, descriptive statistics tools such as
absolute and relative frequencies, dependence tests (χ2 test) and tests of strength dependence
(Cramer's V) were used. If the p-value was lower than α = 0.05, the null hypothesis was
Within the multivariate statistical methods, the factor analysis was used to establish
factors that summarize behaviour of respondents (managers) into meaningful groups. Before
using the factor analysis a correlation matrix was created and then it was further analysed for
suitability of further calculations using multivariate methods. At first the correlation analysis,
then the principal components analysis and subsequently the factor analysis using Varimax
were used for calculations. The Kaiser Guttman rule (i.e. essential factors have a variance
value greater than 1) was used to select the essential factors. As significant values were
regarded those whose value exceeded 0.3 (Anderson, 2009).
According to Anderson (2009), the factor analysis was used only as verification. The
emphasis of commenting on the factor analysis results is laid on the meaningfulness and
substantiation of factors in terms of theory and practice in human resource management. In
case of human resources research, this method is often used by researchers and provable in
work with people (Anderson, 2009). Just because of the fact that factor analysis is often used
in the human resources area, it was also used to prepare this article. To evaluate the data, the
SPSS 23 statistical software and MS Excel 2010 were used.
Hana Urbancová, Monika Hudáková
ISSN 2071-789X
Economics & Sociology, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2017
3. Conducting research and results
The first part of the chapter presents the results of the research in organizations
focused on benefits from employer branding and its supporting trends. The research results
have identified 5 major benefits resulting from employer branding, the pivotal role being
played by employees themselves. It can be summarized that size, gender structure and
ownership of the organizations can influence the benefits resulting from employer branding.
The detailed results including the testing of statistical dependencies are shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Benefits resulting from employer branding
(Cramer’s V)
(Cramer’s V)
(Cramer’s V)
(Cramer’s V)
Winning new
(0.132, low)
Retaining key
(0.112, low)
motivation of
current employees
(0.114, low)
(0.112, low)
Improving public
brand awareness
of the organization
(0.112, low)
Source: own compilation.
Furthermore, 5 major trends that help build a good employer’s brand in the eyes of
both current and potential employees have been identified. The detailed results including the
testing of statistical dependencies are presented in Table 2. The results confirmed that the size
and ownership are important for supporting employer branding.
Table 2. Trends supporting employer branding
(Cramer’s V)
(Cramer’s V)
(Cramer’s V)
(Cramer’s V)
(0.169, low)
(0.124, low)
Age Management
(0.181, low)
(0.173, low)
(0.180, low)
(0.173, low)
Hana Urbancová, Monika Hudáková
ISSN 2071-789X
Economics & Sociology, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2017
0.000 (0.162)
Others strategic
Source: own compilation.
The results (identified benefits and trends) were then tested by the factor analysis
which had a verification character. The calculated values in the factor analysis indicate the
extent to which the newly created variable correlates with the original variables. Based on the
evaluation of calculated data, 3 important factors meeting the criteria laid down by the
methodology have been identified. Table 3 shows the significance of individual benefits
resulting from employer branding on the basis of percentages and their sum total.
Table 3. Variance explained by factors
Total Variance
Total % of Variance
Cumulative % of Variance
Source: own compilation.
The factor 1 variance can be considered to be the most significant (30.874). The
3 mentioned factors explain 65.735% of the sample behaviour or the possibilities of resulting
characteristics. The factor analysis results are shown in Table 4.
Table 4. Resultant factors by the Varimax method
Factor 1
Factor 2
Factor 3
Winning new talented employees
Retaining key employees
Increasing motivation of current employees
Improving public brand awareness of the
Improving financial performance
Total % of Variance
Name of factor
Pillar of
Pillar of Customers
and Profit
Source: own compilation.
The first factor, in the first place, highlights the pillar of employees. Such
organizations emphasize ways of attracting and winning new talented employees (0.697),
retaining current key employees (0.756) and increasing their motivation (0.729), which
strongly facilitates employer branding. The first factor can be called the “Pillar of
Employees”. The coefficients of found factors range from 0.697 to 0.756 (a high quality of
found coefficients).
Hana Urbancová, Monika Hudáková
ISSN 2071-789X
Economics & Sociology, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2017
The second factor includes communication with the public and improving the financial
situation by promoting the quality of company’s products, services, and the employer as the
top-quality one (0.865 high quality of coefficient, 0.692 higher quality); therefore it is
called the “Pillar of Customers and Profit”. The third factor includes other variables that
indirectly result from HR marketing, such as improving the team spirit, increasing employee
loyalty etc. Table 5 presents the significance of individual trends in employer branding.
Table 5. Variance explained by factors
Total Variance
Total % of Variance
Cumulative % of Variance
Source: own compilation.
We can be summarized, that the factor 1 variance can be considered to be the most
significant (30.626). The 3 mentioned factors explain 66.652% of the sample behaviour
(Table 6 shows the factor analysis results).
Table 6. Resultant factors by the Varimax method
Factor 1
Factor 2
Factor 3
Knowledge continuity
Talent Management
Age Management
Diversity Management
Others strategic trends
Total % of Variance
Name of factor
Stability of
Retention of key
Source: own compilation.
The first of the found factors (stability of employees) emphasizes the fact that it is
necessary to present the organization outwards as non-discriminatory (by age, gender,
nationality etc.) and to create diverse teams. The second of the found factors highlights
development of employees, namely both current and new, and an emphasis is placed on
continuous learning and developing career plans for individuals in cooperation with the HR
department. The third factor highlights retention of key knowledge of employees even if
personnel changes (retirements, etc.), and choosing suitable successors to those retiring from
talented employees. Also other trends, or more precisely situations, indirectly influence the
continuity of knowledge transfer, e.g. willingness to share knowledge, willingness to transfer
knowledge, etc. The found coefficients range from 0.723 to 0.863, which indicates a high
quality of coefficients. Based on the foregoing it can be concluded that HR marketing aims to
actively work with employees in order to avoid their turnover, to retain key employees and
teams and to ensure the performance stability of workforce and the entire organization.
Hana Urbancová, Monika Hudáková
ISSN 2071-789X
Economics & Sociology, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2017
It is necessary to realize that a strong brand thanks to appropriately defined HR
marketing is what protects the organization from its competitors and creates a competitive
advantage. It is also necessary to realize that the good employer brand across all sectors and
in all organizations which is confirmed by Urbancová et al. (2017), Aaker (2003). The
employer branding has the benefits (Minchington, 2016; Wilden et al., 2010), which was
confirmed by this survey results in area of HR activities (pillar of employees and pillar of
customers and profit).
However, it is imperative that the HR department representatives cooperate with
marketing specialists who can contribute by their experience to influence customers in HR
marketing and to retain current employees and to win new top talents, which has been
confirmed by the research of Chand (2015). If employees perceive their employer’s brand as
a good one, it can be assumed that this fact will influence also other surrounding employees in
the labour market. Organizations’ representatives increasingly participate in job fairs, visit
universities and higher education institutions; cooperate with the academic world and offer
internships and placement programmes to students already during their studies. It was
confirmed, that it is very important to focus on winning new talented employees and
increasing motivation of current employees, it is accordance with Hučková (2012).
HR marketing is successful when employees themselves are involved in their
company’s presentations and recruitment campaigns, which is in line with the conclusions of
Edwards and Edwards (2013), Elving et al. (2012) or Grabar (2013). However, in order to
develop and set HR marketing, it is necessary to continuously analyse changes in both
internal and external environments of the organization, as is underlined by the research of
Aggerholm et al. (2011). Employer branding must be based on trends and changes both inside
and outside the organization and, last but not least, be credible, comprehensible and truly
promoted by the employees themselves. Based on the research of Jenkins (2009), Love and
Singh (2011), and Saxena and Jain (2012) employer branding using a suitably chosen HR
marketing can currently be regarded as a significant tool for strategic management of human
resources. It can be summarized that the results show that the employer branding can be
stimulated by strategic trends in the HR which is confirmed by Van Mossevelde (2014). It can
be inferred that employer branding is an important element in all sectors of economy, be it
primary, secondary or tertiary. On the contrary, both benefits and applied trends are
influenced by the number of employees in the organization and it is accordance with
Urbancová et al. (2017). It is very important to focus on stability of employees and retention
of key knowledge. The organizations must not forget the integration of HR marketing strategy
into the overall strategy of the organization and focus on employee development and
emphasis on content marketing. Thus candidates will be provided with truly relevant
information about the organization, which will also serve for building and strengthening the
employer’s brand.
The results show that good employer branding creates a competitive advantage which
is important in every organizations nowadays. The results confirmed that employer branding
has the benefits in good HR process (0.697 to 0.756), process of public brand to the customers
and good employer and create a profit (0.692 to 0.865).
It is necessary to realize that the more employees the organization has, the more it
must seek to stabilize and satisfy them so that they become part of the organization itself and
identify themselves with its goals and values. Retaining current employees may be regarded
Hana Urbancová, Monika Hudáková
ISSN 2071-789X
Economics & Sociology, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2017
as the main benefit of employer branding. The application of talent management is the trend
that currently helps it. 3 factors influencing successful employer branding have been
identified, namely stability of employees (0.861 to 0.863), development of employees
(0.747 to 0.808) and retention of key knowledge (0.723).
The practical contribution of the paper is to present results of the conducted research
and to identify major factors influencing successful employer branding. In view of the fact
that this is a topical issue, it would be appropriate in future research to determine efficiency of
individual ways for winning new top talents in the labour market with respect to the
application of HR marketing.
This contribution is a follow-up to the project of University of Economics and
Management, grant number GCES0415.
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... With LEA, employers get a credible picture of what measures, tools and processes need to be implemented. According to Witkowski and Bartozs (2017) and Urbancová (2019), the topic of age management application at the level of organisations is gaining momentum, which further underlines the current development of the labour market, and helps build a good employer brand (Urbancová and Hudáková, 2017). ...
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Age management plays an important role in addressing the age distribution among employees in an organisation and their management as a result of the increasing share of 50+ people in the population. Organisations must inevitably adapt to this trend, and one of the objectives of age management is to cope with demographic changes. Parties involved in age management have different ambitions at different levels. At the organisational level, however, it is necessary to emphasise on the development of human potential through continuous education and labour productivity. Employee age management can be seen as part of corporate social responsibility. More and more organisations are connecting responsible business with human resource management. The article presents age management as an opportunity to link human resource development to social responsibility. The main objective of this paper is to identify the factors influencing the setting of educational processes for 50+ y.o. employees and to support the development of CSR in education. The data were obtained using quantitative research (n = 207) and then evaluated using descriptive and multivariate statistics methods. The results show that employees prefer when employers themselves suggest them participating in educational courses. The most frequently used courses are professional lectures and self-education, while the least used ones are internships in foreign branches or videoconferences.
... Despite major advancements in knowledge related to employer branding in the last 24 years, there is a limited number of studies that connect employer branding with talent management. For example, the study of (Urbancova & Hudakova, 2017), which aimed to determine and evaluate the benefits of employer branding in the Czech organizations, the study v. 12, n. 5, September-October 2021ISSN: 2236-269X DOI: 10.14807/ijmp.v12i5.1449 ...
... This result came consistent with the studies of Urbancova and Hudakova (2017) whom also found that employer branding is important element in all economic sectors and businesses v. 12, n. 5, September-October 2021ISSN: 2236-269X DOI: 10.14807/ijmp.v12i5.1449 ...
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The main aim of this study is to identify to what extent the managerial leaderships in top, middle, and lower levels of commercial banks at Jordan practice the employer branding dimensions and talent management strategies. Also, it aims to explore the impact of employer branding dimensions on talent management strategies. The researcher relied on analytical-descriptive method to analyze and classify the data to achieve the objectives and to identify the variables of the study. To collect data a questionnaire was developed based on relevant literature and scales, (226) questionnaires were distributed, out of which (187) were returned and analyzed using SPSS (version 19), with response rate (82.7%). The results of the study showed that the relative importance of employer branding dimensions and talent management strategies practices in commercial banks of Jordan was high. Also, the results revealed that there is a positive relationship and significant impact of employer branding dimensions on talent management strategies among managers of commercial banks in Jordan.
... On an individual level, Hamidizadeh and Fadardi (2019) found that the different dimensions of employers' brands increase employee productivity. On an organizational level, Tumasjan et al. (2019), and Urbancova and Hudakova (2017), confirmed the positive aspects of employers' brand orientation or branding on firms' performance (financial). ...
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With the growing interest in employer attractiveness, research is unsystematic on how this phenomenon can be conceptualized and studied. Studies tend to make little conceptual differentiation regarding for whom employers should be attractive, and therefore, address the perspectives of potential as well as current employees, who work in organizations for long periods of time. In this study our arguments relate to the phenomenon’s conceptual clarity as well as its differentiation from other related concepts. By focusing on employer attractiveness for current employees, we have systematically reviewed 48 studies published in business and management journals, and categorized findings into the Inputs–Mediators–Outputs model. This approach allowed us to depict significant limitations in the existing knowledge about employer attractiveness from the current employees’ perspective, and offer avenues for future research. Next, to delineate the future research agenda, we have suggested that employer branding in organisations needs to be targeted more toward current employees.
... Such a personal approach enhances the credibility of the organization, strengthens customers' experience, and thus reinforces the service quality. Museum guides become the so-called brand ambassadors [81]: they represent the museum or some particular exhibition brand. ...
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Based on the OECD research from 2020, tourism is one of the biggest and fast-growing sectors of the world economy. Tourism plays a key role in job creation as well as in added value creation. In 2018, the revenue from tourism in Slovakia totaled EUR 2.7 billion, which is EUR 4.7% more than the year before, where the mentioned refers to 3% GDP and 27.6% of the services-related exports. The authors drew their attention to identifying some marketing communication tools’ impact on the castle museum attendance in Slovakia and analyzed the degree and dynamics of the communication structure implementation in the context of cultural heritage. In general, 5840 cultural tourists were interviewed during three restricted cycles: 2006–2009, 2011–2014, and 2016–2019; the interviewing was held through the questionnaires only during the summer seasons. The study herein shows that the quality perception of the carried out offline marketing communication activities and the visit intention itself have significant influence on the interest of customers in repeated visits to castle museums.
... The economic and non-financial claims of businesses may also be reflected in other business results obtained through the proper management of personnel, including the stages of attracting and hiring. Such results include, e.g. the employer's brand and related market advantages (Carpentier et al., 2019;Green, 2019;Urbancová & Hudáková, 2017), as well as the achievement of strategic goals of enterprises (Clinton, 2016;Sohel-Uz-Zaman et al., 2019). ...
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The ability to attract and retain the talents is an important factor in the competitiveness of countries, as it is confirmed in our study. At the level of small and medium-sized enterprises, hiring and retaining skilled workers is one of the most difficult tasks of HR management, especially in transition economies with a high intensity of “leaching out” the skilled workers due to labour migration. Our research in Ukraine, which is a prime example of such countries, conducted via the cluster analysis allows us to conclude that the problems of hiring and retaining skilled workers have some connection with profitability: there is almost always a problem with filling vacancies with people of all educational levels in unprofitable enterprises, which is not typical of profitable businesses. The main problems with filling vacancies according to employers’ estimations are: 1) market factors – shortage of employees with the required skills; 2) internal problems of ensuring the attractiveness of jobs (material – pay, and intangible – career prospects, flexible working hours, legal employment); 3) internal factors of inefficient HR management, including recruiting; 4) psycho-physiological factors of job satisfaction. However, there are no close links between the factors of hiring effectiveness and retention of skilled workers with the economic success of the organization in the form of the growth of assets, revenues and stuff. This leads to the conclusion that the practices of human resources management in small and medium-sized businesses in Ukraine are largely built chaotic, without analyzing the impact on the efficiency of the use of other resources and without providing links with the overall economic efficiency of enterprises.
... It can create appropriate market advantages for social enterprises, which are kin-owned to a great extend and at the same time they are especially important for the labour market problems mitigation (Bilan, Mishchuk, & Pylypchuk, 2017). Buyers build their trust for a brand on their positive experiences alongside communication activities (Brunner et al., 2019), including available information concerning employer brand (Urbancová &Hudáková, 2017). Correspondingly, Botero et al. (2019) advise to explore how the audience perceives FB in regard to the type of a branding strategy used by FB. ...
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Objective: The objective of the article is to examine what attributes are assigned to family firms by consumers familiar and not familiar with family business in the context of trust-building and purchase intention. Research Design & Methods: A nationwide quantitative survey on a statistically representative random-cluster sample of 1 091 consumers was conducted in 2018, based on the fundamentals of pre-survey qualitative research. Findings: This study proves a low level of consumers’ familiarity with family firms and indicates attributes assigned to family firms by two segments of buyers. The findings show for which segments the concept of endorsed identity could be influential in the purchasing process, and for which might it be a subordinate stimulus when compared to consumers’ trust. Implications & Recommendations: Although a family firm’s origin can serve as a cue to purchase, there is a challenge in educating the audience regarding the low level of consumers’ knowledge of family businesses. A legal construct provided in this study may reinforce trust towards family firms accompanied with purchase. Contribution & Value Added: This study is based on a representative large sample of consumers, additionally divided into two portrayed segments. It proposes a process of how a family business identity may be endorsed. The proposed legal construct is a novelty in the market and has not been investigated in other scientific research.
... Nowadays, research about employer branding in the field of economic and management was conducted more often. Employer branding is considered to be an essential factor in raising work engagement, which is also essential for increasing company profits (Hadi & Ahmed, 2018;Urbancová & Hudácová, 2017;Tikson, Hamid, & Mardiana, 2018;Aldousari, Robertson, Yajid, & Ahmed, 2017;Theurer, Tumasjan, Welpe, & Lievens, 2018). Piyachat, Chanongkorn and Panisa (2014) found that employee engagement is a partial mediator of the relationship between perceived employer branding and discretionary effort on workers. ...
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This research was conducted to determine whether employer branding has a relationship with work engagement in a private company in the field of non-bank financing. The population of this research is the workers of a national private company engaged in the field of non-bank financing, especially the head office workers located in Jakarta. The number of samples of this study were 117 people, consisting of 62 men and 55 women with an age range of 20-67 years (Mean = 28.13; SD = 5.849). The method used is quantitative with stratified sampling technique. The research instrument used was the Employee Attractiveness Scale (EmpAt) (α = .956; 20 items). Whereas to measure the Work Engagement using Utrech Work Engagement Scale (UWES) (17 items; α = .896). The analysis carried out is a simple linear regression, t-test and one-way ANOVA. The results of this study found that Employer Branding had a significant positive effect on Work Engagement (F (1.115) = 50.333; β = .552, r = .552; R2 = .304; P <.001). Employer branding can be a strategy for companies to identify the needs of current and future workers, and build an image as a company of choice for work, so as to increase employee engagement with the company and its work.
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Bu araştırma 2018 yılında ABD'de en iyi işverenler (great place to work) araştırması kapsamında elde edilen, kadınlar için en iyi şirketlerin özelliklerini tanımlamayı amaçlamaktadır. Tanımlayıcı bir hedefi olan mevcut araştırma kadınlar için en iyi 70 şirketin sektörel dağılımını, kuşaklara göre çalışan sayılarını, deneyim yıllarını ve çalışanların şirketleri tanımlamak için belirledikleri kelimelerin analizini gerçekleştirmeyi hedeflemektedir. Elde edilen sonuçlar kadınlar için en iyi olan şirketlerin; finansal hizmetler ve sigortacılık, bilgi teknolojileri ve sağlık sektöründe bulunan büyük ölçekli işletmeler olduğunu, en çok Y (%45) ve X kuşağından (%33) gelen ve çalışanlarının 2/3'ünün 5 yıldan az deneyime sahip olan şirketler olduğunu göstermiştir. Çalışanların şirketleri tanımlamak için kullandıkları öne çıkan kelimelerin ise; “iş”, “çalışanlar”, “insanlar”, “harika”, “hissetmek”, “mekan”, “her zaman”, “herkes”, “önem vermek” ve “zaman” olduğu görülmüştür.
Purpose This study aims to contribute to the understanding of internal communication and its connections to engagement and employer brands. The authors wanted to test the relationship between the three variables and explore if employees' perception of employer brands is affected by internal communication satisfaction and engagement. Creating a desirable employer brand can have significant benefits for organizations, such as higher employee satisfaction, employee engagement and retention. It is crucial to have a clear grasp of how the determinants of these relationships affect each other. Design/methodology/approach A total of 1,805 employees participated in a large communication survey that measured internal communication satisfaction, employee engagement and perception of employer brand (operationalized as employer attractiveness). To test the relationship between variables, the authors used multiple regression analysis. Findings The results show internal communication satisfaction and employee engagement as significant predictors of employer brand. All of the internal communication satisfaction dimensions and two out of three employee engagement dimensions have been identified as determinants of at least two employer attractiveness dimensions. Research limitations/implications Limitations include using a cross-sectional dataset, which reduces the possibility of determining causality, using self-reports and a common source bias. Originality/value The authors added to the body of knowledge by analyzing the effects of workplace attitudes on attitudes toward the organization. The authors found that both internal communication satisfaction and employee engagement significantly shape the perception of employer brands.
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A hazai adó- és vámhatóság 2020-ban bekövetkezett szervezeti átalakítása és a munkajogi jogviszonyok tervezett egyszerűsítéséhez kapcsolódó kommunikáció során több fórumon hallhattuk a „NAV brand-je”, a „NAV márkája” kifejezést. A szerzők kiemelték példaként a rendészeti feladatrendszert és középpontba állítva a járőrt mint a szervezet arcát, akivel a legközvetlenebb módon – például egy határátlépés vagy egy közúti ellenőrzés során – találkozhatnak az állampolgárok. Hazai és külföldi kutatások igazolják, hogy egy munkáltatói márka kialakítása és fejlesztése nemcsak a versenyszféra kiváltsága. A munkaerő- megtartás képessége, szorosan kapcsolódva a munkáltatói márkaépítéshez – tekintettel a Z generáció megjelenésére is a munkaerőpiacon –, kiemelten fontos a közszféra szereplői, munkaadói számára is. Fontos az értékek közvetítésének csatornája és tartalma, tehát az, hogy mit ígérünk és hogyan, milyen formában kommunikáljuk azt. A közigazgatás és a rendészet más munkáltatóihoz képest, amelyek egyszerűbb munkavállalói struktúrával működnek, a hazai bevételi hatóság számára sokkal összetettebb a feladat. A munkáltatói márkaépítés a szervezet minden szegmensét, minden szintjét, minden foglalkoztatottját érinti, tehát nemcsak a járőrtevékenységet, a kommunikációt, az emberierőforrás-gazdálkodást. Tanulmányunk célja, hogy a vonzó munkáltatói márka kialakítása érdekében feltárja az adó- és vámhatóság mint munkáltató értékeit, bemutassa a munkavállalók számára nyújtható lehetőségeket, és korábbi kutatási eredményekre alapozva meghatározza a fejlesztést igénylő területeket is.
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E-recruitment is a field of human resources where ICT tools are frequently used. We popularly assume that the scope with which they are used differs between countries, and that technical structure is the main reason for these differences. However, we lack the tools to explain why e-recruitment is considered more common in the US than in Poland, for instance, despite similar access to the Internet among employees and employers in both countries. The article presents a typology of four levels of e-recruitment methods, as a tool for explaining the differences in the maturity of using e-recruitment methods in these two countries. Additionally, for each of the four groups of e-recruitment methods, strong and weak points are shown, and the keys to their successful use are described. It has been also shown that a positive image of a company's brand is a necessary condition for higher levels of e-recruitment to be successful. A special analysis is conducted of the use of gamification and games for e-recruitment purposes, and examples are given of their use on each of the four e-recruitment levels.
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In spite of turbulent urbanisation in Slovakia we assume that the 21st century is also a period of differences in value criteria of people living in rural and urban areas. The level of urbanisation, i.e. inhabitant movement from the countryside to towns and the level of suburbanisation, i.e. inhabitant movement from towns to the countryside, are essential urbanisation processes that must be in the centre of our attention in order to understand the individual behaviour in our society more effectively. School and education plays a key role in life of almost all people. This environment affects pupils as well as teachers. Teachers are significant members of the society and influence its further development. Teaching strategies, organisation and management of classroom activities, the use of activation procedures and effective tools for the assessment of educational progress depend greatly on teachers that must be prepared professionally with appropriate qualification. In the paper we deal with the issue of motivational differences of teachers at primary schools (sampling unit consists of 2151 teachers) in Slovakia due to work location (countryside-town). Result of the research, despite small significant differences, is the statement that unified motivation programme for primary school staff can be created.
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In many developed economies, changing demographics and economic conditions have given rise to increasingly competitive labour markets, where competition for good employees is strong. Consequently, strategic investments in attracting suitably qualified and skilled employees are recommended. One such strategy is employer branding. Employer branding in the context of recruitment is the package of psychological, economic, and functional benefits that potential employees associate with employment with a particular company. Knowledge of these perceptions can help organisations to create an attractive and competitive employer brand. Utilising information economics and signalling theory, we examine the nature and consequences of employer branding. Depth interviews reveal that job seekers evaluate: the attractiveness of employers based on any previous direct work experiences with the employer or in the sector; the clarity, credibility, and consistency of the potential employers’ brand signals; perceptions of the employers’ brand investments; and perceptions of the employers’ product or service brand portfolio.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to reconceptualise employer branding in sustainable organizations at the intersection of branding, strategic human resource management (HRM) and corporate social responsibility (CSR). Design/methodology/approach – Based on an outline of current conceptualisations of employer branding, the paper discusses the strategic potentials of merging corporate branding processes, strategic HRM and CSR into a theoretical framework for reconceptualising employer branding as co-created processes and sustainable employer-employee relationships. Findings – When organizations adapt strategies for sustainable development (including CSR), it affects how to approach stakeholder relations and organizational processes, including the employee-employer relationship and employer branding processes. However, current employer branding conceptualisations do not comply with such changed corporate conditions. The suggested framework reconceptualises employer branding as an integrated part of a CSR strategy, thus offering a new way of approaching employer branding as supporting sustainable organizational development and long-term employer-employee relationships. Practical implications – The proposed conceptualisation of employer branding implies a shift in focus from end result to process. As part of the process, organizations need to approach employees as corporate partners in order to co-create employer-employee values. Originality/value – This paper suggests and discusses a new conceptualisation of employer branding, which appreciates co-creation and employer-employee dialogue as strategic processes for supporting sustainable organizational development.
Th e specificity of the agricultural sector (seasonality, the methods of obtaining human resources and so on) affects the situation in the labour market. Th e demand of agriculture companies for qualified workers is relatively high; unfortunately, people still prefer to work in the related or other fields where they have more suitable work conditions related. Building the brand of the employer, improving the awareness of the public and increasing the loyalty of the present employees can raise the offer of vacancies and obtain new qualified employees. Th e aim of the paper is to identify the benefits of human resource branding in businesses arising therefrom. A partial aim is to identify the present key managerial challenges of agriculture businesses. In the work, the data collected from a questionnaire survey (n = 108) were used together with the information from the Czech Statistical Office, in the opinion of which the labour market in the agricultural sector does not exhibit a positive trend. As a part of the evaluation, a factor analysis was carried out identifying three categories of benefits (the stabilisation of workers, organisational processes, and other benefits) crucial for the employer branding in agriculture.
The article presents the survey conducted in the companies, operating at polish market, in different types of sector. All these companies have a marketing and management department and due to today’s polish market condition, they are constantly seeking for new employees. Also, they have some expectations in regards to them, which are, quite often, not fulfilled by the young people. This survey was conducted to show what are the real expectations from the employers and what skills are really needed for work in marketing and management department. © 2013, Czestochowa University of Technology. All rights reserved.
This study examines changing employment brands in the context of a multinational acquisition, specifically the implications for current employees. Using a sample (N = 251) from both the acquired and acquiring workforces, employees are tracked across 12 months following acquisition. The study explores predictors of identification with the acquiring organization, intent to quit, and discretionary effort. We focus on employment brand–related predictors, specifically perceptions linked to the provision of unique employment experiences, organizational identity strength, perceived prestige, and judgments of whether the acquiring organization acts in accordance with its corporate identity claims. The study showed that perceptions of prestige immediately after acquisition predict identification 12 months hence, as do judgments of whether the organization acts in accordance with its corporate social responsibility–based corporate identity claims. These judgments also predict subsequent levels of discretionary effort and long‐term intent to leave, as do perceptions linked to the provision of unique employment experiences. Perceived change in these unique employment experiences is also related to change in identification and intent to leave across time. Importantly, these elements have a varied effect on the adjustment outcomes when comparing the two workforces.
Organisations need highly loyal employees in order to fulfil the needs of their stakeholders and achieve success. Employer branding (EB) could be a powerful tool for attracting employees with high potential. In this article, we present two separate studies. The first study involves a content analysis of 100 online job advertisements in order to investigate whether and how EB is currently used in recruitment practices in the Netherlands. The second study involves a subsequent experiment comparing a job advertisement containing elements of EB to one without these elements. Results from the first study show that EB is hardly ever used in recruitment communication in the Netherlands. Results from the experiment reveal a preference for advertisements containing EB with regard to several factors. On the basis of these results, we can conclude that corporate positioning, internal branding, EB and related practices could be successful avenues for organisations. EB should obviously stem from the organisation's position and corporate identity. A branded identity might offer major advantages in the war for talent.
Employer branding is becoming an increasingly important topic for research and practice in multinational enterprises (MNEs) because it plays directly into their corporate reputation, talent management and employee engagement agendas. In this paper, we argue that the potential effects of employer branding have yet to be fully understood because current theory and practice have failed to connect this internal application of marketing and branding to the key reputational and innovation agendas of MNEs, both of which are at the heart of another strategic agenda – effective corporate governance. However, these agendas are characterised by ‘wicked problems’ in MNEs, which have their origins in competing logics in strategic human resource management (SHRM). These problems need to be articulated and understood before they can be addressed. This paper proceeds by (1) setting out a definition and model of employer branding and how it potentially articulates with corporate governance, innovation and organisational reputations, (2) discussing and analysing the ‘wicked problems’ resulting from the sometimes contradictory logics underpinning innovation and corporate reputations and SHRM in MNEs and (3) evaluating the potential of employer branding as a contribution to the third SHRM approach – HR strategy-in-action – as a way of resolving three particularly wicked problems in MNEs. We conclude with some ideas for research and practice on the future for employer branding.
Corporate reputation is critical for cultivating stakeholder relationships and, specifically, for regaining public trust. Corporate reputation results from the firm's interactions with stakeholders, emphasizing the important role employees play in reputation management. However, employees are not necessarily aware of, or prepared for, this extra-role assignment, indicating a gap in research and a managerial challenge. The purpose of the present article is to identify how employees' awareness of their impact on their employers' reputation is influenced by pride, job satisfaction, affective commitment, and perceived corporate reputation. An online survey of employees working for firms ranked in Fortune's America's Most Admired Companies Index provides empirical evidence. The findings underline the prominent effect pride in membership has regarding employees' awareness of their impact on corporate reputation. Study findings further deliver insights into opportunities and risks for managers who wish to use internal reputation building strategies to enhance corporate reputation.