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The therapeutic properties and applications of Aloe vera : A review

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Abstract

Aloe vera, a succulent perennial and drought resisting plant, is well known for its therapeutic potential. A number of beneficial effects of aloe vera have been reported, including immunomodulatory, wound and burn healing, hypoglycemic, anticancer, gastro-protective, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties. These beneficial therapeutic properties of aloe vera have been employed for a number of commercial applications. The present review provides a survey of literature on its composition, rheology, processing and pharmaceutical uses as well as an outline of its application in foods and cosmetics. In addition, complications associated with the use of aloe vera and relevant precautions are summarised. Chemical characterization of aloe vera is in progress through scientific developments in the area of analytical chemistry. It is expected that further information will be available at a faster rate in the near future, resulting in enhanced applications.

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... Aloe vera Linné (also called as Aloe barbadensis Miller) is an herbal plan of high therapeutic importance, which has been extensively investigated for application in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications (Maan et al., 2018). It belongs to family Aloaceae and is the most popular species of Aloe generanative to northern Africa, and comprised of more than 500 species (Grace et al., 2015). ...
... The Aloe vera gel comprises of soft and slippery tissues containing parenchyma cells. It is a transparent jelly like material and has complex composition; containing a variety of bioactive compounds comprising of carbohydrates, proteins, fibers, soluble sugars, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, organic acids and phenolic compounds (Maan et al., 2018;Moghaddasi & Verma, 2011). ...
... The global Aloe vera gel market is growing at a rapid pace and valued at 649.41 million USD in 2020, with major end users as pharmaceutical industry (61%), cosmetic industry (24%) and food industry (15%) (EMR, 2021). In food industry, Aloe vera gel is applied for the preparation of functional foods, as natural preservative, or as a material for edible films/coatings (Maan et al., 2018). Over the last decade, it has received considerable attention as edible film/coating owing to its effectiveness towards shelf life extension of various perishable food commodities. ...
Article
Background Edible films/coatings are thin layers of eatable materials which, when applied to foods, can modify the exchange of molecules between food and environment as well as between different compartments of the same food. The films/coatings help the foods to maintain their freshness and also facilitate in their transportation, storage and display. As demand for healthy foods is increasing rapidly, various novel materials from herbal sources are extensively being explored as raw materials for edible films/coatings. Scope and approach Aloe vera is a popular herbal plant and is well known for its therapeutic properties. The gel extracted from Aloe vera leaves comprises of a variety of bioactive compounds, minerals and phenolic contents. For this reason, Aloe vera gel has attracted considerable attention as edible and active film/coating material. The present paper provides a detailed literature review on extraction, suitability and applications of Aloe vera gel as edible film/coating material, either alone and in combination with conventional film forming materials. Key findings and conclusions Aloe vera gel films/coating are quite effective for shelf-life extension of various perishable food commodities (in a dose-dependent manner); however, the optimum gel concentration still needs to be investigated. The blending of Aloe vera gel with traditional biopolymers (proteins and polysaccharides) and lipids (emulsions) seems a promising approach for tuning properties of films/coating in terms of transparency, smoothness, rigidity, elasticity, water vapor permeability, and bio-functionality. Further research is needed to address some technological challenges to develop Aloe vera gel-based films/coatings with easily tunable properties.
... Therefore, careful phytochemical examination of the plant and dosage is required before their use as feed additives in aquaculture (Reverter et al., 2020). Among medicinal plants, A. vera (AV) has received particular attention owing to its antioxidant, anti-obesity, hypo-glycemic, hepato-protective, and immunomodulatory properties (Maan et al., 2018;Kumar et al., 2019). Earlier compositional investigations showed that AV contained essential minerals, vitamins, saponins, polysaccharides, phenolic compounds including anthraquinones/anthrones (aloe-emodin, anthranol, aloin A and B, emodin, etc.), organic acids, amino acids, and lipids, which make it an essential ingredient in different cosmetic, pharmaceutic and agrifood products (Radha and Laxmipriya, 2015;Maan et al., 2018). ...
... Among medicinal plants, A. vera (AV) has received particular attention owing to its antioxidant, anti-obesity, hypo-glycemic, hepato-protective, and immunomodulatory properties (Maan et al., 2018;Kumar et al., 2019). Earlier compositional investigations showed that AV contained essential minerals, vitamins, saponins, polysaccharides, phenolic compounds including anthraquinones/anthrones (aloe-emodin, anthranol, aloin A and B, emodin, etc.), organic acids, amino acids, and lipids, which make it an essential ingredient in different cosmetic, pharmaceutic and agrifood products (Radha and Laxmipriya, 2015;Maan et al., 2018). Phytosterols from AV were found to induce the overexpression of genes involved in fatty acid transport (acsl1), fatty acid oxidation (acaa1a, acox1, cpt1a, cpt2, cyp4a10, and cyp4a14), and retinoid X receptor (rxr) in obese mice (Pothuraju et al., 2016). ...
... However, due to the inherent chemical composition, some plants can exhibit distinct levels of bioactivity and sometimes toxicity; therefore, their detailed phytochemical analysis and the search for optimal concentrations are important to assess their potential for the aquaculture sector Hoseini et al., 2021). Among these plants, AV was widely used as a functional and therapeutic food for both humans and mammals due to its anti-obesity, hypo-glycemic, immune-modulatory and antioxidant properties (Kumar et al., 2019;Maan et al., 2018;Gabriel et al., 2015). Nevertheless, several adverse effects have been explored, which might be relevant to the tested parts of the plant, the time of harvest, the climatic conditions, the extraction or purification processes, the indicated concentration and/or the tested animal system (Tong et al., 2021). ...
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This study aimed to assess the effects of dietary increasing concentrations of Aloe vera (AV) powder of 0.5%, 2.5% and 5% on the growth performance, hepatic oxidative status, histology, and lipid metabolism and cellular signaling pathways-related genes' expression in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). The preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the richness of the dried AV extract on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and condensed tannins when compared to the lyophilized sample. The dried extract showed a good DPPH-radical scavenging activity and its profiling by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS revealed the presence of anthraquinones namely aloin A, aloin B and their hydroxyl (7-hydroxyaloin A and 7-hydroxyaloin B) and methyl-hydroxy (8-O-methyl-7-hydroxyaloin A and 8-O-methyl-7-hydroxyaloin B) derivatives as well as aloeresin A and B. The AV supplementation in fish diet did not affect growth performance (WG, WGR, and SGR) and feed utilization (FI, FCR, FER), and HSI indexes. However, the hepatic insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and II) levels were significantly enhanced. Genes' expression levels of enzymes or transcription factors involved in lipolysis (lpl, hsl, and atgl), beta-oxidation (pparα, hadh), fatty acid transporters (cd36, fabp11) and lxrα were significantly down-regulated by the two high concentrations of AV powder. In contrast, fatty acid synthase (fas), a key gene of lipogenesis was significantly up regulated by dietary AV 5% powder supplementation. The induction of fas together with the down-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (pparα) and hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (hadh) could explain the lipid accumulation resulting in hepatic steatosis, which was confirmed by histological analysis, since the diets at the two higher concentrations (AV 2.5% and AV 5%) induced a significant increase in the number and diameter of hepatic lipid vacuoles in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, the mRNA levels of protein kinase B named (akt), mammalian target of rapamycin (mtor) and extracellular regulated kinase (erk1/2) involved in cell survival and proliferation were decreased by all AV powder supplemented diets. AV 5% increased catalase and glutathione S transferase activities suggesting a cellular strategy to fight against reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with AV 0.5% is recommended for gilthead sea bream feed formulation, as it stimulates the igf-i expression. However, higher levels of AV should be avoided as they might cause lipid metabolism disruption, oxidative stress and liver steatosis.
... Aloe vera is an herbal plant and has medicinal properties; hence, its applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries have been studied [31]. It has a jelly-like texture and is composed of various bioactive compounds as well as carbohydrates, proteins, fibers, soluble sugars, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, and phenolic compounds [32]. ...
... It has a jelly-like texture and is composed of various bioactive compounds as well as carbohydrates, proteins, fibers, soluble sugars, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, and phenolic compounds [32]. In functional food development, aloe vera is utilized as an edible coating film [31]. Aloe vera gel is an excellent example of active packaging due to its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. ...
Article
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Fresh fruits and vegetables, being the source of important vitamins, minerals, and other plant chemicals, are of boundless importance these days. Although in agriculture, the green revolution was a milestone, it was accompanied by the intensive utilization of chemical pesticides. However, chemical pesticides have hazardous effects on human health and the environment. Therefore, increasingly stimulating toward more eco-friendly and safer alternatives to prevent postharvest losses and lead to improving the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables. Proposed alternatives, natural plant extracts, are very promising due to their high efficacy. The plant-based extract is from a natural source and has no or few health concerns. Many researchers have elaborated on the harmful effects of synthetic chemicals on human life. People are now much more aware of safety and health concerns than ever before. In the present review, we discussed the latest re-search on natural alternatives for chemical synthetic pesticides. Considering that the use of plant-based extracts from aloe vera, lemongrass, or neem is non-chemical by-products of the fruits and vegetable industry, they are proved safe for human health and may be integrated with economic strategies. Such natural plant extracts can be a good alternative to chemical pesticides and preservatives.
... They are hypothesized to constitute a strong endogenous defense against the oxidative cell and against tissue injury. 34 Therefore, these natural antioxidants contained in a plant may contribute to antioxidant activity and straight towards the total or even partial alleviation of some clinical disorder, especially in diabetes [34] . Trace elements analysis show that Aloe vera extract contained more appreciable amounts of Cr, Zn, and Mn, which may be responsible for potentiating the insulin action. ...
... Aloe is very long known to have an antioxidant potential via suppressing the free radical formation and enhancement of the cellular thiol status. It is also reported that it stimulates glutathione-Stransferase enzyme activity [34] . Our results supported the antioxidant potentials of Aloe, where it was found to be suppressing elevated serum of MDA levels and increase the blood GSH and SOD levels. ...
... The medicinal properties of Aloe vera Vegetable Growing 4 have led to its increased popularity. It contains amino acids essential to wound healing [21]. Additionally, it contains several inorganic electrolytes, such as iron, potassium, magnesium, chromium, copper, sodium, calcium, and zinc, essential for wound healing [22]. ...
... These agents stimulate the immune system to fight cancer [22]. Researchers examined the cytotoxicity of barbarol, aloe-emodein, and aloesin extracted from Aloe vera against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) [21]. ...
Chapter
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The traditional and herbal medicines play significant role in the treatment of several diseases. These medicines are the outcome of extensive research on therapeutic and preventive activity of various plant species and their specific parts. Administration of various plant parts, vegetables, fruits and other herbal constituents have significant impact on reduction of clinical, carcinogenic and genotoxic effects of various environmental toxicants. Various parts of plant such as wood, bark, stem, leaf and pod are rich in antioxidants which are known for their free radical scavenging activity. Currently, the treatment options rely significantly using natural anti-oxidants which are extracted from plant products because these are largely available, cost effective and non-toxic as compared to the synthetic drugs. Some potent natural anti-oxidants include tocopherol, ascorbic acid, flavonoids, quercetin, carotene, cinnamic acid, peptides and phenolic compounds which are extensively available in various herbal extracts. The present chapter will focus upon availability of various antioxidants in vegetables and other medicinal plants and their potential activities against xenobiotics.
... Aloe, a perennial and succulent xerophyte has widely been used in both human and veterinary medicine for its immunemodulatory, wound and burn healing, hypoglycemic, anticancer, gastro-protective, antifungal, and antiinflammatory effects (Maan et al., 2018) [26] . Aloe vera may be a promising future nutritional herbal bioenhancer. ...
... Aloe, a perennial and succulent xerophyte has widely been used in both human and veterinary medicine for its immunemodulatory, wound and burn healing, hypoglycemic, anticancer, gastro-protective, antifungal, and antiinflammatory effects (Maan et al., 2018) [26] . Aloe vera may be a promising future nutritional herbal bioenhancer. ...
... Aloe vera gel is a viscous and transparent liquid extracted from the parenchymatous cells in the fresh leave of Aloe vera [9]. It contains biologically active constituents like vitamins which function as antioxidants and neutralizers of free radicals [10]. Aloe gel is also rich in steroids such as cholesterol, campesterol, β-sitosterol, and lupeol, all of which have anti-inflammatory action [11]. ...
... It has been reported that fractioned, and the whole unfractionated gel, is rich in antioxidant effects. The gel also is rich in peroxidase activity and phenolic antioxidant [10,11]. Kahramanoglu et al. [30] reported that approximately thirteen flavonoids including flavone, flavonol and flavan-3-ol have been isolated from aloe gel all of which are potent antioxidant, antiinflammatory and antiulcer agents. ...
Article
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Ulcerative colitis is a disease of undetermined etiology and treatment. It affects the colon and rectum and typically involves the mucosa, manifesting as continuous areas of inflammation and ulceration. Aloe gel contains more than a hundred potentially active constituents of different classes. This study investigated the effect of aloe gel on experimentally-induced ulcerative colitis. Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into groups A to F of six rats each. Ulcerative colitis was induced to rats in groups B to F by single intra-colonic administration of 2 mL of 4% acetic acid with a size 6 F pediatrics catheter. In contrast, group A received an equivalent volume of normal saline by the same route. Twenty-four hours after induction, rats in groups B and C received normal saline and 1 mg/kg b. wt. daily dose of dexamethasone, respectively. In contrast, those in groups D, E, and F received 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg b. wt. doses of aloe gel, respectively, for 14 days. They were sacrificed 24 hours after the last administration. We assessed disease progression by determining the clinical activity index, gross inflammation, histological alterations, the intensity of DNA in colon cells, and tissue level of nitric oxide. All the parameters but one increased significantly in group B rats. The quantitative distribution of DNA in colon cells reduced significantly in this group. Aloe gel doses significantly reversed these changes in a dose-dependent manner. Dexamethasone showed lesser efficacy relative to 60 mg dose of the Aloe gel extract. We conclude that Aloe vera gel has therapeutic potential in the treatment and management of ulcerative colitis. The most significant effects were observed in the groups treated with the highest dose of Aloe gel (60 mg/kg b. wt.). It is also worth noting that the remediated potential of aloe gel in acetic acid-induced UC surpasses that of dexamethasone.
... Overall, the moisture content of supplemented chicken was ranging from 49.74 to 54.70%. As the concentration of aloe vera gel increases the percent moisture also raised significantly, this may be because of the water holding capacity of gel powder [35]. Parameters Treatments T0* T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 NFE= Nitrogen Free Extract Means sharing same letters within a row are statistically non-significant Means squares for protein content of functional chicken nuggets showed that most protein content (15.32%) was found in chicken nuggets supplemented with 100% aloe vera gel powder (T5) followed by 14.77% in chicken nuggets supplemented with 25% bitter melon seeds and 75% aloe vera gel powder (T4), 14.65% in chicken nuggets supplemented with 75% bitter melon seeds and 25% aloe vera gel powder (T2), 14.21% in chicken nuggets supplemented with 50% bitter melon seeds and 50% aloe vera gel powder (T3) and 14.19% in chicken nuggets supplemented with 100% bitter melon seeds powder (T1). ...
... Mean value for the effect of bitter melon seeds and The Means sharing the same letters within a row are statistically non-significant HDL Mean value for the effect of bitter melon seeds and aloe vera gel powder in combination on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Cholesterol) of diabetic Sprague Dawley Rats revealed that maximum HDL-Cholesterol concentration (37.94mg/dL) was found in rats fed on 75% bitter melon seeds and 25% aloe vera gel powder (G2) followed by 32mg/dL in groups fed 50% bitter melon seeds and 50% aloe vera gel powder (G1). At the start trail, mean values of HDL-Cholesterol were 35.72mg/dL which decreased to 32.72mg/dL in further 15 days and then raised to 35 aloe vera gel powder in combination on low-density lipoprotein of diabetic Sprague Dawley Rats showed that maximum LDL-Cholesterol concentration (107.89mg/dL) was found in diabetic rats fed on normal feed with no supplemented bitter melon and aloe vera gel powder followed by 69.83mg/dL and 68.28mg/dL in groups fed on 50% bitter melon seeds and 50% aloe vera gel powder (G1) and 75% bitter melon seeds powder and 25% aloe vera gel powder (G2) respectively. At the start, the mean values of LDL-Cholesterol level were 106.39mg/dL which gradually decreased to 74.94mg/dL and 64.67mg/dL by consuming supplemented diet. ...
Article
Background: Diabetes mellitus is 4th leading cause of death worldwide. Diet based approaches to treat various health disorders are considered safe, economical and sustainable. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is one of the methods used worldwide for the management of diabetes millets. Momordica charantia and Aloe barbadensis both are known for their medicinal potential including antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Objective: The present study was designed to achieve following objectives: to analyze bitter melon seed (BMS) and aloe vera gel (AVG) powder for proximate and mineral content; to develop functional chicken nuggets by using various concentrations of both powdered and their compositional analyses and to probe the antidiabetic potential of powders in synergy. Design: A control and two formulations were selected, based on consumer acceptability, for efficacy trial through the animal model of 30 days. For this purpose, 18 diabetic Sprague Dawley Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups. The groups included the positive control group (G0, normal diet) and two other groups with different AVG and BMS powder. G1 group received 50% BMS and 50% AVG powder whereas, G2 was feed on 75% BMS and 25% AVG powder per day. Results: G1 showed a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose level, glycated haemoglobin, cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen and uric acid, whereas the G2 showed improvement in insulin, HDL-Cholesterol and triglycerides levels whereas showed better control over time. Conclusion: Supplementation of BMS and AVG can help to control hyperglycemia and related complications.
... Aloe vera (Aloe vera L.) is a plant of the Liliaceae family with application in cosmetic products (20). So far, 75 compounds have been found in Aloe vera, including 20 types of minerals, 20 amino acids, vitamins, polysaccharide glucomannan compounds, carboxypeptidases, magnesium, zinc, calcium, glucose, cholesterol, salicylic acid, prostaglandins, vitamins A, C, and E, lignins, saponins, herbal sterols, and amino acids (21,22). Aloe vera is a medicinal herb applicable to various diseases and skin lesions as a topical remedy. ...
... Pomegranate, Punica granatum L., is a member of the Punicaceae family and a natural source of phenolic compounds and antioxidants such as tannins, polyphenols, flavonoids, and vitamin C. The fruit peel and leaves contain various phenolic substances responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the extract. Several studies have found that the antimicrobial activity of pomegranate extract may be due to the presence of some compounds with antimicrobial activity (19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28). The pomegranate peel extract significantly reduces P. ...
Article
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Background: Acne is the most common chronic skin disease affecting young adults and adolescents worldwide. A characteristic of this disease is the chronic inflammation of sebaceous glands leading to comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, and cysts. Topical and systemic uses of medicines are common approaches to treat acne. However, these medicines are associated with some adverse effects and increased microbial resistance. Objectives: We aimed to prepare and apply an herbal formulation containing several herbs with different effects on mechanisms associated with acne formation. Methods: In this study, 66 patients with mild-to-moderate acne randomly received a packet containing herbal medicine or clindamycin gel. The treatment period was two months, and the total acne lesions and acne severity index were measured every four weeks. After eight weeks of treatment and follow-up, the physician examined clinical outcomes and possible complications. Results: Decreases in total acne lesions and acne severity index were significantly different in both treatment groups (P < 0.05 in both groups). Although the herbal cream provided better improvement than clindamycin, there was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The use of the herbal cream could be recommended for treating acne lesions due to few complications, greater patient satisfaction, and avoiding microbial resistance to chemical antimicrobials.
... They are hypothesized to constitute a strong endogenous defense against the oxidative cell and against tissue injury. 34 Therefore, these natural antioxidants contained in a plant may contribute to antioxidant activity and straight towards the total or even partial alleviation of some clinical disorder, especially in diabetes [34] . Trace elements analysis show that Aloe vera extract contained more appreciable amounts of Cr, Zn, and Mn, which may be responsible for potentiating the insulin action. ...
... Aloe is very long known to have an antioxidant potential via suppressing the free radical formation and enhancement of the cellular thiol status. It is also reported that it stimulates glutathione-Stransferase enzyme activity [34] . Our results supported the antioxidant potentials of Aloe, where it was found to be suppressing elevated serum of MDA levels and increase the blood GSH and SOD levels. ...
Article
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Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that has always been the primary health concern worldwide. A few herbal plants showed anti-diabetic potential, Aloe is among these few species, and the pharmacological effects may vary for Aloe leaf preparations. We carried out a systematic and meta-analysis review to evaluate the hypoglycemics property of Aloe vera in Diabetes Mellitus Condition to develop its therapeutic benefit information and knowledge. The search used the following medical subject headings (MeSH): Aloe, aloe spp, diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia. This was followed by keyword search using Aloe vera or aloe gel or aloe polysaccharide or acemannan or aloe phytosterols or aloe elements. The historical search of relevant articles and personal contact with experts in the area were also undertaken. Twelve articles discuss the hypoglycemia effect of Aloe vera or Barbaloin or acemannan based in vivo study. Ten articles discuss the hypoglycemia effect of Aloe vera extract, and two articles discuss the hypoglycemia effect of the component of Aloe vera. In contrast, one article discusses the beneficial effect of polysaccharide equivalent Aloe vera gel on blood glucose levels in vivo and Yiman using Chromones based on Aloe vera. Several articles have been reviewed and concluded about the anti-diabetic effect of Aloe vera on animal studies with the favorable properties and ability of this material, such as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ability.
... Therefore, the fact is quite reliable that suspension culture often produces more bioactive compounds when adventitious roots were tested (Panichayupakaranant and Tewtrakul, 2002). Aloevera L.: Aloe vera (Liliaceae) is known for its therapeutic and commercial uses (Maan et al., 2018). The plant produces an anthraquinone, aloe-emodin compounds during the synthesis of the polypeptide pathway (Diaz-Munoz et al., 2018). ...
... The plant produces an anthraquinone, aloe-emodin compounds during the synthesis of the polypeptide pathway (Diaz-Munoz et al., 2018). (Table 2) The bioactive compound "aloeemodin" have shown a positive role in anti-inflammatory and genotoxic properties (Maan et al., 2018). The fluctuation in the environment and physiological alteration significantly impact on the composition of bioactive compounds (Beppu et al., 2004). ...
Article
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Plant hormones are small molecules resulting from various essential metabolic pathways that play a critical role in the regulation of plant growth and development. The majority of plant species are the rich source of valuable bioactive compounds, where these compounds actively participate in various aspects of biosynthesis such as drugs, fragrances, flavor, dye, pigments, and pesticides. The dynamic role of bioactive compounds on a commercial scale surrounds the interest of the researchers and pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, it is a prerequisite to explore new species that produce these compounds beyond its flora. For this, several strategies were explored keeping the objective of bioactive compounds. In recent, the induction of adventitious roots by different PGRs and culturing the production of highly valuable compounds in several endangered plant species are practicing. The adventitious roots establish from cutting not only reduce pressure on natural populations but also helps in the conservation of these species and it can further be utilized for the production of bioactive compounds to up-scale the agricultural and pharmaceutical industries. Thus overall, these extinct species playing a beneficial role in our ecosystem as well as expand the area of new drug discovery for the welfare of human beings. Based on this limelight, the current review article focused on summarizing the application of plant growth regulator, especially auxin and cytokinin, and the progress made in the recent past in the area of initiation and establishment of adventitious root cultures for the production of bioactive compounds in laboratory conditions of biologically endangered and medicinally valuable species
... Currently, this plant has become appealing in its raw state to consumers mainly for the medicinal, pharmaceutical and functional properties that have been discovered (Eshun andHe, 2004 Serrano et al., 2006;). Thus, the industry includes A. vera in the development of functional foods (Rodríguez et al., 2010Scala et al., 2013) and functional cosmetics, (Eshun andHe, 2004 Serrano et al., 2006;) as well as different types of medications (Maan et al., 2018). ...
Article
Aloe vera is one of the oldest and most traditional medicinal plant in history, with its use dating back over a thousand years. Today, its biological activity is not limited to curative purposes. The expansion in the A. vera industry became evident during the 90′s, when the development of this crop began to emerge due to a global demand from consumers more concerned with a healthy lifestyle. Considering the agro-industrial and economic relevance that this plant has acquired, this work reviewed its chemical, biological, and nutritional characteristics, plant processing methods, innovations, and industrial applications. Aloe vera is a plant that contain more than 75 bioactive compounds, among them the most relevant are polysaccharides, phenolics, and phytosterols. Additionally, the main processing technologies for A. vera leaves are described, including those used to obtain pressed filleted gel, whole leaf gel and manual filleted gel. This article shows its applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries are presented and the world landscape of the million-dollar market generated around this product, which in 2018 was around $1.60 billion. The applications of A. vera in the food industry as a natural functional ingredient or as fortifier in the food products of animal and vegetable origin has been a trend explored in the last years. Finally, through an in-depth analysis of patents and research articles, the current scenario of science and innovation developed for this industry is described.
... Its origins are in South and East Africa, as well as the Mediterranean. It has over 400 species and can be found all over the world, though it is mainly found in subtropical areas [18].Aloe-emodin, aloin, aloesin and emodin, are the major active constituents of aloe. Aloe-emodin, in particular, has emerged as a potential antimicrobial, antidiabetic, cytotoxic, cardioprotective and also anti-inflammatory and skin protective activity [19]. ...
Article
Diabetes mellitus is a worse metabolic condition in which level of glucose and lipid increased in blood circulation due to insufficient insulin functionality that may lead to worse the complication like atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, gangrene, limb amputation, kidney failure, and many more. Furthermore, high concentration of glucose in blood stream can directly produce reactive oxygen species which ultimately more worsen the conditions like dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis etc. This disorder is expected to affect 9.3% of the global population in 2019, increasing to 10.2% by 2030 and increasing 10.9 % by 2045. Medicinal plants are used as medicine to treat many ailments since a long time ago. But now they have been rediscovered with having specific constituents to treat diseases and many more yet to discover. There are so many active phytoconstituents of plants which are being extracted, purified, tested and formulated for patient convenience. In the present review, various plants used to treat diabetes mellitus due to have negligible side effects as compared to allopathic treatment (oral hypoglycemic drugs) are described. Many plants with hypoglycemic effect of many plants have been reported, and the mechanisms of action of these plants with these hypoglycemic behaviors are being examined through in vitro and in vivo studies. Some of these 22 medicinal plants and their active constituents related to antidiabetic activity are discussed in this review.
... Various parts of the plant contain amino acids, sugars, enzymes, vitamins, minerals, saponins, anthraquinones, lignin, and salicylic acid. Also, the leaves are the source of various organic acids, phenolic compounds, minerals, and vitamins [21]. erapeutic effects of Aloe vera in wound healing [22], inflammation, intestinal absorption, and reducing oxidative status were assessed in recent research [23]. ...
Article
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Background. Ulcerative colitis is a worldwide chronic gastrointestinal disease characterized by variable extensions of colon mucosal inflammation. The available drugs have an incomplete response with various side effects and socioeconomic impacts. Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is a well-known medicinal plant with diverse pharmacological and therapeutic activities. As a result, in the current study, Aloe vera was selected to evaluate its therapeutic effects on experimental colitis in rats. Methods. This study is intended to evaluate the possible beneficial effect of Aloe vera for the treatment of experimental colitis. Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) was used to induce experimental colitis in 60 of 70 Wistar rats. The rats were grouped in 7 clusters including healthy control, negative, positive control (received sulfasalazine), and test groups treated with Aloe vera extracts via oral or rectal routes. Macroscopic and histologic factors as well as the biochemical parameters were evaluated on day 7. Results. In the present study, it was found that serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (75 vs. 44 pg./ml), interleukin-6 (41 vs. 21 pg/ml), and nitric oxide (24 vs. 6 μm/ml) in TNBS-induced untreated colitis treatment were significantly increased as compared to healthy control. Similar patterns were also observed in malondialdehyde (76.41 vs. 236.35 μg/mg) and myeloperoxidase (4.24 vs. 29.38 U/mg) in colonic tissue. Among different treatments, rectal administration of Aloe vera extract (400 mg/kg) exhibited the best result in which serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (55 pg/ml), interleukin-6 (24 pg/ml), and nitric oxide (10 μm/ml) and the levels of malondialdehyde (102.67 μg/mg), as well as myeloperoxidase (12.29 U/mg) in colon tissue, were reduced as compared to the untreated group. Also, the body weight and colon weight/length ratios were more improved in the treated group with 400 mg/kg Aloe vera extract, rectally. Conclusion. Aloe vera extract exhibited a therapeutic effect in TNBS-induced colitis, and local, rectal administration of Aloe vera extract was more effective than oral administration. 1. Introduction Ulcerative colitis (UC) as an annoying chronic problem is one of the two major subtypes of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) with different geographic prevalences and worldwide distribution [1, 2]. Although UC may present insidiously, its hallmark is subacute bloody diarrhea, accompanied by anemia and fatigue. It also may change to acute severe colitis, presenting temperature above 37.5°C, heart rate above 90/min, and hemoglobin concentration below 10.5 g/dL with more than 6 bloody stools daily [3, 4]. Its manifestation is due to continuous inflammation of the rectum with the variable extension but usually with decreasing severity up to the cecum [5]. Its etiology and exact underlying pathophysiologic aspects are unclear, but most probably is due to aberrant deregulated mucosal immune responses (humoral and cellular immunity) to environmental factors in a genetically susceptible population. Following epithelial barrier dysfunction and immune cell activation, inflammatory cytokines and mediators (interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, IL-23, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)) are released which may be used as disease activity indicators [6, 7]. The diagnosis of UC is based on clinical presentation and chronic colon inflammation confirmed by histology [8]. Uncertain definitive pathogenesis, variable presentation, natural course, and lack of standard disease activity index are obstacles for definite therapeutic effect assessment. In any case, the accepted therapeutic goals are (a) accentuating induction of remission and maintenance period, (b) improving the nutritional status, (c) decreasing disease complications, and (d) considering side effects and cost effectiveness. In current medicine, the main treatments are focused on 5-ASA and steroids. Biologic therapies such as antitumor necrosis factor antibodies are prescribed for resistant patients. Antiadhesion molecules and kinase inhibitors are under research for UC treatment [9–12]. The inadequate response, frequent relapse, steroid dependency, and side effects result in developing a new candidate as the second line of treatment. Considering therapeutic effects of some herbal medicine such as heartleaf houttuynia [13, 14], boswellic acid [15, 16], diamonnium glycyrrizhinate [17], slippery elm [18], fenugreek [18], devil’s claw [18], tormentil [18], and wei tong ning [18] in various diseases, especially in China, Middle-East, and Africa, new research in this field is rational. Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Mill.) belongs to the Aloeaceae family with thick, tapered, green lance-shaped, juicy, sharp, and edged leaves [19]. Aloe vera grows in dry regions of Africa, Europe, Asia, and America. Aloe vera is probably the most applied medicinal plant commercially and the most popular plant worldwide [20]. Various parts of the plant contain amino acids, sugars, enzymes, vitamins, minerals, saponins, anthraquinones, lignin, and salicylic acid. Also, the leaves are the source of various organic acids, phenolic compounds, minerals, and vitamins [21]. Therapeutic effects of Aloe vera in wound healing [22], inflammation, intestinal absorption, and reducing oxidative status were assessed in recent research [23]. It also has been used empirically to increase high-density lipoprotein, reduce low-density lipoprotein, and decrease glycemia in diabetics [19]. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera in the human colon were confirmed in vitro by Langmead et al. [24]. In 2017, the healing effect of the aqueous leaf extract of Aloe vera in an animal model of experimentally induced colitis was investigated. The favorable effects confirmed through the significant reduction in Bax mRNA expression and elevation in Bcl-2 mRNA expression when compared with the colitis group without treatment [25]. In another study, 50 and 300 mg/kg of Aloe vera gel extract were used to evaluate the improvement in the symptoms of UC in rats. According to microscopy and macroscopic observations, the symptoms of UC were improved significantly [26]. Park et al. showed that 0.1% and 0.5% aloesin supplement (one of the compounds of Aloe vera) decreased the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities as well as TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expressions on the UC rat colitis model [27]. In another study, glucomannan extracted from Aloe vera balanced pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines regulated the expressions of TLR-2 and improved the health state of colitis in mice [28]. Similarly, assessments on polysaccharides extracted from Aloe vera on UC-animal models depicted an improvement in colitis, via JAK2, p-JAK2, STAT-3, and p-STAT3 protein expression [29]. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, oral Aloe vera gel (100 mL twice daily for 4 weeks, in a 2 : 1 ratio) was administered for active UC patients. The supplement reduced the clinical colitis activity index and histological scores significantly during treatment with Aloe vera [30]. However, it seems that further evaluation about the therapeutic potential of Aloe vera extract on UC as well as its effect on new biochemical factors related to UC is needed to get more insight into signaling pathways. Furthermore, in the current study, for the first time, the different routes and doses of Aloe vera administrations (intragastrically and rectally) were studied. Regarding the therapeutic dose of Aloe vera used in the previous studies with no report of toxicity in the tested range, 200 and 400 mg/kg Aloe vera extract were chosen for further study [31–35]. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the dose and route treatment of Aloe vera extract on colitis in rats and its impacts on proinflammatory cytokines. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Ethical Statement The animal experiments were performed in accordance with the guidelines of the Laboratory Animal Center of Shiraz Medical University (No. 91-01-36-4560). All the experimental procedures were strictly conducted according to the international standards and national legislation on animal care and the Animal Research Reporting In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines. Experimental research on the plant was under international legislation and guidelines of the Pharmacognosy Department of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. At the end of the study, rats were euthanized with the rapid and humane method using a 70% volume displacement rate of CO2 increased to around 100% in the induction chamber. 2.2. Study Design and Induction of Colitis The Laboratory Animal Center of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences with a pathogen-free environment, constant temperature (23 ± 2), and acceptable humidity (55 ± 5%) provided us with 70 male Wistar rats (175–215 grams) supplied with a balanced diet along with free access to water. The rats were fasted with free access to water for 24 h before induction of colitis. After rats were anesthetized with ketamine (50 mg/kg i.p), the rubber-tipped gavage needle was inserted into the anus of rats (7 cm) and 1 ml solution of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS, 150 mg/kg dissolved in ethanol) was slowly injected into the colon while the control group received only ethanol. Animals were held in the head-down position for 30 seconds and then returned to their cages [36–38]. Later, water and food were available. 12 hours after colitis induction, the treatments were started and continued one a day for six consecutive days. The effectiveness of treatment was assessed by clinical, macroscopic, biochemical, and histopathological assessments. The rats’ general conditions were assessed daily. 2.3. Experimental Animals A total of 70 Sprague Dawley male rats (aged 10-12 weeks, weighing initially 220 ± 20 gram) were obtained from the Laboratory Animal Center of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Animals were divided into seven groups (10 rats per group, n = 10). Group (1): healthy control group Group (2): TNBS-induced colitis untreated rats Groups (3): TNBS-induced colitis treated rats who received 200 mg/kg Aloe vera extract once a day, intragastrically Groups (4): TNBS-induced colitis treated rats who received 400 mg/kg Aloe vera extract once a day, intragastrically Groups (5): TNBS-induced colitis treated rats who received 200 mg/kg Aloe vera extract once a day, rectally Groups (6): TNBS-induced colitis treated rats who received 400 mg/kg Aloe vera extract once a day, rectally Group (7): TNBS-induced colitis treated rats who received 500 mg/kg sulfasalazine once a day, intragastrically as a positive control group The dose of Aloe vera extract for treatments was selected according to previously reported research [33–35]. According to the published articles, evaluation on the acute and subacute toxicity of Aloe vera in rats indicated that the methanol extract at the doses of 1, 2,4, 8, and 16 g/kg B.wt did not produce significant toxic effects [31]. In the other study, assessments on the subacute toxicity test showed that Aloe vera did not produce marked subacute toxic effects up to a maximum concentration of 3330 mg/kg body weight on rats with no mutagenic activity in ICR mice exposed to 10000 mg Aloe vera/kg body weight [32]. As a result, at the tested dose of Aloe vera extract, the toxic effect in rats without colitis was not assessed. Sulfasalazine also was purchased from Merck chemical company. The appropriate amount of extract or sulfasalazine based on the treated group was dissolved in sterile water. Intragastric administration was used in conscious rats with biomedical needles (length 76.2 mm, diameter 3 mm, straight). To prepare extract for rectal administration, 5% glycerol was mixed with 2% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) as an inert preservative substance [39]. Next, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of the dried extract was dissolved in deionized water, and the mixtures were gradually added to the glycerol-NaCMC solution. The gel was homogenized for 30 minutes, and the gel was collected in an aluminum tube in the refrigerator. For rectal administration, the gavage needle was inserted into the anus of rats (7 cm) and 1 ml of the prepared gel was injected [40]. 2.4. Plant Extract Aloe vera leaves were obtained in Shiraz, Fars Province, Iran, and its species was endorsed by SUMS taxonomists at a pharmacy school. 100 g dried Aloe vera was powdered and percolated with 70% ethanol (3 times), at room temperature, and the extracts were filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure to acquire 9.8 g of dried extracts (9.8% yield). This procedure was repeated several times to get enough amounts of extract for in vitro and in vivo studies. 2.5. Macroscopic Scoring The dosage and period of treatments were accompanied by daily body weights, gross stool evaluation for visible and/or occult bleeding. On the last day of the experiment (7th), the degree of colonic inflammation and damage was scored (Table 1) as described by Morris et al. with slight modifications [41, 42]. Score Gross morphology 0 No damage 1 Localized hyperemia, but no ulcers or erosions 2 Ulcers or erosions with no significant inflammation 3 Ulcers or erosions with inflammation at one site 4 Two or more sites of ulceration and/or inflammation 5 Two or more major sites of inflammation and ulceration or one major site of inflammation and ulceration extending >1 cm along the length of the colon
... Aloe (Aloe vera) from the Liliaceae family has been well developed and used in the cosmetic field, due to its whitening effect [123]. The utilization of A. vera as a natural anti-browning agent is an alternative way to retain the quality and inhibit the browning in minimally processed foods. ...
Article
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Fresh fruits and vegetable products are easily perishable during postharvest handling due to enzymatic browning reactions. This phenomenon has contributed to a significant loss of food quality and appearance. Thus, a safe and effective alternative method from natural sources is needed to tackle enzymatic browning prevention. The capabilities of natural anti-browning agents derived from plant- and animal-based resources in inhibiting enzymatic activity have been demonstrated in the literature. Some also possess strong antioxidants properties. This review aims to summarize a recent investigation regarding the use of natural anti-browning extracts from different sources for controlling the browning. The potential applications of genome-editing in preventing browning activity and improving postharvest quality is also discussed. Moreover, the patents on the anti-browning extract from natural sources is also presented in this review. The information reviewed here could provide new insights, contributing to the development of natural anti-browning extracts and genome-editing techniques for the prevention of food browning.
... Its antibacterial properties are due to the presence of lupeol and salicylic acid. Because of the inclusion of lupeol, it was an excellent analgesic (Maan et al., 2018). ...
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Due to their prevalence, respiratory diseases have attained great attention from the historical time. Furthermore, it has been explored in a new dimension due to recent viral outbreaks such as COVID-19. Even though modern medicine treats the majority of respiratory ailments, it is reported that the majority of people (≥ 80%) who suffer from respiratory disorders do not take medication for their conditions, and a considerable number of people still believe in and use herbal medicines. Herbal therapies have been utilized all over the world for thousands of years. Traditional herbal treatment has long been seen as a valuable practice in Saudi Arabia, long before modern medicine. Due to its location in the desert and humid climate, Saudi Arabia suffers from a high rate of respiratory illnesses caused by dust, pollens, and viruses. Several published literature have employed different plants and plant products for respiratory problems, but there has yet to be a single, complete study centered on Saudi Arabia. In this review, 41 plants were identified, which has complete details regarding their usage in traditional practice for respiratory disorders. A thorough investigation was conducted and the results were detailed.
... Aloe barbadensis (also known as aloe vera) is a polyphenol-rich plant with proven anti-inflammatory, healing, moisturizing, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and anti-aging properties [378,379]. The clinical trial enrolling 30 healthy women over the age of 45 showed that a 90 day intake of a low (120 mL of 1% aloe vera liquid, which is equivalent to 1200 mg of aloe vera gel/day) or high (120 mL of 3% aloe vera liquid, equivalent to 3600 mg of aloe vera gel/day) dose of aloe vera liquid gel (manufacturer: Univera Company, Seoul, Korea) significantly improved facial wrinkles and elasticity, increased type I procollagen and decreased the MMP-1 gene expressions in the photo-protected skin [380]. ...
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The skin, being the barrier organ of the body, is constitutively exposed to various stimuli impacting its morphology and function. Senescent cells have been found to accumulate with age and may contribute to age-related skin changes and pathologies. Natural polyphenols exert many health benefits, including ameliorative effects on skin aging. By affecting molecular pathways of senescence, polyphenols are able to prevent or delay the senescence formation and, consequently, avoid or ameliorate aging and age-associated pathologies of the skin. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge in skin aging and cellular senescence, and to summarize the recent in vitro studies related to the anti-senescent mechanisms of natural polyphenols carried out on keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts. Aged skin in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic will be also discussed.
... The complex composition of the hydrogel includes about 75 potential compounds, including minerals and phenolics [5,11,12]. Aloe-emodin, aloesin, aloin, and acemannan are some of the most studied compounds in Aloe vera, where acemannan is known to induce tissue repair [13][14][15][16][17][18]. In addition, these polysaccharides have been explored as a functional source for biomedical and pharmaceutical materials due to their natural gelling mechanism, high availability, and nontoxic nature [19][20][21][22]. ...
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Wound healing is fundamental to restore the tissue integrity. A topical study of the influence of Aloe vera hydrogel, formulated with 1,2-propanediol (propanediol) and triethanolamine (TEA), on the skin wound-healing process was investigated in female Wistar rats. FTIR spectroscopy confirms the presence of carboxylic acid and methyl ester carboxylate groups related with important compounds that confer the hydrogel a good interaction with proteins and growth factors. SEM images show a microstructure and micro-roughness that promote a good adhesion to the wound. Therefore, the swelling kinetics and the contact angle response contribute to the understanding of the in vivo results of the animal test. The results indicated that the Aloe vera hydrogel, prepared with propanediol and TEA, together with its superficial characteristics, improve its rapid penetration without drying out the treated tissue. This produced a positive influence on inflammation, angiogenesis, and wound contraction, reducing 29% the total healing time, reaching the total closure of the wound in 15 days.
... It is generally utilized in the food and in drug industry as a sugar and humectants. The aloe vera gel has found to lessen the breathability rate, builds the immovability, represses caramelizing, maturing, shade debasement and furthermore keeps up the color [11,12]. The antibacterial action is brought about by the presence of acemannan, anthraquinones and salicylic acid. ...
Conference Paper
Premium in creating biodegradable composite film that can join bioactive substances and have dynamic part in food packaging, has been hiked in the most recent many years. Curcumin, known for its antimicrobial and cell reinforcement action has been proposed as a functioning particle that can be consolidated into biodegradable film. This work proposes the turn of events and portrayal of composite film produced using potato starch and Aloe Vera gel fused with curcumin-incorporated starch nanoparticles. The impact of the curcumin-incorporated nanovehicles on the mechanical, hindrance, and thermal properties of the composite film was considered. In this sense, the examination noticed that consideration of exceptionally hydrophobic curcumin prompts a decrease of the penetrability of water vapour while improving the film’s rigidity. At last, from the delivery profiles of curcumin from the composite film in various food simulants, it is seen that it is conceivable to control curcumin discharge in various foods by changing the qualities of the nanovehicles incorporated.
... Applications of natural extracts as antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds in biopolymer-based films and coatings are increasing due to the threats of synthetic chemicals or preservatives and their adverse effects on environment as well as human health. Although A. vera is well stablished as food supplement and as a natural preservative in food industry, it has also received considerable attention to be used in edible films and coatings owing to its inherent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties that helps in shelf-life extension of various perishable food commodities [16,64]. ...
Article
Wastage of perishable foods is an enormous challenge in the food sector, and it requires effective mitigation strategies. Aloe vera is one of the oldest remedies for numerous human ailments because of its antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other functional properties. Thus, it has been popular for applications in various fields including food preservation, sustainable packaging, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. This paper is a contemporary review on A. vera, its bioactive components, processing, and applications in food especially in preservation and packaging. A. vera and its various active components are being used as natural antimicrobial, antioxidants, and preservative in biopolymer-based edible films and coatings for extending shelf life of perishable food items as sustainable alternatives to synthetic chemicals. A. vera is also used in health drinks and other beverages in the form of powder, as a functional bioactive component. Processing of A. vera by conventional thermal techniques at elevated temperature can degrade major bioactive compounds, and therefore , non-thermal processing technologies such as sonication, high pressure processing and membrane processing are preferred. As a natural food preservative, A. vera can protect food products from oxidative and microbial deteriorations, improve their texture, and enhance nutritional/health-promoting value. A. vera is non-toxic to environment and human at the concentrations required for food preservation and packaging applications, and thus it can be a promising sustainable alternative to synthetic chemical-based preservatives, antioxidants, and antimicrobial agents.
... These bioactive components result in beneficial effects of this herb in psoriasis 13,14,15 . Treatment of psoriasis, including topical agents, UV photometry, systemic agents, etc., can be used. ...
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Background: Psoriasis is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease characterized by excessive growth and abnormal differentiation of keratinocytes. Objective: In the present research work, an attempt has been made to formulate and evaluate gel containing cyclosporine, aloe vera and tree tea oil. Methods: The gel was prepared by a conventional method and evaluated for various parameters viz., physical appearance, pH, drug content, viscosity, spreadability and in-vitro diffusion studies, In-vitro skin retention studies and stability studies. The prepared optimized gel was further compared with marketed formulation; all the formulations were good in appearance and had good homogeneity. Results: The optimized gel is shown spreadability coefficient is 5.8 g cm/sec. The gel has shown 95 ± 0.32% releases in 6 h when evaluated for in-vitro diffusion studies. The biological evaluation of the optimized gel has shown 47.98 % drug activity, indicating good efficacy of the formulation against psoriasis. Conclusion: In conclusion, the prepared optimized gel has shown good spreading coefficient and stability and can be effective for psoriasis as compared to available gel in the market.
... Aloe barbadensis (aloe vera) belongs to Liliaceae family and its leaves have several medicinal and therapeutic properties (Qiao et al., 2013). Aloe vera gel has been known as health promoter due to number of medicinal properties like immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antifungal, antitumor, antimicrobial, wound healing, antidiabetic and antioxidant properties (Sharma et al., 2014;Maan et al., 2018), because of its chemical components, including minerals, proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates, vitamins, saponins and anthraquinones (Giannakoudakis et al., 2018). As the use of ethnoveterinary medicines plays an important role in curbing the problem of drug resistance. ...
... In contrast, the polar hydrophilic 2dDr induced a more spread fiber deposition that resulted in less defined microfeatures. Because AV is a complex mixture of polar and non-polar compounds [50], the fabricated microfeatures within the fibrous scaffolds were more defined than those produced by 2dDr but less efficient than E2. ...
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The introduction of microtopographies within biomaterial devices is a promising approach that allows one to replicate to a degree the complex native environment in which human cells reside. Previously, our group showed that by combining electrospun fibers and additive manufacturing it is possible to replicate to an extent the stem cell microenvironment (rete ridges) located between the epidermal and dermal layers. Our group has also explored the use of novel proangiogenic compounds to improve the vascularization of skin constructs. Here, we combine our previous approaches to fabricate innovative polycaprolactone fibrous microtopographical scaffolds loaded with bioactive compounds (2-deoxy-D-ribose, 17β-estradiol, and aloe vera). Metabolic activity assay showed that microstructured scaffolds can be used to deliver bioactive agents and that the chemical relation between the working compound and the electrospinning solution is critical to replicate as much as possible the targeted morphologies. We also reported that human skin cell lines have a dose-dependent response to the bioactive compounds and that their inclusion has the potential to improve cell activity, induce blood vessel formation and alter the expression of relevant epithelial markers (collagen IV and integrin β1). In summary, we have developed fibrous matrixes containing synthetic rete-ridge-like structures that can deliver key bioactive compounds that can enhance skin regeneration and ultimately aid in the development of a complex wound healing device.
... Aloe vera extract contains active compounds such as vitamins, minerals, enzymes, organic acids, polysaccharides, and phenolic compounds. It has been stated that the polysaccharides present in the Aloe vera extract have antiinflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antiaging properties [16,17]. Acacia arabica is found throughout India, especially in the west. ...
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e present study aims to prepare a polyherbal formulation (PHF) of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Aloe barbadensis (Aloe vera), Allium sativum (garlic), Acacia arabica (Babul), and Aegle marmelos (Bel) and evaluation of antidiabetic and antioxidant activity utilizing the in vitro model. Air-dried powder of 5 medicinal plants, which are divided into equal portions, and PHF, is prepared by the soxhlet technique using polar and nonpolar solvents. e PHF is screened for the phytochemical screening, and then the antidiabetic activity is determined by alpha-amylase inhibition. e extracts thus obtained are also subjected to the inhibition assay by the use of (DNS) dinitro salicylic acid. e antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH radical scavenging assay, H 2 O 2 scavenging assay, and TBARS assay. In in vitro study, the result revealed polyherbal formulation in which hot water extract has the topmost inhibitory e ect on alpha-amylase activity, ranging from 20.4% to 79.5% with an IC50 value of 48.98 ± 0.31 μg/ml. is extract clearly showed the e ective lowering of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (PPHG). In the antioxidant activity carried out by using the (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, the highest result was obtained by the concentration of 250 μg/ml, which was around 77.2 ± 0.05 with statistical signi cance compared with control (a: p < 0.01; b: p < 0.001), while in the GTA method, the highest result was obtained by the concentration of 250 μg/ml, which was around 78.2 ± 0.05, and in the case of the TBARS assay, the concentration of 250 μg/ml gave around 76.2 ± 0.03 anti-oxidant value. In conclusion, the study shows that polyherbal formulation has superior antidiabetic activity and antioxidant properties.
... vera, Aloe barbadensis Miller) is used to manufacture cosmetic and pharmaceutical products because it is rich in structural and functional proteins, polysaccharides, vitamins, and minerals [17]. A. vera leaves display antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities and promote skin wound healing [18,19]. There is also evidence of its influence on the migration, adhesion, and proliferation of cells [20]. ...
Article
Microgels absorb and retain high amounts of solvents, especially water. Because of their size, and association, the release kinetics of active molecules from microgels is easier to control than in hydrogels. Collagen I is one of the most extensively investigated biomaterials, although the key process parameters to produce microgels must be understood well before they can be used in veterinary and human medicine. Emulsification-gelation is widely used to obtain microgels because of its ease of handling and high yields. The concentration of the biomaterial and the homogenization method are among the critical parameters in this method. In this work, we produced cytocompatible collagen I microgels by emulsification-gelation and evaluated the effect of three different concentrations and homogenization methods on their physicochemical, mechanical, and biological properties. As proof of concept, microgels were loaded with an Aloe vera extract and the loading efficiency and the polyphenol release kinetics, as well as their properties assessed. When the same homogenization method (e.g. magnetic stirring) was used, the size of the microgels decreased with an increase of collagen I concentration, and the size distribution increased. In addition, the size and size distribution of microgels prepared with the same collagen I concentration were smaller when produced by high-energy homogenization methods (shear stress and ultrasound) than with a low-energy one (magnetic stirring). Collagen I concentration and the homogenization method also influenced the zeta-potential, the enzymatic degradation, and the encapsulation efficiency of the microgels. Overall, we show that the size of these microgels can be fine-tuned by the collagen I concentration and the homogenization method. Moreover, the integration of microgels of different sizes into the same carrier platform will pave the way for the combination of active compounds with different release kinetics.
... Aloe vera has bioactive compounds such as flavonoids and polyphenols that exhibit potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity. These bioactive compounds can quench free radicals and activate antioxidant enzymes like catalase, SOD, and GPx to prevent oxidative stress (Danish et al. 2020;Kumar et al. 2019;Maan et al. 2018;Sánchez-Machado et al. 2017). Nonetheless, activation of the antioxidant system by bioactive compounds is more pronounced during stressful conditions (Rubió et al. 2013). ...
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The present work was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementing Aloe vera extract on rumen fermentation efficiency, nutrient utilization, lactation performance, and antioxidant status of goats. Twenty-four crossbreed lactating goats (Alpine × Beetal) were divided into three experimental groups (AV0, AV2, and AV4). AV0 had no supplementation, groups AV2 and AV4 received ready to feed aqueous extract of Aloe vera at 20 and 40 g/kg dry matter intake, respectively, along with basal diet and experiment lasted for 100 days. Average DMI did not vary (P > 0.05) among treatment groups; however, the metabolic bodyweight of AV4 was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the AV0 and AV2 groups (AV0 = AV2 > AV4). Intake and digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, and EE were unaffected (P > 0.05) by Aloe vera supplementation. The milk production, yield of milk fat, protein, lactose, and solid not fat (SNF) of goats in the AV4 group were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than other groups (AV4 > AV2 = AV0). The activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes and levels of plasma ferric reducing total antioxidant power were high (P < 0.01) in the Aloe vera supplemented group (AV4 = AV2 > AV0). There was no significant difference (P = 0.979) in the pH, acetic acid (P = 0.449), and butyric acid (P = 0.864) concentration of the rumen liquor among the treatment groups. The propionic acid concentration was similar between AV2 and AV4 and significantly higher (P = 0.024) than the AV0 group (AV4 = AV2 > AV0). Moreover, C2:C3 values were significantly lower (P = 0.037) in the AV4 group compared to the control (AV0). Thus, Aloe vera supplementation enhanced milk yield, propionic acid production, and antioxidant status without affecting nutrient utilization; however, results were better in the AV4 group. The inclusion of Aloe vera at 40 g/kg of DMI would improve the rumen fermentation efficiency, lactation performance, and overall health status of the dairy goats.
... On the contrary, the bacterial load of the extenders containing only Aloe vera gel or egg yolk was similar. In fact, the Aloe vera metabolites associated with antibacterial activity as the anthraquinones, the glucomannan and the acemannan (Maan et al., 2018), can be influenced by several factors such as seasonality, rainfall, radiation, temperature, level of nutrients and water, age of the plant, among others (Gobbo-Neto and Lopes, 2007), which are inherent and vary according to the place of study. In this sense, variability in Aloe vera gel metabolites could also be a reason for the lower effectiveness of the extender containing the gel for preserving peccary sperm membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity when compared to the extenders containing egg yolk. ...
Article
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Studies on semen and sperm cells are critical to develop assisted reproductive technologies for the conservation of the collared peccary. The objective of the study was to compare the effect of different antibiotics on the bacterial load and sperm quality during short-term storage of peccary semen. Fresh semen samples from 10 males were extended in Tris-egg yolk or Tris-Aloe vera supplemented with streptomycin-penicillin (SP; 1 mg/mL-1000 IU/mL or 2 mg/mL-2000 IU/mL) or gentamicin (30 µg/mL or 70 µg/mL) before storage at 5°C. Bacterial load and sperm motility, membrane integrity and function, mitochondrial activity, and morphology, were evaluated at different time points for 36 h. The SP and gentamicin treatments concentration inhibited (p < 0.05) bacterial growth for 36 h regardless of the extender. Compared to the other treatments, Tris-egg yolk plus 70 µg/mL gentamicin maintained the sperm parameters for longer, including total motility (41.9 ± 6.1%) at 24 h, and membrane integrity (58.3 ± 2.1%) at 36 h. In contrast, the highest SP concentration in both extenders impaired sperm membrane integrity at 36 h (p < 0.05). For the liquid storage of collared peccary semen, it therefore is recommended to use Tris extender supplemented with egg yolk and gentamicin (70 µg/mL).
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Growing consumer awareness of the importance of environmentally friendly products has resulted in the development of a number of substitutes for synthetic polymers. The starch-based film is one of the best alternatives; it is a cost-effective material that has been investigated as an excellent raw material for the production of a biodegradable film. Additionally, the development of starch-based films for use as antimicrobial packaging or coating is one of the most promising active packaging systems. Recently, interest in using aloe vera as an organic antimicrobial agent derived from plants has risen significantly. Due to its film-forming properties, antimicrobial properties, and biochemical properties, aloe vera gel has been identified as one of the best biodegradable films. Aloe vera rind also contributes to the film's exceptional properties. This review article summarises and discusses the film formation and properties of aloe vera-based starch-based films, including their physical, thermal, mechanical, antimicrobial, and physiochemical properties.
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Dexibuprofen (DIBU) has been used to treat inflammation and pain caused by a range of illnesses, including arthritis. Its efficacy, however, is substantially hampered by gastric and CNS effects on its oral administration. Hence, present study is working on development of a unique topical emulgel formulation that maximises its anti-inflammatory efficacy in order to avoid its oral dosing. To begin, DIBU formulation was optimised and incorporated into Aloe vera gel base to develop Dexibuprofen Aloe vera emulgel (DAE). Following that, the anti-inflammatory activity was investigated in Wister rats as an experimental animal. Light liquid paraffin (LLP), Span 20, and Tween 20 were used to produce DIBU emulsions. Using a statistical optimization technique, central composite design, the emulsion formulation was optimised for desirable globule size and zeta potential. The physico-chemical characterization studies showed that DAEs are transparent with good homogeneity and spreadability without phase separation. Rheological studies revealed that, DAEs are non-newtonian systems with shear thinning behaviour (viscosity 98768 ± 78 to 109574 ± 54 cp). They also demonstrated remarkable bio-adhesive strength (6.4 ± 1.2 to 6.8 ± 2.2 kg/cm²) without any signs of skin irritation. Drug diffusion follows zero order kinetics with non-fickain diffusion mechanism. The pharmacodynamic testing found that the optimised DAE2 reduced paw volume by 96.5 ± 3.4% and 94.18 ± 2.8% in carrageenan and egg albumin produced edoema techniques, respectively. The findings revealed that newly created DAEs can be used as prospective topical delivery systems for DIBU to augment its anti-inflammatory impact in lieu of oral tablets for the treatment of rheumatic illnesses such as arthritis.
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Efficient and optimistic drilling operation depends on a number of parameters and drilling fluid (DF) additives is one of them. Traditional DF mud contains toxic chemical compound that causes environmental issue, cost optimization and reservoir formation damages. Present demands of DF and future challenges have urged researchers to develop eco-friendly drilling fluid additives with minimum impact on the environment. Aloe Vera does not contain any serious toxic compound compared to others DF additives; thus it is used in various cosmetic products. The present investigation leads toward the development of a drilling mud additive using Aloe Vera. The SEM-EDX method is conducted to the elemental analysis of Aloe Vera to investigate composite in it. In this research, the four representative recipes of the DF are formed with this additive along the base material bentonite. Complete rheological tests and filtration tests of the different concentrations of mud additives are performed to investigate the feasibility of this new additive. Rheological properties and other related investigations are carried out with different sizes of the sample particle and mud preparation formula. A comparative study is performed along with other additives with respect to rheological, environmental and economic benefit. This present investigation suggests Aloe Vera can be used as a potential DF additive that is environmental friendly instead of toxic chemicals. The investigation confirms the benefit of this new additive, which is environmental friendly. All the drilling purposes including hydrocarbon industries and mining companies can benefited from this newly developed DF additive.
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Aloe vera is among the world's economically most important medicinal plants, but as the growth of this plant and, consequently, the accumulation of metabolites is slow, we tested the hypothesis that root endophytic bacteria isolated from A. vera plants can promote growth and increase the accumulation of aloin in the gel and latex. For this, we inoculate seedlings with four endophytic bacteria and a combination of them. We confirmed the hypothesis and identified two strains with potential for the formulation of inoculants to improve the cultivation of A. vera. The bacterium 149H Paraburkholderia sp. increases the number of leaves and the accumulation of biomass, but on the other hand, 35V Enterobacter ludwigii inoculation increased the content of aloin in the gel and in the latex. Further research should focus on the association of these two strains in a single inoculant, to both promote growth and increase the synthesis of metabolites. Resumen: Aloe vera se encuentra entre las plantas medicinales económicamente más importantes del mundo, pero como el crecimiento de esta planta y, en consecuencia, la acumulación de metabolitos es lento, probamos la hipótesis de que las bacterias endofíticas de raíces aisladas de las plantas de A. vera pueden promover el crecimiento y aumentar la acumulación de aloína en el gel y látex. Para ello, inoculamos plántulas con cuatro bacterias endofíticas y una combinación de ellas. Confirmamos la hipótesis e identificamos dos cepas con potencial para la formulación de inoculantes para mejorar el cultivo de A. vera. La bacteria 149H Paraburkholderia sp. aumenta el número de hojas y la acumulación de biomasa, pero, por otro lado, la inoculación con Enterobacter ludwigii 35V aumentó el contenido de aloína en el gel y en el látex. La investigación adicional debe centrarse en la asociación de estas dos cepas en un solo inoculante, tanto para promover el crecimiento como para aumentar la síntesis de metabolitos.
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Recently naturally acquired excipients with wider scope compared to synthetic excipients are widely used in novel drug delivery systems which directly or indirectly influence the extent and/or rate of drug release and absorption with reduced toxicity. In this regimen, gums obtained from natural sources which are inert, nontoxic, less expensive, biodegradable, biocompatible, etc., hold their role as excipients in novel drug delivery systems (tablets/nanoformulations/transdermal patches/gels). They have notable applications in pharmaceutical products as binders, disintegrants, suspending agents, emulsifiers, etc. Gums specifically as gelling or matrix-forming agents suit the requirement in novel drug delivery systems are one of the interesting fields of emerging research. Here the proposed book chapter will focus on the properties and characterization techniques of natural gums with a specific role as pharmaceutical excipient along with its relevance towards pharmaceutical applications in the development of novel pharmaceutical formulations.
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Plants have a high concentration of biologically active molecules. Aloe plants tend to store water and important chemical constituents in their swollen and succulent leaves due to their ability to survive in hot and dry conditions, which makes them a unique source of phytochemicals. The Aloe leaf contains more than 200 nutritional substances, including vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and active enzymes. These constituents are analyzed as phytochemical screening (qualitative analysis) or proximate and mineral content analyses (quantitative analysis). Aloe is used as a food product and beverage ingredient. Functional and nutraceutical foods, edible coatings/films, Aloe species as cooked vegetables, and raw eating of Aloe species are how the Aloe plant is considered in food applications. The researchers reported edible Aloes for several species. However, it is not mean that all species of Aloe are edible. It is not only the leaves of Aloe that have nutritional values also other parts of the plant do. The study evaluated the nutritional value of Aloe flowers and their possible use as edible flowers. Aloe species are increasingly being incorporated into different health drinks, foods, and beverages due to the beneficial biological activities of the phytochemicals.
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Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit but exhibits a limited postharvest life due to rapid softening and decay. A strawberry coating that is natural and safe for human consumption can be used to improve the appearance and safeguard the fruits. In this study, 20% and 40% Aloe vera gel alone or in combination with 1% lemongrass essential oil (EO) was used as an edible coating for strawberries. After application of all the treatments, the strawberry fruits were stored at a temperature of 5 ± 1 °C at a relative humidity (RH) of 90%–95% for up to 16 days and all the parameters were analyzed and compared to control (uncoated fruits). The results show that A. vera gel alone or with lemongrass EO reduced the deterioration and increased the shelf life of the fruit. Treatment with A. vera gel and lemongrass EO decreased acidity and total anthocyanins and maintained fruit firmness. Treatment with A. vera gel 40% + lemongrass EO 1% led to the lowest weight loss, retained firmness and acidity, but increased the total soluble solids and total anthocyanins compared to uncoated fruits during storage of up to 16 days. The phenolic compounds of A. vera gel were analyzed by HPLC, and the most abundant compounds were found to be caffeic (30.77 mg/mL), coumaric (22.4 mg/mL), syringic (15.12 mg/mL), sinapic (14.05 mg/mL), ferulic (8.22 mg/mL), and cinnamic acids (7.14 mg/mL). Lemongrass EO was analyzed by GC–MS, and the most abundant compounds were identified as α-citral (neral) (40.10%) ꞵ-citral (geranial) (30.71%), γ-dodecalactone (10.24%), isoneral (6.67%), neryl acetal (5.64%), and linalool (1.77%). When the fruits were treated with 20% or 40% A. vera gel along with 1% lemongrass, their total phenolic content was maintained during the storage period (from 4 to 8 days). The antioxidant activity was relatively stable during the 8 days of cold storage of the fruits coated with A. vera gel combined with lemongrass EO because the activity of both 20% and 40% gel was greater than that for the other treatments after 12 days of storage in both experiments. Moreover, all the treatments resulted in lower numbers of total microbes at the end of the storage period compared with the control treatment. This study indicates that the use of Aloe vera gel with lemongrass EO as an edible coating considerably enhances the productivity of strawberry fruits and the treatment could be used on a commercial scale.
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The present study is focused on the scope of aloe vera (AV) gel and sucrose as a binder to prepare green ceramic compact samples through dry pressing. The alumina compacts having 0-14 wt% (0-2.8 wt% on dry basis) AV gel and 0-2 wt% sucrose binder have been prepared as a function of moisture content at optimum compaction pressure. The green properties of the resulting samples have been characterized through SEM, FTIR, etc and compared with other binders. Primary results revealed that alumina compact with an optimum binder content attained maximum green density and flexural strength. The maximum green density and maximum green flexural strength are 64% and 13.5 Mpa, respectively. The experimental results have also been correlated with the microstructure of green compacts. Dry pressed compacts are sufficiently strong for green machining. The strength of binder-based green ceramic samples has been attributed to better particle packing due to adsorbing and plasticizing properties of AV gel and sucrose binder, as revealed by IR analysis. The sintered properties of fired samples at 1600oC have exhibited minimum (2.3%) porosity. Therefore, the current study creates a scope of AV gel and sucrose as a binder for the green processing of alumina based compacts.
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Traditionally, medicinal plants have long been used as a natural therapy. Plant-derived extracts or phytochemicals have been exploited as food additives and for curing many health-related ailments. The secondary metabolites produced by many plants have become an integral part of human health and have strengthened the value of plant extracts as herbal medicines. To fulfil the demand of health care systems, food and pharmaceutical industries, interest in the cultivation of precious medicinal plants to harvest bio-active compounds has increased considerably worldwide. To achieve maximum biomass and yield, growers generally apply chemical fertilizers which have detrimental impacts on the growth, development and phytoconstituents of such therapeutically important plants. Application of beneficial rhizosphere microbiota is an alternative strategy to enhance the production of valuable medicinal plants under both conventional and stressed conditions due to its low cost, environmentally friendly behaviour and non-destructive impact on fertility of soil, plants and human health. The microbiological approach improves plant growth by various direct and indirect mechanisms involving the abatement of various abiotic stresses. Given the negative impacts of fertilizers and multiple benefits of microbiological resources, the role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the production of biomass and their impact on the quality of bio-active compounds (phytochemicals) and mitigation of abiotic stress to herbal plants have been described in this review. The PGPR based enhancement in the herbal products has potential for use as a low cost phytomedicine which can be used to improve health care systems.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Liliaceae family) is a well-known traditional medicinal plant, that has been used to treat a variety of illnesses, for decades ranging from cancer to skin disorders including wounds. It has been included in the traditional and herbal healthcare systems of many cultures around the world, as well as the pharmacopeia of different countries. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have also confirmed its potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing activities, etc. in the consistency of its historical and traditional uses. However, most studies to date are based on the A. vera gel and latex including its wound-healing effects. Very few studies have been focused on its flower, and rarely with its effects on cutaneous wound healing and its molecular mechanism. Aim of the Study: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the synergistic effect of the A. vera flower (AVF) and Aloe gel (PAG) on cutaneous wound-healing, as well as revealing its molecular mechanism targeting microfibril-associated glycoprotein 4 (MFAP4) and its associated signaling pathway. Methods To investigate the synergistic effect of A. vera flower and Aloe gel in cutaneous wound healing, cell viability, and cell migration, as well proliferation assay was performed. This was followed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses in wounded conditions to check the effects of this mixture on protein and mRNA levels in normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cells. Moreover, small interfering RNA (siRNA) -mediated knockdown of MFAP4 in NHDF cells was performed followed by migration assay and cell cycle analysis, to confirm its role in cutaneous wound healing. Additionally, HaCaT cells were included in this study to evaluate its migratory and anti-inflammatory effects. Results Based on our obtained results, the PAG and AVF mixture synergistically induced the proliferation, migration, and especially ECM formation of NHDF cells by enhancing the expression of MFAP4. Other extracellular components associated with MFAP4 signaling pathway, such as fibrillin, collagen, elastin, TGF β, and α-SMA, also increased at both the protein and mRNA levels. Subsequently, this mixture initiated the phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase(ERK) and AKT signaling pathways, and the S-phase of the cell cycle was also slightly modified. Also, the mixture induced the migration of HaCaT cells along with the suppression of inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, the siRNA-mediated knockdown highlighted the crucial role of MFAP4 in cutaneous wound healing in NHDF cells. Conclusion This study showed that the mixture of PAG and AVF has significant wound healing effects targeting MFAP4 and its associated signaling pathway. Additionally, MFAP4 was recognized as a new potential biomarker of wound healing, which can be confirmed by further in vivo studies.
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The comparative antimicrobial activities of the gel and leaf of Aloe vera were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Trichophyton mentagraphytes, T. schoeleinii, Microsporium canis and Candida albicans. Ethanol was used for the extraction of the leaf after obtaining the gel from it. Antimicrobial effect was measured by the appearance of zones of inhibition. Antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that both the gel and the leaf inhibited the growth of S. aureus (18.0 and 4.0 mm, respectively). Only the gel inhibited the growth of T. mentagrophytes (20.0 mm), while the leaf possesses inhibitory effects on both P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. The results of this study tend to give credence to the popular use of both Aloe vera gel and leaf.
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Present investigation was undertaken with the objective to develop palatable functional beverages from Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. syn. A. barbadensis Mill. Nutritional, functional and sensory qualities of these products have been evaluated. Among various beverages, this juice contained negligible amount of sugars indicating its hypoglycaemic effect. The ascorbic acid content in different preparation of juice ranged between 23.75 to 234.85 mg/100 g. The products when tested for microbial enumeration, pure juice and sweetened juice showed negligible microbial load while gel, squash and RTS had 3.2, 1.0 and 2.3 CFU/mL, respectively. Developed products except RTS drink have shown antimicrobial activity against E. coli. Maximum zone of inhibition was shown by pure juice (25.7 mm), whereas minimum was observed in squash (12.10 mm). Similarly, highest antioxidant activity was found in pure A. vera juice (71.81 %), while lowest was recorded in RTS drink. Highest overall sensory acceptability (8.00) was recorded for sweetened juice by the panelists, which remained statistically non-significant with that of squash (7.80). Conclusively, the sweetened A. vera juice was found to be the best on the basis of its nutritional and sensory characteristics. Further, it has also shown potential for maintaining good health due to its appreciable nutritional and antioxidant properties. © 2015, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
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Aloe vera L. is a valuable medicinal plant and is currently used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries worldwide. In the present study, the effect of various concentrations of Aloe vera leaf gel extracts was investigated on mitotic and phase indexes of Allium cepa L. root tip cells for 24 and 48 h durations. The EC50 value of gel extracts was found to be 20% and was used to determine the experimental concentrations. The results indicated that the mitotic index and root growth rate of A. cepa were considerably decreased in comparison to the control. We found that the cytotoxic effect of A. vera gel extracts depends on the concentration rather than the exposure time. Even the low doses caused a considerable decrease in root growth rate. The lowest mitotic index value was found to be 3.72% at 40% gel extract treatment for 48 h duration. Average prophase index during 24 and 48 h applications was found to be 53.80% and 56.48%, respectively. We conclude that A. vera gel extracts have a cytotoxic effect on the root tip cells of A. cepa.
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Worldwide there is a huge demand for fermented dairy products incorporated with probiotics and herbs. The commercial success of these products mainly depends on their taste and appeal which are affected by storage conditions employed. In the present study, changes in sensory, physico-chemical characteristics and probiotic counts of Aloe barbadensis Miller supplemented probiotic lassi (APL) stored at 5±1°C were evaluated. During 12 days of storage period, probiotic counts decreased from 8.4 log cfu/mL on initial day to 8.0 cfu/mL on 12 th day. pH of APL gradually decreased while wheying-off increased progressively throughout the storage. Scores of all sensory attributes decreased to below 7 after 9 days of storage, minimum level of acceptance set on nine-point hedonic scale. APL was rejected after 9 days of storage by the sensory panelists owing to its unacceptable sensory quality. PCA reduced eight original variables into two principal components which accounted for 99.937% of the total variations. Instrumental wheying-off (-ve) and pH (-ve) were loaded heavily on principal component 1 indicating strong relation among these variables. Correlation analysis also revealed that instrumental wheying-off and pH were strongly dependent on each other with highest Pearson's correlation coefficient (r=-0.962, p<0.01).
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This work is a part of a study on the processing of fruit nectars enriched with Aloe vera gel. The aim of this study was to produce therapeutic and high nutritional mango nectar by supplementation of mango pulp with Aloe vera gel. Effects of different addition levels of Aloe vera gel (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%) on the physical, microbial and chemical properties such as total soluble solids, total acidity, pH, ascorbic acid content, total sugars, reducing sugars, viscosity, total bacterial counts and sensory properties were evaluated. Differences between nectars were observed when various levels of Aloe vera gel were used. Variations were more evident for the 25% Aloe vera gel treatment, total soluble solids, total acidity, viscosity and vitamin C increased from 15 to15.4%, 0.41 to 0.44%, 122 to 151 centipois and 41.4 to 43.7 mg/100g, respectively. However, pH decreased from 3.76 to 3.57 and total sugars did not change. Furthermore, high concentrations of Aloe vera gel (20 and 25%) resulted in a dramatic fall in the levels of total bacterial counts. Total bacterial counts decreased from log 10 3.9 ± 0.06 CFU/ml in control treatment at zero time point to log 2.05 CFU/ml as a result of Aloe vera gel 10 addition. The produced mango nectar supported with Aloe vera gel showed good quality attributes and good stability during storage for six months. Therefore, the results were adequate to recommend the supplementation with 20-25% Aloe vera gel to produce high quality functional mango nectar containing natural preservative ingredients.
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Aloe vera is well known for its considerable medicinal properties. This plant is one of the richest natural sources of health for human beings coming. The chemistry of the plant has revealed the presence of more than 200 different biologically active substances. Many biological properties associated with Aloe species are contributed by inner gel of the leaves. Most research has been centralized on the biological activities of the various species of Aloe, which include antibacterial and antimicrobial activities of the nonvolatile constituents of the leaf gel. Aloe species are widely distributed in the African and the eastern European continents, and are spread almost throughout the world. The genus Aloe has more than 400 species but few, such as A. vera, Aloe ferox, and Aloe arborescens, are globally used for trade. A. vera has various medicinal properties such as antitumor, antiarthritic, antirheumatoid, anticancer, and antidiabetic properties. In addition, A. vera has also been promoted for constipation, gastrointestinal disorders, and for immune system deficiencies. However, not much convincing information is available on properties of the gel. The present review focuses on the detailed composition of Aloe gel, its various phytocomponents having various biological properties that help to improve health and prevent disease conditions.
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New technological advances in antimicrobial edible coatings for food may hold promise in extending shelf life, reducing packaging layers, meeting food safety and quality requirements. Emerging research shows polysaccharides, bacteriocins, essential oils, enzymes, proteins and lipids are all natural coatings that have unrealized potential in food preservation. Recently, interest has increased in using Aloe vera gel-based edible coating material for fruits and vegetables. Aloe vera gel has been proven one of the best edible and biologically safe preservative coatings for different types of foods because of its film-forming properties, antimicrobial actions, biodegradability and biochemical properties. It is composed mainly of polysaccharides and acts as a natural barrier to moisture and oxygen, which are the main agents of deterioration of fruits and vegetables. Aloe vera gel has the ability to prolong shelf life of the fruits and vegetables by minimizing the rate of respiration and maintaining quality attributes (color, flavor etc.). It has antifungal and antibacterial property which provides a defensive barrier against microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables. The present review describes the preparation, properties and potential application of Aloe vera gel coatings for enhancing the postharvest life and quality of different types of fruits.
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Aloe vera is a medicinal plant which has been used for thousands of years. The health benefits of aloe vera is well known and the dental uses of this plant is multiple. Interest is gathering among researchers regarding the use of this plant. Studies have proved the antiseptic, anti inflammatory, antiviral and antifungal properties of aloe vera and the use of this plant is proved beneficial. This plant is proved to be non allergic and very good in building up the immune system. Aloe vera is gaining popularity in dentistry as it is completely natural and there is no side effects being reported with its use. This paper gives an overview of the uses of this miracle plant and its uses in dentistry.
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Aloe vera, a cactus-like plant has been used for traditional medical purposes for thousands of years. Aloe leaves can be separated into two basic products: the latex, a bitter yellow liquid beneath the epidermis of the leaf and the gel, a colorless and tasteless substance in the inner part of the leaf. Both of them have many biologically active components, mainly anthraquinones and polysaccharides (the most active is acemannan), which may act alone or in synergy. Scientific studies provide support for the application of Aloe vera in cosmetic-moisturizers, toothpastes etc, food as flavoring compounds or preservative of fresh products and in medicine of humans or animals. Aloe vera seems to treat a variety of conditions because of its wound healing, anti-inflammatory, immunity, antidiabetic, antioxidant, laxative, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and antitumor effects. Besides these applications it can be also included in the animals diet to utilize their benefits to the maximum extent.
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The effect of tea tree oil (TTO), cumin oil (CO), rose oil (RO) and aloe vera oil (AVO) on the skin permeation of losartan potassium (LP) was investigated. In vitro skin permeation studies were carried out using rat skin. The mechanism of skin permeation enhancement of LP by essential oils treatment was evaluated by FTIR, DSC, activation energy measurement and histopathological examination. Both concurrent ethanol/enhancer treatment and neat enhancer pre treatment of rat SC with all the oils produced significance increase in the LP flux over the control. The effectiveness of the oils as the penetration enhancers was found to be in the following descending order: AVO > RO > CO > TTO. However, only AVO was the only enhancer to provide target flux required to deliver the therapeutic transdermal dose of LP. FTIR and DSC spectra of the enhancer treated SC indicated that TTO, CO, RO and AVO increased the LP permeation by extraction of SC lipids. The results of thermodynamic studies and histopathological examination of AVO treated SC suggested additional mechanisms for AVO facilitated permeation i.e. transient reduction in barrier resistance of SC and intracellular transport by dekeratinization of corneocytes which may be attributed to the presence of triglycerides as constituents of AVO. It is feasible to deliver therapeutically effective dose of LP via transdermal route using AVO as penetration enhancer.
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To evaluate the clinical efficacy, and safety of newly customized natural oral mucoadhesive gels, containing either aloe vera or myrrh as active ingredients, in the management of minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis (MiRAS). Ninety subjects with MiRAS were recruited from Oral Medicine Clinic, at Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia, for this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Two new natural gels, containing aloe vera and myrrh, were prepared in a concentration of (0.5% w/w), in addition to a plain mucoadhesive gel used as a placebo. Patients with fresh ulcers (<48-h duration) were instructed to apply either one of the three gels four times a day for a period of 5 days. Clinical efficacy was investigated in the form of changes in ulcer size, pain intensity, erythema, and exudation at days 4 and 6 of study entry. Participants were interviewed for the emergence of any side effects. 76.6% of patients using aloe gel showed complete ulcer healing, 86.7%, and 80% of them revealed subsidence of erythema and exudation, respectively, especially at day 6 visit, whereas 76.7% of myrrh-treated patients revealed almost absence of pain at day 6. No side effects were encountered with the use of any of the three gels. The new formulated aloe- and myrrh-based gels proved to be effective in topical management of MiRAS. Aloe was superior in decreasing ulcer size, erythema, and exudation; whereas myrrh resulted in more pain reduction.
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The ethanol, methanol and acetone extracts of Aloe vera gel were studied for their antimicrobial activity against four Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using agar well diffusion method. The extracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogens. The ethanol and methanol extracts showed higher activity while acetone extract, showed least or no activity against most of the tested pathogens. Fractions obtained from the extracts by Thin Layer and Column Chromatography were studied for their antagonistic properties using Spot Assay Technique. Compounds with maximum antibacterial activity isolated from the ethanol and methanol extracts were identified as p – coumaric acid (Mol. wt.165), ascorbic acid (Mol. wt.177 ), pyrocatechol (Mol. wt.110 ) and cinnamic acid (Mol. wt.148), on the basis of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. The study suggests the antimicrobial activity of the A. vera gel extract to be dependant on the synergistic effect of different compounds. With the broad spectral antimicrobial effect of A. vera gel, it could be further recommended in the treatment of various bacterial diseases.
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The aim of the study was to investigate the Aloe vera phyto chemical compounds and antimicrobial activity of different extracts. The phytochemical compound screened by qualitative and GC-MS method. Qualitatively analyzed Tannin, Saponin, Flavonoids and Terpenoids gave positive results and phlobactanins and Steriods and Steriods gave negative results. In the GC-MS analysis, 26 bioactive phytechemical compounds were identified in the ethanolic extract of Aloe vera. Three different solvents such as aqueous, ethanol and acetone were used to extract the bioactive compounds from the leaves of Aloe vera to screen the antimicrobial activity selected human clinical pathogens by agar diffusion method. The maximum antibacterial activities were observed in acetone extracts (12±0.45nm, 20±0.35nm, 20±0.57nm and 15±0.38nm) other then aqueous extracts and ethanol extract. Antifungal activity of Aloe vera was analyzed gains Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. The maximum antifungal activity was observed in acetone extracts (15±0.73nm and 8±0.37nm) when compared other extracts. Aloe vera plant extract with acetone can be used as antimicrobial agents.
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The methanol extracts of leaf skins and flowers of Aloe vera from the Canary Islands were analyzed for their phenolic profiles and screened for their antioxidant and antimycoplasmic activities. The use of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) allowed the identification of 18 phenolic constituents. Leaf skin extracts were characterized by the abundance of catechin, sinapic acid and quercitrin. Gentisic acid, epicatechin and quercitrin were the most prominent phenolic compounds of the flowers. The in vitro antioxidant activities determined by using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric antioxidant reducing power (FRAP) assays revealed that both extracts exhibited antioxidant activity, being the leaf skin extract the most active fraction. The leaf skin extract was also found to be active against the microbial strains tested. Therefore, A. vera extracts from leaf skin and flowers can be considered as good natural antioxidant sources.
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Dried latex (Aloe drug) and extractives of Aloe vera obtained by Hexane, Ethyl acetate and methanol were tested with the aim of assessing their activity against some phytopathogenic fungi and understanding the chemical nature of the active principles present in them. The activity of the extractives against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum capsici and Fusarium solani was assessed by poisoned food technique and activity against Colletotrichum curumerinum was assessed by thin layer chromatographic bioautography. Polar extractives obtained by methanol and ethyl acetate showed higher activity than non-polar extractive obtained by hexane. The extractives showed higher activity against Colletotrichum species than F. solani. Two constituents namely aloin and aloe-emodin were identified as active principles by their activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum curumerinum.
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The accelerate effect of Aloe vera gel in the wound healing process is known. Because peritoneal healing is a kind of wound healing process, it was hypothesised that post-operative peritoneal adhesions (PPA) may be reduced with intra-peritoneal Aloe vera gel administration. The study was conducted with 45, 6-month-old, out-bred female Sprague-Dawley rats with a mean weight of 236 ± 17 g. The rats were divided into three equal groups. An adhesion model was constituted in the caecum and terminal ileum of all rats in each group. After above process, the sham group received no further treatment. The remaining rats received a 5 mL intraperitoneal injection of either saline (NaCl 0.9%, control group) or Aloe vera gel (treated group) before the abdomen was closed. Ten days later, rats were sacrificed and the adhesions were graded according to their degree of severity. The mean adhesion score of Aloe vera gel treated rats was 3.0 ± 2.3 while it reach 10.2 ± 4.6 in the sham group and 9.6 ± 4.2 in the control group. This study strongly suggests that intra-peritoneal Aloe vera gel administration can reduce PPA in rats.
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Therapeutic effects of various treatment options in wound healing have been one of the most controversial issues in surgical science. The present study was carried out to examine and compare the effects of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine cream onsutured incisions in Wistar rats. In a randomized controlled trial, thirty-six Wistar male rats, 250 to 300 g, received surgical incisions followed by topical application of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine 1%. To assess the efficacy of each treatment technique, a histological approach was used to evaluate the mean number of fibroblasts, macrophages, neutrophils, blood vessel sections and thickness of the regenerating epithelium and dermis on days 4, 7 and 14. Re-epithelialization and angiogenesis were significantly improved in Aloe vera gel group compared with the other treatments while thyroid hormone cream had positive effects on day 4 (P≤0.05). Topical administration of Aloe vera gel is recommended as the treatment of choice for surgical incisions.
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Aloe. (Lilliaceae) has long been used as a remedy in many cultures. Aloe. products, which include the latex, gel, and whole leaf, are used, among other reasons, as laxatives, in creams for skin ailments, and as a treatment for a wide range of diseases, respectively. The heterogeneous nature of Aloe. products may contribute to the diverse biological and therapeutic activities that have been observed. Variations in the composition of Aloe. can result in products with different chemical and physical properties, making the comparison of products difficult. In this article, the chemistry, uses, pharmacological activity, and toxicity of Aloe. gel, latex, and isolated compounds are reviewed. This article is confined to literature pertaining to Aloe vera. (L.) Burm.f. (also known as A. barbadensis. Miller) and Aloe ferox. Miller since they are the most widely used species both commercially and for their therapeutic properties.
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This study was performed to determine the effects of Aloe vera on indomethacin induced ulcers in rats. Albino rats (Wister strain) of either sex weighing between 150 and 200 gms were randomly allotted into four groups with six animals each. Indomethacin was administered orally in the dose of 20 mg/kg body weight and kept fasting for 6 h. A. vera powder was mixed with gum acacia, the solution was administered orally through the oral gavage to rats in the dose of 200 mg/kg. Omeprazole (20 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally as a standard drug for present study. At the end of the study, rats were sacrificed and stomachs were opened and stored in 5% formalin solution, ulcer index and histological changes were studied. Student-'t' test analysis was used for the present study. It was found that A. vera showed statistically significant anti-ulcer activity comparable to standard drug omeprazole. The mean ulcer indexes of two drugs were statistically significant (P value is < 0.001). Therefore, the results were suggestive of anti ulcerogenic activity of A. vera.
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Ten (10) young women diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the Wesley Guild Hospital Ilesa, a unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria who did not meet the national criteria for the use of antiretroviral drugs were managed with 30-40 mL of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) gruel daily. Their CD4 counts, general improvement, and physical well-being (including weight gain) were monitored over a 1-year period. The findings were compared with those of 20 age- matched controls who were on antiretroviral drugs. One (1) patient who reacted badly to antiretroviral drug switched over to aloe vera. The average weight gain among those on aloe vera was 4.7 kg compared to 4.8 kg by those on antiretroviral drug (p=0.916). The average rise in CD4 count among them was 153.7 cells/μL compared to 238.85 cells/μL among the controls (p=0.087). There was no significant side effect(s) in either group except in the 1 patient who switched over from antiretroviral drugs to aloe vera gruel. These preliminary data suggest that consumption of aloe vera may be of help to HIV-infected individuals in the tropics, given its availability and inexpensiveness.
Book
With over 50,000 distinct species in sub-Saharan Africa alone, the African continent is endowed with an enormous wealth of plant resources. While more than 25 percent of known species have been used for several centuries in traditional African medicine for the prevention and treatment of diseases, Africa remains a minor player in the global natural products market largely due to lack of practical information. This updated and expanded second edition of the Handbook of African Medicinal Plants provides a comprehensive review of more than 2,000 species of plants employed in indigenous African medicine, with full-color photographs and references from over 1,100 publications. The first part of the book contains a catalog of the plants used as ingredients for the preparation of traditional remedies, including their medicinal uses and the parts of the plant used. This is followed by a pharmacognostical profile of 170 of the major herbs, with a brief description of the diagnostic features of the leaves, flowers, and fruits and monographs with botanical names, common names, synonyms, African names, habitat and distribution, ethnomedicinal uses, chemical constituents, and reported pharmacological activity. The second part of the book provides an introduction to African traditional medicine, outlining African cosmology and beliefs as they relate to healing and the use of herbs, health foods, and medicinal plants. This book presents scientific documentation of the correlation between the observed folk use and demonstrable biological activity, as well as the characterized constituents of the plants.
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Zidovudine loaded solid lipid nanoparticles of stearic acid modified with Aloe Vera (AV) have been prepared via simple emulsion solvent evaporation method which showed excellent stability at both room temperature and refrigerated condition. The nanoparticles were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), which revealed the overlap of the AV absorption peak with the absorption peak of modified stearic acid nanoparticles. The inclusion of AV to stearic acid decreased the crystallinity and improved the hydrophilicity of lipid nanoparticles and thereby improved the drug loading efficacy of lipid nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging revealed that the average particle size of unmodified (bare) nanoparticles was 45.66 ± 12.22 nm and modified solid lipid nanoparticles showed an average size of 265.61 ± 80.44 nm. Solid lipid nanoparticles with well-defined morphology were tested in vitro for their possible application in drug delivery. Cell culture studies using C6 glioma cells on the nanoparticles showed enhanced growth and proliferation of cells without exhibiting any toxicity. In addition, normal cell morphology and improved uptake were observed by fluorescence microscopy images of rhodamine labeled modified solid lipid nanoparticles compared with unmodified nanoparticles. The cellular uptake study suggested that these nanoparticles could be a promising drug delivery system to enhance the uptake of the antiviral drug by the brain and it could be a suitable drug carrier system for the treatment of HIV.
Article
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of chitosan-based edible coatings with Aloe vera extract on the postharvest blueberry fruit quality during storage at 5 °C. Firstly, A. vera fractions (pulp and liquid) were extracted from leaves and evaluated in terms of antifungal and antioxidant capacities. The choice of the most adequate chitosan and A. vera fraction concentrations to be incorporated in coating formulation was made based on the wettability of the corresponding coating solutions. Coatings with 0.5% (w/v) chitosan + 0.5% (w/v) glycerol + 0.1% (w/v) Tween 80 + 0.5% (v/v) A. vera liquid fraction presented the best characteristics to uniformly coat blueberry surface. Physico-chemical (i.e., titratable acidity, pH, weight loss) and microbiological analyses of coated blueberries (non-inoculated or artificially inoculated with Botrytis cinerea) were performed during 25 d. Microbiological growth and water loss levels were approximately reduced by 50% and 42%, respectively, in coated blueberries after 25 d compared to uncoated blueberries. After 15 d, weight loss values were 6.2% and 3.7% for uncoated and chitosan–A. vera coated blueberries, respectively. Uncoated fruits presented mold contamination after 2 d of storage (2.0 ± 0.32 log CFU g−1), whilst fruits with chitosan-based coatings with A. vera presented mold contamination only after 9 d of storage (1.3 ± 0.35 log CFU g−1). Overall, coatings developed in this study extend blueberries’ shelf-life for about 5 d, demonstrating for the first time that the combination of chitosan and A. vera liquid fraction as edible coating materials has great potential in expanding the shelf-life of fruits.
Article
Aloe vera Lim family Liliaceae is known as wonder herb because of its wide medicinal uses. Cell sap of Aloe vera was taken in Petridish and was phytocheraically screened for anthraquinone which is phenolic compound found invariably, in sap of fleshy leaves. Anthraquinone "Emodin" was isolated from the plant sap which show pain killing, anti- inflammatory and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureusstrain (MTCC 96).
Article
Aloe vera is used worldwide for several medical purposes as alternative medicine. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidative activity of aloe vera gel extract in diabetic and control rats. Forty male albino rats, weighing (95±5g) were divided into four groups; group 1: normal control, group 2: Diabetic control group (by Intraperitoneal injection of alloxan 100mg/Kg body weight), group 3: normal rats received aloe vera gel extract (0.5ml/day for 5 weeks) and group 4: diabetic rats received aloe vera gel extract (0.5ml/day for 5 weeks). Serum glucose, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, Malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide and total antioxidant capacity were estimated. Alloxan injection induced hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress. Oral administration of aloe vera gel extract resulted in a significant decrease in serum glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerols (p < 0.05) in treated diabetic group as compared with diabetic control group. In addition, treatment with aloe vera gel extract ameliorated the oxidative stress evidenced by a significant decrease in serum MDA level and a significant increase in serum nitric oxide and total antioxidant capacity (p < 0.05) in treated diabetic group as compared with diabetic control group. Trace element analysis of aloe vera gel extract showed that aloe vera gel extract contained appreciable amount of (Cr, Mn and Zn) which potentiate the antidiabetic activity of this plant. Moreover, aloe vera gel extract contained natural antioxidants (total phenols, total flavonoid, vitamins C and E) which are responsible for the antioxidative effect of this plant.