Next Generation Internet Research
Martin Serrano1, Michael Boniface2, Monique Calisti3,
Hans Schaffers4, John Domingue5, Alexander Willner6,
Chiara Petrioli7, Federico M. Facca8, Ingrid Moerman9,
Johann M. Marquez-Barja10, Josep Martrat11 ,
Levent Gurgen12, Sebastien Ziegler13, Seraﬁm Kotrotsos14,
Sergi Figuerola Fernandez15, Stathes Hadjiefthymiades16,
Susanne Kuehrer17, Thanasis Korakis18,
Tim Walters19 and Timur Friedman20
1Insight Centre for Data Analytics Galway, Ireland
2IT Innovation Centre, UK
3Martel Innovate, Switzerland
4Saxion University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands
5Open University, United Kingdom
7University of Rome ’La Sapienza’, Italy
8Martel Innovate, Switzerland
10Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
13Mandat International, Switzerland
16University of Athens, Greece
18University of Thessaly, Greece
20LIP6 CNRS Computer Science Lab, UPMC Sorbonne Universités, France
44 Next Generation Internet Research and Experimentation
2.1 Experimentation Facilities in H2020: Strategic
Research and Innovation Agenda Contributions
The Internet as we know it today is a critical infrastructure composed by
communication services and end-user applications transforming all aspects
of our lives. Recent advances in technology and the inexorable shift towards
everything connected are creating a data-driven society where productivity,
knowledge, and experience are dependent on increasingly open, dynamic,
interdependent and complex networked systems. The challenge for the Next
Generation Internet (NGI) is to design and build enabling technologies,
implement and deploy systems, to create opportunities considering increasing
uncertainties and emergent systemic behaviours where humans and machines
Many initiatives investigated approaches for measuring, exploring and
systematically re-designing the Internet, to be more open, efﬁcient, scalable,
reliable and trustworthy [FIWARE/FIPPP, CAPS, EINS, FIRE, GENI, US
IGNITE, AKARI]. Yet, although no universal methodologies have emerged
due to the continuously evolving interplay among technology, society and the
economy such initiatives produce a richer awareness of the socio-economic
and technological challenges and provide the foundation for new innovative
The Internet has evolved to the point that today is a vast collection of
technologies and systems and has no overall deﬁned design path for its inherent
expansion and neither shall the Next Generation Internet. The actual experi-
ence is telling us that the Internet evolves through widely adopted experi-
mentation that engages active users and communities rather than through
purely technological advances invented in closed laboratories. Individuals
and companies use larger experiments as a way to build the knowledge and
necessary insights to verify and validate theories and ideas, and as the basis
for creating viable, acceptable and innovative solutions driving beneﬁts to
Internet ecosystems and their stakeholders. For example “by the end of 2018,
90% of IT projects will be rooted in the principles of experimentation, speed,
and quality” [Forrester2015].
The actual evidence, based on practical industrial experiences is unam-
•Facebook is a huge and wide ranging social experiment investigating
broad topics such as the economics of privacy, appetite for disclosure
of personal data, and role of intermediaries in content ﬁltering including
emotional effect .
2.1 Experimentation Facilities in H2020 45
•Google’s Experiments Challenge and Showcases uses Android as an
open platform to engage large participation from OSS communities in
the creation of inspirational, distinctive and unique open source mobile
•Ericsson uses experimentation to explore opportunities in enterprise
ecosystem related to localised applications, global applications along
with added value services supporting security, device management and
mobile productivity [Ericsson15].
•Smart Cities and underlying programmable network infrastructures uses
social experiments with citizens in applications as diverse as transport,
energy and environmental management .
•Netﬂix uses an experimentation platform to ensure optimal streaming
experience with high-quality video and minimal playback interruption
to its customers by testing adaptive streaming and content delivery net-
work algorithms across so called experimental groups involving Netﬂix
engineers and Netﬂix members [NETFLIX2016].
•Experimentation plays a vital role in business growth at eBay by
providing valuable insights and prediction on how users will react to
changes made to the eBay website and applications. A/B testing is
performed by running more than 5000 experiments per year on the eBay
Experimentation Platform [eBay2015].
•Apple used experimentation extensively to explore smart watch ideas
initially starting from primitives as simple as an iPhone with a Velcro
•Many industries targeting large online communities (e.g. gaming) use
open beta programmes to investigate features and experiences with
end user and developer ecosystems, to gain initial market attraction,
for example only, the recent Overwatch programme secured 10 million
These strategies demonstrate that many successful Internet technologies are
now developed through experimentation ecosystems allowing creative and
entrepreneurial individuals and companies to explore disruptive ideas, freely
with large “live” user-driven communities.
Innovation also plays a dynamic role in the process of large experimen-
tation adoption. Experiments are conducted with ecosystems using platforms
and infrastructures (e.g. mobile platform, social network, smart spaces and
physical wireless spaces) designed to foster innovation by considering value
creation through openness, variation and adaptability. These strategies show
46 Next Generation Internet Research and Experimentation
an increasing need to structure and engage society and communities of users
in the co-creation of solutions (one of the multiples forms for innovation) by
bridging the gap between vision, experimentation and large-scale validation
sufﬁciently to attain end-user (citizens or industry) investment, either in terms
of time or money.
Addressing directly the demand for innovation, Europe must establish
large-scale experimental ecosystems aligned with NGI architectures that are
sustained beyond individual EU project investments, with full involvement of
end-users (i.e. citizens and SMEs), since they provide applicability validation
of outcomes. Ecosystems help in anticipating possible migration paths for
technological developments, create opportunities for potentially disruptive
innovations and discovery of new and emerging behaviours; as well as in
assessing the socio/economic implications of new technological solutions at an
early stage. In addition, experimentation is an effective way to build evidence
for the robustness, reusability and effectiveness of emerging speciﬁcations
and standards. Note that it is important to recognise that there is no such
thing as a “failed experiment”. Even if the ﬁndings point to a null hypothesis,
learning what doesn’t work is a necessary step to learning what does correctly.
Discovering that a technology fails to perform, is not commercially viable or
is not accepted by end users is a clear route to future research and innovation
challenges for the NGI.
2.1.1 European Ecosystem Experimentation Impacts
Ecosystem experimentation and trials using open platforms are a major
contributor to the success of European research and innovation programmes
investigating the future of the Internet. Initiatives such as Future Internet
Research and Experimentation (FIRE), the Community Awareness Platforms
for Sustainability and Social Innovation (CAPS/CAPSSI), the Future Internet-
Public Private Partnership (FI-PPP), the 5G-Public Private Partnership (5G-
PPP), European Institute of Innovation & Technology (EIT) Digital, and
the European Network of Living Labs (ENoLL) have all been delivering
platforms and ecosystems that have advanced Internet-based technologies
towards markets and society. Each ﬂagship initiative has been designed
to fulﬁl speciﬁc complementary socio-economic and technical objectives.
For example, CAPS enables societal innovation through open platforms
supporting new forms of social interaction, FI-PPP enables innovation through
accelerator ecosystems building on the open platform FIWARE, whilst FIRE
enables innovation through highly conﬁgurable technology infrastructures and
2.1 Experimentation Facilities in H2020 47
services. In particular, selected FIRE examples show that signiﬁcant long
lasting European impacts can be delivered:
•SME competitiveness: experimentation has enhanced 100’s of compa-
nies’ product and service offerings have beneﬁted by validating perfor-
mance, acceptance and viability using experimental platforms. Examples
include: Televic Rail launching their SilverWolf passenger information
product on more than 22,000 railcars following complex end-to-end
networking performance tests; Evolaris GmbH launching Europe’s
1st Smart Ski Goggles service in the Ski Amadé, Austria, Europe’s
2nd largest ski area based on user-centric networked media experi-
ments; Incelligent proactive network management products building
on cognitive radio experiments, involving realistic conditions and actual
testbeds leading to the company being selected as one of the 12 startups
awarded to work with Intel, Cisco and Deutsche Telekom, through the
next phase of their joint ChallengeUp! Program.
•Pioneering concepts: experimentation has demonstrated ground-
breaking results that the world has never seen before. Examples include:
Open platforms to transforming the education of the next generation
of Internet scientists and engineers through remote experimentation on
top of FIRE facilities and open online courses supporting over 1,000s of
students and more than 16 courses across several countries (e.g. Belgium,
Greece, Ireland, Spain, Brazil and Mexico) by allowing the creation,
sharing and re-use of learning resources based on real experiments and
data, accessible anytime/anywhere learning ; The World’s 1st mixed
reality ski competition broadcast across European television (BBC,
ORF, etc.) radio and online to a global audience of over 700 million
; the ﬁrst generation of networked Internet of Things technologies
for pervasively monitoring the underwater environments; validation of
HBBTV technology in European broadcast events .
•Interoperability and standardisation: experimentation has established
evidence and contributed to the development of new international
standards, many of those adopted by the market. Examples include:
Licensed Shared Access (LSA) technology to maximize mobile net-
work capacity in LTE (4G) communications presented to the ETSI TC
Reconﬁgurable Radio Systems WG1; Transceiver API for a hardware-
independent software interface to a Radio Front-Ends developed by
Thales Communications and Security SAS standardised in Wireless Inno-
vation Forum (WInnF); Contributions to standardisation fora (Wireless
48 Next Generation Internet Research and Experimentation
Innovation Forum, ITU-R, ETSI, IEEE 802, IEEE P1900.6, DySPAN);
Simplifying spectrum sensing measurements through a common data
collection/storage format, based on the IEEE 1900.6 standard, enabling
sharing of experiment descriptions, traces and data processing script
for heterogeneous sensing hardware; Establishment of the W3C Fede-
rated Infrastructures Community Group to start the standardization of
according semantic information models and facilitate collaboration with
other groups such as the IEEE P2302 Working Group – Standard for
Intercloud Interoperability and Federation (SIIF) – or the OneM2M
Group on Management, Abstraction and Semantics (MAS).
•International collaboration: experimentation has raised the global pro-
ﬁle and reputation of European research and innovation initiatives.
Examples include: Establishment of the Open-Multinet Forum to facili-
tate the international collaboration between FIRE and GENI and other
members for harmonizing interfaces and information models; Global
reconﬁgurable and software deﬁned networks between Europe, Korea,
Brazil, South Africa, Japan and US.
•Internet regulation and governance: experimentation has delivered
results driving the evolution of policies regulating networks and ser-
vices; Examples include: interaction with national regulators (BIPT-
Belgium, National Broadband Plan NBP – Ireland, BNetzA – Germany,
ANFR – France, ARCEP – France, AKOS – Slovenia, Ofcom – UK);
PlanetLab Europe supports the Data Transparency Lab (http://www.
datatransparencylab.org/), an initiative of Telefónica I+D, together with
Mozilla and MIT, to understand data policies around the world; Internet
measurement testbeds are observing the efforts of network regulators
around Europe as they implement the European Network Neutrality
•Productivity: experimental platforms have delivered methodologies,
tools and services to accelerate Internet research and innovation. Exam-
ples include: evaluation of novel concepts (5G, cognitive radio, optical
networks, software-deﬁned networks, terrestrial and underwater IoT,
cloud) through pathways from laboratory to real-world settings (i.e.
cities, regions and global); Easy access to different individual testbeds
through a common portal with a comprehensive description of the
and guidelines on how to access and use the federated testbeds;
Increasing the reproducibility of experiments through experimentation
descriptors linked to provisioning policies supported by benchmarking
methodologies and tools to execute experiments, collect and compare
2.1 Experimentation Facilities in H2020 49
2.1.2 Drivers Transforming the Next Generation
The drivers expected to transform the NGI can be categorised into advances
in intelligent spaces, autonomous cooperative machines and collective user
experiences supported by key networking technologies are summarised as
•Intelligent Spaces: enabling computers to take part in activities in which
they never previously involved and facilitate people to interact with
computers more naturally i.e. gesture, voice, movement, and context, etc.
Internet of Things (IoT) enrich environments in which ICTs, sensor and
actuator systems become embedded into physical objects, infrastructures,
the surroundings in which we live and other application areas (e.g. smart
cities, industrial/manufacturing plants, homes and buildings, automotive,
agrifood, healthcare and entertainment, marine economy, etc.).
•Autonomous Cooperative Machines: intelligent self-driven machines
(robots) that are able to sense their surrounding environment, reason
intelligently about it, and take actions to perform tasks in cooperation
with humans and other machines in a wide variety of situations on land,
sea and air.
•Collective User Experience: human-centric technologies supporting
enhanced user experience, participatory action (e.g. crowd sourcing),
interaction (e.g. wearables, devices, presentation devices), and broader
trends relevant to how socio-economic values (e.g. trust, privacy, agency,
etc.) are identiﬁed, propagated and managed.
•Key Networking Technologies: physical and software-deﬁned infra-
structures that combine communications networks (wireless, wired,
visible light, etc.), computing and storage (cloud, fog, etc.) technologies
in support of different models of distributed computing underpinning
applications in media, IoT, big data, commerce and the enterprise.
Within each category listed above, there are trends driving the need for
experimentation that leads to the identiﬁcation of Experimentation Challenge
Areas that exhibit high degrees of uncertainty yet offer high potential for Next
Generation Internet impact, as presented hereafter in this document.
22.214.171.124 Intelligent spaces
Internet of Things (IoT) is transforming every space in our daily professional
and personal lives. IoT is one paradigm, different visions, and multidisci-
plinary activities  that much motivate this change. Today’s Internet of
Things is the world of everyday devices; ’things’ working in collaboration,
50 Next Generation Internet Research and Experimentation
using mainly the Internet as a communication channel, to serve a speciﬁc goal
or purpose for improving people’ lives in the form of new services. In other
words Internet of things has evolved from being simply technology protocols
and devices to a multidisciplinary domain where devices, Internet technology,
and people (via data and semantics) converge to create a complete ecosystem
for business innovation, reusability and interoperability, without leaving aside
the security and privacy implications.
The European and Global market for IoT is moving very fast towards
industrial solutions, e.g. smart cities, smart citizens, homes, buildings this
race is generating that IoT market applications have multiple shapes, from
simple smart-x devices to complete ecosystems with a full value chain for
devices, applications, toolkits and services. Making a retro-inspection and
looking at this evolution and the role that Experimentation has played in this
evolution, IoT have covered various phases in the evolution. IoT area has run
a consolidation period in the technology, however yet the application side will
run a long way to have big business markets and ecosystems deployed  and
what is most important, the IoT users acceptance that will pay for services.
Wearable devices are the next evolution in the IoT horizon providing clear
ways for user acceptance and further user-centric applications development.
Wearable technology has been there since early 80’s, however the limitation in
technology and the high cost on materials and manufacturing caused wearable
ecosystem(s) to lose acceptance and stop grow at that early stage. However in
todays’ technology and economic conditions where technology has evolved
and manufacturing cost being reduced, Wearable Technology is the best
channel for user acceptance and deployments in large user communities.
Demands in technology & platforms (Supply Side) require further work to
cope with interoperability, design and arts for user adoption, technology
and management and business modelling. On the other hand from User &
Community (Demand Side) it is required to pay attention in reliability
of devices, cross-domain operation, cost reduction device reusability and
anonymity and security of data.
Experimentation Challenges Areas for intelligent spaces may include:
•Engagement of large number of users/communities for co-creation,
awareness and design constrains to improve user acceptability.
•Provisioning of large numbers of cooperative devices.
•Scale of data management associated with the scale of devices.
•Interoperability management considering the large array of “standards”
that are emerging in the IoT space.
2.1 Experimentation Facilities in H2020 51
•Energy optimisation for low-powered chips, aligned with intelligence for
smart devices and spaces.
•Security, anonymity and privacy because at intelligent spaces the amount
of data that is produced is large and most of the time associated to users,
by location, usage and ownership.
•Trust management mechanisms and methodologies for ensuring safe
Next Generation Internet impacts are expected to include the:
•Acceptability for new innovative devices and technology that can change
aspects of how we perceive aspects at work, live and home.
•Creation of communities for user acceptance and design including user
personal identity and reﬂects the fashion trend of the users.
•Growth and matureness of particular areas, as result of the involvement
of users in the process of validation and certiﬁcation.
126.96.36.199 Cooperative autonomous machines
Autonomous machines operating in open environments on land, sea and air
will cooperate to revolutionize applications in transport, agriculture, marine,
energy and ecosystems dependent on high ﬁdelity and real-time earth and
environment observation and management. Local, regional, national and
European initiatives are exploring how autonomous machines can become
an integral part of the Internet infrastructure by bridging technical challenges
(robotics, cyber physical systems, IoT, Future Internet) and dealing with social
challenges of trustworthiness, dependability, security and border control.
Swarm robotics is here allowing collective behaviour by multi-robot
systems consisting of boat/aircraft/ground vehicles. Miniaturization will be a
continuous trend with nano- and micro-robotics (e.g., robotic implants). This
leads to challenges in relation to human-robot coexistence and interaction
(e.g., collective human-robot cooperation) along with machine simulation of
human behaviour (e.g., reasoning, learning, feelings, and senses). In addition,
current machines offer poor interaction with complex dynamic uncertain
human-populated and natural environments.
Experimentation Challenges Areas include:
•Mixed human-robot environments (e.g., ITS environment where driver-
less vehicles can coexist with vehicles having human drivers).
•Heterogeneous mix of autonomous, manual and remotely operated
52 Next Generation Internet Research and Experimentation
•Machines operating in natural open and uncertain environments.
•Active security design, monitoring and mitigation in relation to emer-
gent threats from deep learning intelligence machines and systemic
•Paradigm shift within the Industrial Internet of Things domains towards
Edge Computing, in which programmable, autonomous IoT end-devices
can communicate with each other and continue to operate event without
•5G dense network infrastructures with Edge computing capabilities that
are complemented with new M2M communications protocols/networks
Next Generation Internet impacts are expected to include:
•Systems that mix humans, machines and all ICT capabilities in ways that
are acceptable to society.
•Operational models that optimize the use of distributed intelligence
schemes (e.g., distributed AI reasoning, planning etc.).
•Methodologies and knowledge for investigating, developing and opera-
ting non-deterministic systems.
•Insights into the trade-offs between autonomy vs. predictability vs.
security in cooperative machines.
•Insights into the evolution of legislation and regulatory policies.
•A digitalisation strategy for the industry 4.0 path supported by IoT
188.8.131.52 Collective human experience
Collective human experience is probably the major driver of Next Generation
Internet as it dictates what the Internet is used for and its beneﬁts to both indi-
viduals and the overall society. Internet participation is changing due to trends
in open data, open and decentralised, shared hardware, knowledge networks,
IoT and wearable technologies. Experiences are increasingly driven by partici-
patory actions facilitated by decentralised and peer-to-peer community and
open technologies, platforms and initiatives. Concepts such as decentralised
network and software architectures, distributed ledger, block chains, open
data, open networks, open democracy enable an active role of citizens rather
than passive consumption of services and content. Internet participation is
reaching, informing and involving communities of citizens, social enterprises,
hackers, artists and students in multidisciplinary collaborative environments,
2.1 Experimentation Facilities in H2020 53
as fostered by Internet Science and Digital Social Innovation communities,
where creativity, social sciences and technology collide to create innovative
solutions mindful of issues of trust, privacy and inclusion.
In addition, human-machine networks are emerging as collective struc-
tures where humans and machines interact to produce synergistic and often
unique effects. In such networks humans and machines are both actors (Human
to Machine – H2M and Machine to Machine – M2M) that raises important
issues of “agency”, to identify what actors are capable of and permitted
to do. This is especially relevant to emerging machine intelligence where
machines are capable of evolving intention based on sensing and learning
about environments in which they operate. Facebook itself is purely a social
machine as it supports Human to Human – H2H interaction whereas for
example, precision agriculture with autonomous tractors, survey drones,
and instrumented animals self-reporting health would be considered a H2M
Collective Awareness Platforms for Sustainability and Social Innovation
(CAPSSI) are designing and piloting online platforms creating awareness of
sustainability problems and offering collaborative solutions based on networks
(of people, of ideas, of sensors), enabling new forms of sustainability and
social innovation. These platforms provide strong ecosystems with thousands,
or even millions of users, is built by mutual trust that interactive players are
providing value to one another.The critical mass in the diffusion of innovations
is “the point after which further diffusion becomes self-sustaining”. The use of
creativity in the innovation process through approaches such as “gamiﬁcation”
is a promising solution for keeping the critical mass of users engaged. The chal-
lenge is to identify innovative combinations of existing and emerging network
technologies enabling new forms of Digital Social Innovation coming bottom-
up from collective awareness, digital hyper-connectivity and collaborative
The major underlying trends in this area include:
•Increasing self- and observer quantiﬁcation and participation driving post
broadcast networks with end user engagement in creative wide ranging
•Increasing machine agency shifting beyond automation systems to situa-
tions post automata networks where autonomous machines increasingly
evolve their own intentions and goals driven by increasingly high level
54 Next Generation Internet Research and Experimentation
human deﬁned policy constructs necessary to deal with the complexity
•Increasing geographically localized interaction moving towards situa-
tions post “mega” mediator networks (interaction purely supported by
Internet giants such as Google and Facebook).
Experimentation Challenges Areas include:
•Hyperlocal infrastructure, service and platform models.
•Deep “Me-as-a-Service” provisioning, orchestration and choreographies.
•Distribution of agency in networks, machines and people.
•Intention independent and transparent networking.
•Decentralized and distributed social networks, wikis, sensors, block
chains value networks, driven by real-time human monitoring and
observation sensor data streams.
•Accounting for the context through changing conditions.
•Experimenters’ participatory involvement in collective awareness/intelli
Next Generation Internet impacts are expected to include:
•Operational models fostering localised ownership and control building
on international standards.
•Multi-actor protocol/system design principles and methodologies for
cooperating machines and people.
•Networking protocols robust to and adaptable to variations of outcomes
and with transparent constraints.
•Participatory innovation and interaction models supporting collective
•Insights into the disruption of new value systems supported by emerging
technologies such as block chains.
•Deﬁnition of new legislation to accommodate the entrance, and reduce
barriers, of new technology, service and applications into daily lives of
•Democratisation of the internet across new open and innovative services.
•Technology drivers that facilitate the emergence of new business models
that may also operate under a collaborative economy based model. Thus,
citizens and social impact is considered as a key driver for technology
2.1 Experimentation Facilities in H2020 55
184.108.40.206 Key networking technologies
Major initiatives such as the 5G-PPP are transforming wireless network-
ing technologies and software deﬁned infrastructures. 5G standardization is
driving the activities for designing new protocols addressing diverse aspects
of wireless networks and services.
Experimentation Challenges Areas include:
•Wireless investigations closer to real world ecosystems providing ways
to demonstrate the applicability of experimental evidence to real-life
application scenarios and to explore realistic coexistence/interference
•Involve end devices: more ﬂexible, compact, energy efﬁcient radio
•End-to-end experimentation integrating radio – network – application/
services through co-design in early phases through multi-disciplinary
research, development and innovation.
•Low-end vs. high-end ﬂexible radio platforms considering new high end
spectrum bands (e.g. cm and mmWave) in contrast to mobility scenarios
with (very) large-scale experimentation standardisation of low-cost SDR.
•Massive (cooperative) MIMO aiming to reduce complexity & cost,
and involve distributed, heterogeneous devices forming virtual antenna
•Multi-channel radio supporting multiple virtual Radio Access Techno-
logies (RATs) running simultaneously in a single wireless node, sup-
porting simultaneous operation of new-innovate (RATs) and traditional
•Over the air downloading of new RATs, live reprogramming of wireless
device & synchronous instantiation of new RATs (adding/updating RATs)
on a set of co-located wireless devices.
•SDR ‘record-and-replay’ building real world wireless environment
(background scenarios), E.g. out-of-band transmissions (satellite, TV,
aviation, etc.) to instantiate real-life scenario emulating many concurrent
systems in real world.
•Co-design of the wireless access and the optical backhaul and backbone
in an integrated manner, researching at the convergence point between
optical and wireless networks (FUTEBOL) .
•NFV/VNF applications over the platforms employed by the testbeds can
assist in building modular testbeds.
56 Next Generation Internet Research and Experimentation
•New protocols based on existing technologies (e.g. beyond LTE for
cellular communications, WiGig, etc.).
•New management architectures moving towards the orchestration
of functionalities towards the extreme edges of the network to
reduce latency, enhance reliability and ensure data sovereignty (Edge
•Complete slicing of network-topologies including available frontend and
backend services such as EPC to setup separate management domains
for various use cases that require partly orthogonal QoS parameters, such
as IoT/M2M or CDN networks.
•Convergence of new 5G scenarios with new IoT capabilities and
•Architectures that reduce the limitations that TCP-IP have towards the
expansion of Internet (i.e. mobility, addressing, etc.).
NGI impacts are expected to include:
•Evidence for performance, viability and acceptability of approaches
and technologies for 5G. Proof of scalability of 5G able to cope with
increasing network trafﬁc demand, viability to migrate from legacy to
5G, coexistent of 5G and legacy.
•Evidence for robustness of networking standards.
•Homogeneous services across networks, information technologies, IoT
devices and people.
2.2 Policy Recommendations for Next Generation
The drivers for the Next Generation Internet presented in this document
i.e. Intelligent Spaces, Autonomous Cooperative Machines, Collective User
Experience, Key Networking Technologies act as study areas that requires a
dedicated consideration in policy support and European agenda reorganisa-
tion. The clear view in how the drivers are a priority for Europe, likewise the
increasing convergence of Internet technologies and more involvement of the
society drive the need to reconsider the design and scope of future initiatives.
The following recommendations are designed to maximise the potential for
Europe to create technological breakthroughs and deliver truly global impact
towards Next Generation Internet Experimentation.
2.2 Policy Recommendations for Next Generation Internet Experimentation 57
More Than Just Technology Networks: Successful Internet platforms
deliver technology-enhanced ecosystems supporting large-scale efﬁcient
interactions between platform users. A technologically advanced platform
without users will deliver no impact. Europe must focus on developing where
networks of users and technology can coexist in ways that support sustainable
growth of real life network and as a consequence drive demand for emerging
information and communications network architectures.
Transparent and Accelerated Innovation Pathways: Industry and SMEs
need clear routes to market for research and innovation activities. Platforms
that deliver insight that cannot be adopted within applicable investment
cycles are not relevant to business. Europe must establish experimental
platforms with clear innovation pathways that deliver commercial oppor-
tunities whilst addressing contemporary/legacy constraints, market-driven
interoperability/standardisation, and regulation.
Programmatic Consideration of Business and Technology Maturity:
Large industry and SMEs have different capacity to invest, appetites for
risk and rates of return. Europe must design and nurture current initiatives
with a business and technical strategy that optimally aligns technology
lifecycle phases with appropriate business engagement models for different
stakeholders (Industry vs SMEs vs Research).
Quantiﬁably Large and Dynamic: Ecosystems must be sufﬁciently large
and interactive to understand performance, acceptance and viability of plat-
form technologies in real-world scenarios. Large-scale is often cited but rarely
quantiﬁed. Europe must establish measurable criteria and tools for Next
Generation Internet ecosystems (e.g. infrastructure, platforms, data, users,
etc.) necessary to support research and pre-commercial activities ecosystems
(i.e. up to city-scale), and mechanisms to rapidly scale networks towards
Nondeterministic Behaviour vs Replicability: Insights gained in one spe-
ciﬁc physical or virtual situation need to be applied in many global situations
to maximise the return on investment. Computer science wants to deliver
replicable experimentation however this is looking increasingly unachievable
considering that networks are inherently non-deterministic and that open
systems and real-life experiments only exacerbate uncertainties. Europe
must foster the development of methods and tools supporting investigation
into non-deterministic systems incorporating human and machine interaction
in open environments that allow for insights to be replicated across the
58 Next Generation Internet Research and Experimentation
Next Generation Internet Technology and Investment Education: Learn-
ing about the potential of NGI technologies and business implications is
essential for the next generation of entrepreneurs and SMEs in Europe and
beyond. Unless innovators understand the ecosystem and technology potential
sufﬁciently to convince investors (e.g. business units, venture capitalists,
consumers, etc.) of the value proposition continuation funding and consequent
impact will not be delivered. Europe must support platforms that educate the
next generation entrepreneurs and technologists whilst supporting SMEs in
the development of NGI business plans and provide ways to test the viability
of solutions with potential investors.
Multidisciplinary Action: The interconnectedness of Next Generation
Internet Experimentation systems means that multidisciplinary teams must
work together through common objectives. Europe must support end-to-end
experimentation driven by multidisciplinary teams from different technology
domains (e.g. wireless networks, optical networks, cloud computing, IoT, data
science) in relation to vertical sectors (healthcare, creative media, smart trans-
port, marine industry, etc.) and horizontal social disciplines (e.g. psychology,
law, sociology, arts).
Efﬁcient and Usable Federations: Collaboration is often the most cost
effective way to acquire capability, scale or reach necessary to achieve
an objective. Yet the beneﬁts of collaboration through federated platforms
are limited by the barriers of interoperability, multi-stakeholder control,
trust concerns and policy incompatibilities. Europe must support federated
Experimentation-as-a-Service approaches where there are clear beneﬁts to
users of the federation and where techniques lower the barrier to experimen-
tation and cost of maintaining federations through increased interoperability,
usability, trustworthiness, and dynamics by contributing to or leading market
accepted standardisation efforts.
 Luigi Atzori, Antonio Lera and Giacomo Morabito “The Internet of
Things: A survey” Computer Networks: The International Journal of
Computer and Telecommunications Networking archive, Volume 54,
Issue 15, October, 2010, Pages 2787–2805, Elsevier North-Holland, Inc.
New York, NY, USA.
2.3 References 59
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tional Conference on Internet of Things (IEEE iThings 2012)
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K. Lampropoulos, S. Denazis, C. Tranoris, D. Pareit, J. Domingue,
L. A. DaSilva, and M. Ott, “FORGE toolkit: Leveraging distributed
systems in eLearning platforms,” IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics
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FUSION Catalogue web.pdf
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logies, design tools and use cases, http://www.internet-science.eu/publica
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and L. DaSilva. Decoupling Resource Ownership From Service Pro-
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60 Next Generation Internet Research and Experimentation
2.4 Experimentation Facilities Evolution towards
Ecosystems for Open Innovation
in the Internet of Future
2.4.1 Changes in the FIRE Portfolio
The FIRE demand side is changing as well, with changes in experimenter
demands and requirements, and higher expectations as regards how FIRE
should anticipate the needs and requirements from SMEs, industry, Smart
Cities, and from other initiatives in the scope of Future Internet such as
Internet of Things and 5G. Within FIRE this is also anticipated by new types
of service concepts, for example Experimentation-as-a-Service. These new
concepts affect the methods and tools, the channels for offering services to new
categories of users, and the collaborations to be established with infrastructure
and service partners to deliver the services.
2.4.2 Technological Innovation and Demand Pull
In response to the envisaged changes in the FIRE landscape, AmpliFIRE has
identiﬁed new research directions based on interviews, literature surveys and
leading conferences, and highlighted what the FIRE research, facilities and
community may look like in the future . We found that funded Open Calls
and STREPs, and unfunded Open Access opportunities, which are increasingly
aligned with the main FIRE experimental facilities, are inﬂuencing FIRE’s
evolution from the demand side, by showing customer “pull” supplementing
and even replacing technology “push.” Thus it is expected that FIRE, which has
been technology-driven, will increasingly be shaped by demand-pull factors
in the period 2015–2020. These user demands will be based on four main
•The Internet of Things: a global, connected network of product tags,
sensors, actuators, and mobile devices that interact to form complex
pervasive systems that autonomously pursue shared goals without direct
user input. A typical application of this trend is automated retail stock
•The Internet of Services: internet/scaled service-oriented computing,
such as cloud software (Software as a Service) or platforms (Platform as
•The Internet of Information: sharing all types of media, data and content
across the Internet in ever increasing amounts and combining data to
generate new content.
2.4 Experimentation Facilities Evolution towards Ecosystems 61
•The Internet of People: people to people networking, where users
will become the centre of Internet technology—indeed the boundaries
between systems and users will become increasingly blurred.
In order to contribute to these four fast moving areas, the FIRE ecosystem
must grow in its technical capabilities. New networking protocols must be
introduced and managed, both at the physical layer where every higher
wireless bandwidth technologies are being offered, and in the software
interfaces, which SDN is opening up. Handling data at medium (giga to
tera) to large (petabyte) scale is becoming a critical part of the applications
that impact people’s lives. Mining such data, combining information from
separated archives, ﬁltering and transmitting efﬁciently are key steps in
modern applications, and the Internet testbeds of this decade will be used
to develop and explore these tools.
Future Internet systems will integrate a broad range of systems (cloud
services, sensor networks, content platforms, etc.) in large-scale hetero-
geneous systems-of-systems. There is a growing need for integration e.g.
integration of multi-purpose multi-application wireless sensor networks with
large-scale data-processing, analysis, modelling and visualisation along with
the integration of next generation human-computer interaction methods. This
will lead to complex large-scale systems that integrate the four pillars: things,
people, content and services. Common research themes include scalability
solutions, interoperability, new software engineering methods, optimisation,
energy-awareness, and security, privacy and trust. To validate the research
themes, federated experimented facilities are required that are large-scale and
highly heterogeneous. Testbeds that bridge the gap between infrastructure,
applications and users and allow exploring the potential of large-scale systems
which are built upon advanced networks, with real users and in realistic envi-
ronments will be of considerable value. This will also require the development
of new methodological perspectives for FIRE .
As we emphasize focusing on “smart systems of networked applications”
within the FIRE programme, the unique and most valuable contribution of
FIRE should be to “bridge” and “accelerate”: create the testing, experimenting
and innovation environment which enables linking networking research to
business and societal impact. FIRE’s testbeds and experiments are tools to
address research and innovation in “complex smart systems”, in different
environments such as cities, manufacturing industry and data-intensive ser-
vices sectors . In this way, FIRE widens its primary focus from testing and
experimenting, building the facilities, tools and environments towards closing
the gap from experiment to innovation for users and markets.
62 Next Generation Internet Research and Experimentation
2.4.3 Positioning of FIRE
This leads to the issue of how to position FIRE in relation to other initiatives
in the Future Internet landscape. FIRE is one among a number of initiatives
in the Future Internet research and innovation ecosystem. FIRE seeks a
synergetic and value adding relationship with other initiatives and players such
as GÉANT/NRENs and the FI-PPP initiatives related to Internet of Things and
Smart Cities, EIT Digital, the new 5G-PPP and Big Data PPP initiatives, the
evolving area of Cyber-Physical Systems, and other. For the future, we foresee
alayered Future Internet infrastructural and service provision model,
where a diversity of actors gather together and ensure interoperability for their
resources and services such as provision of connectivity, access to testbed and
experimentation facilities, offering of research and experimentation services,
business support services and more. Bottom-up experimentation resources
are part of this, such as crowd sourced or citizen- or community-provided
resources. Each layer is transparent and offers interoperability. Research
networks (NRENs) and GÉANT are providing the backbone networks and
connectivity to be used by FIRE facilities and facilities offered by other
In this setting, FIRE’s core activity is to provide and maintain sustainable,
common facilities for Future Internet research and experimentation, and to
provide customized experimentation and research services. However, given
the relevance of experimentation resources for innovation, and given the
potential value and synergies which FIRE offers to other initiatives, FIRE
should assume a role in supporting experimentally-driven research and
innovation of technological systems. For this to become reality FIRE and
other initiatives should ensure cooperation and FIRE should also consider
opening up to (other) public and private networks, providing customized
facilities and services to a wide range of users and initiatives in both public and
private spheres. FIRE’s core activity and longer term orientation requires the
ability to modernize and innovate the experimental infrastructure and service
orientation for today’s and tomorrow’s innovation demands.
2.4.4 Bridging the Gaps between Demands and Service Offer
The gaps between the technologies presently offered in FIRE as testbeds,
and the gaps between the layers in which its communities have formed are
large. For example, the gaps between wired and wireless networking, between
networking researchers and cloud application developers, and between both
sorts of developers and end user input all require bridges that exist today only
2.4 Experimentation Facilities Evolution towards Ecosystems 63
as research efforts (an example is the Fed4FIRE project). Developing future
scenarios and identifying prospective user requirements are useful tools to
shape and drive those bridging activities and chart the most direct paths from
the present fragmented FIRE portfolio of testbeds, which are either hardware
or user-oriented, to the goals of Horizon 2020. This requires a sustained effort
to articulate how the technical goals of the present FIRE activities can be
lifted, channelled and ampliﬁed to support the societal goals represented in
Horizon 2020. This places requirements on the FIRE community which, as
engineering teams with an often academic focus, will need to collaborate
with different types of communities and actors. The FIRE community needs
to clarify and justify such requirements and identify new instruments and
relationships with business and SMEs that can draw upon FIRE’s strengths.
For this, we must expose the gaps and identify the communities that need
to be engaged or created. This helps to create the “pull” that can make FIRE
effective as 2020 approaches, and assist the individual projects as they provide
Increasingly, experimenters, developers and innovators expect to ﬁnd the
tools and services they need and the infrastructure in which they will do
measurements and develop applications packaged in groups that allow easier
access and more rapid development. The catch phrase “X as a service” (XaaS)
captures these expectations. Today’s infrastructures, even with the strides
made towards federation and provision of powerful standard enablers, are still
far from the desired shape presented in Figure 2.1. The Testbed as a Service
concept (all of Figure 2.1) consists of as many as three connected layers and
two value-added offerings, each of which needs to offer standardAPIs and be
easily adapted to multiple purposes over both long and short term.
Infrastructure available as a service beneﬁts from the federation accom-
plishments of Fed4FIRE and GENI using the model of slices, and the
technologies around SFA and OMF or NEPI for access to infrastructure,
acquisition of reservations for resources, dispatch of experiments and capture
of their results. But there is much more to be done to make these tools available
to a broader audience, reduce the training requirement and learning curve.
There are common elements now standardized in the OpenFlow community
to make the interface to more ﬂexible and powerful networking infrastructures
itself more ﬂexible, but these only begin to explore the ways in which
the communications infrastructure can be more responsive to application
64 Next Generation Internet Research and Experimentation
Figure 2.1 X as a Service .
requirements. While standard building blocks such as OpenStack exist, there
are strong pressures to enhance these. FIRE can make a critical difference
in evaluating the platform components proposed for extending this service
concept and understanding their value. Also needed are studies of the possible
options at the interfaces and their codiﬁcation into APIs between the layers,
and to implement services to support new demands from users more interested
in the results of an experiment rather than performing their experiments
Data curation, archiving, and tools for access of experimental data,
learning from experimental data, and extracting useful information using
sparse sampling and other complexity techniques will be key components
of Knowledge-as-a-Service. While much research in these “big data” areas
is being done already in academia and in industry, FIRE with its rich trove
of experimental data from Smart Cities projects, can make a contribution.
Focusing on the environmental data that sensor-rich cities collect might be
a good strategy, avoiding the sensitivities around healthcare data and the
proprietary nature of most commercial and market activity data. Also, “big
data” studies do not as a rule involve truly vast amounts of data, or require
access to data centers on the largest commercial scales.
2.4 Experimentation Facilities Evolution towards Ecosystems 65
Beneﬁting from these opportunities requires a foundation of adaptable
infrastructure, wired and wireless, software-deﬁned, more open than ever
before. The FIRE projects have made great strides in federating different
kinds of facilities and exposing their novel capabilities to experimenters and
end users. To meet the new demands and support the expansion to become
an Internet of Things, Services, Information and People, FIRE will provide
testing facilities and research environments richer than the commercial world
or individual research laboratories can provide.
2.4.6 Future Scenarios for FIRE
For setting out a transition path from the current FIRE facilities towards such
a “FIRE Ecosystem”, AmpliFIRE identiﬁes two key uncertainty dimensions
and in that space of outcomes proposes four alternative future development
patterns for FIRE (illustrated in Figure 2.2):
1. Competitive Testbed as a Service : FIRE as a set of individually competing
testbeds offering their facilities as a pay-per-use service.
2. Industrial cooperative: FIRE becomes a resource where experimental
infrastructures (testbeds) and Future Internet services are offered by co-
operating commercial and non-commercial stakeholders.
3. Social Innovation ecosystem: FIRE as a collection of heterogeneous,
dynamic and ﬂexible resources offering a broad range of facilities
e.g. service-based infrastructures, network infrastructure, Smart City
testbeds, support to user centred living labs, and other.
4. Resource sharing collaboration: federated infrastructures provide the
next generation of testbeds, integrating different types of infrastructures
within a common architecture.
These scenarios are aimed at stretching our thinking, but FIRE must choose
its operating points and desired evolution along these two axes. The vertical
axis ranges from a coherent, integrated portfolio of FIRE activities at bottom
(a natural foundation) up to individual independent projects (the traditional
situation), selected solely for their scientiﬁc and engineering excellence. The
horizontal line reﬂects both the scale of the funded projects and the size of
the customer or end-user set that future FIRE projects will reach out to and
be visible to. Clearly FIRE must be open to good ideas at multiple points
along the scale of size. For the larger efforts, which need to engage a broad
cross-section of the engineering community or the end users, the impact can
66 Next Generation Internet Research and Experimentation
Figure 2.2 FIRE scenarios for 2020 .
Really innovative contributions may come from smaller, more aggressive,
riskier projects. Large-scale EC initiatives such as FI-PPP, 5G-PPP, Big Data
PPP and around Internet of Things (AIOTI) should have an inﬂuence on their
selection and justiﬁcation. Early engagement is essential to accomplish this.
2.5 FIRE Vision and Mission in H2020
FIRE’s current mission and unique value is to offer an efﬁcient and effective
federated platform of core facilities as a common research and experimentation
infrastructure related to the Future Internet; this delivers innovative and
customized experimentation capabilities and services not achievable in the
commercial market. FIRE should expand its facility offers to a wider spectrum
of technological innovations in EC programmes e.g. in relation to smart cyber-
physical systems, smart networks and Internet architectures, advanced cloud
infrastructure and services, 5G network infrastructure for the Future Internet,
Internet of Things and platforms for connected smart objects. In this role, FIRE
delivers experimental testing facilities and services at low cost, based upon
federation, expertise and tool sharing, and offers all necessary expertise and
services for experimentation on the Future Internet part of Horizon 2020. For
the medium term, FIRE’s mission and added value is to support the Future
2.6 From Vision to Strategic Objectives 67
Internet ecosystem in building, expanding and continuously innovating the
testing and experimenting facilities and tools for Future Internet technological
innovation. FIRE continuously includes novel cutting-edge facilities into this
federation to expand its service portfolio targeting a range of customer needs in
areas of technological innovation based on the Future Internet. FIRE assumes
a key role in offering facilities and services for 5G. In addition FIRE deepens
its role in experimentally-driven research and innovation for smart cyber-
physical systems, cloud-based systems, and Big Data. This way FIRE could
also support technological innovation in key sectors such as smart manu-
facturing and Smart Cities. FIRE will also include “opportunistic” experi-
mentation resources, e.g., crowd sourced or citizen- or community- provided
For the longer term, our expectation is that Internet infrastructures,
services and applications form the backbone of connected regional and
urban innovation ecosystems. People, SMEs and organisations collaborate
seamlessly across borders to experiment on novel technologies, services and
business models to boost entrepreneurship and new ways of value creation.
In this context, FIRE’s mission is to become the research, development and
innovation environment, or “accelerator”, within Europe’s Future Internet
innovation ecosystem, providing the facilities for research, early testing and
experimentation for technological innovation based on the Future Internet.
FIRE in cooperation with other initiatives drives research and innovation
cycles for advanced Internet technologies that enable business and societal
innovations and the creation of new business helping entrepreneurs to take
novel ideas closer to market.
In 2020, FIRE is Europe’s open lab for Future Internet research, develop-
ment and innovation. FIRE is the technology accelerator within Europe’s
Future Internet innovation ecosystem. FIRE is sustainable, part of a
thriving platform ecosystem, and creates substantial business and societal
impact through driving technological innovation addressing business and
2.6 From Vision to Strategic Objectives
The role of the FIRE vision and mission statement is to inspire for the
future, answering the question “Why FIRE?” and “Where to go?” Within
the context of uncertainties surrounding FIRE’s longer term future, the actual
68 Next Generation Internet Research and Experimentation
evolution of FIRE is shaped by the range of scenarios and by the planning and
implementation decisions that are being taken within the EC and within
FIRE and related initiatives. For example, the Fed4FIRE project to create
a high-level framework is driving coherence in technology, operations and
governance across many of the FIRE facilities. There are also interesting
implications regarding collaboration of FIRE facilities with related programs
such as Future Internet PPP and possibly the Big Data PPP which are more
oriented towards business innovation than FIRE. Testbeds participating in
these initiatives may have to operate in more than one scenario, requir-
ing them to adapt new operational models, legal contexts and technical
To structure the process of identifying future directions, FIRE should
agree on strategic objectives for its mid- and longer term evolution. Technical
objectives oriented towards FIRE’s core activity are a necessity but they are
not sufﬁcient on their own as FIRE also needs strategic positioning in terms
of how it achieves sustainable value creation activity and how it positions and
interacts with other major initiatives.
2.6.1 Strategic Objectives
We identiﬁed the overall strategic objective for FIRE as to become a
sustainable environment for research, development and innovation in the
Future Internet, supporting researchers and the community to tackle important
problems, and acting as an accelerator for industry and entrepreneurs to take
novel ideas closer to market. Figure 2.3 visualises the potential strategies that
could be employed to achieve these objectives in a high-level roadmap.
The key strategic objectives for FIRE will be:
•For 2016: to increase its relevance and impact primarily for European
wide technology research, but will also increase its global relevance.
•For 2018: to create substantial business and societal impact through
addressing technological innovations related to societal challenges.
•For 2018: to become a sustainable and open federation that allows experi-
mentation on highly integrated Future Internet technologies; supporting
networking and cloud pillars of the Net Futures community.
•For 2020: to become the RDI environment space that is attractive to both
academic researchers, SME technology developers, and industrial R&D
companies with emphasis on key European initiatives such as 5G, Big
Data, IoT and Cyber-Physical Systems domains.
2.6 From Vision to Strategic Objectives 69
Figure 2.3 Overall strategic direction of FIRE .
2.6.2 FIRE’s Enablers
AmpliFIRE’s report on FIRE Strategy  provides a detailed elaboration of
strategic directions for FIRE’s “enablers”: the domains of service offering,
facilities and federation, EC programme relations, ecosystem development,
and collaboration. Below we concisely address some of the main points.
Service offering. On the shorter term, FIRE’s service offer strategy must
ensure that FIRE remains relevant and meet current and future experimenter
demands and be driven by demand [5, 7]. FIRE should also promote common
tools and methodologies to perform experiments. FIRE’s offer in the next
years will transform towards a service-oriented framework where the concept
of Experimentation as a Service is central. The model presented in Figure 2.1
depicts how facilities or federations can offer a service to experimenters. The
lowest layer is the infrastructure, the actual physical machines. In the middle
is the platform layer, able to control the infrastructures in a more organized
manner, making use of predeﬁned APIs, such as software-deﬁned networks.
On the topmost layer, software can be run as a service, giving experimenters
access to applications. Crossing these layers, two services can be deﬁnes.
One is experimentation as a service, where experimentation is offered in a
customized approach with less or no concern about the infrastructure, platform
or services behind the scene; just knowing that it is available and can be
accessed is in most cases enough. The Fed4FIRE project serves as an example.
Additionally a ﬁnal step could be knowledge as a service, where experimenters
70 Next Generation Internet Research and Experimentation
are helped in order to set up experimentation, but also that lessons can be
learned from the different experiments (what worked, what didn’t work) and
can be disseminated.
User and community ecosystem strategy. This will become a more
and more important aspect of FIRE strategy and future business model.
The concept of platform ecosystem and multi-sided platforms is potentially
relevant for FIRE and opens new opportunities. Unlike a value chain or supply
chain, a (multi-sided) platform-based activity brings together and enables
direct interactions within a value network of customers, suppliers, developers
and other actors. The range of FIRE facilities and services can be seen as
constituting a platform ecosystem facilitating multi-sided interactions. For
example, developer communities may use the FIRE facilities to directly work
with business customers on technology and product development, whereas the
current FIRE service model focuses on giving researchers and experimenters
access to FIRE facilities1. The issue is then to what extent the current FIRE
ecosystem realizes its opportunities and what the strategic options are to extend
the current FIRE model to a platform-based ecosystem model.
Collaboration strategy. Given FIRE’s positioning in the wider Future
Internet ecosystem collaboration in the shorter and longer term is essential
and must be grounded in clear value propositions . To reach the next phase
FIRE should target both strong ties and loose ties collaboration. By strong ties
we refer to relationships that have developed throughout many years, while
loose ties collaboration is represented by more dynamic relationships. Both are
of equal importance. By close collaboration between different actors within
the FIRE value-network we can capitalize on sharing of testbed resources,
and foster FIRE to become more dynamic and user-driven to attract and serve
a wider base of partners. This also includes a complex prosumer exchange
value-network structure where providers of testbed assets also can be users
and vice versa. In existing FIRE collaborations these prosumer structures can
be found as strong elements for sustainability beyond the lifetime of a project
and foster long-term relationships. Also the framework for cooperation must
support ﬂexible forms and easier entry into collaborations as well as to sustain
beyond the lifetime of a project.
As FIRE is positioned in an environment of continuous change also
FIRE collaboration relations will evolve and new relationships and partners
1In , AmpliFIRE discusses broadening the Future Internet user base by providing experi-
menter solutions, offering APIs that match community practices (BonFIRE, Experimedia).
2.6 From Vision to Strategic Objectives 71
will emerge ﬁnding new opportunities for win–win by collaboration but
also deﬁning new demands for being part of the FIRE value-network. In
this context FIRE needs evolution in several domains and even to reﬂect
on its position in being a “research and experimentation environment” as
this is being more attractive for research partners than other actors. How
can FIRE also serve stakeholders with speciﬁc interest in the development
of new services and products for the Future Internet with a commercial
purpose? These stakeholders are mainly representatives from industry and
their requirements on collaboration models might differ from the existing
more research oriented. To increase their attraction for FIRE collaboration
the FIRE value-network should be extended by complementary partners to
the traditional ICT actors, e.g. customers and users. But can FIRE really ﬁt
all? FIRE will remain interested to cooperate with core initiatives within the
landscape of Future Internet research, innovation and experimentation, like
5G-PPP, FI-PPP, Internet of Things, Smart Cities, Big Data, which requires
FIRE to show a clear position on its offerings and uniqueness. Some examples:
•5G-PPP: FIRE experimental facilities could potentially be of use for the
5G-PPP. Fed4FIRE offers a large number of federated facilities across
Europe of which most are potentially important for 5G testing (including
cellular networks, WiFi and sensor based networks, cognitive radio
networks, but also SDN and cloud facilities). CREW offers open access
to wireless testbed islands and advanced cognitive radio components as
well as support services.
•FI-PPP: integration of relevant FIRE facilities in XiFi’s federated nodes
infrastructure, especially physical computing/storage facilities and back-
end infrastructures such as sensor/IoT networks used by applications and
services to run experiments on top of them.
•GÉANT/NRENS: cooperation in terms of connectivity is ongoing in sev-
eral FIRE projects. Other opportunities could include extending GÉANT
service offerings to include testbed as a service. Some related activities
are going on in federation of testbeds, and experiment management
towards Experimentation-as-a-Service (Fed4FIRE), and resource control
and experiment orchestration and monitoring (OpenLab, FLEX, CREW).
FIRE projects might extend their use of GÉANT/NREN resources and
FIRE and GÉANT may cooperate in services and resources. FIRE
may leverage GÉANT facilities and improve GÉANT services adding
services such as testbed access. FIRE and GÉANT can also collaborate
on SDN/Networking Protocols & Management.
72 Next Generation Internet Research and Experimentation
•In relation to Smart Cities, and technological innovations in the domain
of Internet of Things and cloud computing of high relevance for
city innovation, FIRE moves further into this direction in projects such
as OrganiCity and FIESTA. Next steps would be to establish project-
oriented discussions and explore opportunities for common calls with
key organisations in this area.
In order to develop FIRE collaboration opportunities for the future the ability
in realization and implementation of concrete collaboration models will be
essential. To do so collaborating partners must be able to deﬁne what is the
goal of collaboration, what is the win-win and what are the assets used to enable
collaboration and to establish an exchange structure for the collaboration
as well as models for governance. Therefore we should ask ourselves Who
is the formal body to interact with and to formalize collaboration? Finally,
realizing the FIRE collaboration vision beyond 2020 requires to be linked
with and to inﬂuence what FIRE partners today and in the future deﬁne as the
strategic directions of FIRE and what partners want it to be to be attractive for
Portfolio management. There is an inevitable problem of getting coher-
ence with a selection of projects chosen individually for their excellence by
mostly academic referees. Incentives added in the past include asking projects
to present evidence of a relationship with existing FIRE projects (easy to do
towards the end of a Framework Programme, not so easy at the outset of one,
but FIRE’s continuity may alleviate this). This results in project groupings
which allow more varied approaches still focused on a single infrastructure
technology or bringing a single technology closer to end users.
One suggestion that has been raised in recent years is ﬁnding ways in
which the FIRE programme can provide some of the assistance and even
direction that is offered to start-up companies. This may involve management
attention and involvement in changing project directions that were difﬁcult
to achieve under FP7 and may have become impossible in Horizon 2020.
Nonetheless, we present in this review the suggestion that a support action
focused on achieving earlier and better exploitation might be considered and
describe how it could work, and what problems it would solve.
Managing innovation and exploitation needs attention and could be
addressed more systematically. Today, many projects end after the ﬁrst
demonstrations are presented. Exploitation may be planned, but it lies in the
future, if it happens at all. Project structures, as speciﬁed in future calls could,
by the middle period of 2016–2018, require that some projects have their
capabilities demonstrated and external interfaces ready for the ﬁrst full review.
2.7 FIRE Roadmap towards 2020 73
These projects could then report progress on external utilization and exploita-
tion by the end of the project. Although not all projects will, or should,
achieve this, we can imagine seeing identiﬁcation of partners and a pathway
to commercialization by the end of a FIRE project.
Future sustainability. Sustainability of the FIRE ecosystem has been
raised as a concern in many of the interviews we conducted after issuing the
draft FIRE radar vision document. Users want to see one or a few components
of a FIRE testbed sustained (or successfully evolving) and the ultimate
responsibility lies with the institutions in which these components reside.
If only one institution is involved, as is the case with iMinds in Belgium, a
member of OpenLab, Fed4FIRE and CREW, then sustainability of the several
component testbeds that iMinds supports (the Virtual Wall, the W.iLab.t and
others) is addressed through the institution pursuing multiple means of support.
In the case of iMinds, all modes seem to be open – EC funding, regional
support and industrial partnerships have all contributed. For testbeds whose
components are distributed over multiple institutions, projects like BonFIRE
and OFELIA have created informal consortia which continue beyond any
single EC integrated project, and link only the key partners. Typically these
consortia intend to offer something like Open Access or similar lightweight
short-term involvement in their testbed’s use, and will explore multiple sources
of funding to make this happen. Accounting systems to allow fairly precise
allocation of costs to the different uses that result are being created as they
will be needed downstream in this model. Finally, the OneLab Foundation
is an actual legal entity that has been created to manage the activities of
the PlanetLab Europe, NITOS, and FIT-IoT Lille testbeds using the network
operating center (NOC) and federation toolkit that has been created under
OpenLab and Fed4FIRE.
2.7 FIRE Roadmap towards 2020
The FIRE Roadmap of milestones is shown in Table 2.1 . It essentially
pinpoints milestones for FIRE to deliver within the framework of roadmap
solutions. For example, “before 2016, open access will be a requirement of
a FIRE testbed”. The table is split into three phases: i) 2014–16, ii) 2016–
2018, iii) 2018–2020 that identify the milestones and decision points of the
roadmap. These phases are then broken down into a common template of
solutions within layers of the FIRE ecosystem:
74 Next Generation Internet Research and Experimentation
Table 2.1 FIRE Roadmap Milestones 2014–2020
2014–2016 2016–2018 2018–2020
Testbeds will be established in the
domain of software services (2016)
Gradual implementation of converged
Cutting-edge FIRE testbeds are
established in key areas such as 5G, IoT,
Big Data (2016–2017)
A converged set of resources is aligned
with 5G architectures (2017–2018)
Continuing to establish cutting-edge
FIRE testbeds in key areas such as
5G, IoT, Big Data (2018–2020)
A converged set of resources is
aligned with 5G architectures
Open Access is implemented as a
requirement (2015–2016) Projects are
funded that develop services
supporting reproducibility (M16)
EaaS solutions will get harmonized
and interoperable (2016–2017)
All FIRE Open Access projects get
integrated into one single portal for
offering coherent package of services
Mechanisms are set in place that support
cross-facility experimentation through a
central experimentation facility (2016)
A FIRE Broker initiative is
implemented providing broker services
across the FIRE portfolio (2017)
Implementation of a new ﬁnancing
model to ensure sustainability of
FIRE legal entity enables
pay-per-use services (2018–2019)
FIRE facilities implement secure
and trustworthy resources
Alignment of EC units leads to
cross-domain access to facilities and
FIRE is made accessible to wider
communities by offering community
Alignment of FIRE and 5G in terms of
facilities, services and experimentation
Introduction of accelerator functionality
for “technology accelerator”
SMEs are key target group of FIRE,
with Open Calls speciﬁcally
dedicated to SMEs (2018)
Professionalisation of FIRE
Introduction of startup funding as
part of “full-service accelerator”
Professionalization of FIRE’s internal
Collaboration agreements in place
between FIRE and large initiatives
such as 5G PPP (2015)
A Network of Future Internet Initiatives
is established (2016–2017)
Cross-initiative collaboration in the
Future Internet domain is implemented
to enable seamless interconnection
FIRE, within NFII, is operating as
legal entity to ensure sustainability
2.7 FIRE Roadmap towards 2020 75
•The FIRE resources layer considers the role of the testbeds made
available through FIRE i.e. whose development is funded in part by the
FIRE programme. These represent an important element in achieving
objectives through making the right experimental facilities available,
sustaining facilities, and ensuring provision meets user demands.
•The FIRE service and access layer considers the services provided to the
user to allow them to perform experiments; these can be experimental
services to perform and monitor experiments (set up experiment, report
on results, etc.), services to utilise facilities directly (SLA management,
security, resource management), and central services managing the FIRE
offering (e.g. a FIRE portal). Also the mechanisms employed to allow
users to access and make use of the testbed are considered e.g. fully open
access, open calls, policy based access, etc.
•The FIRE Experimenter layer considers the consumer, i.e. the overall
FIRE user base who utilise the available FIRE testbed resources. Solu-
tions in this layer will implement changes in the user base, e.g. changing
from a traditional academic community in Europe, to a more global
community, and/or more industry and SME users.
•FIRE framing conditions solutions address the activities concerning the
ecosystem conditions and the activities carried out to operate FIRE, and
also integrate FIRE with wider initiatives.
Phase I: 2014–2016
In this period, partly covering the new Work Programme 2016–2017, we
expect continued and intensiﬁed attention to funding facilities that increase
impact and relevance by balancing Future Internet pillars. Testbeds in the
domain of software and services are prioritized. Cutting-edge testbeds should
be added in key areas 5G, IoT, Big Data and Cyber-Physical systems. Loosely-
coupled FIRE federation will be continued in order to simplify cross-domain
experimentation. In order to increase the experimental use of facilities, FIRE-
funded facilities will be required to offer open access Also, ease of use
and repeatability and reproducibility of experiments must be improved by
promoting Experimentation-as-a-Service concepts. Both actions aim at sim-
plifying cross-domain experimentation. The main priority regarding experi-
menter solutions is to increase the user base and actual use of facilities, by
making FIRE accessible to the larger Future Internet community, by offering
community APIs and establishing interoperability. The FI-PPP and GENI are
prominent initiatives in this time period. Also, common experimentation stan-
dards across initiatives will be required, such as cloud and IoTAPIs. Strategic
76 Next Generation Internet Research and Experimentation
alignment and collaboration between FIRE and other EC programmes (DG
CONNECT and wider) needs to be pursued, e.g. preparing for joint calls and
stimulating interactions among the Unit priority areas. FIRE as a community
needs to start working towards a credible level of organisation to prepare for
sustainability and professional service offers.
Phase II: 2016–2018
In this period, FIRE establishes cutting-edge Big Data facilities relevant to
research and technology demands to support industry and support the solving
of societal challenges. Federation activities to support the operation of cross-
facility experimentation are continued. A follow-up activity of Fed4FIRE is
needed which also facilitates coordinated open calls for cross-FIRE experi-
mentation using multiple testbeds. Additionally, a broker service is provided to
attract new experimenters and support SMEs. This period ensures that openly
accessible FIRE federations are aligned with 5G architectures that simplify
cross-domain experimentation. Second, via the increased amount of resources
dedicated to Open Calls, FIRE will create an Accelerator functionality to
support product and service innovation of start-ups and SMEs. For this, FIRE
will establish a cooperation with regional players and other initiatives. FIRE
continues to implement professional practices and establishes a legal entity
which can engage in contracts with other players and supports pay per use
usage of testbeds.
Phase III: 2018–2020
FIRE continues to add new resources that match advanced experimenter
demands (5G, large-scale data oriented testbeds, large-scale IoT testbeds,
cyber-physical systems) and offers services based on Experimentation-as-
a-service. The services evolve towards experiment-driven innovation. More
and more FIRE focuses on the application domain of innovative large-scale
smart systems. Implementing secure and trustworthy services becomes a key
priority, also to attract industrial users. Responsive SME-tailored open calls
are implemented, to attract SMEs. FIRE continues the Accelerator activity
by providing dedicated start-up accelerator funding. FIRE takes new steps
towards (partial) sustainability by experimenting with new funding models.
Sustainable facilities are supported with continued minimum funding after
project lifetime. FIRE community has achieved a high level of professional
operation. FIRE contributes to establishing a network of Future Internet initia-
tives which works towards sharing resources, services, tools and knowledge
and which is supported by the involved Commission Units.
2.7 FIRE Roadmap towards 2020 77
2.7.2 Towards Implementation – Resolving the Gaps
Setting out a vision, strategy and roadmap must go hand in hand with
being aware about the gaps that need to be resolved. Two categories can
be distinguished: 1) gaps with respect to the current FIRE offerings, and 2)
gaps with respect to the FIRE vision. The current FIRE offering has evolved
from individual projects, many of which had speciﬁc project objectives to build
testbeds on which to make experiments, but were not expected to federate with
others, be open for researchers outside of the project consortium, or continue
after the end of the project contract timeframe. The fact that these features
are now increasingly being offered is a result of earlier gap analyses by FIRE
stakeholders and actions taken by the EC to address the issues incrementally in
successive Calls for Proposals. The assessment of FIRE’s relevance for Future
Internet experimenters is, however, a continuous process; new technologies,
devices and protocols emerge and new ways of improving the experience
for both experimenters and testbed providers are identiﬁed. AmpliFIRE’s
Portfolio Capability Analysis  lists some of the main gaps with respect to the
current FIRE offering that have been identiﬁed by experimenters (or potential
experimenters). In many cases, these gaps reﬂect the increasing interest being
shown in the FIRE facilities by SMEs and industry organisations, as opposed
to the traditional users, who are largely from the academic community.
Many of the gaps, in particular those associated with the usage of FIRE
testbeds by a higher number of SMEs and industrial organisations, are common
to the needs for FIRE testbeds identiﬁed by the reports on FIRE Vision  and
FIRE Future Structure and Evolution . However, we have identiﬁed addi-
tional requirements, related to 1) the concept of FIRE becoming the common
European Experimentation Infrastructure incorporating FIRE testbeds with
ESFRI, FI-PPP, CIP ICT-PSP, GEANT; and 2) the transitioning of the more
mature FIRE facilities towards business innovation and education platforms
within (for example) the EIT Digital context. In general terms – whilst FIRE
has been strong, historically on networking topics – more effort needs to be
placed now on service aspects and extending expertise into the commercial
area. Testbed-as-a-Service, Experimentation-as-a-Service, Knowledge-as-a-
Service, and all of the functions and tools that underpin these concepts
become increasingly important. We propose the following actions to address
the identiﬁed gaps:
•Common FIRE tools should be built for TaaS, EaaS and KaaS, rather
than each project developing their own.
78 Next Generation Internet Research and Experimentation
•One FIRE portal should exist, through which the resources of all FIRE
projects can be accessed by experimenters as a single entity.
•There should be a more coordinated approach to FIRE collaboration (e.g.
with respect to support for the FI-PPP, 5G-PPP, Big Data PPP etc.), rather
than the ad-hoc mechanisms applied today.
•For addressing the sustainability issue, an independent stakeholder
alliance funding mechanism to manage the European common platform
should be considered.
2.8 Main Conclusions and Recommendations
FIRE has evolved into a diverse portfolio of experimental facilities, increa-
singly federated and supported by tools, and responding to the needs and
demands of a large scientiﬁc experimenter community. Issues that require
attention include the sustainability of facilities after projects’ termination, the
engagement of industry and SMEs, and the further development of FIRE’s
ecosystem. A more strategic issue is to develop a full service approach
addressing the gaps between ecosystem layers and addressing integration
issues that are only now coming up in other Future Internet-funded projects. A
related challenge is to expand the nature of FIRE’s ecosystem from an offering
of experimental facilities towards the creation of an ecosystem platform
capable to attract market parties from different sides that beneﬁt from mutual
and complementary interests. Additionally, FIRE should anticipate the shifting
focus of Future Internet innovation areas towards connecting users, sensor
networks and heterogeneous systems, where data, heterogeneity and scale
will determine future research and innovation in areas such as Big Data,
and 5G and IoT . Such demands lead to the need for FIRE to focus on
testbeds, experimentation and innovation support in the area of “smart systems
of networked infrastructures and applications”.
To address the viewpoints identiﬁed by the FIRE community, the FIRE
initiative should support actions that keep pace with the changing state-
of-the-art in terms of technologies and services, able to deal with current
and evolving experimenter demands. Such actions must be based upon a
co-creation strategy, interacting directly with the experimenters, collecting
their requirements and uncovering potential for extensions. FIRE must also
collaborate globally with other experimental testbed initiatives to align with
trends and share expertise and new facilities. Where major new technologies
emerge, these should be funded as early as possible as new experimental
facilities in the FIRE ecosystem.
2.8 Main Conclusions and Recommendations 79
This analysis leads to conclusions and recommendations regarding the
future direction of FIRE. The following is a concise summary of conclusions
and recommendations, grouped in three areas: (1) the vision and positioning
of FIRE, (2) the strategic challenges, and (3) the action plans. These con-
clusions and recommendations have been elaborated in more detail in the
AmpliFIRE D1.2 report .
2.8.1 FIRE Vision and Positioning
•FIRE’s strategic vision for 2020 is to be the Research, Development and
Innovation (RDI) environment for the Future Internet, creating business
and societal impact and addressing societal challenges. Adding to FIRE’s
traditional core in networking technologies is shift of focus in moving
upwards to experimenting and innovating on connected smart systems
which are enabled by advanced networking technologies.
•FIRE must forcefully position the concept of experimental testbeds
driving innovation at the core of the experimental large-scale trials
of other Future Internet initiatives and of selected thematic domains
of Horizon 2020. Relevant initiatives suitable for co-developing and
exploiting testbed resources include the 5G-PPP, Internet of Things
large-scale pilots, and e-Infrastructures.
2.8.2 Strategic Challenges for Evolution of FIRE
•FIRE should help establish a network of open, shared experimental
facilities and platforms in co-operation with other Future Internet ini-
tiatives. Experimental facilities should become easily accessible for
any party or initiative developing innovative technologies, products and
•FIRE should establish a “technology accelerator” functionality, by itself
or in co-operation with other Future Internet initiatives, to boost SME
research and innovation and start-up creation. A brokering initiative
should provide broker services across the FIRE portfolio or via exploita-
tion partnerships. Community APIs should be offered to make FIRE
resources more widely available.
•FIRE’s core expertise and know-how must evolve: from offering facilities
for testing networking technologies towards offering and co-developing
the methodologies, tools and processes for research, experimentation and
proof-of-concept testing of complex systems. FIRE should establish a
80 Next Generation Internet Research and Experimentation
lively knowledge community to innovate methodologies and learn from
•FIRE should ensure longer term sustainability building upon diversi-
ﬁcation, federation and professionalization. FIRE should support the
transition from research and experimentation to innovation and adop-
tion, and evolve from singe area research and experiment facilities
towards cross-technology, cross-area facilities which can support the
combined effects and beneﬁts of novel infrastructure technologies used
together with emerging new service platforms enabling new classes of
•FIRE should develop and implement a service provisioning approach
aimed at customized fulﬁlment of a diverse range of user needs. Moving
from offering tools and technologies FIRE should offer a portfolio of
customized services to address industry needs. FIRE should establish
clear channels enabling interaction among providers, users and service
exploitation by collaboration partners.
•FIRE should become part of a broad Future Internet value network, by
pursuing co-operation strategies at multiple levels. Cooperation covers
different levels: federation and sharing of testbed facilities, access to and
interconnection of resources, joint provision of service offerings, and
partnering with actors in speciﬁc sectoral domains. In this FIRE should
target both strong ties and loose ties opportunistic collaboration. Based
on speciﬁc cases in joint projects, cooperation with 5G and IoT domains
could be strengthened .
•FIRE should evolve towards an open access platform ecosystem. Plat-
form ecosystem building is now seen critical to many networked
industries as parties are brought together who establish mutually bene-
ﬁcial relations. Platforms bring together and enable direct interactions
within a value network of customers, technology suppliers, developers,
facility providers and others. Developer communities may use the FIRE
facilities to directly work with business customers and facility providers.
Orchestration of the FIRE platform ecosystem is an essential condition.
2.8.3 Action Plans to Realize the Strategic Directions
•The ongoing development towards federation of testbeds should be
strongly supported; it is a key requirement now and in the future. We
have proposed several actions to accomplish this goal, which is taken up
in the Work Programme 2016–2017.
2.9 Final Remarks 81
•FIRE should strengthen the activities aimed at wider exploitation of its
testbed resources by increasing the scope and number of experiments and
experimenters using FIRE facilities.
•FIRE should increase the number of projects and experiments that lead to
resolving societal challenges. Bring end user communities to the FIRE
community to stimulate innovation for the social good. Promote open
source community building methods such as hackhatons and open source
•FIRE should initiate actions to leverage its resources to start-ups and
•FIRE should initiate activities aimed at decreasing the time to market for
•FIRE should maintain and strengthen its relevance for the researcher
•The potential capability of FIRE facilities and resources for regional
development, to support technology development and product and
service innovation, should be exploited.
•FIRE should expand its range of facilities to also address research and
innovations in sectors where “networked, smart systems” are crucial for
•FIRE facilities are to be exploited for standardisation activities (proof-
•FIRE should selectively engage in international co-operation, based on
reciprocal and result oriented actions.
•Create co-operation across Future Internet related initiatives and stimu-
late alignment of EC units.
•FIRE should establish a professionally coordinated community to lead
its development toward 2020.
2.9 Final Remarks
As explained in Section 2.2’s vision and mission statement for FIRE and
detailed in Sections 2.3–2.4, we foresee a further development of FIRE’s
mission and value offer. One particular challenge is to expand the nature
of the FIRE’s ecosystem, from offering facilities to mostly experimenters
in academic research institutes towards a wider spectrum of actors in a
growing FIRE ecosystem, including large businesses and SMEs, developer
communities, and other initiatives or programmes. FIRE will continue to
offer an efﬁcient and effective federated platform of core facilities as a
common research and experimentation infrastructure related to the Future
82 Next Generation Internet Research and Experimentation
Internet; this delivers innovative and customized experimentation capabilities
and services not achievable in the commercial market. FIRE will expand
its facility offers to a wider range of technological developments in EC
programmes e.g. in relation to smart cyber-physical systems, smart networks
and Internet architectures advanced cloud infrastructure and services, 5G
network infrastructure for the Future Internet, Internet of Things and platforms
for connected smart objects. FIRE delivers experimental testing facilities
at low costs based upon federation, expertise and tool sharing, offering all
necessary expertise and services for experimentation on the Future Internet
part of H2020. In the longer term, FIRE’s mission is to be the research,
development and innovation environment, or “accelerator” within Europe’s
Future Internet innovation ecosystem, providing the facilities for research,
early testing and experimentation of innovative technologies and solutions, by
accelerating Future Internet technology-induced innovation cycles resulting
in advanced applications and business support leading to the creation of new
market opportunities. The overall strategic objective for FIRE is to become
a sustainable ‘R&D&I lab’-like facility for research in the Future Internet;
supporting researchers and the community to tackle important problems, and
acting as an accelerator for industry and entrepreneurs to take novel ideas
closer to market.
The strategy to realize this future role is multidimensional and AmpliFIRE
jointly with the FIRE community and the Commission have been working
towards the deﬁnition of a set of strategic objectives aimed at 2020, and a
range of activities to realize the 2020 objectives.
The strategy includes the following key recommendations:
•Establish an easily accessible network of open and shared experimental
facilities and platforms and create partnerships with other Future Internet
initiatives to realize this.
•Target industry and SME innovators by establishing an “accelerator”
functionality, starting with creating a market interface aimed at aligning
demands and offers.
•Increase the number of experiments and experimenters using FIRE,
attracting new user/stakeholder groups such as large ICT companies,
developer companies, SME innovators, Smart Cities and regions, and
other EC programmes.
•Target business innovator needs related to accelerating product and
service innovation and go-to-market, addressing the needs and demands
of companies in different stages of their development lifecycle. Work
together with innovation intermediaries.
References to AmpliFIRE Reports and White Papers 83
References to AmpliFIRE Reports and White Papers
 AmpliFIRE D1.1: FIRE Vision and Scenarios 2020. Final report, May
 AmpliFIRE D1.2: FIRE Future Structure and Evolution. Interim report,
 AmpliFIRE D1.3: FIRE Ecosystem Progress Report. FIRE Roadmap
towards 2020. Final report, June 2015.
 AmpliFIRE D2.1: FIRE Portfolio Capability Analysis. Final report, June
 AmpliFIRE D2.2: Overview of Experimenter Requirements. Final report,
 AmpliFIRE D3.1: FIRE Collaboration Models. Final report, April 2015.
 AmpliFIRE D3.2: FIRE Service Offer Portfolio. Final report, March
 AmpliFIRE White Paper: Experimental Methodology Challenges. June
 AmpliFIRE White Paper: Potential of FIRE as Accelerator for NewAreas
of Technological Innovation. June, 2015.
 AmpliFIRE White Paper: FIRE Value Proposition. September 2014.
 AmpliFIRE D1.2: FIRE Future Structure and Evolution. Conclusions and
Recommendations for FIRE’s Future. Final report, February 2015.
This section makes reference to the AmpliFIRE Final Summary Report,
December 2015, presents a synthesis of results of the AmpliFIRE Support
Action, funded by the European Commission (Grant Agreement 318550).
Editor: Hans Schaffers, AmpliFIRE coordinator, Aalto University School
of Business, Centre for Knowledge and Innovation Research (CKIR),
Contributors: Michael Boniface (IT Innovation), Stefan Bouckaert
(iMinds), Monique Calisti (Martel), Diana Chronér (LTU), Paul Grace
(IT Innovation), Jeaneth Johansson (LTU), Scott Kirkpatrick (HUJI),
Timo Lahnalampi (Martel), Jacques Magen (InterInnov), Malin Malm-
ström (LTU), Santiago Martiñez Garcia (Telefónica R&D), Bram Naudts
(iMinds), Michael Nilsson (LTU), Jan van Ooteghem (iMinds), Mar-
tin Potts (Martel), Géraldine Quetin (InterInnov), Sathya Rao (Mar-
tel), Mikko Riepula (Aalto University), Annika Sällström (LTU), Hans
Schaffers (Aalto University).
84 Next Generation Internet Research and Experimentation
Project Ofﬁcer European Commission, Experimental Platforms Unit E.4:
The AmpliFIRE consortium gratefully acknowledges the results of discus-
sions organised during theAmpliFIRE’s lifetime, especially in the context
of the FIRE Board and FIRE Forum events and dedicated workshops.
For more information, see AmpliFIRE’s website http://www.ict-
AmpliFIRE reports and White Papers are available for downloading at