ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

Historically, dreadlocks originated with Indian sages and yogis. Possessing nothing, renouncing the world and possessions, they eschewed even personal grooming, hence the inevitable dreadlocks (Andrew, 2006). However, the term dreadlock is of Jamaican origin and was used to refer to the “Rasta” men who were feared and" dreaded (Suzanne, 2008). Famous biblical figures like Samson and John the Baptist had dreadlocked hair and were revered. In Yoruba parlance, the word" dada" is used to describe dreadlocks and it has …
Seediscussions,stats,andauthorprofilesforthispublicationat:https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324418118
NDUDEC5235-41
Article·April2018
CITATIONS
0
READ
1
3authors:
Someoftheauthorsofthispublicationarealsoworkingontheserelatedprojects:
ChildhoodDreadlock(DadaHair):PerceptionandHealthcareseekingBehaviorofCaregiversina
DevelopingCountry.Viewproject
DelaysinhealthcaredeliveryViewproject
ChidiebereDIOsuorah
SK
46PUBLICATIONS164CITATIONS
SEEPROFILE
IkennaKingsleyNdu
Enugustateuniversityteachinghospital
44PUBLICATIONS91CITATIONS
SEEPROFILE
UchennaEkwochi
EnuguStateUniversityofScienceandTechn…
35PUBLICATIONS139CITATIONS
SEEPROFILE
AllcontentfollowingthispagewasuploadedbyChidiebereDIOsuorahon10April2018.
Theuserhasrequestedenhancementofthedownloadedfile.
INTRODUCTION
Historically, dreadlocks originated with
Indian sages and yogis. Possessing nothing,
renouncing the world and possessions, they
eschewed even personal grooming, hence the
inevitable dreadlocks (Andrew, 2006).
However, the term dreadlock is of Jamaican
origin and was used to refer to the “Rasta” men
who were feared and "dreaded (Suzanne, 2008).
Famous biblical figures like Samson and John
the Baptist had dreadlocked hair and were
revered. In Yoruba parlance, the word "dada" is
used to describe dreadlocks and it has entered the
widely spoken Nigerian English (Suzanne
2008). Since most children in Nigerian culture,
wear their hair in its natural state, if it looks like
dreads or “dada” it is assumed that the child is a
naturally born “dada” as distinct from adults
where it may be a style done by choice (Suzanne,
2008).
The form, curvature and pigmentation of
natural hair are determined by genetics and are
controlled by single nucleotide polymorphisms
(SNPs). These give rise to the three primary hair
forms -African, Asian, and Caucasian (Clarence,
2012). Unlike the others, African hair texture is
coarse and curvature ranges from wavy to wooly
or wiry (Clarence, 2012; Deborah et al. 2006).
Tangles, knots and matted locks will eventually
form in all textures of hair if it is not styled or
combed. However, people with African ancestry
due to their tight, kinky hair tend to form
dreadlocks more easily (Sailor, 2015).
There are basically two different two
ways to develop deadlocks, the chemical method
and the neglect method (Sailor, 2015). The
chemical method involves the use of various
CHILDHOOD DREADLOCKS (DADA HAIR):
PERCEPTION AND HEALTHCARE SEEKING
BEHAVIOUR OF CARE-GIVERS IN
A DEVELOPING COUNTRY.
ABSTRACT
Keywords
The word "dada" is used to describe dreadlocks. Several cultural beliefs and practices are associated
with concept of the “dada” child and this influence the health care seeking behaviour of caregivers. To
determine the perception of caregivers about childhood dreadlocks (Dada hair) and its effect on the
health care seeking behaviour of care givers in Enugu South-East Nigeria. A cross sectional study
involving care-givers seen at the two tertiary health institutions in Enugu State, South Eastern Nigeria.
Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to obtain data from the study participants. There
were 273 respondents, 90.1% of whom were females and 40% were of low socioeconomic status (SES).
One hundred and twenty three (45%) participants believed in the concept of childhood dreadlock but
only 27 (9.9%) reported previously or currently having a child with dreadlocks. Thirteen percent were
of the view that under no circumstances should dreadlocked hair be washed or combed while 20%
opined that a special ritual should be performed by a religious representative before cutting or shaving
the dreadlocked hair. Fourteen percent of the caregivers believed that illness in a child with dreadlocks
was of supernatural origin and would not respond to treatment with conventional medicine. For
respondents that accept the use of conventional healthcare medicine during ill health of a dada child,
twenty nine (11%) would refuse any medical interventions that would involve shaving the hair for
venous access or neurosurgical procedures until the necessary ceremony had been performed. Only
mother's level of education was significantly associated with belief in the concept of the “dada” child.
There is need for appropriate enlightenment of parents and care givers especially in the lower
educational group about the importance of seeking healthcare and other necessary preventive strategies
for the dada child while still respecting their cultural belief in the concept of childhood dreadlocks.
: Dada, Dreadlocks, Children, Caregiver, Healthcare, Africa
Journal of Experimental Research
December 2017, Vol 5 No 2
Email: e
www.er-journal.com
editor-in-chi f@er-journal.com
Received: May, 2017
Accepted for Publication: August, 2017
Ndu IK , Ayuk AC , Osuorah DIC , Ubesie A. Ekwochi U ,
Chinawa JM , Asinobi IN , Amadi OF , Okeke I , Obu HA
12 3 2 1
2 1 1 1 2
1
2
3
Department of Paediatrics Enugu State University Teaching Hospital
Department of Paediatrics University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital
Child Survival Unit, Medical Research Council UK
An Official Publication of Enugu State University of Science & Technology ISSN: (Print) 2315-9650 ISSN: (Online) 2502-0524
This work is licenced to the publisher under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
35
combinations of shampoo, special hair
wax, backcombing, twisting the hair, braiding or
perming. The neglect method as the name
implies is to simply neglect the hair which will
naturally become matted and knot up into
dreadlocks over time. Neglect may occur in
children because combing such hair without
adequate lubrication is a very painful
experience. Such pains may trigger breath
holding spells or other bizarre temper tantrums
and this may have led to the belief that such
children may develop somatic symptoms like
fever, headaches, diarrheal disease etc if their
dreadlocked hair is touched or tampered with in
any way.
These wrong associations may influence
the perception of the cause of any illness in the
child with dreadlocks and thus the health seeking
behaviour of the caregivers (Macknin, 2000).
Similar cultural beliefs have been previously
identified as a cause of delay for parents to
access medical care for their children (Chibwana
et al. 2009; Dillip et al. 2012). Therefore
understanding the impediments to optimal
health-seeking behaviour could greatly
contribute to reducing the impact of severe
illness on children's growth and development
(Abubakar et al. 2013).
This study thus set out to determine the
perception of caregivers about childhood
dreadlocks and its effect on the health care
seeking behavior of care givers in Enugu South-
East Nigeria. The findings of the study will help
direct policy formulation and promote public
enlightenment programs targeted at harmful
practices associated with 'dada hair'.
This cross sectional study was conducted
in two tertiary institutions in Enugu State, South
Eastern Nigeria: Enugu State University
Teaching Hospital (ESUTH) and the University
MATERIAL AND METHOD
of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH)
Ituku/Ozalla Enugu. The participants were
caregivers who attended the outpatient clinics of
the Paediatric and Obstetric Departments in the
respective tertiary hospitals.
The sites: Enugu State University
Teaching Hospital (ESUTH) and the University
of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH)
Ituku/Ozalla Enugu are the major public
hospitals serving inhabitants of Enugu
metropolis and thus attend to a wide variety of
patients from all socio-economic classes.
Caregivers provided written informed consents
before recruitment and ethical approval was
obtained from the Ethics and Research
Committee of the ESUTH, Enugu.
Data on demographic and clinical
characteristics including age, gender, place of
domicile and relationship of child to caregiver
were obtained using interviewer administered
questionnaires. Other information obtained
were religion, tribe, perception of caregivers on
childhood dreadlocks and impacts on health
seeking behaviors. All participants were
grouped according to socioeconomic status of
parents as those from high, middle, and low
socio-economic class (Oyedeji, 1985).
Data was analyzed using Statistical
Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19
(Chicago IL). Chi-square statistical test and
student t test was used for categorical and
continuous variables respectively. All reported
p-values were two sided.
There were 273 respondents aged
between 16 and 63 years. Two hundred and
forty-six (90.1%) of the respondents were
females. Caregivers between the ages of 26 to 35
years made up about half of the study population.
Of the caregivers surveyed, one hundred and ten
(40%) were of low SEC with approximately
30% each from middle and high SEC
respectively. The detailed socio-demographic
characteristics of the study participants are
shown in Table 1.
RESULTS
Characteristics of study participants
Ndu IK etal :- Perception of childhood dreadlocks in a Developing Country
An Official Publication of Enugu State University of Science & Technology ISSN: (Print) 2315-9650 ISSN: (Online) 2502-0524
This work is licenced to the publisher under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
36
Table 1: The socio-demographic characteristics of the study participants
General perception of dreadlocks
Table 2 shows the general perception of
respondents about “dada”. Twenty-seven
participants (9.9%) reported that they had
children with dreadlocks. Two hundred and fifty-
nine (94.9%) caregivers had heard of “childhood
dreadlocks” and 45% believed in it practice. A
total of ninety four respondents (34.4%) thought
dreadlocks were genetically inherited while
sixty three (23%) considered them to be different
from other “normal “children. Specifically,
twenty six (41.3%) of respondent were of the
opinion that they were prone to frequent
childhood illnesses or convulsions, ten (16%)
believed they had spiritual powers, while nine
(14%) said they had a tendency to be more
“stubborn” than other children. There were
thirty six (13.2%) who believed that the child
with dreadlocks was still being stigmatized in
the society.
Ndu IK etal :- Perception of childhood dreadlocks in a Developing Country
An Official Publication of Enugu State University of Science & Technology ISSN: (Print) 2315-9650 ISSN: (Online) 2502-0524
This work is licenced to the publisher under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
37
Table 3: Association between demographic variables and belief in concept of dada
DISCUSSION
We believe this is the first
institutionalized study of the perception and
healthcare seeking behaviour of care-givers in a
developing country concerning children with
dreadlocked hair. The erroneous perception of
the cause of the illness in the child with
dreadlocks has been identified as a cause of
delay for parents to access medical care for their
children (Sailor, 2015). This wrong belief was
further corroborated by our study which showed
that majority of care givers would not seek
medical help for their children with dreadlock
when they fall ill. This may contribute to the
unacceptably high child morbidity and mortality
rates in our setting. While it is necessary to
respect the cultural context and belief of
individuals and communities in many
developing countries, it is also important to
educate them about the wrong assumptions in
some of these cultural beliefs. This we believe
will improve the health seeking behaviour of
caregivers and encourage the use of preventive
health strategies such as immunization.
The belief that illnesses in children with
dreadlocks are caused by supernatural forces
and need supernatural cures is also a cause for
concern. This belief is related to the
phenomenon of recurrent reincarnation called
“Ogbanje” and “Abiku”' in the Igbo and Yoruba
cultures respectively (Nzewi, 2001). These
children are believed to be possessed by evil
spirits and undergo repeated physical and
psychological trauma in the search for a cure.
Some of these children may end up uneducated,
chronically abused and abandoned becoming
children on the street and children of the street
that grow up to become miscreants and
Ndu IK etal :- Perception of childhood dreadlocks in a Developing Country
An Official Publication of Enugu State University of Science & Technology ISSN: (Print) 2315-9650 ISSN: (Online) 2502-0524
This work is licenced to the publisher under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
39
psychotic adults (WHO, 1995). It therefore
underscores the need for continued advocacy
and joint effort by traditional, religious, health
and political leaders to come together to correct
these misconceptions.
The need for public enlightenment and
one-on-one health education in preventing
harmful child practice especially in Africa
cannot be over-emphasized. Our study
demonstrated that a very low proportion of
respondents (less than 1 in 10) obtained
information on childhood dreadlock from health
personnel compared to 1 in 2 that got the same
information from relatives and friends. This
raises serious questions about the amount of time
spent by physicians and other health
professionals on educating patients and care-
givers during consultation. It is fair to
hypothesize that incorporating extensive health
education on a variety of cultural issues that
affects the health and well-being of a child
during antenatal clinics, well child visits and
other physician-patient contacts would go a long
way to re-educate and inform care-givers on
common misconceptions.
Finally, maternal educational level was
seen in this study to be significantly associated
with belief in the concept of dreadlocks. It was
noted that mothers with lower educational
attainment were more likely to believe in the
concept of dreadlock and its associated harmful
practices. This is hardly surprising because
mothers with higher education are more likely to
be better informed about many cultural and
mythical beliefs. They are also more likely to be
aware of the overwhelming benefits of seeking
prompt healthcare intervention for their sick
child irrespective of the cultural beliefs and
practices prevalent in the community. This is
why maternal education has been long
recognized as one of the child survival strategies
adopted by the United Nations Children's Fund
in its GOBIFF strategy (UNICEF, 1996). This
therefore stresses the need for improved quality
of care delivered by the primary health centers so
they can reach out to educationally
disadvantaged mothers who reside in the
villages
.
There is high awareness and belief in the
practice of belief in the concept of dreadlock in
CONCLUSION
children in the study setting. This belief delays
proper healthcare seeking for these children.
There is need for appropriate enlightenment of
parents and care givers especially in the lower
educational group about the importance of
seeking healthcare and other necessary
preventive strategies for the dada child in spite of
their cultural belief in the concept of childhood
dreadlocks.
We thank all the respondents that agreed
to participate in this study. We are also grateful to
the junior resident doctors for their help in data
collection and entire management of ESUTH
and UNTH for their kind permission to carry out
this study in various sections of their respective
hospitals.
Acknowledgement
REFERENCES
Abubakar A, Van Baar A, Fischer R, Bomu G, Gona JK,
Newton CR. (2003). Socio-Cultural
Determinants of Health-Seeking Behaviour on
the Kenyan Coast: A Qualitative Study. PLoS
ONE. 8:719-98
Andrew HT. (2006). The history of dreadlocks. Article
published on Dreadlock.org. Available from:
Accessed November 3, 2015.
Chibwana AI, Mathanga DP, Chinkhumba J, Campbell
CH. (2009). Socio-cultural predictors of health-
seeking behaviour for febrile under-five children
in Mwanza-Neno district, Malawi. Malaria
Journal. 8: 219.
Robbins CR. (2012). “Chemical and physical behavior of
human hair,” in Genetic Control/Involvement in
Hair Fiber Traits. Springer, Berlin, Germany, 5th
edition chapter 3; 177–203.
Deborah RL. Wavy, Curly, Kinky (2006). The African
American Child's Hair Care Guide. John Wiley &
Sons publishers, Pg 1-5.
Dillip A, Alba S, Mshana C, Hetzel MW, Lengeler C,
Mayumana I,Schulze A, Mshinda H, Mitchell G
Weiss GM, Obrist B. (2012). Acceptability – a
neglected dimension of access to health care:
findings from a study on childhood convulsions
in rural Tanzania. BMC Health Serv. Res 12; 112-
3.
Macknin ML, Piedmonte M, Jacobs J, Skibinski C.
(2000). Symptoms associated with infant
teething: a prospective study. Pediatrics.
105:747-52.
http://www.dreadlocks.org/the-history-of-
dreadlocks/
Ndu et al :- Perception of childhood dreadlocks in a Developing Country
An Official Publication of Enugu State University of Science & Technology ISSN: (Print) 2315-9650 ISSN: (Online) 2502-0524
This work is licenced to the publisher under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
40
Nzewi E. (2001). Malevolent Ogbanje. Recurrent
reincarnation or sickle cell disease? Soc. Sci
Med. 52:1403–1416.
Oyedeji GA. (1985). Socioeconomic and cultural
background of hospitalized children in Ilesha.
Niger J Paediatr. 12: 111-117.
Sailor M. (2015). How Dreadlocks Work. Article on
Culture Magazine. Available from:
. Accessed November 4, 2015.
Kemmer S. (2005). Dada or Dreds The Rice University
Neologisms Database 2008. Available from:
http://people.howstuffworks.com/dreadlock2.ht
m
http://neologisms.rice.edu/index.php?a=term&d=1&t=2
896
https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/19
871849394
https://www.unodc.org/pdf/youthnet/who_street
_children_introduction.pdf
.Accessed November 3, 2015.
United Nations Children's Fund. Rehydration Project
(1996). UNICEF's GOBI-FFF Program.
Available from
. Accessed November 8, 2015.
World Health Organisation (1985). Working with street
children. WHO/MSD/MDP/00.14.
. Accessed
November 8, 2015
Ndu et al :- Perception of childhood dreadlocks in a Developing Country
An Official Publication of Enugu State University of Science & Technology ISSN: (Print) 2315-9650 ISSN: (Online) 2502-0524
This work is licenced to the publisher under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
41
View publication statsView publication stats
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Severe childhood illnesses present a major public health challenge for Africa, which is aggravated by a suboptimal response to the child's health problems with reference to the health-seeking behaviour of the parents or guardians. We examined the health-seeking behaviour of parents at the Kenyan coast because understanding impediments to optimal health-seeking behaviour could greatly contribute to reducing the impact of severe illness on children's growth and development. Health-seeking behaviour, and the factors influencing this behaviour, were examined in two traditional communities. We held in-depth interviews with 53 mothers, fathers and caregivers from two rural clinics at the Kenyan Coast. Biomedical medicine (from health facilities and purchased over the counter) was found to be the most popular first point of treatment. However, traditional healing still plays a salient role in the health care within these two communities. Traditional healers were consulted for various reasons: a) attribution of causation of ill-health to supernatural sources, b) chronic illness (inability of modern medicine to cure the problem) and c) as prevention against possible ill-health. In developing an explanatory model of decision-making, we observed that this was a complex process involving consultation at various levels, with elders, but also between both parents, depending on the perceived nature and chronicity of the illness. However, it was reported that fathers were the ultimate decision makers in relation to decisions concerning where the child would be taken for treatment. Health systems need to see traditional healing as a complementary system in order to ensure adequate access to health care. Importantly, fathers also need to be addressed in intervention and education programs.
Article
Full-text available
Acceptability is a poorly conceptualized dimension of access to health care. Using a study on childhood convulsion in rural Tanzania, we examined social acceptability from a user perspective. The study design is based on the premise that a match between health providers' and clients' understanding of disease is an important dimension of social acceptability, especially in trans-cultural communication, for example if childhood convulsions are not linked with malaria and local treatment practices are mostly preferred. The study was linked to health interventions with the objective of bridging the gap between local and biomedical understanding of convulsions. The study combined classical ethnography with the cultural epidemiology approach using EMIC (Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue) tool. EMIC interviews were conducted in a 2007/08 convulsion study (n = 88) and results were compared with those of an earlier 2004/06 convulsion study (n = 135). Earlier studies on convulsion in the area were also examined to explore longer-term changes in treatment practices. The match between local and biomedical understanding of convulsions was already high in the 2004/06 study. Specific improvements were noted in form of (1) 46% point increase among those who reported use of mosquito nets to prevent convulsion (2) 13% point decrease among caregivers who associated convulsion with 'evil eye and sorcery', 3) 14% point increase in prompt use of health facility and 4)16% point decrease among those who did not use health facility at all. Such changes can be partly attributed to interventions which explicitly aimed at increasing the match between local and biomedical understanding of malaria. Caregivers, mostly mothers, did not seek advice on where to take an ill child. This indicates that treatment at health facility has become socially acceptable for severe febrile with convulsion. As an important dimension of access to health care 'social acceptability' seems relevant in studying illnesses that are perceived not to belong to the biomedical field, specifically in trans-cultural societies. Understanding the match between local and biomedical understanding of disease is fundamental to ensure acceptability of health care services, successful control and management of health problems. Our study noted some positive changes in community knowledge and management of convulsion episodes, changes which might be accredited to extensive health education campaigns in the study area. On the other hand it is difficult to make inference out of the findings as a result of small sample size involved. In return, it is clear that well ingrained traditional beliefs can be modified with communication campaigns, provided that this change resonates with the beneficiaries.
Article
Full-text available
Prompt access to effective treatment for malaria is unacceptably low in Malawi. Less than 20% of children under the age of five with fever receive appropriate anti-malarial treatment within 24 hours of fever onset. This study assessed socio-cultural factors associated with delayed treatment of children with fever in Mwanza district, Malawi. It was a qualitative study using focus group discussions and key informant interviews. A total of 151 caregivers and 46 health workers participated in the focus group discussions. The majority of caregivers were able to recognize fever and link it to malaria. Despite high knowledge of malaria, prompt treatment and health-seeking behaviour were poor, with the majority of children first being managed at home with treatment regimens other than effective anti-malarials. Traditional beliefs about causes of fever, unavailability of anti-malarial drugs within the community, barriers to accessing the formal health care system, and trust in traditional medicine were all associated with delays in seeking appropriate treatment for fever. The study has demonstrated important social cultural factors that negatively influence for caregivers of children under five. To facilitate prompt and appropriate health-seeking behaviour, behavioral change messages must address the prevailing local beliefs about causes of fever and the socio-economic barriers to accessing health care.
Chapter
Shampoos and hair conditioners function primarily at or near the fiber surface. The primary function of shampoos is to remove soils or dirt from the hair surface, however, hair soils are highly varied from oily to particulate and the mechanisms for removal of these different soils also differ. Secondary functions of shampoos are also varied from conditioning the hair to dandruff control. With increasing damage to hair whether by chemical or photochemical reactions or even by abrasion, the hair surface becomes more hydrophilic and more acidic or anionic in character thus changing the affinity for different ingredients. Shampoos are often perceived as products that do not damage the hair; however damage can occur from some shampoos and such damage is described in detail. Different types of tests from laboratory to half head to tests on consumers are employed to evaluate the functionality of shampoos. These tests are described in detail with contrasts and some useful conclusions and insights. The sorption of shampoo and conditioning ingredients to hair including theories of sorption and diffusion are described in detail. Dandruff including scalp flaking, and skin irritation by surfactants is described in the last part of this chapter.
Article
Studies of infant teething have been retrospective, small, or conducted on institutionalized infants. To conduct a large, prospective study of healthy infants to determine which symptoms may be attributed to teething and to attempt to predict tooth emergence from an infant's symptoms. Prospective cohort. Setting. Clinic-based pediatric group practice. One hundred twenty-five consecutive well children of consenting Cleveland Clinic employees. Parents daily recorded 2 tympanic temperatures, presence or absence of 18 symptoms, and all tooth eruptions in their infants, from the 4-month well-child visit until the child turned 1 year old. Daily symptom data were available for 19 422 child-days and 475 tooth eruptions. Symptoms were only significantly more frequent in the 4 days before a tooth emergence, the day of the emergence, and 3 days after it, so this 8-day window was defined as the teething period. Increased biting, drooling, gum-rubbing, sucking, irritability, wakefulness, ear-rubbing, facial rash, decreased appetite for solid foods, and mild temperature elevation were all statistically associated with teething. Congestion, sleep disturbance, stool looseness, increased stool number, decreased appetite for liquids, cough, rashes other than facial rashes, fever over 102 degrees F, and vomiting were not significantly associated with tooth emergence. Although many symptoms were associated with teething, no symptom occurred in >35% of teething infants, and no symptom occurred >20% more often in teething than in nonteething infants. No teething child had a fever of 104 degrees F and none had a life-threatening illness. Many mild symptoms previously thought to be associated with teething were found in this study to be temporally associated with teething. However, no symptom cluster could reliably predict the imminent emergence of a tooth. Before caregivers attribute any infants' signs or symptoms of a potentially serious illness to teething, other possible causes must be ruled out.teething, tooth eruption, teeth, deciduous dentition.
Article
The Igbo of Nigeria believe that everyone is ogbanje (reincarnates) but malevolent ogbanje differ from others in being revenge-driven, chronically ill and engaging in repeated cycles of birth, death and reincarnation. This study examined culturally defined symptoms of 100 children classified as malevolent ogbanje; and investigated their family history and child mortality experience. There was concordance between cultural descriptions of malevolent ogbanje and symptoms as manifested in sickle cell patients. Hemoglobin analysis showed that 70 of the 100 children had sickle cell disease (SCD); while 68 families had death-related names. The symptoms associated with Igbo cases of reincarnation, high child mortality rates, and the high prevalence of sickle cell disease among children classified as malevolent ogbanje all support the conclusion that the symptomatology and early mortality experience are related to sickle cell. Names with themes of death were prevalent in families of children described as malevolent ogbanje. The findings are discussed with reference to cultural resistance to SCD as an explanation for malevolent ogbanje and the implications for the health care of children with SCD in Nigeria.
The history of dreadlocks
  • H T Andrew
Andrew HT. (2006). The history of dreadlocks. Article published on Dreadlock.org. Available from: Accessed November 3, 2015.
The African American Child's Hair Care Guide
  • Deborah Rl Wavy
Deborah RL. Wavy, Curly, Kinky (2006). The African American Child's Hair Care Guide. John Wiley & Sons publishers, Pg 1-5.
-Perception of childhood dreadlocks in a Developing Country
  • Ndu
Ndu et al :-Perception of childhood dreadlocks in a Developing Country