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The study investigates collaborative learning of small groups via text-based computer-mediated communication. We analyzed how two approaches to pre-structure communication influence participation, individual knowledge transfer, the convergence of participation and the convergence of knowledge among peers. We varied the factor scripted cooperation and the factor scaffolding in a 2x2-design. 105 university students of Educational Psychology participated. Results show that scripted cooperation was most and scaffolding least beneficial to individual transfer, knowledge convergence and participation in comparison to open discourse.
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... The model foresees competence-oriented activities, defined by scripts that are not content-dependent, where learning circumstances are immerse into a story. The model, called DIST (Digital Interactive Storytelling) is based on a network of theories, from a social-constructivism and Vygotskian vision of learning, first socialized and then internalized (Vygotsky 1980), to the most specific current of the discursive approach to mathematics learning, where mathematics thinking is conceptualized as a form of communication and learning is seen as a change in speech (Sfard 2001). The foreseen activities concern, on the one hand, to the context of collaborative learning (King 2007;Weinberger et al. 2009) and, on the other hand, to the use of storytelling as an effective means for the integration narrative and paradigmatic thinking (Lambert 2002;Ohler 2008;Albano and Pierri 2017;Zan 2011;Zazkis and Liljedahl 2009). ...
... The GIFT can be used within computer-based collaborative scripts (Weinberger et al. 2002(Weinberger et al. , 2007 in order to apt to individual and group characteristics to improve the collaborative learning experience (Demetriadis and Karakostas 2008). The DIST, therefore, thanks to the characteristics of the GIFT, adapts to the behavior of the student and, in this sense, it behaves like an Ambient Intelligence (Gaeta et al. 2013). ...
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This work concerns the definition of applications, called GIFT (GeoGebra Interactive Formative Test), realized with GeoGebra and integrated into an e-learning platform, allowing the implementation of manipulative and linguistic tasks. The innovative nature of GIFT consists in keeping track of student manipulations on the platform and use that information to design accurately personalized learning paths. One of these applications allows the construction of sentences and their automatic assessment. Thus it allows to pose open questions whose answers can be constructed by the application, being a new resource between closed-ended questions, which have well-known didactic limits, and open-ended questions, which pose the problem of automatic assessment. In addition, it can be used to improve the use of literate registers by manipulating digital tiles that are appropriately chosen, constructed and made available. Finally, they can be integrated into tasks aimed at constructing argumentative competency of students. We present preliminary results on an experimentation of GIFT in a case study engaging 10 degree High School students.
... Research has shown that implicit and explicit dialogue structuring showed greater orientation on the subject matter (Hron et al., 2000). Weinberger et al. (2002) also reported that scripted cooperation was beneficial for individual transfer, knowledge convergence, and participation in small groups. ...
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An important subdomain in research on Human-Artificial Intelligence interaction is Explainable AI (XAI). XAI aims to improve human understanding and trust in machine intelligence and automation by providing users with visualizations and other information explaining the AI’s decisions, actions, or plans and thereby to establish justified trust and reliance. XAI systems have primarily used algorithmic approaches designed to generate explanations automatically that help understanding underlying information about decisions and establish justified trust and reliance, but an alternate that may augment these systems is to take advantage of the fact that user understanding of AI systems often develops through self-explanation (Mueller et al., 2021). Users attempt to piece together different sources of information and develop a clearer understanding, but these self-explanations are often lost if not shared with others. This thesis research demonstrated how this ‘Self-Explanation’ could be shared collaboratively via a system that is called collaborative XAI (CXAI). It is akin to a Social Q&A platform (Oh, 2018) such as StackExchange. A web-based system was built and evaluated formatively and via user studies. Formative evaluation will show how explanations in an XAI system, especially collaborative explanations, can be assessed based on ‘goodness criteria’ (Mueller et al., 2019). This thesis also investigated how the users performed with the explanations from this type of XAI system. Lastly, the research investigated whether the users of CXAI system are satisfied with the human-generated explanations generated in the system and check if the users can trust this type of explanation.
... Although research has already shown that several types of collaborative learning activities foster learning, these activities rarely occur in collaborative processes without any structuring of the interaction [37,39,40]. Different terms are used in educational literature for structuring interactions such as prompting thinking, scaffolding learning or guiding cognitive performance, to name but a few. ...
... Although research has already shown that several types of collaborative learning activities foster learning, these activities rarely occur in collaborative processes without any structuring of the interaction [37,39,40]. Different terms are used in educational literature for structuring interactions such as prompting thinking, scaffolding learning or guiding cognitive performance, to name but a few. ...
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Background The inverted classroom approach is characterized by a primary self-study phase for students followed by an on-site, face-to-face teaching phase that is used to deepen the prior acquired knowledge. Obviously, this teaching approach relies on the students preparing before the on-site phase, which in turn requires optimized preparatory material as well as defined working instructions. The major aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate the effect of different preparatory materials and working instructions for the self-study phase of an e-learning-based inverted classroom on the knowledge gained by medical students in biochemistry. Furthermore, we analyzed whether collaborative dyadic learning during the self-study phase is more effective than individual learning with respect to knowledge gain. Methods The study was performed in a biochemistry seminar for second semester medical students at Ulm University in Germany. This seminar was held using an e-learning-based inverted classroom. A total of 196 students were divided into three homogeneous study groups that differed in terms of the working material and instructions provided for the self-study phase. Knowledge gain was measured by formative tests at the beginning of the on-site phases. Questionnaires were also handed out asking about motivation, interest and learning time in the self-study phases. Results Students who were told to prepare in collaborating dyads during the self-study phase performed better in formative tests taken at the beginning of on-site phases than learners who were told to prepare individually. The study material that was provided was of minor importance for the differences in formative testing since almost all students prepared for the on-site phases. With the dyadic learning approach, both students benefited from this collaboration, characterized by a higher motivation and interest in the topic, as well as a longer time spent on task. Conclusion Our study provides strong evidence that the study material, but more importantly the instructions provided for the self-study phase, affect students` knowledge gain in an e-learning-based inverted classroom. The instructed collaboratively working group was the most successful. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12909-019-1497-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... It also becomes clear from this research that the sequence of stages is not necessarily monotonic or linear. On the basis of the consideration that collaboration is a developing, unfolding process, some researchers have discussed the implementation of scripts that direct the collaboration by proposing a particular sequence of common activities (Dillenbourg, 2002;Weinberger, Fischer & Mandl, 2002). Puntambekar (2006) also aimed to understand how participants move from divergent perspectives to collaborative knowledge construction. ...
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When learners collaborate with each other in order to elaborate on a particular subject, this collaboration may be influenced by the differing perspectives the learners have on the topic. There has been very little research to date on how differing perspectives have an impact in collaboration situations in which people are supposed to form a shared opinion on a particular topic. In this study, we analyzed which stages people’s activities pass through on their way to reaching shared opinions in a collaborative writing task. We examined how dyads of secondary school students, who in a previous instructional session had dealt with differing theoretical approaches to media effects, collaborated in writing a shared text about the topic of media violence. Quantitative analysis indicated that the participants engaged in different activities at different stages of the collaboration processes: In the early stages they were predominantly engaged in introducing the knowledge that they had acquired in the previous lesson. This activity was replaced in the middle stage of the collaboration by restructuring activities. Forming and phrasing shared opinions hardly occurred until very late in the collaboration but played the leading role in the final stage. We applied a qualitative content analysis to illustrate these different activities by presenting examples of the collaboratively written texts. In doing so, we discuss the distinct activities as well as their character and functionalities for collaboration.
... Based on this 'socio-relational' role, the Stepladder technique may offer teachers a useful structured method to help students conduct their group discussions, inviting them to explain their ideas and solutions in turn. This type of guidance is consistent with a number of studies investigating how collaborative learning can be fostered by using 'collaboration scripts' to structure social interaction among students (e.g., Kobbe et al., 2007;Weinberger et al., 2002). To our knowledge, none of these studies have mentioned the Stepladder technique as a useful and scripted method for improving the efficacy of Peer Instruction in the fundamental sciences. ...
... A decade later, the socio-individual pendulum somehow bounced back to the middle as research revealed that, to be effective, collaborative learning requires some level of structuring, i.e. the definition of individual roles within team activities. Instead of engaging in free collaboration, CSCL designers ask teams to follow what is referred to as a collaboration script (Weinberger et al. 2002;Dillenbourg and Hong 2008). Learners have a personal brain, a personal motivation, some 'agency' that drives collaboration, as stated by Schwartz (1995). ...
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How does AI&EdAIED today compare to 25 years ago? This paper addresses this evolution by identifying six trends. The trends are ongoing and will influence learning technologies going forward. First, the physicality of interactions and the physical space of the learner became genuine components of digital education. The frontier between the digital and the physical has faded out. Similarly, the opposition between individual and social views on cognition has been subsumed by integrated learning scenarios, which means that AIED pays more attention today to social interactions than it did at its outset. Another trend is the processing of learners’ behavioural particles, which do not carry very many semantics when considered individually, but are predictive of knowledge states when large data sets are processed with machine learning methods. The development of probabilistic models and the integration of crowdsourcing methods has produced another trend: the design of learning environments has become less deterministic than before. The notion of learning environment evolved from a rather closed box to an open ecosystem in which multiple components are distributed over multiple platforms and where multiple stakeholders interact. Among these stakeholders, it is important to notice that teachers play a more important role than before: they interact not only at the design phase (authoring) but also in the runtime phase (orchestration). These trends are not specific to AIED; they depict the evolution of learning technologies as a whole.
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Informal risk management is widely practiced as it can be more agile and flexible compared to formal methods. There are abundant research studies covering areas such as technical and social aspects of informal risk management. Often a holistic approach is advocated integrating inputs coming from informal networks to consider, inter alia, social, cultural and emotional factors. These studies, though, fail to explore the motivation and do not account for the role of mutual benefit. Using ethnographic and interview data, we tackle the issue of how decision makers consider the interests of all relevant stakeholders, the role mutual benefit plays in informal risk management and the impact of the formal structure on informal risk management. The findings show that mutual benefit is an essential pillar for informal risk management by both stimulating the required response and balancing interests. Also, the formal structure impacts the informal network through the influence and ranks it confers on members, and by setting consequential limits.
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Scripts are pedagogical methods for triggering productive interactions during computer-supported collaborative learning. SWISH is a pedagogical design model for constructing scripts: it articulates the nature of expected interactions to the nature of task division enforced by the script. This model is applied to mobile learning: different task divisions are supported by a distributed simulation environment, in which the client runs on mobile phones or PDAs. This contribution maps the computational architecture of the learning environment to a model of collaborative learning.
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The majority of existing Learning Management Systems (LMS) support collaborative learning throughunstructured, general purpose collaboration workspaces that provideeducators with semantically poor low-level data about learners’ interactions. Educators in turn, labourto process and interpret this kind of data, and consequently, are not ableto intervene effectively in the collaboration process. To overcome this limitation, we used Learning Activity Management System (LAMS), an activity-based LMS, integrating init some activities to be implemented with Synergo, a collaborative concept mapping specific tool with a structured interface. A case study of using this compound learning environment is presented in this paper.This case study is used to investigate what will be the benefit for educators and learners from such anapproach. In this context we designed a particular collaboration script to also test the hypothesis thatscripts supportthe acquisition of cognitive skills.A pre-test for validity and reliability of the script has been performed in order to understand and experiment with the technical’s aspects of the integration of the two e-learning collaborative systems and to investigate the students’ opinions.
Facilitating the construction of shared knowledge with graphical representation tools in face-to-face and computer-mediated scenarios
  • F Fischer
  • H Mandl