ArticleLiterature Review

Preschool life skills: Recent advancements and future directions: PRESCHOOL LIFE SKILLS

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Abstract

Over the past decade, researchers have replicated and extended research on the preschool life skills (PLS) program developed by Hanley, Heal, Tiger, and Ingvarsson (2007). This review summarizes recent research with respect to maximizing skill acquisition, improving generality, evaluating feasibility and acceptability, and testing predictions of the initial PLS study. For each area, we suggest directions for future research.

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... Hanley et al. (2007) highlighted the need for further research and development of the PLS program. A recent review of the PLS program literature demonstrated that progress has been made toward this goal (Fahmie & Luczynski, 2018). To date, over 70 preschool children and 30 teachers across 12 classrooms have been involved in applications of the PLS program, with this research consistently showing increases in the target skills and decreases in problem behavior (Fahmie & Luczynski, 2018). ...
... A recent review of the PLS program literature demonstrated that progress has been made toward this goal (Fahmie & Luczynski, 2018). To date, over 70 preschool children and 30 teachers across 12 classrooms have been involved in applications of the PLS program, with this research consistently showing increases in the target skills and decreases in problem behavior (Fahmie & Luczynski, 2018). The PLS program has repeatedly received high ratings of acceptability and stakeholder satisfaction (Fahmie & Luczynski, 2018). ...
... To date, over 70 preschool children and 30 teachers across 12 classrooms have been involved in applications of the PLS program, with this research consistently showing increases in the target skills and decreases in problem behavior (Fahmie & Luczynski, 2018). The PLS program has repeatedly received high ratings of acceptability and stakeholder satisfaction (Fahmie & Luczynski, 2018). Fahmie and Luczynski (2018) reported that the PLS program has been evaluated in different intervention formats (i.e., class-wide, small group, oneto-one; Francisco & Hanley, 2012;Hanley et al., 2007;Luczynski & Hanley, 2013) and with modified teaching strategies (e.g., Beaulieu & Hanley, 2014;Francisco & Hanley, 2012). ...
Article
Parental involvement in intervention can support intervention efficacy, improve generalization, and increase accessibility. The Preschool Life Skills (PLS) program is designed to teach 13 preschool life skills and prevent problem behavior. The current study explores the utility of the PLS program as delivered by parents. In Experiment 1, 6 parents were taught to use the PLS program at home with their typically developing children (3 years 3 months to 4 years 11 months). This application of the PLS program led to an increase in preschool life skills and a decrease in problem behavior and supported some generalization of the target preschool life skills from the home to preschool settings. In Experiment 2, 7 parents were taught to use the PLS program with their children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; 3 years 11 months to 6 years 9 months). Results overall supported the parent implementation of the program and highlighted modifications required to support positive outcomes for children with ASD.
... Although multiple studies have replicated and extended the first three units of PLS (Fahmie & Luczynski, 2018;Falligant & Pence, 2017;Gunning et al., 2020;Robison et al., 2020), the friendship unit has been understudied. Additional evaluations of the friendship unit are warranted because modest outcomes were achieved in the initial and subsequent replication of the classwide application (Hanley et al., 2007;2014). ...
... To increase the efficacy of PLS with children who may be less responsive to the classwide format, researchers have extended PLS to teaching formats influenced by a response-to-intervention (RTI) model (Fahmie & Luczynski, 2018). With RTI, the intensity of the intervention is matched to the severity of the presenting problem or skill deficit (also referred to as a multitiered system of support; Shepley & Grisham-Brown, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
The development of prosocial skills is considered pivotal to childhood development. The friendship unit of the Preschool Life Skills program teaches early prosocial skills likely to facilitate socially desirable behaviors in young children; however, the friendship unit is the most understudied unit and has produced modest, inconsistent outcomes across children. The current study aimed to evaluate procedures necessary to (a) teach friendship skills to 4 children, with and without developmental disabilities, in an applied context and (b) promote the use of these skills with a same-aged peer. Teaching 5 friendship skills in a 1-to-1 format with the addition of tangible reinforcement, if necessary, was efficacious at increasing the children's friendship skills with an adult. Additional tactics were necessary to promote prosociality with a peer. We discuss refinements to the teaching procedures and additional considerations to improve the social acceptability and durability of prosocial skills.
... Descriptive analyses could provide information regarding the contextual conditions that occasion peer-related prosocial behaviors, such as group size and activities, as well as peer and adult roles (Boyd et al. 2008(Boyd et al. , 2011. Such research would also progress in line with the preschool life skills (PLS) program literature, which has demonstrated the utility of teaching and assessing preschool life skills within evocative situations (Fahmie and Luczynski 2018;Hanley et al. 2007). Evocative situations are antecedent situations likely to evoke either an appropriate preschool life skill or problem behavior (Hanley et al. 2007). ...
... Evocative situations are antecedent situations likely to evoke either an appropriate preschool life skill or problem behavior (Hanley et al. 2007). Creating these authentic learning opportunities, relevant to the preschool context has been highlighted as a feasible and effective teaching strategy (Pullen et al. 2013;Fahmie and Luczynski 2018). Therefore, research identifying naturally occurring social antecedents, that is, situations that are likely to evoke either social skills or problem behavior in the preschool environment, may be useful in informing learning opportunities for social skills intervention. ...
Article
Full-text available
Supporting social competence in early childhood is associated with the development of friendships, positive outcomes across developmental domains, and preventing challenges in later life. However, within social skills interventions to improve social competence, identifying and selecting target social skills that are likely to be functional within a child’s environment represent a complex challenge. In the current research, descriptive analysis was employed within the preschool context, to identify the common, functional social skills that typically developing children engage in, within naturally occurring social exchanges. Environmental variables possibly correlated with social behavior within the preschool context were analyzed. An analysis of the social antecedents and consequences for social behavior was also conducted. Specific social behaviors that are likely to be functional and developmentally appropriate within the preschool context were identified. Analyses of factors are discussed in terms of recommendations for developing social skills interventions for early educational settings.
... The power of positive behaviors depends on the depth of the skills acquired by the individual (Subasree & Radhakrishnan-Nair, 2014). International studies emphasize that early life skills need to be supported (Fahmie & Luczynski, 2018;Hanley, Heal, Tiger, & Ingvarsson, 2007;Hanley, Fahmie, & Heal, 2014). ...
... According to research data; it was found that the total scores of the children in the experimental group and their scores in the sub-factors were significantly higher at the posttest than the children in the control group. These findings showed that drama activities were effective, and the findings were consistent with the literature (Fahmie & Luczynski, 2018;Hanley, Heal, Tiger, & Ingvarsson, 2007;Hanley, Fahmie, & Heal, 2014;Kaya, 2016;Yıldırım, 2017). ...
... The power of positive behaviors depends on the depth of the skills acquired by the individual (Subasree & Radhakrishnan-Nair, 2014). International studies emphasize that early life skills need to be supported (Fahmie & Luczynski, 2018;Hanley, Heal, Tiger, & Ingvarsson, 2007;Hanley, Fahmie, & Heal, 2014). ...
... According to research data; it was found that the total scores of the children in the experimental group and their scores in the sub-factors were significantly higher at the posttest than the children in the control group. These findings showed that drama activities were effective, and the findings were consistent with the literature (Fahmie & Luczynski, 2018;Hanley, Heal, Tiger, & Ingvarsson, 2007;Hanley, Fahmie, & Heal, 2014;Kaya, 2016;Yıldırım, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of drama activities on the life skills of five-year-old children. Experimental design with pretest posttest control group was used in the study. The sample group of the study consisted of 32 children aged five years who were educated in a kindergarten in Istanbul province in the academic year of 2017-2018. In the study, “General Information Form” and “Preschool Life Skills Scale” were used as data collection tools. A total of 24 drama activities have been applied to the children in the experimental group for three times a week for eight weeks. After drama activities were completed, the same scale was applied as a post-test for the experimental and control group and four weeks later as a permanence test for the experimental group. As a result, drama activities have been found to be effective in supporting life skills.
... However, some participants did not fully master or maintain all the skills. Subsequent studies have introduced procedural modifications that increase the likelihood of mastery with both typically developing children and those with developmental disorders (Fahmie & Luczynski, 2018;Luczynski & Fahmie, 2017;Robison et al., 2020). ...
Article
Transition from preschool to elementary school can be difficult, especially for children that have not acquired important life skills. The preschool life skills (PLS) program was developed as a class-wide program to teach typically developing preschool children important social and communication skills. PLS is an effective method for teaching children social skills as well as reducing problem behavior. However, there is a need to further evaluate the feasibility and generality of the program across different cultural contexts. The aim of this study was to evaluate an abbreviated version of the PLS program in a typical Icelandic preschool, with a preschool teacher as the primary implementer. PLS increased the likelihood of the occurrence of instruction following, functional communication, and decreased problem behavior for most children.
... Despite established evidence-based practices for teaching adaptive skills, much of the available literature on adaptive skills feature a trained interventionist in a clinical or simulated setting (Fahmie & Luczynski, 2018;. Although these environments might initially be helpful for training skills needing direct and intensive instruction, pre-existing barriers to generalization and maintenance of skills may mean that skills taught in isolation do not sufficiently generalize to improve overall quality of life. ...
Chapter
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This chapter provides an overview of educational needs of students with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) in academic subject areas and research-based instructional strategies to address their needs in educational settings. A review of recent academic intervention research is provided with a focus on variations in participant characteristics (e.g., age, diagnosis, functional ability) across academic subject domains (e.g., literacy, mathematics, science). Based on results of the synthesized literature, the chapter offers practical recommendations for educators to select appropriate academic goals and effective instructional strategies for students with IDD to support them to achieve meaningful academic outcomes in educational settings.
... It has been demonstrated to prevent the development of problem behavior in typically developing children (Luczynski & Hanley, 2013). The Preschool Life Skills Program also reduces existing problem behavior and strengthens social skills in typically developing preschoolers and children with developmental disabilities (Fahmie & Luczynski, 2018;Gunning, Holloway, & Healy, 2019;Gunning, Holloway, & Grealish, 2020;Robison, Mann, & Ingvarsson, 2020). No published studies have evaluated its preventive effects for children with developmental disabilities. ...
Article
Programs that prevent the development of severe problem behavior in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are critically needed. We describe a program designed to do this, and we report on a preliminary evaluation of its effects with four 3- and 4-year-old children with ASD. Parents served as the primary implementers, with twice-weekly coaching from a Board Certified Behavior Analyst. Direct measures and Aberrant Behavior Checklist scores reflected decreases in emerging problem behavior. Direct measures also reflected increases in child communication, social, and cooperation skills, and parents rated the process as highly acceptable. A randomized controlled trial will be required to evaluate the extent to which the program prevents the development of problem behavior in young children with ASD. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40617-020-00490-3.
... They all supported and attached importance to attitude and had confidence in their self-efficacy to conduct life skills teaching. This finding corresponds with the studies of Hanley et al. [26] and Fahmie and Luczynski [27] with regard to the prediction and implementation of life skills education to enable young children to acquire more life skills. It is suggested that the universality, feasibility, and acceptability of such programs could be improved. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Preschool educators who facilitate life skills health education have an important role. Limited research has explored the comprehensive content and strategies of courses related to health education in kindergarten. The aim of this study is to create a questionnaire scale suitable for assessing preschool educators' capacity for life skills health education in Taipei, Taiwan. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used to explore and assess life skills health education as a teaching approach for preschool educators. The scale was developed in three steps. The first step was to create a draft questionnaire that passed a validation review by 9 experts. The second step was a pretest (N=128) with category analysis and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to create the formal version of the scale. The dimension analysis of the scale to assess the life skills health education capacity of preschool educators in kindergartens included cognition, attitude and self-efficacy. The third step was official testing (N=503), in which the efficacy criterion correlation validity test showed good simultaneous validity and discrimination. Results: The first draft of the pretest analysis contained 45 initial questions; 38 questions remained after 7 questions were deleted based on the EFA. According to the theoretical framework and after deleting 8 items that did not conform to the standard, a total of 30 questions were included in the formal scale. The two factors in the cognitive subscale were "health-promoting kindergarten" and "life skills teaching" for a total of 9 questions, and the two factors in the attitude subscale were "perceived benefits" and "perceived barriers" for a total of 11 questions. The three factors of the self-efficacy subscale were "adaptability and self-management ability", "decision-making and critical thinking ability" and "communication and interpersonal communication ability" for a total of 10 questions. Cronbach's α coefficient for each subscale fell in the range of .813 to .936. Conclusions: This scale has satisfactory reliability and validity and can be administered to assess the outcomes of pedagogical training for life skills health education for preschool educators in health-promoting kindergartens.
... Also, this study can provide advice to parents to always develop knowledge so that they understand the importance of developing children's life skills from an early age [14]. ...
... Early education in childhood is believed to have a very vital role for the growth and development of further knowledge (Fahmie & Luczynski, 2018). In providing stimulation about life skills, it needs to be supported by the existence of playing media that is interesting and fun for children (Marsh et al., 2016). ...
... Based on research results from the answers of 370 parents of young children affected by Covid-19 in Indonesia that while at home during the pandemic, besides assisting children in learning or assignments from teachers, parents also develop children's life skills (Junge et al., 2003). Life skills education in early childhood is education that provides personal skills, social skills, intellectual skills and vocational skills to try or live independently (Fahmie & Luczynski, 2018). The four components of skills are very important to apply early by pursuing children to time management, self-defense, cleaning the house, managing money, (piggy bank, allowance, kindness rewards), cleaning toys, cleaning beds and so forth (Maleki et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to determine the correlation between parental income levels with the role of parents. The sample is 370 parents of affected by Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia. The method used is a quantitative correlational approach to the type of survey analysis. The results showed the frequency of parents playing with children before and during the pandemic increased from 38.6% to 62.0%. The results of the bivariate correlation analysis are significance values of 9,956 (Sig> 0.05) with Pearson correlation coefficient numbers showing a result of -0.003 which means that the correlation only 0.003. The correlation coefficient is negative then correlation is inversely proportional, if the income level is moderate then the role of parents is high and vice versa which means that Ha is rejected and Ho is accepted there is no correlation between the level of parental income with the role of parents in early childhood learning during Covid-19.
... Since the original study, several replications and extensions have appeared in the literature (Fahmie & Luczynski, 2018;Luczynski & Fahmie, 2017). Hanley, Fahmie, and Heal (2014) implemented PLS using a consultative model in Head Start classrooms. ...
Article
The Preschool Life Skills program is an intervention package designed to teach functional skills to prevent problem behavior in typically developing children. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of the instructional package (renamed “Life Skills”) with children with developmental disabilities. The program involved teaching 12 life skills to nine participants across four instructional units. The units were instruction following, functional communication, tolerance of denial and delay, and friendship skills. Teachers provided instruction through a three‐tiered instructional approach, starting with class‐wide instruction followed by small group and one‐to‐one instruction as necessary. We extended previous research by using visual prompts during all three tiers and progressively increasing intertrial intervals during one‐to‐one instruction. Results indicated that the intervention led to skill acquisition with all nine participants. The skills maintained 4 weeks after instruction ended.
... problem behavior originating in the preschool years persists over time (Breitenstein, Hill, & Gross, 2009;Del'Homme et al., 1994) and is associated with poor academic outcomes in subsequent school years (Bulotsky-Shearer & Fantuzzo, 2011), preschool administrators should consider using the GBG to address problem behavior occurring in these early years. However, it may be beneficial to use the GBG in conjunction with a function-based approach like the preschool life skills program (Fahmie & Luczynski, 2018;Hanley, Heal, Tiger, & Ingvarsson, 2007), given that the GBG does not teach functional alternatives for problem behavior it addresses. ...
Article
The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is an effective intervention package for decreasing disruptive behavior in various populations and environments. There is, however, limited research evaluating the GBG with preschoolers. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated the effects of components of the GBG, and of those that have, most have done so only after exposure to the GBG package. We evaluated the effects (a) of the GBG on disruptive behavior of preschoolers during group instruction and (b) the major components of the GBG before and after implementation of the GBG package (c) at both the group and individual level. Results suggest that the GBG package was necessary for decreasing disruptive behavior. However, after exposure to the GBG, a response‐independent contingency was effective for maintaining low levels of disruptive behavior at both the group and individual level.
Chapter
Adaptive skills are practical, everyday skills that are necessary to live independently in society. Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) may be at risk to fail to develop critical skills, and thus fail to be successful in natural environments. Natural change agents like parents, teachers, and staff can be instrumental in teaching and maintaining adaptive skills for individuals with IDD because they are readily present in the natural environment. Despite the effectiveness of instruction in the natural environment, parents and staff are often not trained to provide effective instruction or assess the effectiveness of their interventions. This chapter examines the relatively sparse available literature on parent and staff training for individuals with IDD on adaptive skills, and common training modalities and methods. Suggestions for implementation of high-quality staff training, utility for parents, staff, and individuals with IDD and future directions for research and practice are provided.
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated the effects of the preschool life skills program (PLS; Hanley, Heal, Tiger, & Ingvarsson, 2007) on the acquisition and maintenance of functional communication and self-control skills, as well as its effect on problem behavior, of small groups of preschoolers at risk for school failure. Six children were taught to request teacher attention, teacher assistance, and preferred materials, and to tolerate delays to and denial of those events during child-led, small-group activities. Teaching strategies included instruction, modeling, roleplay, and differential reinforcement. Six additional children randomly assigned to similarly sized control groups participated in small-group activities but did not experience the PLS program. Within-subject and between-groups designs showed that the PLS teaching procedures were functionally related to the improvements and maintenance of the skills and prevention of problem behavior. Stakeholder responses on a social acceptability questionnaire indicated that they were satisfied with the form of the targeted social skills, the improvements in the children's performance, and the teaching strategies.
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated the strategy of increasing precursors to compliance on the compliance of 2 preschool boys. Modeling and differential reinforcement were used to increase specific responses to his name being called prior to the opportunity to comply with an instruction. The precursors were stopping the ongoing activity and orienting to, making eye contact with, and saying "yes" to the instructor. High levels of precursors occurred during treatment, and increases in compliance also were observed, even though the consequences for compliance and noncompliance did not change.
Article
We taught three children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder to request help using an interrupted chain procedure during which we manipulated task materials such that the child was either incapable or capable of independently completing a link of a behavior chain. We initially observed undesirable generalization of requests for help during capable trials when teaching was introduced during incapable trials for two participants and to a lesser extent for the third participant. However, with repeated exposure to differential prompting and reinforcement across incapable and capable trials, differential responding was observed across EO-present and EO-absent trials for all three participants during both teaching sets and one generalization set that was never exposed to teaching procedures. These findings suggest that it is important to consider the antecedent conditions under which the response should occur when teaching children to request help.
Article
To examine relations between time in nonmaternal care through the first 4.5 years of life and children's socioemotional adjustment, data on social competence and problem behavior were examined when children participating in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care were 4.5 years of age and when in kindergarten. The more time children spent in any of a variety of nonmaternal care arrangements across the first 4.5 years of life, the more externalizing problems and conflict with adults they manifested at 54 months of age and in kindergarten, as reported by mothers, caregivers, and teachers. These effects remained, for the most part, even when quality, type, and instability of child care were controlled, and when maternal sensitivity and other family background factors were taken into account. The magnitude of quantity of care effects were modest and smaller than those of maternal sensitivity and indicators of family socioeconomic status, though typically greater than those of other features of child care, maternal depression, and infant temperament. There was no apparent threshold for quantity effects. More time in care not only predicted problem behavior measured on a continuous scale in a dose-response pattern but also predicted at-risk (though not clinical) levels of problem behavior, as well as assertiveness, disobedience, and aggression.
Article
We used a multiple baseline design across skills to evaluate the effects of a program to teach a classroom of children to respond to their name and a group call (i.e., precursors) as well as to peer mediate these precursors to promote compliance with a variety of multistep instructions. Teachers taught these skills via classwide behavior skills training and a lottery-based reward contingency. Results showed that precursors to compliance, peer mediation, and compliance increased as a function of classwide teaching, and the teachers found the procedures and their effects to be highly acceptable.
Article
The preschool life skills (PLS) program (Hanley, Heal, Tiger, & Ingvarsson, 2007; Luczynski & Hanley, 2013) involves teaching social skills as a means of decreasing and preventing problem behavior. However, achieving durable outcomes as children transition across educational settings depend on the generalization and long-term maintenance of those skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate procedures for promoting generalization and long-term maintenance of functional communication and self-control skills for 6 preschool children. When the children's social skills decreased across repeated observations during a generalization assessment, we incorporated modifications to the teaching procedures. However, the effects of the modifications were variable across skills and children. Satisfactory generalization was observed only after the teacher was informed of the target skills and teaching strategies. Maintenance of most social skills was observed 3 months after teaching was discontinued. We discuss the importance of improving child and teacher behavior to promote generalization and maintenance of important social skills.
Article
In an attempt to address risk factors associated with extensive nonfamilial child care, we implemented the preschool life skills (PLS) program (Hanley, Heal, Tiger, & Ingvarsson, 2007) in two community-based Head Start classrooms. A multiple baseline design across classrooms, repeated across skills, showed that the program resulted in a 5-fold increase in PLS and an accompanying reduction in problem behavior, replicating the effects observed by Hanley et al. (2007).
Article
We used a multiple baseline design across participants to evaluate the effects of teaching 4 typically developing preschoolers to attend to their names and to a group call (referred to as precursors) on their compliance with typical classroom instructions. We then measured the extent to which the effects on both precursors and compliance were maintained when the teaching procedures were removed. Levels of compliance eventually decreased for all children. A multiple baseline design across participants was then used to evaluate the effects of peer mediation on the maintenance of precursors and compliance. Peer mediation involved teaching the children to either remind one another to engage in a precursor or praise one another for engaging in a precursor. Compliance improved with all children as a function of teaching precursors, and these changes were maintained through the use of peer mediation.
Article
Educators and psychologists are concerned about problem behavior. Fortunately, effective interventions and practices have been documented for addressing this problem behavior. However, sustained and expanded uses of these interventions and practices have not been consistent or widespread. One prom- ising approach to the systemic and sustained implementation of these practices is school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS). The SWPBS effort emphasizes an integration of measurable outcomes, data-based decision making, evidence- based practices, and overt support systems for implementers. This behaviorally based, comprehensive systems approach is suggested as a means of achieving durable implementation of effective school-based interventions. Although the SWPBS approach is conceptually sound and comprised of supportable behavioral practices, further systems-level demonstrations and validations of efficacy, effec- tiveness, and expansion are recommended.
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Traditionally, discrimination has been understood as an active process, and a technology of its procedures has been developed and practiced extensively. Generalization, by contrast, has been considered the natural result of failing to practice a discrimination technology adequately, and thus has remained a passive concept almost devoid of a technology. But, generalization is equally deserving of an active conceptualization and technology. This review summarizes the structure of the generalization literature and its implicit embryonic technology, categorizing studies designed to assess or program generalization according to nine general headings: Train and Hope; Sequential Modification; Introduce to Natural Maintaining Contingencies; Train Sufficient Exemplars; Train Loosely; Use Indiscriminable Contingencies; Program Common Stimuli; Mediate Generalization; and Train “To Generalize”.
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We assessed teacher-child relations with respect to children's name calls, instructions, and compliance in a preschool classroom. The most frequent consequence to a child's name being called was the provision of instructions. We also observed a higher probability of compliance when children attended to a name call. Next, we evaluated the effects of teaching preschoolers to attend to their names and a group call on their compliance with typical instructions. We used a multiple baseline design across subjects and a control-group design to evaluate whether gains in compliance were a function of treatment or routine experience in preschool. Results showed that compliance increased as a function of teaching precursors for all children in the experimental group, and the effects on compliance were maintained despite a reduction of the occurrence of precursors. Moreover, it appeared that precursor teaching, not routine preschool experience, was responsible for the changes in compliance.
Article
The Good Behavior Game (GBG), a method of teacher classroom behavior management, was tested in first- and second-grade classrooms in 19 Baltimore City Public Schools beginning in the 1985-1986 school year. The intervention was directed at the classroom as a whole to socialize children to the student role and reduce aggressive, disruptive behaviors, confirmed antecedents of a profile of externalizing problem outcomes. This article reports on the GBG impact on the courses and interrelationships among aggressive, disruptive behavior through middle school, risky sexual behaviors, and drug abuse and dependence disorders through ages 19-21. In five poor to lower-middle class, mainly African American urban areas, classrooms within matched schools were assigned randomly to either the GBG intervention or the control condition. Balanced assignment of children to classrooms was made, and teachers were randomly assigned to intervention or control. Analyses involved multilevel growth mixture modeling. By young adulthood, significant GBG impact was found in terms of reduced high-risk sexual behaviors and drug abuse and dependence disorders among males who in first grade and through middle school were more aggressive, disruptive. A replication with the next cohort of first-grade children with the same teachers occurred during the following school year, but with minimal teacher mentoring and monitoring. Findings were not significant but generally in the predicted direction. A universal classroom-based prevention intervention in first- and second-grade classrooms can reduce drug abuse and dependence disorders and risky sexual behaviors.
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We evaluated the effects of different intertrial intervals (ITIs; time between programmed learning opportunities) on the acquisition and generalization of 2 preschoolers' social skills. Independent and generalized skills were observed only when the daily ITI was gradually increased from short to progressively longer intervals.
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Relations between nonrelative child care (birth to 4(1/2) years) and functioning at age 15 were examined (N = 1,364). Both quality and quantity of child care were linked to adolescent functioning. Effects were similar in size as those observed at younger ages. Higher quality care predicted higher cognitive-academic achievement at age 15, with escalating positive effects at higher levels of quality. The association between quality and achievement was mediated, in part, by earlier child-care effects on achievement. High-quality early child care also predicted youth reports of less externalizing behavior. More hours of nonrelative care predicted greater risk taking and impulsivity at age 15, relations that were partially mediated by earlier child-care effects on externalizing behaviors.
Article
Effects of early child care on children's functioning from 4(1/2) years through the end of 6th grade (M age=12.0 years) were examined in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n=1,364). The results indicated that although parenting was a stronger and more consistent predictor of children's development than early child-care experience, higher quality care predicted higher vocabulary scores and more exposure to center care predicted more teacher-reported externalizing problems. Discussion focuses on mechanisms responsible for these effects, the potential collective consequences of small child-care effects, and the importance of the ongoing follow-up at age 15.
Article
Recently, nonmaternal center-based child care has been linked to problem behavior in young children (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2003). In response, a comprehensive program to promote prosocial skills was evaluated in a classroom of 16 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years. Classroom observations were conducted during evocative situations to determine the likelihood of problem behavior (noncompliance, vocal or motor disruptions, aggression) and preschool life skills. A classwide teaching program was then implemented in a staggered manner across instruction following, functional communication, delay tolerance, and friendship skills. These four categories of preschool life skills, which included two to four related skills, were selected for classwide teaching because they were either identified by educators as important for early school success, have often been taught following functional assessments of more severe problem behavior, or both. Skills were taught on a classwide basis during typically scheduled activities (circle, free play, transitions, meals) via instructions, modeling, role play, and feedback. A multiple probe design showed that the program resulted in an 74% reduction in problem behavior and a more than four-fold increase in preschool life skills. Similar beneficial effects of the program were evident in questionnaire data gathered prior to and at the close of the evaluation. Finally, the teachers who implemented the program reported overall high levels of satisfaction with the classwide teaching program, the target skills, and the results. Implications for the design of early childhood experiences for preempting the development of serious problem behavior are discussed.
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The impact of the Good Behavior Game, a universal classroom-based preventive intervention in first and second grades, on highrisk sexual behaviors and drug abuse and dependence disorders into young adulthood An evaluation of strengthening precursors to increase preschooler compliance
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The impact of the Good Behavior Game, a universal classroom-based preventive intervention in first and second grades, on highrisk sexual behaviors and drug abuse and dependence disorders into young adulthood
  • S G Kellam
  • W Wang
  • A C Mackenzie
  • C H Brown
  • D C Ompad
  • F Or
  • A A J Windham
  • G P Hanley
  • L L Cesana
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