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Aromatherapy in the Control of Stress and Anxiety

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Aromatherapy in the Control of Stress and Anxiety
Dias Paula1, Pedro Luís2, Pereira Olívia R3* and Sousa Maria João1*
1Country Research Center, Higher Agricultural School, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Campus of Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855, Bragança, Portugal
2Center for Environmental and Sea Studies Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, CBV, DBV, 1749-016, Lisboa, Portugal
3Departamento of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Technology, School of Health, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Av. D. Afonso V, 5300-121, Bragança, Portugal
*
Corresponding authors:
Sousa Maria João, Country Research Center, Higher Agricultural School, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Campus of Santa Apolnia,
Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança, Portugal. Tel: 351 273303200; 351273331570; Fax: 351273325405; E-mail: joaos@ipb.pt
Olívia Rodrigues Pereira, Departamento of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Technology, School of Health, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Av. D. Afonso V, 5300-121
Bragança, Portugal, Tel: 351273303200; 351273331570; Fax: 351273325405; E-mail: oliviapereira@ipb.pt
Received date: September 26, 2017; Accepted date: October 06, 2017; Published date: October 13, 2017
Copyright: © 2017 Paula D. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use,
distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Abstract
Background: Currently, complementary and alternative medicine emerge as important therapies in the
prevention and treatment of various health problems. In view of this, the present study aims to evaluate the efficacy
of essential oils in reducing stress and anxiety levels in aromatherapy users, at a clinic of Bragança, Portugal.
Methods: A study was performed with 36 individuals divided in two distinct groups: “aroma group” and “control
group”. Individuals of "aroma group" were treated with a mixture of essential oils of Lavandula angustifolia Mill and
Matricaria recutita L. applied with Effleurage massage while the individuals of "control group" received only
Effleurage massage. Stress and anxiety levels of all individuals participating in the study were evaluated before and
after the treatment. Additionally, the chemical composition of the essential oils was evaluated by GC and GC-MS.
Results: In the aromatherapy assay, the “aroma group” showed a significant decrease of 12% and 30%, in stress
and anxiety levels, respectively, in the “control group” this decrease was lower (3.3% and 2.6% for stress and
anxiety levels, respectively).
Conclusion: In this study, aromatherapy was effective in stress and anxiety levels reduction and linalool, the
major compound of the essential oil mixture, may be positively contributing for these effects.
Keywords: Aromatherapy;
Lavandula angustifolia Mill
;
Matricaria
recutita L.
; Volatil oils; Stress disorders; Anxiety
Introduction
Natural products and particularly those from plants, are used by
humans since ancient times with the purpose to relief and cure
diseases or to maintain health [1]. Gradually the herbs and their
essential oils became part of the prevention and treatment of diseases,
particularly in situations where physicians frequently were not present,
as in the case of rural areas. e use of medicinal plants for the
treatment of various diseases was a common practice among the
populations that resort to spontaneous plants due to easy local access
[2,3]. e World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes several
benets in the use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM)
playing an important role in the treatment or prevention of chronic
diseases and improving life quality [4,5]. One form of CAM,
aromatherapy, comprises the use of essential oils as treatment,
generally applied by inhalation, on the skin or, less frequently, orally.
Today, aromatherapy is a form of treatment recognized by the WHO,
commonly used to relieve pain, improve mood and promote a sense of
relaxation and used for anxiety and daily stress problems [6].
e essential oils used in aromatherapy can have dierent origins,
as they can be extracted from spontaneous plants or from cultivars,
and their composition can vary with environmental factors, such as
climatic and soil conditions [7,8]. us, it is very important to know
the composition of the essential oils to compare and understand the
relevance of the major compounds in the eects of aromatherapy. e
essential oil of
Lavandula ssp.
is well known and has been described as
having antibacterial, antifungal, sedative, carminative (smooth muscle
relaxing) properties and antidepressant activity [9], which justies its
use in aromatherapy and as pharmacological agent [10]. Literature
indicates
Matricaria recutita L.
essential oil as antispasmodic and
anxiolytic agent [11] with moderate antioxidant and antimicrobial
activities [12,13] and has been used as natural medicine and in
aromatherapy since a long time. e aim of this study was to evaluate
the eectiveness of essential oils used in aromatherapy in the reduction
of stress and anxiety levels, by applying a mixture of essential oils
(
Matricaria recutita L.
and
Lavandula ssp.
) through Eeurage massage
technique. In addition, and in order to identify the compounds
responsible for the eects, the chemical composition of the essential
oils was determined.
Materials and Methods
Collection of plants
Plants of
Matricaria recutita L.
were collected in the wild at
Montesinho Natural Park, during the owering stage (July-August).
Plants of
Lavandula angustifolia Mill
were collected in the gardens and
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ISSN: 2327-5162
Alternative and Integrative Medicine Paula et al., Altern Integr Med 2017, 6:4
DOI: 10.4172/2327-5162.1000248
Case Report OMICS International
Altern Integr Med, an open access journal
ISSN:2327-5162
Volume 6 • Issue 4 • 1000248
greenhouses of Agrarian School of Bragança, between June and July.
e species were identied and registration vouchers deposited in
Herbarium of the Escola Superior Agrária of Bragança-BRESA. e
extraction of essential oils by hydro distillation was performed using a
Clevenger apparatus, for 3 h, according to the European
Pharmacopoeia [14], with yield determination (v/fresh weight). e
essential oils were stored at -20°C in the dark. From each essential oil, a
small amount was used for the GC and GC-MS analyses and the
remainder was used to prepare the mixtures for further use in the
aromatherapy assays.
Aromatherapy assay
e data were collected using a questionnaire, composed by three
sections. Section 1 was the perceived stress Cohen Perceived Stress
Symptoms scale (1983) with 14 items [15]. Section 2 was composed of
Hamilton Anxiety Rating scale (1959) [16] for measuring the anxiety
levels. In section 3, generic questions were included about the
perception and the use of aromatherapy and also sociodemographic
questions. Section 1 and section 2 were applied to the participants
before and aer the aromatherapy or Eeurage massage treatments
while section 3 was applied just before the treatments.
For the experimental part of the study, an opportunistic sample was
used. Adults aged between 18 and 45 years, users of a clinic in
Bragança, Portugal, with high levels of stress and with medium or
severe anxiety were included in the study. is way, the inclusion
criteria includes a stress level equal or greater than 75% and a
minimum of 20 points on the anxiety scale. For the determination of
the stress values it was used the Cohen Perceived Stress Symptoms
scale (1983) [15] while the Hamilton Anxiety Rating scale (1959) [16]
was used to determine the level of anxiety. Individuals with psychiatric
conditions, pregnant women and individuals under any type of
treatment for stress and anxiety were excluded from the study.
e 36 individuals of both sexes, aged between 18 and 45 years,
included in the study. e participants, mostly of female gender (83%,
n=30) with ages between 18 and 25 (67%, n=24), were divided into two
distinct groups: “aroma group” (n=18) and “control group” (n=18).
Aroma group” received a treatment with a mixture of the two essential
oils (
Lavandula angustifolia Mill
and
Matricaria recutita L
; 60:40 v/v)
using sweet almond oil as vector and Eeurage massage, while for
“control group” only Eeurage massage with sweet almond oil, an
odorless oil, was applied. e complete treatment of the two groups
consisted of fourteen sessions (once a week) of thirty minutes each.e
levels of stress and anxiety of the participants were assessed before and
aer treatment, in the two groups.
During this study, all ethical aspects were guaranteed. Before
starting, all participants were informed about the aim of the study, the
procedures and the voluntary nature of their participation. ey were
informed that a refusal or a termination of their participation would
not have any negative consequence, being able to withdraw from the
study at any time. All participants have signed the informed consent
form and, to ensure condentiality, a code for each participant was
used instead of their names, and the collective disclosure of results was
also guaranteed.
Chemical analysis of essential oils
Gas chromatography (GC): Gas chromatographic analyses were
performed using a Perkin Elmer Autosystem XL (Perkin Elmer,
Shelton, Connecticut, USA) gas chromatograph equipped with two
ame ionization detectors (FIDs), a data handling system and a
vaporizing injector port into which two columns of dierent polarities
were installed: a DB-1 fused-silica column (30 m × 0.25 mm i.d., lm
thickness 0.25 μm) (J&W Scientic Inc., Rancho Cordova, CA, USA)
and a DB-17HT fused-silica column (30 m × 0.25 mm i.d., lm
thickness 0.15 μm) (J&W Scientic Inc.). Oven temperature was
programmed, 45°C to 175°C, at 3°C/min, subsequently at 15°C/min up
to 300°C, and then held isothermal for 10 min; injector and detector
temperatures, 280°C and 300°C, respectively; carrier gas, hydrogen,
adjusted to a linear velocity of 30 cm/s. e samples were injected
using split sampling technique, ratio 1:50. e volume of injection was
0.2 μl of a pentane-oil solution. e percentage composition of the oils
was computed by the normalization method from the GC peak areas,
calculated as mean values of two injections from each essential oil,
without using correction factors.
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS): e GC-MS
unit consisted of a Perkin. Elmer Autosystem XL (Perkin Elmer,
Shelton, Connecticut, USA) gas chromatograph, equipped with DB-1
fused-silica column (30 m × 0.25 mm i.d., lm thickness 0.25 μm) (J &
W Scientic, Inc.), and interfaced with a Perkin-Elmer Turbomass
mass spectrometer (soware version 4.1, Perkin Elmer, Shelton,
Connecticut, USA). Injector and oven temperatures were as above;
transfer line temperature, 280°C; ion trap temperature, 220°C; carrier
gas, helium, adjusted to a linear velocity of 30 cm/s; split ratio, 1:40;
ionization energy, 70 eV; ionization current, 60 μA; scan range, 40 amu
to 300 amu; scan time, 1 sec. e identity of the components was
assigned by comparison of their retention indices, relative to C9 and
C17 n-alkane indices and GC-MS spectra from a homemade library,
constructed based on the analyses of reference oils, laboratory-
synthesized components and commercial available standards.
Statistical analysis: e results were analyzed using the SPSS
program (version 20) and the descriptive statistics expressed as mean,
standard deviation and percentage. For statistic comparison the
Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U tests have been used with a level of
signicance of 5% (p-value<0.05).
Results
Regarding the levels of stress and anxiety in each group, there are
statistically signicant dierences between the initial and nal values
of stress and anxiety of the two groups (Table 1). In the "aroma group"
it was veried that the values distribution of "stress initial" and "stress
nal" are not identical. Similar results have been found for anxiety,
with values of "anxiety initial" and "anxiety nal" not identical.
For the "control group" the distributions of the values of the
variables "stress initial" and "stress nal" are not identical and similar
results have been found for "anxiety initial" and "anxiety nal" values
(Table 1). In the "aroma group” it was evident a decrease in the stress
levels (12%) and anxiety (30%) aer the treatment, from a rating "high"
to "medium", compared to the "control group" while the levels of stress
and anxiety have decreased of 3.3% and 2.6%, respectively. In this way,
in the "aroma group" it was observed that anxiety levels decreased
more intensively than stress levels.
Further, with regard to dierences between the initial and nal
values of stress and anxiety levels, aer individual and group analysis, a
signicant decrease of 6.7% and 7.2 points it was observed for stress
and anxiety levels, respectively (Table 2). Moreover, it is important to
note that the dierences between initial and nal values were greater in
the "aroma group.
Citation: Paula D, Luís P, Olívia RP, João SM (2017) Aromatherapy in the Control of Stress and Anxiety. Altern Integr Med 6: 248. doi:
10.4172/2327-5162.1000248
Page 2 of 5
Altern Integr Med, an open access journal
ISSN:2327-5162
Volume 6 • Issue 4 • 1000248
Aroma Group (n=18) Control Group (n=18)
Variables Initial Final Test Values p-value Initial Final Test Values p-value
Stress
(%) 77.4 ± 3.5 68.3 ± 7.2 -3.731 <0.001 72.7 ± 2.8 70.28 ± 2.7 -3.52 <0.001
Anxiety (points) 25.3 ± 7.6 17.7 ± 7.9 -3.29 <0.001 17.17 ± 2.0 16.72 ± 2.0 -2.53 0.011
The levels of stress e anxiety initial and final are expressed as average ± standard deviation; Values of the test and p-value of Wilcoxon test.
Table 1: Initial and nal levels of stress and anxiety.
Variables
Aroma Control ≠ Groups
p-value
Group (n=18) Group (n=18) average
Stress (%) 9.2 ± 6.9 2.4±1.6 6.7 <0.001
Anxiety(points) 7.7 ± 8.1 0.4±0.6 7.2 <0.001
Differences of stress e anxiety levels in each group are expressed as average ± standard deviation; p-value of Mann-Whitney U test.
Table 2: Initial and nal values of stress and anxiety levels.
Concerning aromatherapy treatment, the majority of participants
were satised (67%) and 22% were totally satised. In agreement with
this, when questioned about the benets of aromatherapy, most
participants agreed that aromatherapy has health benets, namely, it is
useful (83%), promotes health (86%), is eective in preventing disease
(86%), promotes well-being and quality of life (69%) and promotes a
good relationship between the therapist and the client (83%).
Accordingly, 70% of the participants agreed with the inclusion of
aromatherapy in the National Health Service, due to the following
reasons (with percentages of response between 94% to 100%): lack of
condence in conventional medicine, less adverse eects by using
natural products, ecient prevention of disease and low cost
treatment.
Is important to highlight that is a study with some limitations
mainly due the sample size and non-probability sampling used. e
small sample size and their non-random selection limit the
extrapolation of the results to the population. In accordance to that,
the degree to the aromatherapy eect of the individuals of the sample
diers from the population is unknown.
Additionally, there may have been subjects who might be le out
during the selection process and individuals who are over-represented
in the sample. In conclusion, the results obtained in the aromatherapy
assays indicate positive eects in the control of stress and anxiety for
the sample studied, however it must be conrmed in further studies.
e essential oils of
Lavandula angustifolia
and
Matricaria recutita
,
were obtained with a yield of 3.5% and 0.41% (v/fresh weight),
respectively. e composition of the essential oils of Lavender, of
Chamomile and of the mixture used in the aromatherapy assay is
shown in Table 3, considering only the major compounds (≥2%).
For Lavender essential oil, with a percentage of identication near
99%, the more abundant compounds were linalool, camphor, 1,8-
cineole, terpinen-4-ol, borneol and cis-β-ocimene. Although with a
lower percentage of identication (approximately 50%) for
Chamomile, the main compounds were 1,8-cineole, pinocarvone,
trans-pinocarveol, hexyl angelate, α-pinene and isobutyl isobutyrate.
It is noteworthy the dierent prole of the two essential oils with
some compounds present in the essential oil of only one of the plant
species while others are common to both plant species essential oils,
but frequently with clearly quantitative dierences (e.g. linalool and
terpinen-4-ol).
Components RI Lavender Chamomile Mixture
α-Pinene 930 0.6 3.8 1.9
Isobutyl isobutyrate 999 - 2.6 0.3
1,8-Cineole 1005 7.5 13.9 12.2
Limonene 1009 1.3 - 2
cis-β-Ocimene 1017 5 - 4.1
Linalool 1074 45.1 0.5 43.4
Camphor 1102 8.6 0.3 8.2
trans-Pinocarveol 1106 - 4.7 -
Pinocarvone 1121 - 7.8 1.3
Borneol 1134 5.5 - 4.8
Terpinen-4-ol 1148 7 0.6 6.3
Linalyl acetate 1245 2.9 - 2.3
Hexyl angelate 1273 - 3.9 -
*RI: Retention Index relative to C9 and C17 n-alkanes on the DB-1 column
Table 3: Major compounds (≥ 2%) in the essential oils of Lavender,
Chamomile and their mixture.
Citation: Paula D, Luís P, Olívia RP, João SM (2017) Aromatherapy in the Control of Stress and Anxiety. Altern Integr Med 6: 248. doi:
10.4172/2327-5162.1000248
Page 3 of 5
Altern Integr Med, an open access journal
ISSN:2327-5162
Volume 6 • Issue 4 • 1000248
Discussion
e results indicated that aromatherapy is an eective treatment in
the reduction of stress and anxiety levels. Specically, the “aroma
group” showed a signicant decrease of 12% and 30%, with respect to
stress and anxiety compared to the control group in which a minor
decline in these levels (3% in stress and 2.6% in anxiety) was observed.
e dierences in stress and anxiety levels between aroma and control
groups before and aer treatment were also signicant.
e essential oils analyses allow to found compounds such as
linalool, 1,8 cineole in
Lavandula
. As described in the literature, the
essential oil of this plant is mostly composed by oxygen-containing
monoterpenes compounds [17]. Although the composition of the
essential oil of
Lavandula angustifolia
shows a remarkable variability,
depending on the source, the season or the method of isolation
[18-22], the main constituents are predominantly linalool, 1,8-cineole
or linalyl acetate, and oxygenated monoterpenes constitute, largely, the
major group. A recent publication showed that the essential oil of
Lavender and its main constituent, linalool, have a potential inhibitory
eect on neuronal spontaneous electrical activity, using rat neuronal
networks [20]. Similar studies have demonstrated the benet of
aromatherapy in stress control in primary school teachers [23] and
nurses [24]. Additionally, various studies have shown that
aromatherapy reduces anxiety in surgical patients [25,26].
To clarify the aromatherapy regarding the eectiveness, it is
important the increase of research in this area [27,28]. In addition, the
monitoring and reporting of possible side eects should be done to
ensure the safety of this technique [29,30].
A comprehensive view of the actual position of these participants in
relation to aromatherapy has been collected, which recommended the
inclusion of this therapy in National Health Service. e European
Information Centre for Complementary & Alternative Medicine
highlight the remarkable growth of these practices in the last ten years,
meeting the recommendation that patients may have more choice
outside the scope of conventional medicine [27,31,32].
Conclusion
Although the study showed the importance of aromatherapy in the
reduction of stress and anxiety levels, more research is needed to
understand which compounds are involved and the mechanism of
action related to each essential oil used.
Acknowledgements
e authors gratefully acknowledge the nancial support provided
by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) under UID/AMB/
50017/2013, FEDER PT2020-Compete 2020. Authors are also grateful
to Gabinete Terapêutico Telmo Teles, Unipessoal, Lda, Bragança, for
the availability to perform the aromatherapy assay.
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Citation: Paula D, Luís P, Olívia RP, João SM (2017) Aromatherapy in the Control of Stress and Anxiety. Altern Integr Med 6: 248. doi:
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Citation: Paula D, Luís P, Olívia RP, João SM (2017) Aromatherapy in the Control of Stress and Anxiety. Altern Integr Med 6: 248. doi:
10.4172/2327-5162.1000248
Page 5 of 5
Altern Integr Med, an open access journal
ISSN:2327-5162
Volume 6 • Issue 4 • 1000248
... Today, aromatherapy is one of the most popular treatments, which has become a growing field in nursing because it is a combination of science and art [1]. Aromatherapy is a low-risk, effective, and non-invasive procedure that does not require specific time or equipment and has been adopted as a therapeutic approach by the World Health Organization [12]. The aroma molecules of plants are capable of being absorbed by the airways (respiration) and the skin (topical use). ...
... Herbal essential oils used in aromatherapy include Rose, lemon, lavender, white sandal wood, mandarin, geranium, and orange [13]. Various studies have used aromatherapy to alleviate nurses' occupational stress and anxiety [1,14]; however, the raw material used for aromatherapy in various studies has usually been the aroma of lavender [1,2,12,14], chamomile, clary sage, and lavender with jojoba [5]. In some studies, the effects of aromatherapy with rose essential oil on the intensity of pain [15,16], patient anxiety [16], nurses' fatigue [17], and the sleep quality of athletes before tournaments [18] have been investigated. ...
... Ghaffarzadegan et al. reported that taking Ginkgo biloba pills for two weeks reduced occupational stress in nurses working in burn wards and ICUs [25]. Paula et al. also pointed to the effectiveness of aromatherapy with lavender and Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) essential oils in reducing stress [12]. Cho et al. showed that aromatherapy with lavender essential oil after two days reduced stress in ICU patients [26]. ...
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Background: Emergency personnel are frequently exposed to high-risk physical and psychological factors that lead to increased occupational stress. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of aromatherapy with rosa damascena essential oil on nurses' occupational stress in the emergency department. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted among sixty nurses in the trauma center of Besat Hospital, Tehran. The participants were selected by the convenience sampling method, and then randomly assigned to the aromatherapy with essential oil of Rosa damascena and control groups. Intervention in the experimental and control groups consisted of inhalation cotton swabs impregnated with two drops of essential oil of 40% Rosa damascena (Gole Mohammadi) and cotton soaked with two drops of distilled water as a placebo for 2 minutes, respectively. Nurses' stress level was assessed by the Nursing Stress Scale before and after the intervention. To analyze the data, independent t-test, paired t-test, and ANCOVA were performed in SPSS, version 22. Results: The mean age of the nurses was 29.07 ± 5.495 years, and the majority of them had a bachelor's degree. The results of this study showed that stress scores in the experimental group were lower than those in the control group after the intervention (p
... [15][16][17] It is suggested that lavender oil, which is commonly used in aromatherapy, is effective on amygdale, has a relieving and sedative effect, relaxes smooth muscles, positively influences the quality of sleep due to these characteristics, has antibacterial, antifungal, antidepressant, and anxiety and stress-reducing characteristics, and is also the least toxic and allergic among the all aromatic oils. 18,19 In the study conducted by Muz and Taşçı 20 on patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment, they stated that aromatherapy with lavender oil applied through inhalation decreased the level and severity of fatigue. Karaman et al 21 found that aromatherapy with lavender oil positively influenced anxiety level during needle cannulation among patients undergoing hemodialysis. ...
... 20,33 Studies conducted by Bagheri-Nesami et al, 11 Muz and Taşçı, 20 and Biçer and Demir 33 with patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment, determined that aromatherapy with lavender oil decreased fatigue level. 11,19,20,33 These studies are similar to the result of the current study. ...
... Other long-term symptoms of disease such as fatigue and sleep disorders are also important factors increasing anxiety. 11,18,19,34,35 In the literature, it is indicated that increased anxiety in patients undergoing hemodialysis may cause complications such as overload and muscle cramps. Anxiety could also negatively influence self-care and treatment regimen dependence of patients. ...
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The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the application of lavender oil on fatigue and anxiety levels in patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment. This randomized controlled study was conducted with 60 patients (30 patients in intervention group, 30 patients in control group) in a province located in southeastern Turkey. After the patients in both groups were informed about the study, a questionnaire, the Fatigue Severity Scale, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory were applied to the patients. In the intervention group, a statistically significant difference was found between pretest and posttest scores of the Fatigue Severity Scale (t = 7.177, P = .001) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (t = 10.371, P = .001). Mean scores of fatigue and anxiety decreased significantly following aromatherapy and also fatigue and anxiety levels declined. Lavender aromatherapy can be applied as an effective nursing intervention to reduce fatigue and anxiety of patients with chronic renal failure and undergoing hemodialysis treatment.
... Further studies on the patient and business effects of therapeutic massage in the breast imaging department are suggested. Comparison with other methods to reduce anxiety, such as diaphragmatic breathing, hypnosis [16], aromatherapy [17] mindfulness and meditation is suggested [18][19][20][21]. The general population is familiar with massage therapy, but may believe it to be a luxury or an indulgence [22]. ...
Article
Background Massage therapy's ability to mitigate breast imaging associated anxiety has not been previously studied. Anxiety is, however, often cited as a harm of screening mammography with few options offered to diminish anxiety other than not screening. Reducing anxiety may improve compliance, and reduce breast cancer mortality and morbidity. A complimentary massage therapy program evaluated patient acceptance, anxiety perception and perceived value of massage. Methods Over 10 weeks, verbal agreement was obtained from 113 breast imaging patients who desired a hand or shoulder/neck massage. Licensed massage therapists performed massages before, and/or during, or after, or in between imaging tests. After the massage, questionnaires assessed patients' self-rated perceptions of anxiety before and after massage on a scale from 0 to 10. Participants' age-group, reason for appointment, self-rated value of massage service, and willingness to return to and willingness to refer to the facility were reported. Changes in perceived average anxiety were estimated using a linear mixed effects model. Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate associations among categorical variables. Results A significant decrease in perceived anxiety was observed following massage (d = −3.2, p < 0.001). 107/108 (99%) of respondents reported an improved patient experience with massage. 84/106 (79%) reported willingness to pay at least $5 for massage service. Conclusion Massage therapy improves the patient experience and decreases perceptions of anxiety. It may be associated with improved breast imaging compliance. Patients' willingness to pay for the service may defray some cost of a massage program.
Article
Essential oils are extracted from diverse plants and used in medicinal field for diverse conditions. The presence of unique aromatic compounds imparts aroma and medicinal values. Essential oil plays a vital role in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and also acts as rejuvenate. Though there are various plants from which essential oil are extracted, our study focuses on the extraction and comparison of the phytochemicals released from the fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus using two different organic solvents; (a). hexane (b) hexane and toluene in the ratio 1:1. Extraction was performed for 16 hours in Soxhlet extractor. The amount of oil obtained was weighed in both extractions and subjected to GC MS for phytochemical analysis. Results revealed that when the solvents hexane and toluene in the ratio 1:1 was used it gave a better yield of 3% from 5 gram of fresh leaves, while hexane yielded only 1.5%. The GC-MS analysis revealed that the compound released from both extractions are of diverse medicinal values and can be used in aromatherapy as rejuvenate. The compounds nerol (2,6 octadienal, 3,7 dimethyl.Z) and geraniol (2,6 octadienal, 3,7 dimethyl) are the common phytochemicals extracted .Nerol and geraniol are geometric isomers. Geraniol is reported as an efficient anticancer agent with additional properties of analgesic, antinflammatory and antiseptic values. Nerol is used as a fragrance. The compound 1 acetyl 4 hydroxy pyrrolidine 2 one is extracted when hexane and toluene were used for extraction in the ratio 1:1. It is reported to be anti-rheumatic and effective in the treatment of hips and joints. Hence it can be concluded that hexane and toluene in the ratio 1:1 can be used for extraction of oil considering its medicinal values and the increased % of extraction rather than using hexane alone.
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This study looks at the effects of the combined practice of mindful meditation and aromatherapy on the wellbeing of MCAST ICS lecturers, potentially providing resources that can help them deal with various stressors. Each practice is supported with literature underlining its effects towards a holistic wellbeing. The researcher uses a qualitative narrative inquiry approach to draw meaning and understanding out of the participants’ experiences. Three MCAST ICS lecturers participated in this study. Their background in health care enables them to relate better with the benefits of mindful meditation and aromatherapy. The research design of this study consists of four stages; a pre-session held with the three participants, weekly mindful meditation sessions for six weeks, individual interviews with each participant, followed by a focus group. Three of the six sessions included aromatherapy and a mindful journal was kept throughout the sessions. The analysis format could either develop as an analysis of narrative or narrative of analysis. In this study both formats were used, however, due to the word count limit only the analysis of narrative is seen. The researcher elicited whole segments from the individual transcripts to develop various themes. To examine the data for the emergent themes the researcher chose to use thematic narrative analysis as it focuses on the ‘told’ (Riessman 2008). In this case the ‘told’ is what helped identify the common patterns found across the narratives. As themes started to emerge, whenever possible the researcher used the MAXQDA software to facilitate the process. Mindful meditation was found to lead to a series of events that enhance self-awareness, thus enhancing holistic wellbeing and positively effecting the individual’s approach towards work and family. This can be achieved because mindful meditation has the potential to enhance one’s social skills, soft skills, and emotional intelligence. Furthermore, combining aromatherapy with mindful meditation was found to positively enhance one’s experience. However, it was not the only decisive factor since the ambience was also an influencer.
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Various anicent indian methods are reduced stress is explained this article
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The aims of this study are to determine the chemical composition of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and Coriandrum sativum L. essential oils, to evaluate their cytotoxic effects in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, to investigate whether an alteration of adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) and of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression can take part in the molecular mechanisms of the essential oils, and to study their possible neuronal electrophysiological effects. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and studied by GC and GC-MS. In the oils from L. angustifolia and C. sativum, linalool was the main component (33.1% and 67.8%, respectively). SH-SY5Y cells were incubated with different concentrations of essential oils and of linalool. Cell viability and effects on ADCY1 and ERK expression were analyzed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide MTT and Western blotting, respectively. Variation in cellular electrophysiology was studied in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons with a multi-electrode array (MEA)-based approach. The essential oils and linalool revealed different cytotoxic activities. Linalool inhibited ADCY1 and ERK expression. Neuronal networks subjected to L. angustifolia and C. sativum essential oils showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous electrical activity.
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The plant kingdom, both terrestrial and marine, is an underestimated pool of secondary metabolites some of which have enormous therapeutic potential to be an important source of new and unique agents. The identification of active compounds from complex botanical extracts is the main challenge in natural products discovery. The strategy used to discover active substances has been considerably changed in the last decade from the expensive and laborious methods in which bioactivity was studied only after isolation and identification of the components. The new strategy involves only the effective components being isolated and identified. Since chemical separation of the whole sample does not provide information about biological effects, neither do bioassays of the whole sample extracts provide information on observed therapeutic effects for compounds found in these extracts. However, if chemical separation techniques are combined with bioassays the therapeutic effects of individual compounds in a plant extract are able to be assessed. The use of planar chromatography to first separate plant extracts into individual components followed by a bioassay offers a number of advantages. Many samples can be analyzed in parallel on the same chromatographic plate keeping analysis times short and costs low. The high flexibility in detection is accomplished with the use of various derivatization reagents. Hence, direct bioassay on the chromatographic plate makes Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) screening a powerful tool for rapid identification of bioactive components in crude plant extracts. To search for bioactive compounds in plant extracts with a targeted activity, TLC is hyphenated with an appropriate bioassay enabling direct in vitro biological study of the components that have been previously separated on the plate. Hyphenation of TLC with bioassays, micro chemical detection and further Mass Spectroscopy (MS) identification enables targeted identification of substances from plant extracts. Post chromatographic derivatization by dipping or spraying can be done with either a universal micro chemical derivatization using for example anisaldehyde/sulfuric acid for detection of phenols, sugars, steroids, and terpenes [1] or with selective micro chemical derivatization. The diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH
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Essential oils isolated by using hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Thymus algeriensis and Thymus capitatus Hoff. et Link. from different locations of Tunisia (Kef, Takelsa, Zaghouan, Fahs and Toukeber) were characterised. The chemical composition was analysed by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the major component of T. capitatus from Kef and T. algeriensis was thymol while carvacrol was the main component of T. capitatus from Zaghouan, Fahs and Toukeber. The antifungal activity of the oils and some pure components was assessed by the in vitro assay against several fungi and oomycetes. T. capitatus (chemotype carvacrol) exhibited the strongest antifungal activity followed by T. capitatus (chemotype thymol) and T. algeriensis, indicating that carvacrol might have a stronger antifungal activity than thymol.
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Seasonal variations in the composition of the essential oils obtained from the same individual (of the same genotype) of Lavandula angustifolia cultivated in Belgrade were determined by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents were 1,8-cineole (7.1-48.4%), linalool (0.1-38.7%), borneol (10.9-27.7%), β-phellandrene (0.5-21.2%) and camphor (1.5-15.8%). Cluster analysis showed that the 21 samples collected each month during the vegetation cycle were separable into three main clades with different compositions of essential oils. In the shoots with flowers, inflorescences and fruits of clade I, linalool is dominant, in the young leaves before flowering and old leaves of clade II, 1,8-cineole is dominant. In the young and incompletely developed leaves of clade III, β-phellandrene is dominant. The composition of the essential oils of lavender depended on the plant part and the stage of development.
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The aim of this study was to determine if aromatherapy could reduce preoperative anxiety in ambulatory surgery patients. A total of 109 preoperative patients were randomly assigned to experimental (bergamot essential oil) and control (water vapor) conditions and their responses to the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and vital signs were monitored. Patients were stratified by previous surgical experience, but that did not influence the results. All those exposed to bergamot essential oil aromatherapy showed a greater reduction in preoperative anxiety than those in the control groups. Aromatherapy may be a useful part of a holistic approach to reducing preoperative anxiety before ambulatory surgery.
Book
Would you use complementary and alternative medicines (CAMS)? Well, research has shown that up to three quarters of patients with cancer may at least supplement their treatment with such therapies, spending as much on CAMS as conventional drugs. How do you decide? This book provides a full range of perspectives on CAMS from patients and CAMS practitioners to conventional doctors who oppose the use of these alternative treatments because of the lack of evidence of efficacy and safety. Then there are the CAMS researchers, educators and regulators who view CAMS from different perspectives. The broad array of opinions build a complete picture of the issues for discerning readers to be adequately informed to make up their minds and draw their own conclusions.
Chapter
This book aims to provide views of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) from multiple perspectives to enable the reader to come to their own informed conclusions. Practitioners of conventional medicine range from those who highlight the dangers of treatments that lack conventional evidence to those who wish to integrate CAMs into conventional practice. The authorship also includes educators and researchers into CAMs, those involved in public policy, regulators and consumers. The term CAMs encompasses a wide range of treatments from the biological and the physical to the mental and energy therapies. Mechanisms of action may not be known and should not be subject to pseudoscientific explanations. There are methodological challenges in researching CAMs. Also, CAMs are regulated differently to conventional medicines and yet the public must understand that CAMs can have side-effects and should know upon what evidence claims of efficacy are based and how often it is known to be effective. Medical practitioners should be familiar with CAMs so they can respond to their patients' questions and know if there are any problematic interactions between CAMs and conventional therapies. How to integrate CAMs and conventional medicine is a challenge being explored by some medical centres.
Article
Lavandula angustifolia (Mill.) is a multidisciplinary medicinal and aromatic plant of great importance in fragrance and pharmaceutical industries and/or landscaping. Minerals rate affect yield and quality of medicinal plants therefore, this experiment was conducted in order to determine the effects of nitrogen (N: 150–175–200–225–250 mg/L) and phosphorus (P: 30–40–50–60–70 mg/L) levels on the morphological and biochemical characteristics of lavender under hydroponic condition. The results indicated that P levels mainly affected plant growth, while lower N levels (150 mg/L) reduced chlorophylls content. Essential oil yield was remained unaffected under N and P levels. The N levels greater than 200 mg/L as well as 60 mg/L of P, benefited antioxidant status (total phenols, DPPH, FRAP, flavonoids). The main constituents of leaves essential oil (1.8-cineole, borneol, camphor, α-terpineol, myrtenal) and mineral accumulation were affected by N and P treatments.
Article
Compositions of true lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) essential oils, cultivated and extracted in the Southeast of Spain, were determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection, obtaining both relative (peak area) and absolute (using standard curves) concentrations. Linalool (37-54 %), linalyl acetate (21-36 %) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (1-3 %) were the most abundant components for L. angustifolia. Linalool (35-51 %), eucalyptol (26-32 %), camphor (10-18 %), α-pinene (1-2 %), α-terpineol (1-2 %) and α-bisabolene (1-2 %) were the most abundant components for L. latifolia. The characterization was completed with enantioselective gas chromatography, in which the determined main molecules were (-)-linalool, (-)-linalyl acetate and (+)-camphor. (S)-(-)-camphene, (R)-(+)-limonene, (1R, 9S)-(-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene and (1R, 4R, 6R, 10S)-(-)-caryophyllene oxide were found in this study as the predominant enantiomers in Spanish L. angustifolia. The characterised essential oils were tested for their antioxidant activity against free radicals ABTS, DPPH, ORAC, chelating, and reducing power. Inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase was observed indicating a possible anti-inflammatory activity, mainly due to linalool, camphor, p-cymene and limonene. These results can be the starting point for a future study of the potential use of L. angustifolia and L. latifolia essential oils as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredients for several skin diseases. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Article
Migraine is a chronic recurring headache for which no complete treatment has been found yet. Therefore, finding new treatment approaches and medicines is important. In this review, we consider the probable mechanism of action of a traditional and ethnic formulary of chamomile extract in sesame oil as a new topical medication for migraine pain relief. Chamomile oil is prepared in traditional Persian medicine by boiling aqueous extract of chamomile in sesame oil. To optimize the procedure, we can use a Clevenger-type apparatus to extract the essential oil and add it to the end product. The preparation includes both essential oils (chamazulene and bisabolol oxide) and polyphenols (a flavonoid such as apigenin and its derivatives). It probably possesses pain relief effects for migraines because of the following properties: 1) chamazulene and apigenin, which inhibit iNOS expression in activated macrophages and can lead to the prohibition of NO release and synthesis; 2) chamomile flavonoids, which have a strong inhibitory effect on endogenous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in RAW 264.7 macrophages and can play the role of selective COX-2 inhibitor; 3) chamomile polyphenols, which possess anti-inflammatory effects due to the inhibition of pro-inflammatory biomarkers in THP1 macrophages and which can reduce inflammation in neurovascular units (NVU) at the site of migraine pain; 4) chamomile, which has neuroprotective effects because of reduced NO levels; 5) sesamine in sesame oil, which possesses an anti-inflammatory effect. These effects are supported by main pathophysiology theories of migraine such as neural and sensitization theories. Chamomile oil is a traditional formulation still used in Iran as an ethno-medicine. Because of the mentioned mechanisms of action, it can be hypothesized that chamomile oil is a novel medicine for the relief of migraine pain.