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Abstract

Background and Objective: The nutrient and anti-nutrient compositions of a foodstuff affects its utilization as food or feed. The nutrient contents of food ingredients are affected by the environmental conditions in which the plant was grown and oxalate in a foodstuff limits its utilization and exerts a negative effect on consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutrient value, minerals and anti-nutrient values in Amorphophallus campanulatus (A. campanulatus). Materials and Methods: The A. campanulatus tubers were collected from East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia and then cleaned, peeled, chopped, sun-dried for 2 days (at 30-32°C), milled into powder and then analyzed for the proximate and anti-nutrient contents. Results: The nutrient content of A. campanulatus flour included crude protein (1.126±0.101%), crude fat (1.173±0%) and crude fiber (3.447±0.142%). The detected minerals included P (1443.33±34.185 mg kg⁻¹), Ca (8535.76±543.75 mg kg⁻¹) and Mg (1512.39±89.28 mg kg⁻¹). Anti-nutrient analysis indicated the presence of oxalates (318.51±3.2 mg kg⁻¹), tannins (0.46±0.04%), cyanide (35878±0.402 ppm) and phytates (0.165±0.015%). Conclusion: These results revealed that A. campanulatus was high in mineral content but low in anti-nutrient content, so it can be used for food or feed.
OPEN ACCESS Pakistan Journal of Nutrition
ISSN 1680-5194
DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2017.935.939
Research Article
Nutritional Composition and Anti-Nutrient Content of Elephant
Foot Yam (Amorphophallus campanulatus)
1,2Theresia Nur Indah Koni, 1Rusman, 1Chusnul Hanim and 1Zuprizal
1Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
2Department of Animal Science, Kupang State Agricultural Polytechnic, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia
Abstract
Background and Objective: The nutrient and anti-nutrient compositions of a foodstuff affects its utilization as food or feed. The nutrient
contents of food ingredients are affected by the environmental conditions in which the plant was grown and oxalate in a foodstuff
limits its utilization and exerts a negative effect on consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutrient value, minerals and
anti-nutrient values in
Amorphophallus campanulatus (A. campanulatus
). Materials and Methods:
The
A. campanulatus
tubers were
collected from East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia and then cleaned, peeled, chopped, sun-dried for 2 days (at 30-32EC), milled into
powder and then analyzed for the proximate and anti-nutrient contents. Results: The nutrient content of
A. campanulatus
flour
included crude protein (1.126±0.101%), crude fat (1.173±0%) and crude fiber (3.447±0.142%). The detected minerals included P
(1443.33±34.185 mg kgG1), Ca (8535.76±543.75 mg kgG1) and Mg (1512.39±89.28 mg kgG1). Anti-nutrient analysis indicated the presence
of oxalates (318.51±3.2 mg kgG1), tannins (0.46±0.04%), cyanide (35878±0.402 ppm) and phytates (0.165±0.015%). Conclusion: These
results revealed that
A. campanulatus
was
high in mineral content but low in anti-nutrient content, so it can be used for food or feed.
Key words:
Amorphophallus campanulatus
, oxalate, tannin, cyanide, phytate, nutritional value
Received: June 14, 2017 Accepted: November 13, 2017 Published: November 15, 2017
Citation: Theresia Nur Indah Koni, Rusman, Chusnul Hanim and Zuprizal, 2017. Nutritional composition and anti-nutrient content of elephant foot yam
(
Amorphophallus campanulatus
). Pak. J. Nutr., 16: 935-939.
Corresponding Author: Theresia Nur Indah Koni, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Zuprizal, Department of Animal Science, Kupang State Agricultural Polytechnic, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia
Copyright: © 2017 Theresia Nur Indah Koni
et al
. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Competing Interest: The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.
Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its supporting information files.
Pak. J. Nutr., 16 (12): 935-939, 2017
INTRODUCTION
Amorphophallus campanulatus
is synonymous with
Amorphophallus
paeoniifolius
(
A. paeoniifolius
) and is
commonly known as the elephant foot yam and also called as
maek in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The plants are
herbaceous and belong to the Araceae family, which is a
native crop of South Asia that is widely distributed in India,
Malaysia, the Philippines, Bangladesh, Indonesia and
Southeast Asia1-4.
Elephant foot yam has been cultivated as an intercrop
plant along with ginger under coconut or banana
trees in India. The production yield of the elephant foot yam
is 50-80 t haG1, thus, this plant has a low rate of production
and is an underutilized crop in Indonesia4. The production
of
Amorphophallus muelleri
(
A. muelleri
) in East Java is
6-10 t haG1/year1 of fresh tuber. In East Nusa Tenggara, this
plant is not cultivated (i.e., it is a wild plant), which is the cause
of its low productivity. Elephant foot yam tubers are usually
eaten as vegetables after boiling1. The tubers have been
used as traditional food sources in Malaysia, Philippines,
Bangladesh, Indonesia and India1-3 as traditional medicine1
and animal feed2. Elephant foot yam tubers contain
P (34 mg/100 g), calcium (50 mg/100 g), vitamin A
(434 IU/100 g)1, crude protein (2.14%), fat (0.46%), calcium
(32.1 mg/100 g) and crude fiber (1.68%)5. The tuber also
contains anti-nutrient factors, such as oxalate and phytate. The
level of oxalic acid in the elephant foot yam is 1.3%2. The
nutrient compositions of elephant foot yam tubers vary
according to where they are grown, the soil, the season, the
water and climate situations6. This study was co nducted to
evaluate the nutrient and anti-nutrient compositions of wild
elephant foot yams from East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Materials: Elephant foot yam tubers were collected from
Kupang District of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The tubers
were cleaned, peeled, chopped to 7 cm in length, sun-dried
for 2 days at 30-32EC and milled into powder.
Nutrient contents: The flour of elephant foot yam tubers
was analyzed for proximate, energy, mineral contents and
the anti-nutrient factors, such as hydrogen cyanide, oxalate,
tannins and phytate.
The proximate and mineral compositions were
determined according to the AOAC7 methods. First the
samples were oven dried at 105EC to assess the moisture
content (method 934.01), the Kjeldahl method, which consists
of digestion, distillation and titration (method 990.02) was
utilized to assess the crude protein (nitrogen×6.25) content
and extraction in acid and alkali solutions (method 978.10)
was used to assess the crude fiber. The mineral contents,
including calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P),
were measured by dissolving ash samples in acids (a mixture
of HCl and HNO3). Subsequently, Ca and Mg were assessed
using the AAS (method 942.05) and P was determined using
spectrophotometry method (method 965.17). The gross
energy value was determined with a bomb calorimeter.
Anti-nutrient contents: The anti-nutritional factor oxalic
acid was assessed by HPLC according to the methods of
Savage
et al
.8. Phytate was evaluated with spectrophotometry
method according to Vaintraub and Lapteva9, tannins were
determined according to the method of Burns10 and
hydrocyanic acid (HCN) content was determined using the
alkaline titration method (method 915.03)7.
Statistical analysis: Three independent analyses were
performed for nutritional components, minerals and
anti-nutrient contents. The results are expressed as the means
and the standard deviation values (mean±SD).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Nutritional composition: Elephant foot yam is wild crop in
East Nusa Tenggara and its nutritional content is presented in
Table 1. Protein content of the tuber was 1.126%, which falls
within the range of 0.84-2.6% of the protein contents of
cultivar tubers of elephant foot yams in India as reported by
Chattopadhyay
et al
.6. Paul
et al
.2 reported that elephant
foot yams are rich in minerals but poor in proteins. The
elephant foot yams examined in this experiment contained
a higher content of crude fat than the elephant foot
yam cultivars in India (0.01-0.4%) as reported by
Chattopadhyay
et al
.6.
The phosphorus content of the yams was
1443.33 mg kgG1. Chattopadhyay
et al
.6 reported a similar
value for elephant foot yams in India (20.89- 247 mg/100 g).
The calcium content was found to be 8535.76 mg kgG1 and
the magnesium content of this tuber was 1512.28 mg kgG1.
Paul
et al
.2 reported that elephant foot yams are rich in
minerals, such as calcium (950 mg/100 g), phosphorus
(934 mg/100 g) and iron (0.6 mg/100 g). The elephant foot
yam is a good source of minerals that can supply a large
portion of the daily requirements of minerals in food or feed.
Calcium and phosphorus are the major minerals that the body
requires in large quantities. Minerals have functions in the
936
Pak. J. Nutr., 16 (12): 935-939, 2017
Table 1: Analysis of the composition of
Amorphophallus campanulatus
Components Values
Crude protein (%) 1.126±0.1010
Crude fat (%) 1.173±0.0180
Crude fiber (%) 3.447±0.1420
Ash (%) 6.627±0.1680
Phosphorus (mg kgG1) 1443.330±34.185
Calcium (mg kgG1) 8535.760±543.754
Magnesium (mg kgG1) 1512.385±89.276
Calories (cal gG1) 3356.500±15.306
The values are presented as the means±the standard deviations of three
determinations
Table 2: Anti-nutrient content of
Amorphophallus campanulatus
Components Values
Oxalate (mg kgG1) 318.510±3.210
Tannin (%) 0.456±0.045
Hydrogen cyanide (ppm) 35.878±0.402
Phytate (%) 0.165±0.015
The values are presented as the means±the standard deviations of three
determinations
body that include as enzymatic regulation, acid-base
processes, bone growth and muscle stimulation.
Anti-nutrient content: Anti-nutrient factors can influence
animals in several manners, including directly intoxicating the
animals, causing mortality or decreased production11 and
decreasing feed intake12. The mean anti-nutrient
concentrations in the elephant foot yams in this study
are provided in Table 2. The oxalate concentration was
31.851 mg/100 g, which is higher than that reported for
cultivars in India (2.91-18.50 mg/100 g)6. The oxalate content
in plants is affected by many factors, including the season, soil,
water, climatic conditions and where the plant is grown13.
Oxalic acid is strongly oxidized and exhibits mineral chelating
activity. Oxalates react with calcium to produce insoluble
calcium oxalate, which reduces calcium absorption11. A high
intake of oxalate in foods causes hypocalcemia and the
deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in the kidney2,14,15. Oxalic
acid ingestion results in gastric hemorrhaging, corrosion of the
mouth and gastrointestinal tract and renal failure16. Soluble
oxalate ingestion of less than 2% for ruminants and 0.5% for
non-ruminants might be acceptable14. Cattle and sheep are
less affected because of the degradation of oxalate in the
rumen17. In humans, the minimum dose of oxalate that can
cause death in adults is 40-50 mg14. Cooking and fermenting
can decrease the oxalate contents of soybean and soybean
products18. Sun drying processes can also decrease the oxalate
content by 26-35% in the false yam tuber.
Tannins are plant polyphenols that have the ability to
form complexes with metal ions and macromolecules such as
proteins and polysaccharides19. The tannin content in the
elephant foot yams was 0.456% (Table 2).
A. paeoniifolius
extract contains flavonoids, tannins, proteins and
carbohydrates20. Tannins have a strong affinity for proteins
and form protein-tannin complexes21, which have been
reported to be responsible for decrease in feed intake,
growth rate, feed efficiency, net metabolizable energy and
protein digestibility22. At the levels of 100-120 g kgG1, tannins
reduce gastrointestinal parasitism in lambs23 and inhibit
the growth of fiber-degrading bacteria in the digestive tracts
of ruminants24. Vohra
et al
.25 reported that chicks fed tannins
at dietary levels of 0.64-0.84% and 1.0-2% exhibited depressed
growth, egg production and an increase in the content to
>3% caused mortality. Tannin levels can be reduced by
fermentation processes. Ridla
et al
.26 studied fermented
Chromolaena odorata
in rumen content and found that
putak meal can reduce tannin levels
.
Hydrogen cyanide was observed at a level of 35.878 ppm
in the elephant foot yams (Table 2). Hydrogen cyanide (HCN)
is widespread in the plant kingdom and mainly exists in the
form of cyanogenic glucosides21. The cyanide concentration of
the elephant foot yam is lower than that of the cassava root in
which the level varies from approximately 75-350 ppm27 but
can reach 1000 ppm or more21 depending on the variety, plant
age, soil conditions, fertilizer application, weather and other
factors11. High levels of HCN have been implicated in cerebral
damage and lethargy in animals and humans. Cyanide
toxicosis is caused by the inhibition of cytochrome oxidase,
which is a terminal respiratory enzyme in all cells. When
cytochrome oxidase is inhibited, the cells suffer from rapid
ATP deprivation. Signs of cyanide toxicosis include labored
breathing, excitement, gasping, staggering, convulsions,
paralysis and death. Blood is bright red due to its high
oxyhemoglobin content11. Highly toxic hydrocyanic acid (HCN)
is released from cyanogenic glucosides during hydrolysis by
the enzyme linamarase, which is present in the root peel of
the cassava27. The lethal dose of HCN for humans is between
0.5 and 3.5 mg for an adult, depending on body weight and
nutritional status and is between 30 and 210 mg kgG1 body
weight21, while the lethal dose of HCN for cattle and sheep is
2.0-4.0 mg kgG1 body weight11. Cyanogens can be removed by
drying, soaking and fermentation processes21. Hay and silage
should be properly cured to ensure the loss of a majority of
their cyanogenetic contents before being fed to livestock28.
Phytic acid acts as strong chelator that forms protein and
mineral compounds and is a common storage form for
phosphorus in seeds21. Phytic acid chelates with minerals to
produce phytates29. In elephant foot yams, the phytate
content is 0.165%, which is higher than that of cassava root
937
Pak. J. Nutr., 16 (12): 935-939, 2017
chips (0.09%) and sweet potatoes (0.1%)30 but lower than that
in some seeds, such as sorghum (5.9-11.8 mg gG1), soybeans
(9.2-16.7 mg gG1)31 and the false yam tuber (0.39%)32. Phytic
acid has a strong affinity for binding metal ions, such as
phosphorus and zinc ions and this leads to interference in the
absorption of these minerals in the small intestine and affects
various metabolic processes21. The phosphorus in phytic acid
is not nutritionally available to monogastric animals. Dietary
phytate forms insoluble phytate-mineral complexes and
reduces the bioavailability of minerals. The small intestine of
the human is devoid of phytate-degrading enzymes and the
microbial population in the upper part of the digestive tract is
also limited31. A phytate intake of 4-9 mg/100 g of food can
decrease the Fe absorption by 4-5 fold in humans. The mean
phytate level in the elephant foot yams was lower than the
recommended level of 25 mg/100 g in food33. The phytate in
the vegetables can be reduced by increasing temperature and
heating time and the phytate content is reduced by 51% in
sun-dried false yams32 and by 11-25% in
Pterocarpus
mildbraedii
following heating at 90EC33.
CONCLUSION
According to the described results, the elephant foot yam
is a good source of minerals and has a high caloric content.
Thus, the elephant foot yam can be used for food or feed but
because of its antinutritional value, it must be processed
before consumption.
SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT
This study reveals that the nutrient and anti-nutrient
contents of the foodstuff like
A. campanulatus
indicate
that this plant could serve as a nutritionally beneficial
food-/foodstuff. This study will help researchers to
uncover critical aspects of the nutrient composition of
A. campanulatus
, which is grown in East Nusa Tenggara,
Indonesia, that many researchers have not previously been
able to explore. Thus, new information about the nutrient
and anti-nutrient contents of
A. campanulatus
may be
discovered.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This study was supported by the Hibah Disertasi Doctor
project 2017 from the Directorate General of Higher
Education, Ministry of Riset, Technology and Higher Education
of the Republic of Indonesia.
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939
... Koni et al. confirmed through his studies that calcium oxalate which is insoluble in nature was produced after a chemical reaction of oxalate and calcium thereby decreasing calcium absorption. 5 The major cause of acridity in elephant foot yam has been associated with calcium oxalate. 5 Consumption of higher quantities of calcium oxalate might affect people with allergies and may even cause death if 50mg in concentration. ...
... 5 The major cause of acridity in elephant foot yam has been associated with calcium oxalate. 5 Consumption of higher quantities of calcium oxalate might affect people with allergies and may even cause death if 50mg in concentration. 6 However, it was stated that calcium oxalate could be removed by several treatments like dicing, soaking in saline water, drying and cooking. ...
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