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Efficiency of Some Plant Essential Oils Against the Two-Spotted Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch and the Two Predatory Mites Phytoseiulus persimilis

Authors:
  • Plant Protection Research Institute (PPRI) A.R.C Egypt

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Entomology Journal publishes original research papers and reviews from any entomological discipline or from directly allied fields in ecology, behavioral biology, Keywords: Essential oils Tetranychus urticae Phytoseiidae Spearmint Rosemary Chamomile Coriander Seven plant essential oils were tested for their toxicity against eggs and adults of Tetranychus urticae Koch as well as adults of the two predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) under laboratory conditions. Essential oils were extracted with water distillation from lemon grass, spearmint, rosemary, marjoram herbs, fennel and coriander seeds and flower of chamomile, in five concentrations 4%, 3%, 2%, 1% and 0.5% were used for each essential oil. LC 50 values for the adult females after 72h of T. urticae were 1.28, 0.85, 0.53, 1.61, 0.44, 3.11 and 0.46%, respectively. For these oils, LC 50 values for eggs of T. urticae were 1.54, 6.44, 0.96, 1.72, 1.30, 14.67 and 0.95%, respectively. Chamomile, coriander, spearmint and rosemary proved to be the most efficient agent against eggs and adults of T. urticae. Results indicated that the mean number of laid eggs were highly decreased as concentration increased, the highest decreased was observed with T. urticae females treated with 4% conc. of coriander. It produced 4.7 eggs/female compared with 44.3 eggs/female in untreated females. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between seven essential oils against between P. persimilis and N. californicus after 48h. The LC 50 values of the seven oils ranged between 7.09 and 9.63% for P. persimilis, where it ranged from 4.94 to 9.63 for N. californicus. The toxicity of all essential oils was lower to females of predacious mites than T. urticae. The data may suggest that essential oils of all seven plants have potential to be used for management of T. urticae and a good selectivity on the two predacious mites P. persimilis and N. californicus. The chemical composition of the essential oils was characterized by GC. INTRODUCTION The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is one of the most important pests in many cropping systems worldwide and the most polyphagous species within the family of the Tetranychidae. Its host plants (nearly 800 plant species) comprise of vegetables, fruits, crops and a wide range of ornamentals (Migeon and Dorkeld, 2010). The greatest problem with this mite is its ability to rapidly evolve resistance to pesticides (Cranham and Helle 1985). The host plant can be affected in different ways, including a decrease in photosynthesis or an injection of phytotoxic substances when feeding.
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12th Arab Congress of Plant Protection ,ACPP ,4 -10 November, 2017 Hurghada - Egypt
Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences is the official English
language journal of the Egyptian Society for Biological Sciences, Department of
Entomology, Faculty of Sciences Ain Shams University.
Entomology Journal publishes original research papers and reviews from any
entomological discipline or from directly allied fields in ecology, behavioral
biology, physiology, biochemistry, development, genetics, systematics,
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Vol. 10 No. 7 (2017)
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12th Arab Congress of Plant Protection ,ACPP ,4 -10 November, 2017 Hurghada - Egypt
Egypt. Acad. J. Biolog. Sci., 10(7): 135–147 (2017)
Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences
A. Entomology
ISSN 1687- 8809
www.eajbs.eg.net
Efficiency of Some Plant Essential Oils Against the Two-Spotted Spider Mite,
Tetranychus urticae Koch and the Two Predatory Mites Phytoseiulus persimilis
(A.-H.), and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor).
Ashraf S. Elhalawany1and Ahmed A. Dewidar2
1- Fruit Trees Mites Department, Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural
Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
2- Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Department, Horticultural Research Institute, Dokki,
Agricultural Research Centre, Giza, Egypt.
dr_ashraf_said@yahoo.com; Dewidar1@yahoo.com
ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT
Article History
Received:12/10/2017
Accepted: 12/11/2017
_______________
Keywords:
Essential oils
Tetranychus urticae
Phytoseiidae
Spearmint
Rosemary
Chamomile
Coriander
Seven plant essential oils were tested for their toxicity against eggs
and adults of Tetranychus urticae Koch as well as adults of the two
predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Neoseiulus
californicus (McGregor) under laboratory conditions. Essential oils were
extracted with water distillation from lemon grass, spearmint, rosemary,
marjoram herbs, fennel and coriander seeds and flower of chamomile, in
five concentrations 4%, 3%, 2%, 1% and 0.5% were used for each essential
oil. LC50 values for the adult females after 72h of T. urticae were 1.28, 0.85,
0.53, 1.61, 0.44, 3.11 and 0.46%, respectively. For these oils, LC50 values
for eggs of T. urticae were 1.54, 6.44, 0.96, 1.72, 1.30, 14.67 and 0.95%,
respectively. Chamomile, coriander, spearmint and rosemary proved to be
the most efficient agent against eggs and adults of T. urticae. Results
indicated that the mean number of laid eggs were highly decreased as
concentration increased, the highest decreased was observed with T. urticae
females treated with 4% conc. of coriander. It produced 4.7 eggs/female
compared with 44.3 eggs/female in untreated females. On the other hand,
there was no significant difference between seven essential oils against
between P. persimilis and N. californicus after 48h. The LC50 values of the
seven oils ranged between 7.09 and 9.63% for P. persimilis, where it ranged
from 4.94 to 9.63 for N. californicus. The toxicity of all essential oils was
lower to females of predacious mites than T. urticae. The data may suggest
that essential oils of all seven plants have potential to be used for
management of T. urticae and a good selectivity on the two predacious mites
P. persimilis and N. californicus. The chemical composition of the essential
oils was characterized by GC.
INTRODUCTION
The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is one of the most
important pests in many cropping systems worldwide and the most polyphagous
species within the family of the Tetranychidae. Its host plants (nearly 800 plant
species) comprise of vegetables, fruits, crops and a wide range of ornamentals
(Migeon and Dorkeld, 2010). The greatest problem with this mite is its ability to
rapidly evolve resistance to pesticides (Cranham and Helle 1985).
The host plant can be affected in different ways, including a decrease in
photosynthesis or an injection of phytotoxic substances when feeding.
Ashraf S. Elhalawany and Ahmed A. Dewidar
136
Moreover, the accumulation of faeces, webbing, and defoliation can affect the
plant’s appearance as well as its commercial value (Johnson and Lyon 1991). The
control of spider mites has been based mainly on the use of acaricides, resulting in
pesticide resistance and accumulation of pesticide residues on the harvested products
(Attia et al. 2013).
To date, several reports have dealt with the use of essential oils and other
extracts from plants to control phytophagous mites (Momen et al. 2001; Choi et al.
2004; Miresmailli and Isman 2006; Han et al. 2010 and Hussein et al. 2013).
However identifying selective pesticides for Integrated Pest Management
programs is necessary to protect the natural beneficial arthropod fauna and at the
same time reduce environmental pollutants. A low toxicity of these products to
natural beneficial is very important. Members of the family Phytoseiidae are
predatory mites and usually associated with phytophagous pest mites in fields; the
extensive and long-term use of chemical pesticides has serious adverse effects on
beneficial organisms, humans and the environment (Hoy and Ouyang, 1986).
The use of predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae had proved effective
control method in IPM programs for controlling pest mites especially the two spotted
spider mite T. urticae (McMurtry et al. 2013). Also reported that the predatory mite
Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) has characteristics of both type II specialist
predatory mite and type III generalist predatory mite. N. californicus prefers
Tetranychid mites as food, but will also consume other phytophagous mites, small
insects, such as thrips, and even pollen when the primary prey is unavailable.
Phytoseiulus persimilis A.-H., is one of the most important predator of tetranychid
mites and is widely found on various crops. It is considered one of the main
predatory mites used in IPM in Egypt (El-Sharabasy, 2010).
Essential, mineral and plant oils are less disruptive to predatory mites than
some commonly used synthetic miticides, and are generally much safer to use from
an environmental and human health perspective than synthetic miticides (Momen et
al. 2001; Momen and Amer, 2003).
The present work was carried out to study the direct effect of some plant oils
extracts on the pest mite T. urticae which is very harmful to agriculture and two
predacious mites (i.e. P. persimilis and N. californicus).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant material:
Seven essential oils extracted from lemon grass (Cymopogon citratus (Dc.)
Stapf), spearmint (Mentha viridis L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and
marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) herbs and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and
coriander (Coriandrum sativum L) fruits and chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.)
flowers were tested. Plant materials were obtained from the medicinal and aromatic
plants Department Farm, Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research
Center, El- Qanater El- Khayreya, Qualyubia, Egypt.
Extraction and analysis of volatile oil:
Volatile oil extraction:
The air dried plant was hydro distilled in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 4 h,
according to the procedure described in the Egyptian Pharmacopeia (2005) to
determine the volatile oil percentage (volume/weight). The obtained oils were
dehydrated by filtration through anhydrous sodium sulfate and kept in a refrigerator
in dark bottles for GC analysis. The Extraction of volatile oils and its components
Efficiency of some plant essential oils against the two-spotted spider mite T. urticae
137
were carried out at Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Department Laboratory,
Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt.
Preparation of the emulsions:
Emulsions of the seven essential oils were prepared for different concentrations
by mixing of Triton-x 100 with oils and completed with distilled water in exact
volume.
Gas chromatography analysis (GC):
The GC analysis of the volatile oil samples was carried out using gas
chromatography instrument at the Medicinal and Aromatic plants Dept. Laboratory,
Horticulture Research Institute. DsChrom 6200 Gas Chromatograph is equipped with
a flame ionization detector, Column: BPX-5, 5% phenyl (equiv.) polysillphenylene-
siloxane 30 m x 0.25 mm ID x 0.25 µm film. Sample size: 1 l, Temperature
program ramp increase with a rate of 10 ºC/min from 70 to 200 ºC, Detector
temperature (FID): 280 °C. Carrier gas: nitrogen. Flow rate: N2 30 ml/min; H2 30
ml/min; air 300 ml/min. Main compounds of the volatile oils were identified by
matching their retention times with those of the authentic samples injected under the
same conditions. The relative percentage of each compound was calculated from the
area of the peak corresponding to each compound.
Stock culture of the prey mite, T. urticae:
The stock colony of T. urticae was obtained from colonies that had been in
greenhouse for about two years before the beginning of the study in the laboratory
without exposure to any acaricide, at Qaha Agriculture Research Station (ARC),
Qualyubia governorate. They were reared on plastic pots (15 cm in diameter) on
bean plants, Phaseolus vulgaris L., adult mites were transferred to clean mulberry,
Morus alba L. leaf with the lower surface up, placed on moistened cotton pads
resting on sponges in the foam dish (15x20 cm). The colonies were maintained at
room temperature under laboratory conditions. The mulberry leaves were examined
every three days and replaced with fresh ones when over-crowding of mites and
yellow leaves were observed. All bioassays were conducted and carried out under the
same environmental conditions as the culture.
Stock cultures of the two predacious mites:
The two predatory mites P. persimilis and N. californicus were collected from
different plants especially strawberry plants. The colonies were maintained at room
temperature under laboratory conditions in large plastic boxes (70x30x40 cm), water
as added when needed. Excised bean leaves highly infested with T. urticae were
provided every day as food source for predatory mites. All bioassays were conducted
and carried out under the same environmental conditions as the culture.
Experimental design:
An experimental foam dish (15x20 cm) consisted of a mulberry leaf disc (3 cm
in diameter) kept upside down on moistened cotton pads resting on sponges. Water
was replaced, as required to prevent the mites from escaping and to keep the culture
healthy. A total of 40 experimental foam dishes were divided into seven treatments
and a control, with six replicates in each treatment.
Treatment eggs of T. urticae:
Leaf discs of mulberry leaves were used as substrate to ovipositor. Six leaf
discs were used for each treatment and ten mite females were transferred to each disc
and left 24 h to lay eggs, then females were removed. Subsequently, six replicates
leaf discs (20 eggs/replicate) were used per concentration (4%, 3%, 2%, 1% and
0.5%). Eggs were sprayed by a glass atomizer in each concentration for each
essential oil and other in distilled water (control). Eggs were maintained at room
Ashraf S. Elhalawany and Ahmed A. Dewidar
138
temperature under laboratory conditions for eight days till hatching. The numbers of
hatching and non-hatching eggs were recorded. Corrected mortality counts according
to Abbott’s formula (1925) and LC50, LC90 and slope values were estimated
according to Finney (1971).
Treatment adult females of T. urticae:
Ten adult females of T. urticae were transferred to the lower surface to each
disc of mulberry leaf discs (10 adult female/leaf discs) treated previously, using a
fine camel hairbrush. Leaf discs were treated with one of previous treatments. Each
treatment was replicated six times. Mortality was recorded after 24, 48 and 72 h post
treatments under a binocular microscope. Mites were considered to be dead if their
bodies or appendages did not move when prodded with fine camel hairbrush (Kim et
al. 2004). The percentage reduction in the treatments was corrected in relation to the
control (water) by Henderson and Tilton’s formula (1955).
Effect of plant essential oils on fecundity and mortality of T. urticae females:
Leaf disks of Mulberry plants were painted with various concentrations of
tested oils. Newly emerged females were transferred singly on painted leaf discs.
Fifteen replicate leaf discs were used per each concentration and similar number of
females on clean leaf disks was used as a control. The fecundity and mortality of
females were recorded for 7 days. The oviposition deterrent indices (ODI) were
calculated as reported by Lundgren (1975):
Direct effect of plant essential oils on adult females of two predacious mites:
Each newly adult females of two predatory mites (P. persimilis and N.
californicus) were confined separately on the lower surfaces of mulberry leaves
while the upper surfaces were placed on cotton saturated with water, tangle foot
(Vaseline) was applied on the rim of leaf discs to prevent dispersal. A number of the
preys, T. urticae were added as a food for the two predacious mites. Predacious mites
were sprayed using a glass atomizer. Each test contained 5 concentrations and each
concentration had 6 replicates (15 females/replicate). In every test, a water control
was included. Mortality was recorded after 24 & 48 h after application.
Statistical analysis:
All data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Least
Significant Difference Test (LSD) was employed to compare the treatment means (P
= 0.05), means were compared by Duncan’s test using the SAS Program version 9.1
(SAS Institute, 2010). Data obtained from each dose-response bioassay were
subjected to probit analysis (Finney, 1971) to estimate LC50 and LC90 values using
Ldp line software. The terms of oviposition deterrent indices (ODI) as defined by
(Lundgren, 1975) as ODI= (C-T/T+C)* 100%, C= number of eggs in control, T=
number of eggs in treatment.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Toxicity effect of seven essential oils on eggs of T. urticae after 7days:
The effect of seven plant extracts at different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2%,
3% and 4%) of aqueous extracts of lemon grass, spearmint, rosemary, fennel, flower
of chamomile, marjoram and seeds of coriander were tested to evaluate their toxic
effect after 7 days against eggs T. urticae and the obtained results have been obtained
in Figure 1.
All essential oils tested had toxic effects against the eggs of T. urticae.
Coriander and rosemary oils were the most potent oils tested eggs (LC50= 0.95 and
0.96 & LC90= 3.69 and 6.47) of T. urticae respectively, while spearmint and
Efficiency of some plant essential oils against the two-spotted spider mite T. urticae
139
marjoram oils were the least toxic oil tested on eggs (LC50= 6.44 and 14.67 & LC90=
31.52 and 427.63), respectively.
Fig. 1: Toxicity effect of seven essential oils on eggs of T. urticae after 7days.
The slopes for coriander, rosemary, chamomile, lemongrass, fennel, spearmint
and marjoram are 2.17, 1.55, 2.56, 1.0, 1.86, 1.86 and .88, respectively. Thus, it is
shown that chamomile essential oil became more effective with increase in the
concentrations. Marjoram is of the lowest slope showing that its effectiveness on the
mite is not as pronounced as coriander, rosemary and chamomile.
Toxicity effect of seven essential oils for adults of T. urticae :
Results from Table (1) indicated that, the corresponding LC50 values of
chamomile, coriander, rosemary, spearmint, lemongrass, fennel and marjoram
against the adult females of T. urticae after 24h of treated were 0.63, 0.62, 0.96, 1.3,
2.04, 2.88 and 5.75%, and the corresponding LC90 values were 8.37, 7.58, 23.45,
6.41, 22.29, 79.09 and 166.09%, respectively.
Table 1: Toxicity effect of seven essential oils for adults of T. urticae after 24, 48 and 72h.
Essential oils Time (h) LC50 Lower limit
% Upper limit % Slope Toxicity index LC90 X
2
Chamomile 24 0.63 0.31 0.91 1.14 98.72 8.37 1.77
48 0.51 0.25 0.75 1.25 100 5.38 2.21
72 0.44 0.26 0.62 1.67 100 2.59 3.00
Coriander 24 0.62 0.31 0.89 1.18 100 7.58 1.77
48 0.59 0.35 0.81 1.44 85.69 4.58 1.61
72 0.46 0.28 0.63 1.75 95.69 2.50 5.49
Rosemary 24 0.96 0.49 1.39 0.92 64.35 23.45 2.02
48 0.72 0.32 1.07 0.97 70.40 15.05 2.43
72 0.53 0.23 0.79 1.13 84.41 7.16 3.19
Spearmint 24 1.30 1.04 1.57 1.85 47.73 6.41 3.14
48 1.10 0.87 1.32 1.94 46.48 5.03 3.92
72 0.85 0.67 1.02 2.25 52.24 3.15 6.01
Lemon grass 24 2.04 1.55 2.85 1.24 30.28 22.29 1.11
48 1.72 1.25 2.39 1.13 29.56 23.41 0.67
72 1.28 0.98 1.61 1.53 34.63 8.84 3.07
Fennel 24 2.88 1.97 6.05 0.89 21.49 79.09 0.21
48 2.13 1.45 3.66 0.88 23.95 59.83 0.18
72 1.61 1.07 2.39 0.94 27.60 37.38 0.17
Marjoram 24 2.88 1.97 6.05 0.89 21.49 79.09 0.21
48 4.32 2.71 14.85 0.84 11.77 142.6 0.43
72 3.11 2.06 7.65 0.84 14.28 105.6 0.27
Ashraf S. Elhalawany and Ahmed A. Dewidar
140
While the corresponding LC50 values after 48h of treated against the adult
females of T. urticae were 0.51, 0.59, 0.72, 1.1, 1.72, 2.13 and 4.32%, and the
consequent LC90 values were 5.38, 4.58, 15.05, 5.03, 23.41, 59.83 and 142.57%,
respectively. Spearmint recorded the highest slop value after 24 and 48 h 1.85& 1.94,
respectively. Whereas the lowest slop value were 0.88 & 0.84 for marjoram oil after
24 and 48 h, respectively.
On the other hand, the corresponding LC50 values after 72 h for adults were
0.44, 0.46, 0.53, 0.85, 1.28, 1.61 and 3.11% and the consequent LC90 values were
2.59, 2.5, 7.16, 3.15, 8.84, 37.38 and 105.64%, respectively. The slop values of
regression line were 1.67, 1.75, 1.13, 2.25, 1.53, 0.94 and 0.84 for chamomile,
coriander, rosemary, spearmint, lemongrass, fennel and marjoram after 72 h for
adults, respectively.
Effect of plant essential oils on fecundity and mortality of T. urticae females:
Data shown in Tables (2 & 3) clearly indicated that, potential effect of this
extract. Reproduction of T. urticae was greatly affected by oils treatment. Significant
reduction in the total number of eggs laid during 7 days period was found for all the
concentrations tested. Statistically, control recorded the highest eggs laid per
female/7day (41.33 eggs) with significant differences with all treatments, followed
by fennel 15, 17.53 and 20.6 eggs/female/7 days at concentrations 4%, 3% & 2%,
respectively whereas coriander occupied the lowest mean numbers of eggs/female/7
days by 4.73, 8.33, 14.2, 16.6 and 19.45 eggs at concentrations 4%, 3%, 2%, 1% &
0.5%, respectively.
Table 2: Effect of various concentrations of seven essential oils on reproduction of T. urticae.
Essential oils Mean number of eggs deposited/ female/ 7days ± SD
4% 3% 2% 1% 0.5%
Lemon grass 8.80 ±2.18de 17.40±2.53
b
19.27±2.66
b
c30.60±4.05
b
35.80±3.9
b
Spearmint 6.60±1.84fg 9.60±2.59
d
14.07±2.25
d
22.47±4.72
d
24.87±3.18e
Rosemary 7.53±2.03ef 16.07±1.84
b
18.33±1.77c24.42±2.68c 27.38±3.08de
Fennel 15.00±2.14
b
17.53±3.09
b
20.60±3.56
b
28.00±3.05
b
31.20±2.76c
Chamomile 10.53±2.72c
d
12.33±2.94c17.73±2.81c20.60±3.56
d
29.67±4.3c
d
Marjoram 12.00±3.32e 12.33±2.99c14.07±2.25
d
24.87±3.18c 26.27±4.37e
Coriander 4.73±1.87g 8.33±2.47
d
14.20±1.97
d
16.60±6.22e 19.45±2.93f
Control 41.33±5.39a
F 247.2 165.8 131.5 46.4 41.0
LSD at 0.05 2.09 2.27 2.2 3.08 2.95
Means followed in the same column by the same letter are not significantly different (P 0.05).
Table 3: Effect of various concentrations of seven essential oils on oviposition deterrent indices (ODI)
of T. urticae.
Essential oils Oviposition deterrent indices (ODI) %
4% 3% 2% 1% 0.5%
Lemon grass 64.9 40.7 36.4 14.9 7.2
Spearmint 72.5 62.3 49.2 29.6 24.9
Rosemary 69.2 44.0 38.5 25.7 20.3
Fennel 46.7 40.4 33.5 19.2 14.0
Chamomile 59.4 54.0 40.0 33.5 16.4
Marjoram 55.0 54.0 49.2 24.9 22.3
Coriander 79.4 66.4 48.9 42.7 36.0
The depression in total number of eggs with high concentrations could be
attributed to feeding inhibition and effects of the formulation, causing depression on
reproduction activity. The oviposition deterrent indices (ODI) of tested oils was
highest at 4% concentration varied between (46.7–79.4%), while the lowest values at
Efficiency of some plant essential oils against the two-spotted spider mite T. urticae
141
0.5% concentration varied from 7.2% on lemongrass and 36% on coriander oils.
Direct effect of plant extracts oils on adult females of two predacious mites:
The obtained results as shown in (Table 4 and 5) revealed that the relation
between the percentage of mortality and concentrations of seven essential oils on
female stages of P. persimilis and N. californicus. Fennel was more toxic to females
of the predatory mite P. persimilis (LC50=0.8.04& 7.09% and LC90= 45.31&
62.61%) followed by chamomile oil (LC50=10.02 & 7.37% and LC90= 95.61&
90.25%) after 24 and 48h respectively, while rosemary has less activity against the
females P. persimilis (LC50=14.42& 10.71% and LC90= 139.89& 143.15 %) after 24
and 48h respectively (Table 4). No significant differences were recorded between the
seven essential oils against adult females of the predatory mite P. persimilis.
Table 4: Toxicity effect of seven essential oils for adults of the predatory mite P. persimilis after 24
and 48h.
Essential oils Time
(h) LC50 Lower
limit %
Upper
limit % Slope Toxicity
index LC90 X
2 P
Fennel 24 8.04 5.27 20.65 1.71 100 45.31 0.06 1.00
48 7.09 4.57 18.70 1.36 100 62.61 0.18 0.98
Chamomile 24 10.02 5.73 41.51 1.31 80.23 95.61 0.15 0.98
48 7.37 4.50 23.95 1.18 96.19 90.25 0.36 0.95
Coriander 24 10.48 5.85 48.05 1.27 76.72 106.98 0.25 0.97
48 8.69 4.82 44.57 1.03 81.55 154.34 0.15 0.98
Spearmint 24 12.66 6.40 92.77 1.15 63.49 164.29 1.40 0.71
48 9.05 4.87 54.98 0.98 78.32 183.41 0.79 0.85
Marjoram 24 10.82 6.19 45.82 1.47 74.31 80.85 0.57 0.90
48 9.47 5.43 39.07 1.23 74.85 103.76 0.12 0.99
Lemongrass 24 11.18 6.41 49.13 1.59 71.86 71.43 0.33 0.95
48 9.63 5.60 37.13 1.33 73.62 89.03 0.21 0.98
Rosemary 24 14.42 7.15 117.9 1.30 55.75 139.89 0.26 0.97
48 10.71 5.74 60.12 1.14 66.18 143.15 0.15 0.98
The results illustrated in Table (5) proved that, the Ldp-lines of toxicity effects
of seven essential oils on adult females of N. californicus. When compare between
the effects of essential oils of mortality percentage of females of N. californicus after
24 and 48h from treatment it can be conducted that spearmint was more toxic the
LC50 values 4.94 and 6.85%; LC90 values 78.43 and 72.11% and the slope values
gave 1.25 and 1.07 respectively, whereas marjoram was less toxic to adult of females
of N. californicus LC50 values 11.39and 9.63%; LC90 values 125.88 and 222.43%
and the slope values gave 1.23 and 0.94, respectively. Insignificant differences were
recorded between the seven essential oils against adult females of the predatory mite
N. californicus.
The present results are in agreement with the data cited by Kawka (2004) who
studied the effect of chamomile extracts from fresh and dry on T. urticae. Rosemary
oil was the most toxic to females of Neoseiulus barkeri (Hughes) and the least to
Neoseiulus zaheri Yousef & El-Borolossy. In contrast, marjoram oil was relatively
toxic to Typhlodromus athiasae Porath & Swirski, and slightly toxic to N. barkeri.
Both essential oils, decreased the food consumption rate at the concentration used for
N. barkeri and N. zaheri (Momen and Amer, 1999).
Based on direct contact toxicity, Melissacide was found to be 10 times more
active on the pest T. urticae than the predator Neoseiulus californicus females,
respectively. The formulation was extremely active on T. urticae eggs than predatory
eggs.
Ashraf S. Elhalawany and Ahmed A. Dewidar
142
Table 5: Toxicity effect of seven essential oils for adults of the predatory mite N. californicus after 24
and 48h.
Essential oils Time (h) LC50 Lower limit % Upper limit % Slope Toxicity index LC90 X
2 P
Spearmint 24 6.85 4.36 19.02 1.25 100 72.11 0.38 0.94
48 4.94 3.25 12.63 1.07 100 78.43 0.27 0.97
Coriander 24 9.19 5.24 39.13 1.18 74.50 113.24 0.11 0.99
48 6.43 3.92 22.17 1.04 76.88 110.11 0.15 0.99
Rosemary 24 9.00 5.42 30.29 1.39 76.10 75.41 0.15 0.98
48 6.61 4.23 18.08 1.24 74.75 72.13 0.33 0.95
Chamomile 24 8.97 5.16 36.95 1.18 76.36 110.49 0.02 1.00
48 6.64 3.92 27.11 0.97 74.48 137.77 0.03 1.00
Fennel 24 9.98 5.97 35.75 1.59 68.63 64.18 0.30 0.96
48 7.39 4.80 19.01 1.46 66.91 55.87 0.43 0.93
Lemongrass 24 9.92 5.73 39.49 1.34 69.02 89.70 0.57 0.90
48 7.76 4.58 29.50 1.11 63.72 111.54 0.60 0.90
Marjoram 24 11.39 6.11 62.46 1.23 60.11 125.88 0.71 0.87
48 9.63 4.99 72.95 0.94 51.35 222.43 0.26 0.97
Momen et al. 2001 showed that that mint is satisfactory as regards both high
mortality and low reduction of fecundity for T. urticae. Mint was more toxic to T.
urticae than to phytoseiid predators studied. In contrast, peppermint was more
effective on most phytoseiid predators than mint, as well as it was considered to be
less toxic to T. urticae than mint. In the next year, Amer and Momen 2002 found that
the direct toxicity of four essential oils, marjoram, rosemary, peppermint and
lavender to adult females of the predacious mite Amblyseius swirskii A.-H., were
tested. Peppermint oil was the most toxic to females' A. swiriskii while the French
lavender oil was the least toxic to the predator. All essential oils, at the two
concentrations used, decreased the food consumption rate as well as egg laying.
Choi et al. 2004 reported that, among the 53 essential oils of caraway seed,
citronella, lemon, eucalyptus, pennyroyal and peppermint were found to be highly
toxic to mite species, T. urticae and P. persimilis.
Use of natural compounds from essential oils has been suggested as a viable
source of alternative treatments for insect and mite control because many of such
compounds have novel modes of action, no or low toxicity to non-target organisms
and mammals, and are less harmful to the environment (Isman, 2006). In the same
year, Momen et al. 2006 showed that, Sweet basil oil was the most toxic essential oil
to females Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans), while sweet marjoram oil was the
least toxic one (LC50=2.315 and 7.021%, respectively). In contrast, rosemary oil was
toxic to eggs of N. cucumeris, while sweet basil oil was the least effective oil against
predator eggs (LC50 = 2.695 and 11.950%, respectively). Also, rosemary and sweet
marjoram oils seem to be slightly harmful to N. cucumeris at (LC50) concentration of
each oil. In addition, Miresmailli and Isman (2006) reported that, rosemary oil repels
two spotted spider mite, T. urticae and can affect oviposition behavior. Also, the
predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis is less susceptible to rosemary oil than two-
spotted spider mite.
Han et al. 2010 found that spearmint and basil oils were significantly less toxic
to T. urticae and N. californicus. Afifi et al. 2012 indicated that chamomile
represented the most potent efficient acaricidal agent against T. urticae followed by
marjoram and Eucalyptus. The LC50 values of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus
for adults were 0.65, 1.84 and 2.18, respectively and for eggs 1.17, 6.26 and 7.33,
respectively. Mead 2012 found that, the lemongrass oil was more toxic against adults
of T. urticae using spraying method than leaf dip technique method. A significantly
reduced hatchability percentage of T. urticae eggs than control that recorded 85.33,
77.33, 57.33 and 33.33 % for concentration 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 %, respectively.
Efficiency of some plant essential oils against the two-spotted spider mite T. urticae
143
Momen et al. 2014 showed that the predator Neoseiulus californicus is
extremely less sensitive to Melissa oil and Melissacide than the pest T. urticae in the
laboratory. When N. californicus was sprayed with (LC50 and LC90 values reported
on T. urticae), females mortalities ranged between 8.5–13%, respectively. In the next
year, Salman et al. 2015 found that in all concentrations of the essential oils of
lavandin, sage, rosemary and hyssop essential oils had high contact effect on T.
urticae adults and nymphs.
Chemical constituents of essential oils:
The obtained results as shown in Tables (6 &7) and Figs (2, 3, 4& 5) clarified
the gas chromatography analysis for selected four essential oils chamomile,
spearmint, coriander and rosemary volatile oils which the most effective of T. urticae
during this study.
Table 6: GC analysis report for rosemary and spearmint volatile oils.
Rosemary Spearmint
PK.NO. Component Pct. (%) PK.NO. Component Pct. (%)
1 -Pinene 3.05 1 -Pinene 0.27
2 camphene 1.09 2 Sabinene 0.49
3 - Pinene 0.50 3 Myrcene 1.26
4 Unknown 0.74 4 - Pinene 1.28
5 Unknown 0.17 5 P-Cymene 1.17
6 Limonene 5.10 6 Unknown 0.70
7 1,8 cineole 1.86 7 limonene 11.23
8 Unknown 0.52 8 1,8 cineole 6.94
9 Unknown 0.66 9 - ocimene 0.56
10 camphor 54.36 10 -terpineol 0.83
11 -terpineol 1.38 11 -terpineol 0.53
12 borneol 1.07 12 Dihydrocarveol 1.19
13 Bornyl acetate 4.66 13 Dihydrocarvone 0.48
14 Unknown 3.48 14 Trans- carveol 0.30
15 Eugenol 14.17 15 Pulegone 0.53
16 -caryophyllene 4.30 16 Carvone 70.29
17 Unknown 2.22 17 Dihydrocarveol acetate 1.11
18 Unknown 0.67 18 -caryophyllene 0.84
sum 100.00 19 Caryophyllene oxide 0.01
sum 100.00
Table 7: GC analysis report for chamomile and coriander volatile oils.
Chamomile Coriander
PK.NO. Component Pct. (%) PK.NO. Component Pct. (%)
1 -Pinene 0.92 1 -Pinene 2.44
2 -Farnesene 1.41 2 Unknown 0.28
3 1,8-Cineol 1.67 3 Sabinene 0.32
4 -Farnesene 2.57 4 Myrcene 0.99
5 Isofaurinone 1.82 5 - Pinene 2.40
6 -Cadinene 1.58 6 P-Cymene 1.03
7 Caryophyllene oxide 1.91 7 Linalool 85.60
8 Bisabolol oxide b 16.40 8 Geraniol 0.86
9 -Eudesmol 1.92 9 Unknown 0.55
10 -Bisabolol 3.96 10 borneol 0.80
11 Spathylenol 1.26 11 Linalyl acetate 3.23
12 Unknown 1.44 12 Geranyl acetate 1.51
13 Bisabolene oxide a 9.01 sum 100.00
14 -Bisabolol 6.09
15 Chamazulene 1.24
16 Bisabolol oxide a 44.34
17 Trans - dicycloether 2.45
sum 100.00
Ashraf S. Elhalawany and Ahmed A. Dewidar
144
Fig. 2: GC analysis chromatogram for rosemary volatile oil.
Fig. 3: GC analysis chromatogram for spearmint volatile oil.
Fig. 4: GC analysis chromatogram for chamomile volatile oil.
Fig. 5: GC analysis chromatogram for coriander volatile oil.
Efficiency of some plant essential oils against the two-spotted spider mite T. urticae
145
Gas chromatography analysis for volatile oils showed that, bisabolol oxide a
(44.34%), carvone (70.29%), linalool (85.60%) and camphor (54.36%) were the
main components of chamomile, spearmint, coriander and rosemary volatile oils
respectively, which may be responsible for controlling T. urticae.
Comparable results were obtained by Momen et al. 2001 they showed that mint
oil was mainly characterized by high concentration of carvone (57.351%), while
menthone and menthol represented the main components in peppermint oil since they
formed 25.145 and 21.633% of oil content, respectively. The essential oil extracted
from Foeniculum vulgare was less toxic to adults of T. urticae than the eggs. The
main compounds in F. vulgare oils are T-anethole, estragole, fenchone and limonene
(Aprotosoaie et al. 2010; Amizadeh et al. 2013).
CONCLUSION
Present results indicated that the LC50 value of T. urticae of all essential oil and
its formulation is essential to select the best one which can be effective to T. urticae
and also safe when select the oil in IPM programme. This work offered here is based
on laboratory data; care should be taken in translating results of laboratory to the
field.
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ARABIC SUMMARY
       Tetranychus urticae 
Phytoseiulus persimilis Neoseiulus californicus
  
   
-    -    -  - - - 
-     -   -   - - - 
               
     Phytoseiulus persimilis Neoseiulus californicus 
  .             
            4 3 
2 1 0.5   .  LC50   72    1.28 0.85
0.53 1.61 0.44 3.11 0.46  .          
 LC50 1.54 6.44 0.96 1.72 1.30 14.67 0.95  .     
                .
                 
         4    4.7  /  
44.3  /     .          P. persimilis
N. californicus 48    LC50   7.09 9.63 P. persimilis
   4.94 9.63 N. californicus .        
      .         
          P. persimilis N. californicus . 
       .
  :          .
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