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Mangroves in Benin, West Africa: threats, uses and conservation opportunities

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Mangrove ecosystems constitute valuable resource all over the world. They provide habitats for flora and fauna species, protect the coast against erosion and supply various products for local communities. Currently, mangroves are overused and degraded. Up to now, perceptions of local communities on the dynamic of mangrove forest and their acceptable participation forms for mangroves restoration have not been entirely understood. This study was undertaken in order to assess human pressure on mangroves from user perspective and to provide baseline information for its sustainable management in three districts (Grand-Popo, Ouidah and Sèmè-Kpodji) located in the coastal area of Benin. Structured and semi-structured questionnaire surveys regarding perceptions of mangrove forest dynamic, causes of mangrove forest degradation, indigenous restoration strategies and forms of participation were conducted among randomly selected informants. It has been reported that Beninese mangrove ecosystems supply timber and non-timber forest products, rich fishing grounds and salt for local communities. Local communities are aware of the need of restoring and ensuring sustainable conservation of mangrove ecosystems. Dominant measures for restoration and conservation indicated by informants for mangrove users include the reintroduction of traditional rules, avoidance of uncontrolled settlements, planting of mangrove trees, planting alternative fuelwood, use of solar energy for salt production and creation of alternative income generating activities. Planting mangrove trees and alternative cooking energy sources supplying to local communities to avoid mangrove destruction are urgent needs for the coastal area of Benin.
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Mangroves in Benin, West Africa: threats, uses
and conservation opportunities
Oscar Teka
1
Laurent G. Houessou
1
Bruno A. Djossa
1,2
Yvonne Bachmann
3
Madjidou Oumorou
1,4
Brice Sinsin
1
Received: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published online: 9 January 2018
Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018
Abstract Mangrove ecosystems constitute valuable resource all over the world. They
provide habitats for flora and fauna species, protect the coast against erosion and supply
various products for local communities. Currently, mangroves are overused and degraded.
Up to now, perceptions of local communities on the dynamic of mangrove forest and their
acceptable participation forms for mangroves restoration have not been entirely under-
stood. This study was undertaken in order to assess human pressure on mangroves from
user perspective and to provide baseline information for its sustainable management in
three districts (Grand-Popo, Ouidah and Se
`me
`-Kpodji) located in the coastal area of Benin.
Structured and semi-structured questionnaire surveys regarding perceptions of mangrove
forest dynamic, causes of mangrove forest degradation, indigenous restoration strategies
and forms of participation were conducted among randomly selected informants. It has
been reported that Beninese mangrove ecosystems supply timber and non-timber forest
products, rich fishing grounds and salt for local communities. Local communities are aware
of the need of restoring and ensuring sustainable conservation of mangrove ecosystems.
Dominant measures for restoration and conservation indicated by informants for mangrove
users include the reintroduction of traditional rules, avoidance of uncontrolled settlements,
planting of mangrove trees, planting alternative fuelwood, use of solar energy for salt
production and creation of alternative income generating activities. Planting mangrove
trees and alternative cooking energy sources supplying to local communities to avoid
mangrove destruction are urgent needs for the coastal area of Benin.
&Oscar Teka
oscar_teka@yahoo.fr
1
Laboratory of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi,
01 PO Box 526, Cotonou, Benin
2
High School of Forestry and Wood Engineering, National University of Porto-Novo, Ke
´tou, Benin
3
Institute of Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, J.W. Goethe University, Max-von-Laue Straße 13,
60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
4
Polytechnic School of Abomey-Calavi, Department of Environment, University of Abomey-Calavi,
01 PO Box 2009, Cotonou, Benin
123
Environ Dev Sustain (2019) 21:1153–1169
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-017-0075-x
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... About 35% of the world's mangroves have been lost for several reasons [9]. Mangroves are degraded in many areas due to climate change [10,11] and to human activities [12,13], mainly urban development in the coastal areas [14,15] and overexploitation of resources [16]. These threats call for various actions for sustainable management and conservation of mangroves [17]. ...
... Most of the study conducted in Benin has focused on mangrove interests for human populations, particularly medicinal, food, and other uses for human well-being [13,[26][27][28]. Some authors had investigated the floristic and faunal inventory of mangrove ecosystems [29] and some conservation issues [15]. According to Zanvo et al. [30], from 2001 to 2019, mangroves had changed to grasslands (7.25%) or another vegetation type (27.05%), with higher degradation in the municipalities of Abomey-Calavi and Ouidah. ...
... The population of the coastal area of Benin is of different ethnical groups, including Fôn, Mina, Houeda and Xwla. The economic activities practiced are agriculture, fishery, livestock rearing, salt production, trading, marine sand exploitation, and hunting [15]. ...
Article
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In the Republic of Benin, mangroves are an essential resource for the coastal populations who use them for firewood, salt production, and ruminant feeding. However, little information exists on livestock keepers’ particular threats to mangroves. This study aims to understand the use of mangrove species by ruminant keepers to identify sustainable actions for mangroves conservation in the coastal area of Benin. Ethno-botanical and socio-economical surveys were conducted on ninety (90) ruminant farmers in fifteen (15) villages close to mangroves along the coastal belt using a semi-structured questionnaire. The herders provide their animals with different mangrove plant species for feeding and health care. Rhizophora racemosa, Avicennia africana, Paspalum vaginatum, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Blutaparon vermiculare were the primary species used for ruminants. Local communities of herders were aware of the need to restore and ensure the sustainable use of mangrove ecosystems. The main restoration and conservation strategy suggested was planting the true mangroves plant species. Others strategies were rational use of mangroves resources and avoiding burning mangroves. These strategies varied with the ethnical group of the herder and the mangrove status (degraded or restoring) in their location. The study also revealed the willingness of ruminant breeders to participate in actions to conserve mangroves. This participation in mangrove restoration was influenced by the ethnical group and age of the herder. Therefore, it is important to involve more ruminant farmers in activities and projects for mangroves restoration. Further study could evaluate whether grazing could enhance the other ecosystem services of mangroves.
... Existing scientific information on the part of the reserve in Benin covers aspects pertaining to the local use of mangroves in Grand-Popo, one of the municipalities embedded in the reserve in Benin [11]. It also covers the characterization of the provisioning services delivered by mangroves in some localities of the reserve [12][13][14] and the carbon storage capacity of mangroves [15]. In the Togolese part of the reserve, no scientific record exists on mangrove ES to our knowledge. ...
... Other provisioning services highly ranked in the reserve are timber collection and firewood collection. Even if mangrove cutting is officially banned in the two countries [12,34], the local population in the MTBR still collects firewood and timber from mangroves for diverse domestic and commercial uses. This illustrates a weak enforcement of the conservation measures put in place for mangroves protection in the reserve. ...
... This indicates that studies and academic field trips are increasingly carried out in mangroves in Benin. This agrees with [12] who asserted that research in mangroves have received keen attention in Benin over the past ten years. However, tourism, recreation and leisure recorded low scores in the reserve. ...
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Mangroves are important coastal ecosystems, which deliver diverse and crucial services to humans. This study explored the diversity of mangrove ecosystem services, their associated threats as well as their contribution to livelihoods and wellbeing of coastal communities in the Mono Transboundary Biosphere Reserve (MTBR) located between Benin and Togo. Data were collected using the exploratory sequential mixed method. The approach included field reconnaissance, focus group discussions (n = 14), in-depth interviews (n = 17), household survey (n = 274) and direct observations. A total of 21 services and 7 associated threats were recorded in the entire reserve. Provisioning services were the most important service for mangroves in the reserve followed by supporting services, regulating services and cultural services. Change in water salinity, mangrove overharvesting and illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing were the three major threats to mangrove ecosystem services in the reserve. Most of the respondents indicated that the current flow of provisioning services, regulating services and cultural services does not sustain their wellbeing and livelihoods. However, the perception varied significantly across respondents’ gender, ethnical groups, educational background and country. Our study showed some similarities between the two countries but also highlighted important differences which can assist the sustainable management of mangroves in the MTBR.
... In Benin, previous studies suggest that mangroves are still declining, although the magnitude of this decline and its future trajectory are not well understood. Mangroves provide crucial ecosystem goods and services to local communities in coastal area of Benin (Teka et al., 2018). The growing pressures on mangroves prompt the need to better understand their spatio-temporal dynamics. ...
... The mangrove forests grow within a wetland complex area that includes Porto-Novo Lagoon, the Lake Ahémé, and the Chenal Aho. The coastal area covers approximately 12,000 km 2 representing about 10.5% of the total land surface of Benin (Teka et al., 2018). Mangrove forests are concentrated between 6°10'-6°40' N and 1°40'-2°45'E (Sinzogan et al., 2019). ...
... Benin's coastal area is characterized by a high population density estimated as 800 inhabitants/ km 2 (INSAE, 2015). A previous study by Teka et al. (2018) suggests that high human density in Benin coastal area mediates increasing human economic activities such as fishery, salt production, and wood collection for domestic uses and services which in turns accelerate the decline of mangroves. ...
Article
Mangroves are precious ecosystems that provide vital socio-economic, environ- mental and cultural benefits to humanity. However, they are declining alarmingly due to human activities and natural hazards. Assessment of their spatio-temporal dynamics is essential to monitor these ecosystems and guide their management to ensure their sustainability. We assessed the spatio-temporal dynamics of mangroves and predicted their future trends using remote sensing techniques and Markovian chain analysis. Landsat images TM/ETM+/OLI (for 1988, 2001 and 2019) were obtained, processed, classified and analyzed using remote sensing techniques and GIS. The changes observed during these periods (1988-2001, 2001-2019 and 1988-2019) were used to predict future trends up to 2050, using Markovian chain analysis. The results showed that the mangrove area studied, which occupied 5205.24 ha in 1988, declined by 62.07% between 1988 and 2001 but increased by 18.84% from 2001 to 2019. This increase is attributed to strengthened mangrove restoration efforts. The mangroves had mainly been converted into grassland (52.35% in 1988-2001 and 7.31% in 2001-2019) and other vegetation types (17.57% in 1988-2001 and 27.05% in 2001-2019). Their decline was most severe in the municipalities of Abomey-Calavi and Ouidah, which therefore require greater conservation efforts. Our projection based on Markovian chain analysis suggests that these mangroves will continue to decline, but slowly. This study provides essential information to guide future mangrove conservation action in the study area.
... With an estimated worldwide area of up to 16.4 million ha in 2014 (Hamilton and Casey, 2016), mangroves provide a variety of valuable ecosystem services or the bene ts provided by ecosystems to humans, such as carbon sequestration, coastal barriers, shoreline protection, food, fuel, building materials, and biodiversity protection, among others (Estoque et al. 2018; BOBLME, 2014). Sometimes mangroves are deforested for urban development and for land and industries housing (Teka et al. 2019). Construction progress that makes use of protected zone as a new area signi cantly results in overlapping, and irregular space utilization (Hermon et al 2018). ...
... The coastal area of Benin is mainly populated by the Fôn, Mina, Houeda and Xwla. The economic activities are composed of agriculture, shery, livestock breeding, salt production, processing of agricultural products, small commerce, marine sand exploitation and hunting (Teka et al. 2019). ...
... Such drivers were also reported in Benin and West-Central Africa(Feka and Ajonina, 2011). Main threats to the mangrove in the coastal areas of Benin(Teka et al. 2019) according to local communities are the extraction of wood (54.4%), urbanization and non-rational settlement (40%), disrespect of traditional rules (30%) and the climate change (26.1%). Fishery, cooking salt production, fodder and wild res were less mentioned. ...
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In Benin, mangroves are an important resource for the coastal populations who use them for firewood, salt preparation but also for feeding ruminants in the surrounding meadows. However, the pressure exerted by exploitation on fodder in the mangroves has not been quantified. This study aims to understand the relationship between mangroves and ruminants in the coastal zone of Benin. Ethno-botanical data were collected from ninety (90) ruminant breeders in fifteen (15) villages close to mangroves along the coastal belt, using individual interviews and group discussions combined with a tourist guide and a semi-structured questionnaire. The herders provided, among other things, mangrove species used as food and for ruminant health. Cross-tabulations, with calculation of chi-square statistics, were used as well as means and standard deviation values of continuous variables calculated and compared between mangrove trends observed using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Rhizophora racemosa , Avicennia africana , Paspalum vaginatum , Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Blutaparon vermiculare were the species mentioned. Local communities are aware of the need to restore and ensure the sustainable conservation of mangrove ecosystems. The main restoration and conservation measures indicated by the pastoralists are the planting of mangroves, rational logging through the control of logging, no fires after logging. These measures vary according to ethnicity and depend significantly (p < 0.001) on the type of mangrove. However, these modes of exploitation of mangroves by livestock breeders have no effect on their dynamics. However, the involvement of farmers is dispensable for the conservation of mangroves.
... In Benin, mangroves offer a wide range of goods, and services to communities, including fisheries, fuelwood, salt extraction and nontimber forest products with medicinal properties (Teka et al., 2019). But the over-exploitation of mangroves resources both for domestic use and for infrastructure building results in the degradation of the fragile mangrove ecosystem (Teka et al., 2019). ...
... In Benin, mangroves offer a wide range of goods, and services to communities, including fisheries, fuelwood, salt extraction and nontimber forest products with medicinal properties (Teka et al., 2019). But the over-exploitation of mangroves resources both for domestic use and for infrastructure building results in the degradation of the fragile mangrove ecosystem (Teka et al., 2019). The pressure on Temperature increase, increase in extreme events including droughts and floods, changes in the spatial and temporal variability in rainfall Increased evapotranspiration and reduced soil moisture, soil degradation, invasive bush encroachment, reduction of crop yield, livestock sickness, and death, reduction in market value, increased food insecurity, increased resource-based conflicts Shiferaw et al., 2018;Belay et al., 2018;Briske, 2017;Mussa et al., 2016;Lemma, 2011;Opiyo et al., 2015;RCRMD, 2016;Sala et al., 2017;Worden et al., 2009 Pastures Drought, flood, reduction rainfall amount Invasive bush encroachment, soil erosion, water depletion, and pollution, siltation of water points, reduction of the load capacity of rangeland, the decline in pasture availability and palatability, reduction of livestock production and productivity, reduce biodiversity, migration of wildlife, the proliferation of climate change sensitive livestock diseases, resource-based conflict, food insecurity Assefa et al., 1986;Abule, 2009;Fenetahun et al., 2018;Mussa et al., 2016;Kassahun et al., 2008 Biodiversity Drought, flood Water pollution, siltation of water points, reduced biomass, the proliferation of climate change sensitive zoonotic diseases, soil erosion, reduced rangeland carrying capacity, the decline in graze availability, woody vegetation the encroachment, water scarcity, encroachment of migratory routes Opiyo et al., 2015;Worden et al., 2009 Water Increased extreme events, marked rainfall and, temperature variability, predicted temperature rise ...
... Food insecurity, agrarian-pastoral communities' conflict, increased poverty, the proliferation of diseases Kiggundu, 2002;Kubbinga, 2012;Malesu et al., 2006;Ngigi, 2003 (M) Reduction in species production, and fishing productivity Makowski and Finkl, 2018 this ecosystem affects biodiversity conservation, especially the distribution of Rhizophora racemosa Meyer and Avicennia germinans (L.) species. It also increases the vulnerability of local communities, mainly salt producers and Peda fishing communities who make their livelihoods from the mangrove ecosystems (Ajonina et al., 2014;Teka et al., 2019). Mozambique is often affected by natural disasters, including droughts and floods associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (USAID, 2012). ...
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Climate change is one of the major challenges societies round the world face at present. Apart from efforts to achieve a reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases so as to mitigate the problem, there is a perceived need for adaptation initiatives urgently. Ecosystems are known to play an important role in climate change adaptation processes, since some of the services they provide, may reduce the impacts of extreme events and disturbance, such as wildfires, floods, and droughts. This role is especially important in regions vulnerable to climate change such as the African continent, whose adaptation capacity is limited by many geographic and socio-economic constraints. In Africa, interventions aimed at enhancing ecosystem services may play a key role in supporting climate change adaptation efforts. In order to shed some light on this aspect, this paper reviews the role of ecosystems services and investigates how they are being influenced by climate change in Africa. It contains a set of case studies from a sample of African countries, which serve the purpose to demonstrate the damages incurred, and how such damages disrupt ecosystem services. Based on the data gathered, some measures which may assist in fostering the cause of ecosystems services are listed, so as to cater for a better protection of some of the endangered Africa ecosystems, and the services they provide.
... Although countries in the case studies generally see values aligning with international commitments, complying and implementing some of these commitments is taking a back foot. For example, despite Benin and Cameroon being parties to International Tropical Timber Agreement (ITTA), Geneva, 1994, illegal logging in these countries are still happening at an accelerated rate (Cannon, 2015;Teka et al., 2019). See Table 3 for a summary of international conventions, protocols and agreements signed by countries in the case study. ...
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This article contributes to a growing body of research on the Large Marine Ecosystems Concept. It particularly shines the light on the Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem (GCLME), a biodiverse maritime domain providing essential ecosystem services for the survival of a large population while at the same time under intense pressure from both anthropogenic and natural factors. With the need for coordination and cross-border ocean management and governance becoming imperative due to the magnitude of challenges and maritime domain, we examine the factors that underpin ocean governance and those key elements necessary for cross-border ocean governance cooperation in the region. The research draws on qualitative data collected from peer-reviewed literature and documents sourced from different official portals. Three countries in the region (Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon) are selected as the descriptive and comparative case studies to examine: (i) the factors that drive ocean governance (including geographical features, maritime jurisdictions, political framework, maritime activities, and associated pressures), and (ii) key enabling factors for cross-border ocean governance and cooperation in the GCLME (including marine and coastal related policy and legal framework convergence from international to national including, and shared experiences, common issues and joint solutions). We show that the biophysical maritime features, the implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), otherwise known as the Law of the Sea (LOS), inherent political characteristics and the relics of colonization, and increasing ocean use and pressure on the ecosystem make ocean governance challenging in the region. Our analysis also reveals a varying level of convergence on international, regional and national legal, policy and institutional frameworks between the case studies on ocean-related aspects. Significant convergence is observed in maritime security, ocean research, and energy aspects, mostly from countries adopting international, regional and sub-regional frameworks. National level convergence is not well established as administrative and political arrangement differs from country to country in the region. These different levels of convergence help reveal procedural and operational shortcomings, strengths, weaknesses, and functional capability of countries within a cooperative ocean governance system in the region. However, experience from joint-implementation of projects, pre- and post-colonial relations between countries and the availability of transboundary organizations that have mainly emerged due to sectoral ocean challenges would play a crucial role in fostering cross-border ocean governance cooperation in the region.
... Mangroves provide important ecosystem services, e.g., shelter for economically important aquatic larvae, a buffer against coastal erosion, and a major carbon sink. In the tropics, mangrove forests play an important role in people's ways of life (Teka et al., 2019). Hence, there may be conflicts between sustaining a good environment and the economic benefits of mangroves; activities within mangrove areas can affect their ecosystem services. ...
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Mangrove ecosystem services (ES) support the global carbon (C) cycle. This study aimed to assess factors affecting the loss or gain of C stocks in mangrove forests in Thailand. Two fundamental considerations were taken into account, including ES supplied by mangroves from the perspective of C stocks, and the potential for C loss resulting from human activities conducted in mangrove forests. Three different land-use types in mangrove forests were studied: an area encroached upon by the local population (L1), a conservation area (L2), (both of which were dominated by the mangrove species Avicennia alba), and a seaside area. Based on their average height and diameter at breast height (DBH), most of the mangrove trees were determined to be young. The highest importance value index (IVI) was seen for A. alba, at 224.73 (L1) and 213.79 (L2). Above- and below-ground C levels were 189.97 t-Cha⁻¹, 77.11 t-Cha⁻¹ in L1 and 81.73 t-Cha⁻¹ , 32.54 t-Cha⁻¹ in L2. Soil C stocks were 60.95 t-Cha⁻¹ (L1) and 43.71 t-Cha⁻¹ (L2). Statistical analysis indicated that nitrogen was the crucial factor influencing soil C in both L1 and L2. Overall, the total mangrove C stocks in L1 were estimated to be 328.64 t-Cha⁻¹, which surprisingly was higher than in L2, at 290.34 t-Cha⁻¹. The potential change in C stocks was then assessed. This showed that demand for mangrove resources resulted in the permanent loss of C stocks, particularly within plant communities, as the major fraction of C was from above-ground C stores. The loss of 1 hectare of mangrove vegetation was estimated to result in the loss of 77.71–189.97 t-C/ha⁻¹ and 32.54–81.73 t-Cha⁻¹ in L1 and L2, respectively. Different approaches to mangrove management based on the differing supply and demand for ES are recommended.
Preprint
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Mangroves around the world provide humanity with a variety of ecosystem services. However, rising populations coupled with human activities jeopardize the sustainable management of these ecosystems. Climate change is also expected to have a severe impact on mangrove ecosystems, especially in Benin, West Africa. Since 2000, several initiatives for the conservation of mangroves have been established under the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. Land use/land cover (LULC) changes were used at Ramsar Site 1017 in Benin for periods in 1995, 2005 and 2015 to assess the impact of the Ramsar Convention on mangrove ecosystem conservation. The observed changes during 1995–2005 and 2005–2015 were considered to predict LULC change towards 2070 using the Markov chain model. During 1995–2005, a total area of 3.43 ha of mangroves was degraded, while during the 2005–2015 period 2.65 ha were restored. Future scenarios predicted that the area of mangroves was expected to decrease by more than half between 1995 and 2070, assuming the dynamic of 1995–2005, and increase by 1.1% of the 2005 area by 2070 with the dynamic of 2005–2015. Implementation of conservation policies, projects and awareness-raising activities could contribute to the effective restoration of the mangrove ecosystems.
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This is a very important book. Taken together, the collected papers present a rich picture of the vital role played by peasant women around the world. They are struggling to preserve, in the face of modern agribusiness, the agricultural wisdom of the past and the diversity of plants that have been used for both food and medicine. It is vital that decision makers, especially in the developing world, heed the knowledge of these women who understand so well the art of a sustainable lifestyle. Women and Plants must be in the library of every individual who cares about the future of our planet.' Jane Goodall 'Women and Plants offers a uniquely gender-sensitive perspective on the management of biodiversity. These case studies empirically substantiate a broad range of cultures and ecologies, and offer keen insights for policy development and application.' Professor Nina L. Etkin, Associate Editor, Pharmaceutical Biology 'Focusing on traditional knowledge of indigenous people and local communities, and especially on the relationship between biodiversity and women in traditional societies worldwide , this book provides a well-marked path for the better understanding of biodiversity, its values and its importance for humans, while at the same time highlighting community and ecosystem interrelations.' Dr Hamdallah Zedan, Executive Secretary to the Convention on Biodiversity 'At long last, the predominant role of women in the management of plant genetic resources has begun to be scientifically documented in this highly important book. While men were occupied by hunting and defending their territories, women were most likely domesticating many of the world' s crops. Recognition that they hold much of the related knowledge and skills today is clearly overdue. But recognition is not enough-Farmer' s Rights as per Article 9 of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture must be assured now and for the future, if we are to give farmers-both women and men-incentives to continue to be the developers and custodians of the world' s genetic resources. All those with responsibilities for promoting the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources should certainly read this book.' Professor Jose Esquinas Alcazar, Secretary of the Commission on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, Food and Agriculture Organization, and Father of 'Farmers' Rights' 'Wonderfully rich in evidence, persuasive in its argument, and wide-ranging in coverage, this timely edited volume on the gendered nature of knowledge about biodiversity enriches both scholarship and policy. It points to the critical need not only of recognizing the specificity of womens knowledge about plant species, but of strengthening their conservation efforts and bringing their interests to bear in arrangements for biodiversity development and benefit sharing.'
Book
Full-text available
This is a very important book. Taken together, the collected papers present a rich picture of the vital role played by peasant women around the world. They are struggling to preserve, in the face of modern agribusiness, the agricultural wisdom of the past and the diversity of plants that have been used for both food and medicine. It is vital that decision makers, especially in the developing world, heed the knowledge of these women who understand so well the art of a sustainable lifestyle. Women and Plants must be in the library of every individual who cares about the future of our planet.' Jane Goodall 'Women and Plants offers a uniquely gender-sensitive perspective on the management of biodiversity. These case studies empirically substantiate a broad range of cultures and ecologies, and offer keen insights for policy development and application.' Professor Nina L. Etkin, Associate Editor, Pharmaceutical Biology 'Focusing on traditional knowledge of indigenous people and local communities, and especially on the relationship between biodiversity and women in traditional societies worldwide , this book provides a well-marked path for the better understanding of biodiversity, its values and its importance for humans, while at the same time highlighting community and ecosystem interrelations.' Dr Hamdallah Zedan, Executive Secretary to the Convention on Biodiversity 'At long last, the predominant role of women in the management of plant genetic resources has begun to be scientifically documented in this highly important book. While men were occupied by hunting and defending their territories, women were most likely domesticating many of the world' s crops. Recognition that they hold much of the related knowledge and skills today is clearly overdue. But recognition is not enough-Farmer' s Rights as per Article 9 of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture must be assured now and for the future, if we are to give farmers-both women and men-incentives to continue to be the developers and custodians of the world' s genetic resources. All those with responsibilities for promoting the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources should certainly read this book.' Professor Jose Esquinas Alcazar, Secretary of the Commission on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, Food and Agriculture Organization, and Father of 'Farmers' Rights' 'Wonderfully rich in evidence, persuasive in its argument, and wide-ranging in coverage, this timely edited volume on the gendered nature of knowledge about biodiversity enriches both scholarship and policy. It points to the critical need not only of recognizing the specificity of womens knowledge about plant species, but of strengthening their conservation efforts and bringing their interests to bear in arrangements for biodiversity development and benefit sharing.'
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Mangroves in Malaysia reside coastlines and the largest areas of mangrove are in the Northern Sabah. They sheltered at the shores of the west coast. Over four decades since 1980, mangroves are recorded to be declining due to various causes. Aquaculture practices implemented in the first decade; in Peninsular Malaysia was the key reason of mangrove depleting during the years. Public participation and their awareness are considered as important components in conserving the mangrove areas. Thus, the research was conducted to discover local residents awareness towards the issue of mangrove degradation in Kuala Selangor. A questionnaire survey was employed to a total of 103 respondents in Kuala Selangor. The findings suggest that lack of local residents’ awareness due to several reasons. In this regards, this research is to study the local residents’ awareness on the importance of mangrove areas.
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Building on several decades of development education practice in the UK, the first twelve years of the twenty first century has seen increased interest amongst policy makers in young people’s engagement with issues of international poverty and development. Discourses in this area have tended to characterise young people in UK society as engaging with international development through specific, often campaign-related, activities, motivated by concern. Whilst this can be seen as a positive picture, and may well be the case for many young people, it is argued here that these assumptions are likely to mask a more complex and interesting picture. Drawing on existing literature and anecdotal evidence, this report points towards a more nuanced understanding of young people’s learning about and engagement with development. It adopts broad understandings of international development, and the relationship between learning and action. At the same time, the report acknowledges the dominant perspectives that exist on these issues in development education policy and practice, in particular an over-emphasis on engagement as participation and action which can mask the importance of the learning processes and the complex relationships between learning and behaviour. Globalisation and its flows of media, technology, ethnicities and ideologies mean that young people are exposed to a range of opportunities to learn about development issues beyond those provided by specific educational interventions. A range of contexts for the ‘where’ or learning about international development are explored, including the media and personal connections to people and places in developing countries and to individuals already engaged with the issues, as well as formal and informal education, including youth work. The notion of the individual learner is understood as crucial in learning theory but has received limited attention in the context of young people’s global learning. What is known about the ‘who’ of learning about international development is explored, including the influence of factors relating to young people’s identity and experiences (such as gender, age and socio-economic status) and to their motivation. For some, this may be based on ‘being concerned’ or ‘caring about others’ but for others it may be due to personal relationships, experiences and interests. The report aims to stimulate debate and discussion on young people’s engagement with issues of development and to suggest the need for more openended research which explores how, when and why young people engage with such issues. Many young people in the UK are clearly engaging with and learning about international development and poverty. Organisations and education systems seeking to facilitate this perhaps need to give greater consideration to young people’s experiences and motivations and to look beyond assumptions about the processes and outcomes of learning and engagement.
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