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Sociocultural Influences of Parents on Body Dissatisfaction in Adolescents

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The basic goal of this research was to evaluate sociocultural influence of parents on general body dissatisfaction among their adolescent children. The sample comprised (N = 228) of both male and female adolescents aged between 16-19 years. In this study, two measuring instruments were applied: Body image and body change inventory and the Perceived Sociocultural Influences on Body Image and Body Change Questionnaire. These instruments show internal consistency of high reliability, which makes them applicable to the Serbian population. According to results of the correlational analysis, there is a mild correlation between predictor variables (influence of mother and influence of father) and the criteria general body dissatisfaction. The applied hierarchical regression analysis showed that predictor variables explain 22% of the total variance of general body dissatisfaction. It was also established that variables (female gender, sociocultural influence of parents on body image and change in physical appearance) present significant predictors of overall body dissatisfaction in late adolescence. The majority of the obtained findings is in accordance with results from previous studies, and should provide directions for predicting body image and perceptive sociocultural contributions on body image, as well as designing programs of prevention regarding body dissatisfaction in adolescents of both genders.
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Physical education and sport through the centuries
2017, 4(1), 45-70
ISSN 2466-5118
www.fiep-serbia.net
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OriginalresearcharticleDOI:10.1515/spes‐2016‐0021
SOCIOCULTURALINFLUENCESOFPARENTSON
BODYDISSATISFACTIONINADOLESCENTS
MiroljubIvanović1,SrdjanMilosavljević2andUgljesaIvanović3
1CollegeForEducatorsandBusinessInformatics“Sirmium”,SremskaMitrovica
2FacultyforPhysicalEducationandManagementinSport,SingidunumUniversity,Belgrade
3Facultyofmanagementinsport,AlphaUniversity,Belgrade
MiroljubIvanović,SrdjanMilosavljev ićandUgljesaIvanović
UDK316.7‐053.6:796.01
SUMMARY
Thebasicgoalofthisresearchwastoevaluatesocioculturalinfluenceofparents
ongeneralbodydissatisfactionamongtheiradolescentchildren. The sample
comprised (N = 228) of both male and female adolescents aged between 16‐19
years.Inthisstudy,twomeasuring instruments were applied:  Bodyimageand
bodychange inventory andthe Perceived SocioculturalInfluences onBody Image
and Body Change Questionnaire. These instruments show internal consistency of
highreliability, which makes themapplicabletotheSerbianpopulation.According
toresultsofthecorrelationalanalysis,thereisamildcorrelationbetweenpredictor
variables(influenceofmotherandinfluenceoffather)andthecriteriageneralbody
dissatisfaction.Theapplied hierarchical regressionanalysisshowed that predictor
variablesexplain 22%of the totalvariance of general body dissatisfaction.It was
alsoestablishedthatvariables(femalegender,socioculturalinfluenceofparentson
bodyimageandchangeinphysicalappearance)presentsignificant predictors of
overall body dissatisfaction in late adolescence. The majority of the obtained
findings is in accordance with results from previous studies, and should provide
directionsforpredictingbodyimageandperceptivesocioculturalcontributionson
bodyimage,aswellasdesigningprogramsofpreventionregarding body
dissatisfactioninadolescentsofbothgenders.
Keywords:Adolescence,physicalappearance,bodydissatisfaction,sociocultural
influences

Correspondenceauthor
MiroljubIvanović
miroljub.ivanovic@gmail.com
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INTRODUCTION
Fromthesecondhalfofthe20thcenturyuptotoday,thereisanincreasing
numberofresearchinpsychologywhichemphasizetheinfluenceofbodyimage,
which presents a subjective perception of one’s own physical appearance and
physicalexperiences,as wellasexpression ofattitudes, thoughtsand feelingsof
theindividualthatrelatetoone’sownbody.1Bodyimageisgeneratedbyinternal
(biological and psychological) and external (cultural and social) factors, and it
develops, changes, or maintains through this complex network ofinteractions
2.
Bodyimageconsistsoftwoessentialelements:perceptiveandsubjective. The
coreofbodydissatisfactionoccursasa resultof discordancebetweenperceptive
and internal or socially conditioned, perfect body image. If this discordance is
greater,bodydissatisfactionisgreater.3Findingsoftheauthors4pointtothefact
thatthenumberoffemaleadolescentswhoaredissatisfiedwiththeirownbodyis
substantially increasing in the last few decades, and that this dissatisfaction is
greaterinfemalethaninmaleadolescents.
During adolescence, physical appearance of young men and women
becomesoneoftheir main preoccupations.Discordancebetweenperceptiveand
perfectphysicalappearanceinadolescentageisbecomingmoreprominent,which
makesthisperiodoflifeparticularlysensitiveforthedevelopment of body
dissatisfaction.
Withinthisperiodoflife,bodydissatisfactionisincorrelationwithagreater
socioculturalpressureonphysicalattractiveness,particularlyforfemalegender.
The perfect body image of women today assumes characteristic thinness, and

1 Nicole Kraus, Julia Lindenberg, Almut Zeeck, Joachim Kosfelder, and Silja Vocks, „Immediate
Effects of Body Checking Behaviour on Negative and Positive Emotions in Women with Eating
Disorders: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Approach“, European Eating Disorders Review
23–5 (2015): 399.
2 Deschamps Valérie, Salanave Benoît, Chan Chee Christine, Vernay Michel, and Castetbon Katia,
„Body-weight perception and related preoccupations in a large national sample of adolescents“,
Pediatric Obesity 10–1 (2015): 16.
3 Jacinthe Dion, Marie-Eve Blackburn, Julie Auclair, Luc Laberge, Suzanne Veillette, Marco
Gaudreault, Patrick Vachon, Michel Perron and Évelyne Touchette, „Development and aetiology of
body dissatisfaction in adolescent boys and girls“, International Journal of Adolescence and Youth
20–2 (2015): 151.
4 Analisa Arroyo, „Magazine Exposure and Body Dissatisfaction, „The Mediating Roles of Thin Ideal
Internalization and Fat Talk“, Communication Research Reports 32–3 (2015): 247.
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emphasizingits significancegenerates body dissatisfaction5.Resultsof numerous
researchessignalizeonthesignificantpresenceof preoccupation due to physical
appearance among male and female adolescents.6 On the other hand, failure in
reaching the perfect physical appearance set by the society cancausebody
dissatisfactionregardlessofgender.7
Thesignificanceofbodyimage,aswellasbodydissatisfactionisimportant
in understanding eating disorders and dieting.8
Authors
9 conclude that beside
bodydissatisfaction,thesignificanceofbodyimageisalsoanintensivepredictor
of body transformation among adolescents of both genders. Authors10have
establishedintheirstudythatifapersondoesnotpayattentiontotheirphysical
appearance, there is a small probability that his/her physical appearance will
contributetotheirfeelingofownvaluableness,evenifhe/sheisnotsatisfiedwith
it. Moreover, the emphasis is on the significance of body image, and how it
possesses an indirect function between sociocultural influences of parents and
body dissatisfaction.11Researchfindings
12 turn the attention to the fact that

5 Tanja Legenbauer, Pia Thiemann and Silja Vocks, „Body Image Disturbance in Children and
Adolescents with Eating Disorders“, Zeitschrift für Kinder-und Jugendpsychiatrie und
Psychotherapie 42 (2014): 51
6 Soledad Cruz-Sáez, Normal-weight and overweight female adolescents with and without
extreme weight-control behaviours: Emotional distress and body image concerns, Journal of Health
Psychology 20 (2015): 730.
7 Kendrin R. Sonneville, Carlos M. Grilo, Tracy K. Richmond, Idia B. Thurston, Maryam Jernigan,
Loren Gianini and Alison E. Field, „Prospective Association Between Overvaluation of Weight and
Binge Eating Among Overweight Adolescent Girls“, Journal of Adolescent Health 56–1 (2015): 25.
8 Carmelo La Mela, Marzio Maglietta, Saverio Caini, Giuliano P. Casu, Stefano Lucarelli, Sara Mori
and Giovanni Maria Ruggiero, „Perfectionism, weight and shape concerns, and low self-esteem:
Testing a model to predict bulimic symptoms“, Eating Behaviors 19 (2015): 155–158. 9. SE
Jackson, F Johnson, H Croker and J Wardle, „Weight perceptions in a population sample of
English adolescents: cause for celebration or concern?“ International Journal of Obesity 39 (2015):
1488.
9 SE Jackson, F Johnson, H Croker and J Wardle, „Weight perceptions in a population sample of
English adolescents: cause for celebration or concern?“ International Journal of Obesity 39 (2015):
1488.
10 Rita Francisco, Paola Espinoza, Marcela L. González, Eva Penelo, Marisol Mora, Rocío Rosés
and Rosa M. Raich, „Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating among Portuguese and Spanish
adolescents: The role of individual characteristics and internalisation of sociocultural ideals“,
Journal of Adolescence 41 (2015): 7.
11 Rebecca A Spencer, Laurene Rehman and Sara FL Kirk, „Understanding gender norms, nutrition,
and physical activity in adolescent girls: a scoping review“, International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition
and Physical Activity 12–6 (2015): 2.
12 Margery J. Holman, Jay Johnson and Mary-Kaye Lucier, „Sticks and stones: the multifarious
effects of body-based harassment on young girls’ healthy lifestyle choices“, Journal of Sport and
Society 18 (2013): 527.
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femaleadolescents,whowereteasedbecauseoftheirphysicalappearance, are
moredissatisfiedwiththeirbodyfromclassmateswhoweren't.Inthestudy13itis
pointed out that frequency of teasing is in significant mutual relation with
devolvingone’sownbody,andoverestimatingitsshape.
Gender, as a significant biological factor in adolescence has particularly
important effect on the development of body dissatisfaction since it is
characterized by various strong changes in physical appearance. It has been
determinedthatboysandgirlswhoareenteringthisagebecomemoreself‐aware,
and physical appearance is one of their main concerns14.Bodychangeswith
femaleadolescentsaremanifestedintheincreaseofbodymassandaccumulation
of fatty tissue on hips and posterior. The study15 shows that girls view these
changes as negative because they distance them from perfect, lean physical
appearance.Ontheotherhand,thechangesinphysicalappearanceofboyscause
theformationofbroadshoulders,flatstomach,slimwaistandincreaseofmuscle
mass.16 Hence, the differences in the perception of perfect physical appearance
withboysandwithgirls,whichgenerateshigherbodydissatisfactionoffemales.
Apart from the biological factor of gender, a significant function in the
creation, development, and maintenance of body dissatisfaction also have
different socioculturalfactors,primarily influence of parents. Negative
contributionofparentsonthedissatisfaction of adolescents can be achieved in
several ways: directly, through teasing in the form of critic regarding physical
appearance, and indirectly, through expression of concern regardingtheirown
physical appearance and, as well asemphasizingthesociocultural influence
towardaperfectbodyappearance.17

13 Deborah Mitchison and Jonathan Mond, „ Epidemiology of eating disorders, eating disordered
behaviour, and body image disturbance in males: a narrative review“, Journal of Eating Disorders
3–20 (2015): 2–9.
14 By Martin-Storey and Crosnoe, Robert, „Trajectories of overweight and their association with
adolescent depressive symptoms“, Health Psychology 34–10 (2015): 1004.
15 Yiting Chang and Linda C. Halgunseth, „Early Adolescents’ Psychosocial Adjustment and
Weight Status Change: The Moderating Roles of Gender, Ethnicity, and Acculturation“, Journal of
Youth and Adolescence 44–4 (2015): 870.
16 Enrique Llorente, David H. Gleaves, Cortney S. Warren, Lourdes Pérez-de-Eulate and Liya
Rakhkovskaya BS, „Translation and validation of a spanish version of the sociocultural attitudes
towards appearance questionnaire-4 (SATAQ-4)“, International Journal of Eating Disorders 48–2
(2015): 170.
17 N. Micali, B. De Stavola, G. Ploubidis, E. Simonoff, J. Treasure and A. E. Field, „Adolescent
eating disorder behaviours and cognitions: gender-specific effects of child, maternal and family risk
factors“, The British Journal of Psychiatry Oct, 207–4 (2015): 320.
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Findingsregardinghowthemotherandthefatherinfluencetheformation
and development of body image, as well as the intensity, are not consistent.
Certainstudiesthathaveinvestigatedthesephenomenaemphasizethedifference
incontribution ofthemotherfromthefather.Accordingtothestudy18,influence
of the mother has a greater impact on the development of body image among
adolescents.Findings19turntheattentiontothefactthatparentsevaluatetheir
daughters more critically than their sons in adolescent age, which could be
explainedbygreaterpressureoffemalechildrentoacceptthesocioculturalideal
ofthinnessagainsttheirwill. Also,according toresearch20,mothers and fathers
give infrequent positive feedback about the physical appearanceoftheir
daughters.Moreover,research21establishedthatthemajorityadolescentsofboth
genderswithanincreasedbodymassperceivethattheirmothersencouragethem
tolosebodymass,particularlygirls,andexperiencemorecritics from mothers
withnegativefeedbackregardingtheirphysicalappearance.
A significant difference in evaluation of feedback regarding physical
appearancefromthemotheramongmaleandfemaleadolescentsisnotobserved,
butwhen itcomes to evaluating feedbackfrom thefather, however,differences
are observed. Female adolescents perceive that fathers more strictly evaluate
theirphysicalappearance.22Inaddition,theseauthorsconcludethatamongmale
adolescents, fathers have a more intensive influence on their attitudes toward
their body, while female adolescents are influenced more intensively by their
mothers.Also,itwasestablishedthatmothersandfathershavearelevant
functioninadoptingsocioculturalclaimsabouttheperfectphysicalappearancein
their adolescent children, emphasizing which physical characteristics are

18 Rohde, P., Stice, E., C., and Marti, N. Development and predictive effects of eating disorder risk
factors during adolescence: Implications for prevention efforts“, International Journal of Eating
Disorders 48–2 (2015): 187.
19 Kirsten Beyer, Jessica Bizub, Aniko Szabo, Beth Heller, Amy Kistner, Erin Shawgo and Corey
Zetts, „Development and validation of the attitudes toward outdoor play scales for children“, Social
Science & Medicine 133 (2015): 253.
20 Elizabeth A. McLaughlin , Katherine E. Belon, Jane Ellen Smith and Sarah J. Erickson, „Mothers’
and daughters’ beliefs about factors affecting preadolescent girls’ body satisfaction“, Body Image
13 (2015): 9.
21 Melissa Kimber, Jennifer Couturier, Katholiki Georgiades, Olive Wahoush and Susan M. Jack,
„Ethnic Minority Status and Body Image Dissatisfaction: A Scoping Review of the Child and
Adolescent Literature“, Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 17– 5, 1567.
22 Hannah J. White, Emma Haycraft and Caroline Meyer, „Family mealtimes and eating
psychopathology: The role of anxiety and depression among adolescent girls and boys, Appetite
75–1 (2014): 173.
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recommended, and which are not.23 Research findings turn the attention to the
factthatthefamilyenvironmentinwhichphysicalappearanceisemphasized,as
well as sociocultural patterns of the ideal physical appearance,canleadto
increasedbodydissatisfactioninadolescentswhenestablishingtheir(dis)content
or(dis)approvalonachievingornotachievingthesenorms
24. Furthermore, the
qualityof therelationshipbetween parentsand adolescentscontributesto body
image.Itwasobservedthatreductionof emotional warmthand support, aswell
as troubling relationships with parents stimulates the development of body
dissatisfaction,whilemorepositiverelationshipswithparentsarecorrelatedwith
developingpositiveattitudestowardbodyimage.25
Havinginmindthedisparityinresultsofresearchperformedregarding
thistopic,itisessentialtoconductresearchontheSerbianadolescentpopulation
as well, in order to thoroughly evaluate the influences of sociocultural factors
(parents) on body dissatisfaction among adolescents of both genders. Findings
that will be revealed in this study can provide a better understanding of body
dissatisfaction development during adolescence, and aid in creating steps and
programsforitsprevention.
METHOD
Sampleandprocedure
In this cross‐sectional study, performed in January 2017, 228 Serbian
studentsofbothgendersparticipated.Meanageofadolescentswas17,30years
(SD = 1,38). Our subjects were students of 3rdand4
th grades of Economic and
TechnicalSchoolsinValjevo.Thesamplewasequallydistributedbetweengenders
(Nf=116or51,55%andNm=112or49,77%).
Anonymous questioning was conducted in groups, during regular school
classes.Groupsizevariedfrom20 to 30 subjects. The average time of fulfilling
questionnaireswas45minutes. In accordancewiththeethical codes of research

23 Nichole R. Kelly, Lauren B. Shomaker, Courtney K. Pickworth, Sheila M. Brady, Amber B.
Courville, Shanna Bernstein, Natasha A. Schvey, Andrew P. Demidowich, Ovidiu Galescu, Susan
Z. Yanovski, Marian Tanofsky-Kraff, and Jack A. Yanovski, A prospective study of adolescent
eating in the absence of hunger and body mass and fat mass outcomes“, Obesity 23–7 (2015):
1472.
24 Marita P. McCabe, Lucy Busija, Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Lina Ricciardelli, David Mellor and
Alexander Mussap, „Sociocultural influences on strategies to lose weight, gain weight, and
increase muscles among ten cultural groups“, Body Image 12 (2015): 108.
25 Emma Halliwell, Future directions for positive body image research“, Body Image 14 (2015): 177.
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in which subjects are under age, school principals and parents gave a formal
consent for participation of students in the research. Before giving out the
questionnaires,whichserved asmeasuringinstruments, subjectswere informed
aboutthescopeofresearch,aswellasthemethodofdataprotection,afterwhich
theysignedaconsentformforvoluntaryparticipationintheresearch.Duringthe
research, students were able to withdraw from the study at any point (three
studentswithdrewfromthestudy).
Afterapplyingmeasuringinstruments,fiveUnivariate(z>+/‐3,34)andfive
multivariateout layers– extreme results of measurements2 (10)> 30,22,p<
.001],wereeliminatedinthepreliminaryoverviewofthesummationscoresofall
variables.
Instruments
Bodyimageandbodychangeinventory(BIBCI;Ricciardelliand
McCabe26,2002)
Inrelationtotheoriginalinventory which contains a total of 69 items
acrosseightscales,theadaptedversionofthisinstrumenttoevaluatebodyimage
andthebody‐image importance amongmaleandfemale adolescents,whichwas
usedinthisresearch,consistsoftwoscales:scalebodyimagesatisfaction(10
items)andscale body‐imageimportance(14 items).Bothscales weretranslated
fromEnglishtoCroatianlanguage.
Firstthreeitemsofthescalebodyimageimportanceareindependentand
are an individual aspect of body dissatisfaction (for ex. “How satisfied are you
withyourbodymass/bodyshape/musclemass?).Theremainingseven items
comprise dissatisfaction of certain body parts. Subjects answered on each item
through a 5‐degree Likert scale, depending on how they were satisfied with
certainbodyparts,from1(veryunsatisfied)to5(verysatisfied).Thetotalresult
isshapedasasinglelinearcombinationof evaluationson theseitems.Ahigher
score points toward a greater dissatisfaction with body appearance or certain
bodyparts.
The value of the Cronbachalphareliability coefficient for the entire
modifiedscalewas(α =.89), which is a satisfying indicator of consistency and
reliability. This finding is in accordance with research conducted by Jugović
(2015)onasampleofadolescentsinCroatia.

26 Lina Ricciardelli and Marita McCabe, „Psychometric evaluation of the Body Change Inventory:
An assessment instrument for adolescent boys and girls“, Eating Behaviors 3–1 (2002): 45.
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Thefirstfiveitemsinthescalebodyimageimportancemeasureshowmuch
meaning a person gives to certain aspects of body appearance (significance of
bodymass,bodyshape,sizeandstrengthofmuscles,andmuscle tone). The
remainingnineitemsmeasurehowimportantisappearanceofcertainbodyparts
to a person. Depending on how important is appearance of certain body parts,
subjectsansweredtoeachitemthrougha5degreeLikertscale:from1(not
important at all) to 5 (very important). The scale enables obtaining individual
resultsregardingthebody‐imageimportance,andthetotalscoreiscalculatedasa
simplelinear combination of evaluation ofsubjects on all items. Thetheoretical
rangeofresultsforbody‐imageimportanceisfrom14to70,whilesignificanceof
certainaspectsofbodyappearancefrom1to5,withanincreasing number of
points pointing to a more pronounced meaning toward body appearance or
aspectsofitbyanindividual.
TheCronbachalphareliabilitycoefficientinthisscalewas(α=.93),which
illustrateshighreliabilityofinternalconsistency.
PerceivedSocioculturalInfluencesonBodyImageandBodyChange
Questionnaire(TPSIBIBCQ;McCabeandRicciardelli,272001)
The original questionnaire contains 62 items distributed in five scales.
Havinginmindthegoalofthisresearch,thismeasuringinstrumentwasadapted,
andonlytwoscaleswereused:Scaleinfluenceofthefather(13items)andscale
influenceofthemother(13items).
Items in both scales relate to feedback regarding physical appearance,
feedbacktoincreasebodymass,feedbacktoloseweight,andfeedbacktoincrease
muscles,aswellashowmuchdosubjectsgivemeaningtothefeedbackofboth
parentsregardingtheirphysicalappearance.Bothscaleswere,forthepurposeof
thisresearch,adjustedbyaddingitems(fiveitemsmoreforeachscale)inorderto
evaluateteasing,encouragingtheincreaseinmuscletone,andincreaseinmuscle
size more completely. First three items of each scale measure
negativity/neutrality/positivity of feedback from either mother or the father
regardingthe physical appearance of adolescents,thefourthitemmeasures how
important is feedback from the parents to adolescents regarding their physical
appearance, while the remaining three items measure the frequency of teasing

27 Marita P. McCabe, Lina A. Ricciardelli, „Parent, peer, and media influences on body image and
strategies to both increase and decrease body size among adolescent boys and girls“,
Adolescence; Roslyn Heights 36 (2001): 225.
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and supporting weight loss, weightgain,aswellasincreaseinbodybulkand
musclestiffness.
Subjectsevaluatedhowmuchtheyagreetotheclaimsregardingcomments
abouttheirphysicalappearancebyansweringthefirstthreeitemsonthesescales
using a 6‐degree Likert scale: 0 – no comment, 1 – strongly disagree,to5–
stronglyagree.Importanceofopinion(fourthitem)wasevaluatedsinga5‐degree
Likertscale:from1–notrelevantatall,to5–extremelyrelevant. For the
frequency of teasing and encouragement for changing physical appearance, the
samescalewasused:from1–never,to5–allthetime.
Thecalculated valueofCronbachalphacoefficientforbothscaleswas(α=
.90),whichpointstoarelevantreliabilityofinternalconsistency.
ScaleInfluenceoftheMother
The factorial structure of this scale was examined using the principal
componentanalysis,usingVarimaxrotation,andwasinterpretedusingthegroup
matrix(Table 1). TheGuttman‐Kaiser criterion wasused forisolating factorsof
secondorder.
Table1.ResultsoffactorialanalysisofitemsfromthescaleInfluenceofthe
mother
ContentoftheitemFFFFFh
MymothertellsmethatIshouldstrengthenmy
muscles.
.879 .819
My mother tells me that I should increase my
muscles.
.848 .768
MymothertellsmethatIshouldexercisemore. .651 .565
My mother teases me that my muscles aren't
strongenough.
.596    
Mymotherteasesmethatmymusclesaren'tbig
enough.
.857 .576
MymotherteasesmethatIamoverweight. .837 .598
MymotherteasesmethatIshouldeatless.
.808 .789
MymothertellsmethatIshouldloseweight. .809 .747
Howdoesyourmothercommentyourphysical
appearanceandyourbody?
.805 .758
How does your mother comment your eating
habits(what,when,andhowmuchyoueat?)
.778 .669
Howdoesyourmothercommentyourphysical .85 .656
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activities(forex.Howmuchdoyouexercise?) 4
Yourmothertriestostrengthenhermuscles. .84
2
.628
Yourmothertriestoincreasehermuscles. 623 .794
Yourmothertriestogainweight. .595 .820
Yourmotherisonadietinordertoloseweight. .724 .358
MymotherteasesmethatIamtoskinny. .646 .282
MymothertellsmethatIshouldgainweight. .592 .750
Characteristicroot3.48 2.39 2.08 1.40 1.21
Percentageofexplainedvariance27.12 15.06 12.32 8.05 7.24
Note:duringtheprocess of definingoptimal latent structures, variables that did not have
significantsaturation(withthecriterion>.40)wereexcluded.
Results of the factorial analysis in this study have shown thatthescale
Influenceofthemotherconsistsoffiveprincipalcomponents,whichcumulatively
determine67.11%ofvarianceinthematrix.Fromatheoreticalaspect,arelatively
high percentage of explained variance suggests that the appliedmeasuring
instrumentisvalidinfurtheranalysis.
Thefirstlatent dimension (judgmentofothersandinfluenceofthemother
onincreasingbodybulk)iscomposedoffiveitemswhichevaluatetheinfluenceof
themotheronincreasingbody bulk through motivationand judgmentof others.
Three items within the second factor (judgmentofothersandinfluenceofthe
motherforweightloss)determinetheinfluenceofthemotherthroughmotivation
and judgment of others. The third factor (motherfeedbackphysicalappearance,
nutritionandphysicalexercise)consistsofthreeitemswhichprovidesfeedbackof
the mother regarding physical appearance, eating habits, and physical activity.
The fourth factor comprises of four items (Influenceofthemotheron
transformationofphysicalappearancethroughherownmodelofbehavior),while
thefifthfactor iscomposedoftwo items(Judgmentofothersandencouragement
forweightgainbythemother).The obtainedfive‐factorialstructure of thescale
Influenceofthemotherinour research ispracticallyidenticalto the structureof
theinstrumentusedinCroatianresearch,conductedbyJugović(2015).
Reliability (internal consistency) for factor F1 ‐ judgmentofothersand
influenceofthemotheronincreasingbodybulk,was (α =. 79), for factor F2‐
judgmentofothersandinfluenceofthemotherforweightloss(α=.82),forfactor
F3–motherfeedbackregardingphysicalappearance,nutritionandphysicalexercise
(α =. 70), for factor F4‐Influenceofthemotherontransformationofphysical
appearancethroughherownmodelofbehavior,(α =. 67),and forthe factorF5‐
Judgmentofothersandencouragementforweightgainbythemother(α =. 77).
The obtained values of Cronbach‐alpha coefficients suggest thatthescale
InfluenceoftheMotherhashighinternalconsistency.
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ScaleInfluenceoftheFather
Through factorial analysis, using the method of principal component
analysis, with Varimax rotation and Guttman‐Kaiser normalization, five
orthogonalsecond‐orderfactorswereobtained,withcharacteristicrootvaluesλ>
1.Together,theyareresponsiblefor67,83%ofvariance(Table2).
Table2.ResultsoffactorialanalysisofthescaleInfluenceoftheFather
ContentoftheitemFFFFFh
My father tells me that I should strengthen my
muscles.
.880    .828
My father tells me that I should increase my
muscles.
.852    .762
MyfathertellsmethatIshouldexercisemore. .733    .618
My father teases me that my muscles aren't
strongenough.
.638   
Myfatherteasesme that mymusclesaren'tbig
enough.
.869 .629
MyfatherteasesmethatIamoverweight. .852 .580
MyfatherteasesmethatIshouldeatless. .744 .786
MyfathertellsmethatIshouldloseweight. .818 .742
Howdoesyourfathercommentyourphysical
appearanceandyourbody?
.810 .681
How does your father comment your eating
habits(what,when,andhowmuchyoueat?)
.796 .674
How does your father comment your physical
activities(forex.Howmuchdoyouexercise?)
.888 .655
Yourfathertriestostrengthenhismuscles. .876 .663
Yourfathertriestoincreasehismuscles. 612 .876
Yourfathertriestogainweight. .590 .872
Yourfatherisonadietinordertoloseweight. .717 .875
MyfatherteasesmethatIamtooskinny. .652 .542
MyfathertellsmethatIshouldgainweight. .58
5
.665
Characteristicroot2.96 2.42 2.10 1.37 1.18
Percentageofexplainedvariance27.05 14.45 9.64 9.12 7.56
Note:duringtheprocess of definingoptimal latent structures, variables that did not have
significantsaturation(withthecriterium>.40)wereexcluded.
Thefirstfactoriscomprisedoffiveitemswhichdeterminetheinfluenceof
the father on the increase of body bulk through motivation and judging others.
Thesecond factoris comprised ofthree itemswhich determinetheinfluenceof
the father on weight loss through motivation and through judging others. The
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thirdfactorconsistsofthreeitemswhichexplainthecriticsofthefatherregarding
physicalappearance,eatinghabits and physicalactivity;fouritemscomprise the
fourthfactor,whichunderminetheinfluenceofthefatheronbodytransformation
throughamodelofhisownbehavior;andthefifthfactor,whichconsists of two
items,presumetheinfluenceofthefatherontheincreaseinbodymass through
motivationandjudgmentofothers.
Byconsideringthecontentoftheitemsineachoftheobtainedlatent
dimensions,factorsareinterpreted in thefollowingway:Judgmentofothersand
motivationtoincreasebodybulkbythefather(F
1); Judgmentofothersand
motivationforweightlossbythefather(F
2); Feedbackofthefatherregarding
physicalappearance,nutrition,andphysicalexercise(F3);Influenceofthefatheron
bodytransformationthroughhisownmodelofbehavior(F
4); and judgmentof
othersandmotivationforweightgainbythefather(F5).
Reliability (internal consistency), expressed using the Cronbach alpha
coefficient,was(α=.84)forF1;ForF2(α=.85);ForF3(α=.78);ForF4(α=.73);
andforF5(α=.80).ThecalculatedvaluesofCronbachalphacoefficientspointthat
reliabilityofthescaleInfluenceoftheFatherissatisfying.
RESULTS
Overalldataobtainedinthis studyshow thatdistributionofcertainitems
within descriptive parameters significantly deviate from normal distribution of
results of variables (Table 3). However, all measuring instruments that were
applied are positively asymmetrical, which makes them eligible for use in
parametric and multivariate statistical methods,according to standard criteria.
Furthermore,theyindicatethat the distributionofresultsisneitherbimodalnor
U‐curveshaped.
Table3.Descriptiveindicatorsofevaluationofbodydissatisfactiononthescales
ofBIBCIandTPSIBIBICQquestionnaires
Measuring
instrument/ite
m
TR AM SD K‐S
Bodyimageand
bodychangeinventory
Body
satisfaction 1‐5 3.58 .69 .03
Significanceof
bodyimage 1‐5 3.56 .80 .07
Weightloss
strategy 1‐5 2.19 .93 .14
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Weightgain
strategy 1‐5 1.82 .95 .19
Muscle
strengthening
strategy
1‐5 2.90 1.02 .09
Increasein
bodybulk 1‐5 2.18 .88 .12
PerceivedSociocultural
InfluencesonBody
ImageandBody
ChangeQuestionnaire
InfluenceoftheMother
Importanceof
opinion 1‐5 3.30 1.27 .18**
Feedbackfor
eatinghabits
andbalance
1‐5 2.88 1.29 .07
Judgmentof
othersand
encouraging
weightloss
1‐5 1.47 .90 .29**
Judgingothers
and
encouraging
weightgain
1‐5 1.73 1.06 .27**
Judgmentof
othersand
encouraging
increaseof
bodybulk
1‐5 1.70 .82. .19**
Modelof
behavior 1‐5 1.48 .59 .19**
InfluenceoftheFather
Importanceof
opinion 1‐5 2.94 1.41 .13
Feedbackfor
eatinghabits
andbalance
1‐5 2.48 1.52 .07
Judgmentof
othersand
encouraging
weightloss
1‐5 1.39 .80 .37**
Judgingothers
and
encouraging
1‐5 1.61 .88 .40**
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weightgain
Judgmentof
othersand
encouraging
increaseof
bodybulk
1‐5 1.67 .79 .18**
Modelof
behavior 1‐5 1,57 .81 .25**
Legend.TR–theoreticalrangeofresults;AM–arithmeticmean;SD–standarddeviation;
K‐S – Kolmogorov – Smirnov test (d); **all values of Kolmogorov‐Smirnov test were
significantatalevelofp≤.01
Inordertoexaminethepartialmoderatinginfluenceofpredictorvariables
of gender, as well as the observed sociocultural influences of bothparentsin
predicting the main criterion– general body dissatisfaction among male and
female adolescents, a hierarchical regression model was used, which enables
monitoringof changesinthepercentof explained varianceafter including anew
groupofpredictorvariables.
Two groups of predictor variables were successively included inthe
regressionanalysis,in two steps,accordingtoa previouslydefinedorder(Table
4).Inthefirststepofhierarchicalregressionanalysis,interactionsof predictors
(gender) and criterion variable (body dissatisfaction) were included. In the
secondstep,predictorswerecontrolvariablesof parental influence: influence of
bothmotherandthefatherthroughthefollowinggroupofvariables(feedbackof
the mother regarding physical appearance, nutrition, and physical exercise;
judgmentofothersandencouragementofthemotherforweightloss;Comments
of the father about physical appearance, nutrition, and physical exercise;
judgmentofothersandencouragementofthefatherforweightloss;judgmentof
othersandencouragingweightgainbythefather,andmodelofbehavior).
Withthepreviouslydefinedgenderdifferences,theobtainedfindinginthe
first group of predictors indicate that through partialization of the
sociodemographic variable (gender), a relevant prediction of general body
dissatisfaction can be made. According to the first regression equation, it
significantlyinterpretsthecriterionwithatenthofvariabilityproportion(ΔR²=
.10),atwhichbodydissatisfactionismorepronouncedinfemale adolescents
ratherthanmale.

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Table4.Hierarchicalregressionanalysisofpredictinggeneralbody
dissatisfaction
Predictors β S ΔR² R²
Step1
Gender
.23 6.21 10
12
10
22
Step2
Influenceofthe
mother
Comments of the
mother about
physical
appearance,
nutrition, and
physicalexercise;
Judgment of
others and
encouragement
ofthemotherfor
weightloss
‐.14*
.18*
.85
.31
Influenceofthe
father
Comments of the
father about
physical
appearance,
nutrition, and
physicalexercise
Judgment of
others and
encouragement
ofthefatherfor
weightloss;
Judgment of
others and
encouraging
weight gain by
thefather
Model of
behavior
‐.16*
.10
07*
.08
6.55
.36
.82
.90
R=.63
Legend.β–Standardregressioncoefficient;S–standarderrorofregression; ΔR²‐change
incoefficientofdeterminationvalue(contributionofasinglegroupofpredictorstothe
expalinedvariance); R2– coefficient ofdetermination (total contributionof predictors to
theexplainedvariance);R–coefficientofmultiplecorrelation;*p<.05
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By successive inclusion of control variables of the observed partial
contribution of parental predictors (influenceofthemotherandthefather)on
body image in the second group of predictors, the value of determination
coefficientsignificantlyrises,atwhichthepercentageofthe proportion of
variance significantly increases by 12% (ΔR² = .12). The second regression
functionobtained,witharelevantprobability,explainsthecriterion,eventhough
only certain predictor variables (feedback of the mother regarding physical
appearance, nutrition, and physical exercise;  judgment of others and
encouragement of the mother for weight loss; feedback of the father regarding
physical appearance, nutrition, and physical exercise; judgmentofothersand
encouragement of the father to lose weight; judgment of others and father
encouragementforweightgain,andmodelofbehavior)aresignificantpredictors
ofbodydissatisfaction.Subjectswho perceive thatparentgivepositive feedback
regarding their physical appearance, nutrition, and physical exercisearemore
satisfiedwiththeirbody.However, subjects whoreceive negativefeedbackfrom
theirparents through judgment ofothersandencouragethemtoloseweightare
less satisfied with their body. In addition, body dissatisfaction is encountered
among those adolescents who report frequent encouragement to increase body
bulkbytheirfathers,andthroughtheirmodel,stimulateweightloss,weightgain
andincreaseofbodybulk.
Intable5,thecorrelationbetweenpredictorvariablesandvariables for
changeinphysicalappearanceamongmaleandfemaleadolescentsisshown.Itis
observed there is a statistically significant and weak positivecorrelationonly
betweenvariablesgeneralbodydissatisfactionandbodyimageimportance(r=.18,
p≤.05).Theobtainedpositiveandstochasticallysignificantcorrelationpointtoa
tendencyofsamedirection(botheitherlinearlyriseorfall)in the examined
adolescent population. The coefficients of correlation of other variables have
values of zero, whichrepresents the nonexistenceof linearcorrelation between
variabilityofanalyzedphenomena,i.e.thatonthebasisofknowingvaluesofone
variable,noconclusionscanbedrawnofthevaluesoftheother.
Table5.Pearson’scoefficientsofcorrelationbetweenpredictorvariablesand
variablesforthechangeinphysicalappearance
VariablesGenderGeneralbody
dissatisfaction
body‐image
importance
Gender 
Generalbody
dissatisfaction
.18*
body‐image
importance
‐.05.03
*p≤.05
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DISCUSSION
Results of the conducted hierarchical regression model have shown that
significantpredictors ofgeneral bodydissatisfaction among adolescents of both
genders are represented by the following variables: a) parental feedback
regarding physical appearance, nutrition, and physical exercise; b) teasing and
stimulation for weight loss by both parents; c) teasing and stimulation for
increasingbodybulkbythefather;andd)behavioralmodelofthefather.Subjects
who experience positive feedback regarding physical appearance, eating habits,
andphysicalactivityfrombothparentsaremoresatisfiedwiththeirbody.Onthe
contrary, adolescents who receive negative feedback from their parents, in the
formofteasing,encouragingthemtoloseweight,areunsatisfiedwiththeirbody.
Thisdissatisfactionisalsoobservedinthoseadolescentswhoreport that their
fathersfrequentlystimulatethemtoincreasemusclemass,andthrough their
modelofbehavior,stimulateweightloss,weightgain,andincreasemuscle mass.
Additionally, it is necessary topointoutthatgenderhasarelevant moderating
contribution to the relations of perceived critics regardingphysical appearance,
nutritionandphysicalexercise,aswellasgeneralbodydissatisfaction,fromthe
mother.Thisisshownbythefactthatinfemaleadolescents,thelevelofgeneral
bodydissatisfactionisreduced if mothersgive positive feedbackregardingtheir
physicalappearance, nutrition, and physical exercise, whilein maleadolescents,
significant changes are not observed. This obtained finding in our research is,
despite belief, the only significant contribution of gender to the relations ofthe
experienced sociocultural impactsandgeneralbodydissatisfaction. It was
expectedthatgenderwoulddeterminetherelationsoftheobservedsociocultural
impactsonbodyimagewithgeneral body dissatisfaction, and thatcorrelation of
the experienced sociocultural influences on body image directedtowardweight
losswithgeneralbodydissatisfactionamongfemaleadolescentswouldbegreater
than in male adolescents. On the other hand, the correlation of the observed
sociocultural influences on body image focused on increasing bodyandmuscle
mass with general body dissatisfaction was expected to be much higher among
maleadolescentsinrelationto female adolescents.However, ourresultssuggest
thatsocioculturalinfluencesonbodyimagethatareperceivedbybothmaleand
femaleadolescentshavenosignificanteffectsontheiramountofbodysatisfaction
whenobservingdifferencesamonggender.Thisobservationillustrates that the
adolescents of both genders experience an identical level of pressureandcritic
regardingtheirphysicalappearance28.

28 Vera Lopez, Rosalie Corona, Raquel Halfond, „Effects of gender, media influences, and
traditional gender role orientation on disordered eating and appearance concerns among Latino
adolescents“, Journal of Adolescence 36 (2013): 727.
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Resultsofthisresearchareconsistentwithstudieswhichdeterminedthat
directfeedbackofbothparentsregardingthebodymassoftheir child is
correlatedwithbodydissatisfaction29.Theauthors30haveestablishedthatfemale
adolescentswith eatingdisorders feel pressuredfrom parentsin comparisonto
adolescentsofsameagewithouteatingdisorders.Also,research31hasshownthat
parentalstimulationfordietaryrestrictionsiscorrelatedwithbodydissatisfaction
oftheirdaughtersintheperiodoflateadolescence.Inaccordancewith previous
findings, we observed that subjects from our sample who more frequently
experience positive feedback from their parents regarding their physical
appearance, nutrition and physical activity, are more satisfied with their body.
Conversely, those subjects who experience teasing and criticismregarding
physicalappearancefrombothparents,andencouragementforincreasingmuscle
massfromfathers,aremuchmoredissatisfiedwiththeirbody.
Althoughthefindings32turn tothefactthat the contributionofparentsis
important to the behavior and experiences that relate to body image and body
mass,findingsregardingtheintensityandthewayinwhichtheparental
contributionisachievedonbodyimagearenotentirelycomplementary. For
example, some studies established that the influence of the mother has more
intense consequences on the developmentofbodyimageamongfemale
adolescents,whileinotherstudies,theinfluenceofthefatherisfoundtobemore
important in development of body image33. Findings in our study are only
partially in accordance with the mentioned results, since they point out that
influenceofthemotherandthefatheronbodyimagehaveequalcontributionson
bodydissatisfactionamongadolescents ofboth genders, i.e.parental influenceis
not different when it comes to gender. The exception is the previously noted
findingregardinghowthecriticismofthemotherregardingphysicalappearance,

29 Jerica M. Berge, Craig Meyer, Richard F. MacLehose, Renee Crichlow and Dianne Neumark-
Sztainer, „All in the family: Correlations between parents' and adolescent siblings' weight and
weight-related behaviors“, Journal of Obesity 234 (2015): 833.
30 N. Horesh, E. Sommerfeld, M. Wolf, E. Zubery and G. Zalsman, „Father–daughter relationship
and the severity of eating disorders“, European Psychiatry“ 30–1 (2015): 114.
31 Elizabeth K. Towner, Jennifer Reiter-Purtill, Richard E. Boles and Meg H. Zeller, „Predictors of
caregiver feeding practices differentiating persistently obese from persistently non-overweight
adolescents“, Appetite 84 (2015): 120.
32 Julia Fredrickson, Peter Kremer, Boyd Swinburn , Andrea de Silva and Marita McCabe, „Weight
perception in overweight adolescents: Associations with body change intentions, diet and physical
activity“, Journal of Health Psychology 20–6 (2015): 774.
33 Yael Latzer, Zohar Spivak-Lavi & Ruth Katz, „Disordered eating and media exposure among
adolescent girls: the role of parental involvement and sense of empowerment“, International
Journal of Adolescence and Youth 20:3 (2015): 375.
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nutrition,andphysicalexerciseongeneralbody.Infemaleadolescents, thereis
lessbodydissatisfactionifthereispositivefeedbackofthemotherregardingtheir
physical appearance, nutrition and physical exercise, while in male adolescents,
significantchangesarenotobserved.This findingillustratesagreatersensitivity
offemaleadolescentstocriticismbytheirmothersregardingphysicalappearance,
eatinghabits,andlevelofphysicalactivity,whichsignificantlyimpactsthelevelof
bodysatisfactionincomparisontomaleadolescents,inwhombodydissatisfaction
occursalmostindependentlyfrompositiveornegativefeedbackfromthemother.
Thiscorrelateswiththeresultsinwhichthecontributionofthemotherhasmore
intense consequences on the developmentofbodyimageamongfemale
adolescents34.Thesefindings turn theattention to thefactthatcommentsof the
motherregardingphysicalappearance,nutritionandphysicalexercisecanberisk
factorsforbodydissatisfactionamonggirls.
Inaddition,parents whoemphasizethesignificance oftheirown physical
appearance by having strict diets and expression of discontent ontheirown
physicalappearancecancontributetothedevelopmentofthesamephenomenain
theiradolescentchildrenofbothgenders,,whilefathers,throughamodeloftheir
behavior,canencouragetheirsonstophysicalactivityinordertotransformtheir
body35.Theauthors36concludethatmotherswhotakerigorouscareoftheirbody
mass contribute to development of identical phenomena among adolescents of
bothgenders,whichwasnotconfirmedinourstudy.Findingsinthisresearchare
onlypartiallyinaccordancewiththementionedresults.Regardlessofthefactthat
in our sample, those adolescents who more frequently encounter rigorous
paternalbehaviorintermsofdietaryrestrictionandbodymass(bothweightloss
and gain) are less satisfied with their body, paternalmodel of behavior did not
exhibit as a relevant determinant of body dissatisfaction amongsubjects.This
finding37 concluded that dietary habits of both parents are not important
predictors of body dissatisfaction of their children in the adolescent age. These

34 Katie Loth, Melanie Wall, Chien Wen Choi, Michaela Bucchianeri, Virginia Quick, Nicole Larson
and Dianne Neumark-Sztainer, „Family meals and disordered eating in adolescents: Are the
benefits the same for everyone?“ International Journal of Eating Disorders 48–1 (2015): 100.
35 Kyung E Rhee, Susan Dickstein, Elissa Jelalian, Kerri Boutelle, Ronald Seifer, and Rena Wing,
Development of the General Parenting Observational Scale to assess parenting during fami ly meals ,
International Journal ofBehavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 12–49 (2015): 2.
36 Dorus W. M. Gevers, Patricia van Assema, Ester F. C. Sleddens, Nanne K. de Vries and Stef P.
J. Kremers, „Associations between general parenting, restrictive snacking rules, and adolescent's
snack intake. The roles of fathers and mothers and interparental congruence“, Appetite 87 (2015):
184.
37 KJ Sawka, GR McCormack, A Nettel-Aguirre, and K Swanson, „Associations between aspects of
friendship networks and dietary behavior in youth: Findings from a systematized review“, Eating
Behaviors 18 (2015): 7.
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findings can be explained by insufficient consideration of parents during
adolescence. Simultaneously, the authors38 have identified that parental
stimulationondietaryrestrictionsareindirectrelationwithbodydissatisfaction
in their female children, but despite these findings, they did not establish
interactions between dietary restrictions of parents and adolescent daughters,
whichispartiallyinaccordancewithfindingsofourresearch.
CONCLUSION
Bysummingtheresultsobtainedinthistransverseresearch,thefollowing
conclusionscanbedrawn:
1.Theappliedmeasuringinstrumentsonoursample(BodyImageand
Body Change Inventory, and Perceived Sociocultural Influences on Body Image
andBodyChangeQuestionnaire)havehighreliabilityofinternalconsistency.
2.Female adolescents givemuch morecredit to opinionof theirmothers
regarding their physical appearance than male adolescents. Teasing and
stimulationformusclemassincreasefrombothparentshasagreater effect on
maleadolescentsratherthanfemale.
3. Male and female adolescents, who experience positive feedback from
theirparents regarding physicalappearance, nutrition, andphysical activity, are
moresatisfiedwiththeir body,whilethosewhoreceivenegativefeedback, those
who are encouraged to lose weight, and those who are frequentlymotivatedto
increasetheirmusclemassbytheirfathers,arelesssatisfied with their physical
appearance.Additionally,modelofbehaviorexpressedbythefather,inwhichthe
exampleofweightlossandincreaseinmusclemassisexpressed,isalsoafactorin
bodydissatisfactionamongadolescentsofbothgenders.
4. Gender is a significant indirect determinant of the relation between
general body dissatisfaction and feedback of the mother regarding physical
appearance, nutrition, and physical exercise. In female adolescents, the level of
general body dissatisfaction decreases proportionally to the amount of positive
feedback of the mother regarding physical appearance, nutritionandphysical
exercise, while in male adolescents, this moderating effect remains at an
approximatelysamelevel.

38 Michelle Nichols, Susan Newman, Lynne S. „Nemeth and Gayenell Magwood,The Influence of
Parental Participation on Obesity Interventions in African American Adolescent Females: An
Integrative Review“, Journal of Pediatric Nursing 30–3 (2015): 485.
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Theoretical implications of our paper comprise evaluation of analready
existing theoretical model of prediction of gender and sociocultural impacts of
parentsonthegeneralbodydissatisfactioninSerbianadolescents. Thepractical
contributionof this study is thatit can potentially aid indefining directionsfor
designing preventive and interventional educational school programs which
wouldencompassinfluenceofparentsasrelevantfactors(bothrisk and
protective) of body dissatisfaction during adolescence, in order to provide help
and prevent numerous adversities which can occur due to characteristic
preoccupationsofphysicalappearanceandbodydissatisfaction.
Themainmethodologicallimitationofthisstudyisitscorrelationaloutline
which does not enable us to draw conclusions of the cause‐and‐effect
relationships between variables. Additionally, there is a possibility that
socioculturalimpactshave afar greaterinfluenceon thoseadolescents who are
unsatisfied with their body, in comparison to those who do not feel this way.
Moreover,itis possiblethatdifferent sociocultural contributionscause,develop,
andmaintainbodydissatisfactionintheperiodofadolescence.Finally,limitations
of this study include the use of only one item, for ex. Evaluation of body
satisfactionandthesignificanceofbodyimagewhichadolescentsformbasedon
theopinionofboththemotherandthefatherregardingtheirphysicalappearance.
These limitation factors reduce the ability to generalize the obtained results
significantly,andshouldbe,therefore,interpretedwithcaution.
Considering the fact that only perceived sociocultural influences on body
image experienced by adolescents were evaluated, future longitudinal research
should turn the attention to a more detailed investigation of experiences of
parents regarding their individual contribution to the body image of their
children. Also, beside the influence of parents, it is necessary to evaluate the
correlationofotherfactors(classmates,media,aswellastheinfluenceofsiblings)
which can have an intense influence on body (dis)satisfaction in adolescents of
bothgenders.Finally,inordertoobtainamorecompleteviewintothefeaturesof
body dissatisfaction in late adolescence, as well as negative influences on body
image,itisnecessaryto use qualitativemethodology,forex. Conductionoffocus
groupsorsemi‐structuredinterviewswithasmallernumberofsubjects.
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33. YaelLatzer,ZoharSpivak‐LaviandRuthKatz,„Disorderedeatingandmedia
exposureamongadolescentgirls:theroleofparentalinvolvementandsenseof
empowerment“,InternationalJournalofAdolescenceandYouth20:3(2015):
375–391.
34. KatieLoth,MelanieWall,ChienWenChoi,MichaelaBucchianeri,VirginiaQuick,
NicoleLarsonandDianneNeumark‐Sztainer,„Familymealsanddisordered
eatinginadolescents:Arethebenefitsthesameforeveryone?“International
JournalofEatingDisorders48–1(2015):100–110.
35. KyungERhee,SusanDickstein,ElissaJelalian,KerriBoutelle,„RonaldSeifer,
andRenaWing,DevelopmentoftheGeneralParentingObservationalScaletoassess
parentingduringfamilymeals“,InternationalJournalofBehavioralNutritionand
PhysicalActivity,12–49(2015):
2–15.
36. DorusW.M.Gevers,PatriciavanAssema,EsterF.C.Sleddens,NanneK.deVries,
StefP.J.Kremers,„Associationsbetweengeneralparenting,restrictivesnacking
rules,andadolescent'ssnackintake.Therolesoffathersandmothersand
interparentalcongruence“,Appetite87(2015):184–191.
37. KJSawka,GRMcCormack,ANettel‐Aguirre,andKSwanson,„Associations
betweenaspectsoffriendshipnetworksanddietarybehaviorinyouth:Findings
fromasystematizedreview“,EatingBehaviors18(2015):7–15.
38. MichelleNichols,SusanNewman,LynneS.„NemethandGayenellMagwood,The
InfluenceofParentalParticipationonObesityInterventionsinAfricanAmerican
AdolescentFemales:AnIntegrativeReview“,JournalofPediatricNursing30–3
(2015):485–493.
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Physical education and sport through the centuries
2017, 4(1), 45-70
ISSN 2466-5118
www.fiep-serbia.net
|69
СОЦИОКУЛТУРНИУТИЦАЈИРОДИТЕЉАНА
НЕЗАДОВОЉСТВАТЕЛОМКОДАДОЛЕСЦЕНАТА
САЖЕТАК
Основнициљовогистраживањабиоједасеиспитапредиктивност
социокултурнихутицајародитељанаопштенезадовољствотеломкодњихове
деце у адолесценцији. Узорак је чинило (N = 228) ученика/‐ца изСрбије,
узраста16–19година [17.30 ±1.38година]. У овојстудији примењена судва
мерна инструмента:Инвентар слике тела и промене физичког изгледаи
Упитник перципираних социокултурних утицаја на слику тела и промену
физичког изгледа. Израчунате вредности Кронбах алфа коефицијента
(Cronbach'sAlphaCoefficient)указују на задовољавајућу интерну
конзистентност и валидност мерних инструмената, што је адекватно
налазимадокојихсудошлиидругиаутори,каоињиховуприменљвостина
српскојпопулацији.Уобрадиподатакапримењенesuметодедескриптивнe,
Пирсоновкоефицијент корелације (r),и хијерархијскарегресиона анализа за
ниво вероватноће(pвредност ≤ .01или ≤ .05). Према резултатима
корелационе анализе, постоји статистички значајна и слаба позитивна
повезаност између предикторских варијабли опште незадовољство телом и
важностсликетелом(r=.18,p≤.05),докповезаностизмеђуосталхваријабли
није сигнификантна. Примењени линеарни мултиваријантни регресиони
модел показао је на нивоу значајности (p≤.05), да предикторске варијабле
статистичкизначајнообјашњавајуукупно22%варијансекритеријумаопште
незадовољствотелом.Утврђеноједаваријабле(женскипол,каоипарцијални
опаженисоциокултурниутицајиродитељанасликутелаипроменуфизичког
изгледа) представљају сигнификантне предикторе општег незадовољства
телом у касној адолесценцији. Добијени налази у овом истраживању
углавномсуускладусарезултатимауранијимстудијама.Ураду,
расправљано је о теоријским и практичним импликацијама добијених
емпиријскихрезултата.Уциљудефинисањапредиктивностисоциокултурних
факторародитељанаопштенезадовољствотеломкодњиховедеце,нужнасу
даљалонгитудиналнаистраживањауадолесцентскојпопулацији.
Кључнеречи:адолесценција,физичкиизглед,незадовољствотелом,
социокултурниутицаји
СОЦИОКУЛЬТУРНОЕВЛИЯНИЕРОДИТЕЛЕЙНА
НЕУДОВЛЕТВОРЕННОСТЬПОДРОСТКОВСВОИМТЕЛОМ
АННОТАЦИЯ
Основнаяцельданногоисследованиязаключаласьвоценке
социокультурного влияния родителей на общее недовольство своим телом
средиихдетей‐подростков.Выборкусоставили(n=228)подросткимужского
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Physical education and sport through the centuries
2017, 4(1), 45-70
ISSN 2466-5118
www.fiep-serbia.net
70|
иженскогополаввозрасте1619лет.Вданномисследованиибыли
рассмотрены:образтелаиизменениятела,атакжеоценкасоциокультурных
влиянийнаобразтелаиизменениятела.Данныефакторыпоказывают
высокую надежность их внутренней согласованности, что делает их
применимыми для сербского населения. Согласно результатам
корреляционного анализа, существует слабая корреляция между
предикторной переменной (влияние матери и влияние отца) и критерием
общейнеудовлетворенностителом.
Применение регрессионного анализа показало, что предикторная
переменнаяопределяет22%общейдисперсиипообщей
неудовлетворенности телом. Было также установлено, что переменные
(женскийпол,социокультурноевлияниеродителейнаобразтелаи
изменения внешности) являются значимыми предикторами общей
неудовлетворенностителомвстаршемподростковомвозрасте.
Большинство полученных выводов в соответствии с результатами
предшествующих исследований дают возможность наметить пути для
прогнозированияотношенияксвоейвнешностиивлияниясоциокультурных
факторов на восприятие своего тела, а также разработать программы
профилактикив отношении неудовлетворенностителом у подростковобеих
полов.
Ключевыеслова:подростковыйвозраст,внешность,недовольствотелом,
социокультурноевлияние
 Reccivedon28.3..2017.
 Acceptedon16.5.2017.

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... Thus, our results do not coincide with those reported by Mak et al. [62], who stated that at the end of adolescence, the older they are, the greater their bodily disgust. Similarly, the data from our research confirm what was stated by Ivanović et al. [63] and Martin-Storey and Crosnoe [64]: as boys and girls enter adolescence, their self-awareness increases, their physical appearance becomes the reason for their concerns, and their body dissatisfaction increases [65,66]. Therefore, we have to answer affirmatively to the question of whether there are differences in the current perception of the body and desired body depending on age. ...
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Body image (BI) is a trending topic of study since health problems derived from a negative perception of the body are increasing and affecting people of all ages, with an increasing incidence among children from the age of eight. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current perception of the body against the desired body and the degree of body satisfaction of Galician primary education students. A total of 355 students (167 boys (47%)) between 9 and 12 years old participated (mean = 10.53; SD = 0.84). Sociodemographic data (sex, age, height, and weight) were collected, and the Figure Rating Scale was used. There are statistically significant differences between boys and girls in the current perceived figure (p = 0.003) and in the desired figure (p < 0.001). Depending on age, the differences were in current (p = 0.010) and desired (p = 0.021) body perception. In conclusion, boys perceive themselves as having a larger figure than girls do, but this perception is far from reality according to the body mass index. For the desired figure, both boys and girls want to be slimmer, but girls want a slimmer figure. Regarding age, the current perceived figure size increases with age as it increases in those students dissatisfied with their body.
... O período da adolescência é definido como a transição entre a infância e a vida adulta, marcada por um conjunto de alterações fisiológicas, cognitivas e psicossociais (Papalia & Feldman, 2013). Este período é considerado um dos mais sensíveis para o desenvolvimento da imagem corporal, porque é durante a adolescência que surgem as grandes alterações na aparência, e estas mudanças podem influenciar a construção da imagem corporal (Gattario & Frisén, 2019;Ivanović et al., 2017;Reel et al., 2015). Ferreira e Nelas (2006) sugerem que uma das fases mais críticas da adolescência é a puberdade, devido ao conjunto de modificações inerentes ao corpo (e.g., maturação sexual) que ocorrem tanto no sexo feminino, por volta dos 10-13 anos de idade, como no sexo masculino entre os 12-14 anos. ...
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Objective: This literature review aims to analyze how body image may fluctuate throughout the main life stages (childhood, adolescence, adulthood, aging) and how it may be influenced by a set of sociocultural factors. Method: A narrative literature review approach was chosen, using the B-On and Scholar Google search bases, through the search for the words: Body Image, Body Satisfaction, Body Dissatisfaction, Childhood, Adolescence, Adulthood and Older Person. Results: Body image appears to be most influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors (e.g., physical, psychological, and social) in the stages of the life cycle most marked by change, namely puberty and middle age. It was found that women tend to have higher levels of pressure about their body image than men. On the other hand, greater body dissatisfaction seems to correspond to greater rigidity and criticism from the media, parents, and peers. Conclusions: This study denotes the lack of research on this subject in certain age groups, namely the geriatric population, as well as in the male gender. The construction of a positive and stable body image throughout life may prevent associated psychopathologies, so it is important to invest more in education for self-acceptance and acceptance of the other.
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The article provides an overview of foreign studies published between 2014 and 2019 on the problem of body image and attitudes of adolescents to their bodies. The influence of social environment, social networks and family on the formation of body image and satisfaction with it is analyzed. The emphasis is on the studies that consider child-parent relations, parents' attitudes and behaviors towards adolescents, their own attitudes towards their parents and their own attitudes to their own bodies as the main factors convey their behaviors to children. It is shown that the attitude to the body can be a predictor of eating disorders, overweight, depressive symptoms, dysmorphia. The analysis of the presented studies leads to understanding of the necessity in awareness-raising work with the sociocultural and family environment of adolescents, primarily with their parents
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Previous studies have testedmultivariatemodels of bulimia pathology development, documenting that a confluenceof perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, and low self-esteemis predictive of disordered eating. However, attempts toreplicate these results have yielded controversial findings. The objective of the present study was to test an interactivemodel of perfectionism, weight and shape concerns, and self-esteem in a sample of patients affected by EatingDisorder (ED). One-hundred-sixty-seven ED patients received the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I(SCID-I), and they completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), the Rosenberg Self-EsteemScale (RSES), and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS-F). Several mediation analysis models were fitto test whether causal effects of concern overweight and shape on the frequency of bulimic episodeswere mediatedby perfectionism and moderated by low levels of self-esteem. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found no evidencethat the causal relationship investigated was mediated by any of the dimensions of perfectionism. As a secondaryfinding, the dimensions of perfectionism, perceived criticism and parental expectations, were significantly correlatedwith the presence of bulimic symptoms. The validity of the interactive model remains controversial, andmay belimited by an inadequate conceptualization of the perfectionism construct.
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Background Eating disorder behaviours begin in adolescence. Few longitudinal studies have investigated childhood risk and protective factors.AimsTo investigate the prevalence of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions and associated childhood psychological, physical and parental risk factors among a cohort of 14-year-old children.Method Data were collected from 6140 boys and girls aged 14 years. Gender-stratified models were used to estimate prospective associations between childhood body dissatisfaction, body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, maternal eating disorder and family economic disadvantage on adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions.ResultsChildhood body dissatisfaction strongly predicted eating disorder cognitions in girls, but only in interaction with BMI in boys. Higher self-esteem had a protective effect, particularly in boys. Maternal eating disorder predicted body dissatisfaction and weight/shape concern in adolescent girls and dieting in boys.Conclusions Risk factors for eating disorder behaviours and cognitions vary according to gender. Prevention strategies should be gender-specific and target modifiable predictors in childhood and early adolescence. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.
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This study examined the association of weight perception and weight satisfaction with body change intentions and weight-related behaviours in 928 overweight adolescents (aged 11-18 years, 44% female). Accurate perception of weight was associated with trying to lose weight and inaccurate perception was associated with trying to gain muscle. Weight dissatisfaction was associated with trying to lose weight and gain muscle. Accurate weight perception and weight dissatisfaction were not associated with healthy weight-related behaviours. Awareness of overweight and body dissatisfaction may be detrimental to the adoption of healthy weight-control behaviours. Interventions with overweight adolescents should encourage body satisfaction, rather than promoting awareness of overweight. © The Author(s) 2015.
Article
Objectives: This study aimed to explore relations between disordered eating pathology (DEP), exposure to media messages and sense of empowerment in female adolescents. Additionally, it aimed to investigate parental involvement as related to their daughters' sense of empowerment. Method: Participants were 248 girls aged 12-19 who completed self-report questionnaires assessing demographic data, DEP, body image, exposure to media, sense of empowerment and parental involvement type. Results: Main results showed that greater DEP and poorer body image both correlated significantly with higher media message exposure, particularly to Facebook and YouTube. Moreover, girls' lower sense of empowerment correlated with greater DEP and with lower parental involvement. Discussion: Findings highlight the harmful influence of social media on DEP, emphasising the importance of parenting style for adolescents' sense of empowerment and underscoring the need for parental involvement in prevention programmes.