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Literature Review in Creativity, New Technologies and Learning

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Abstract

This paper maps out the different perspectives on creativity, and the teaching and learning of creativity, and brings together latest thinking in this field. It is a rich resource of examples of the way that technology is currently used to support creativity through encouraging learners to make connections, develop ideas, create meaning, collaborate and communicate. It also highlights some of the key questions concerning assessment and creativity.
Literature Review in Creativity,
New Technologies and Learning
REPORT 4:
FUTURELAB SERIES
Avril M. Loveless, School of Education, University of Brighton
AIMS
This review is intended to provide:
1a sound theoretical and empirically
informed basis for prototype
development of digital learning
resources to support the teaching
and learning of creativity
2a sound theoretical and empirically
informed basis for informing policy on
the teaching and learning of creativity
3a basis for communication between the
educational research community and
the commercial sector on the subject of
the teaching and learning of creativity
with ICT.
1
CONTENTS:
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION 6
SECTION 2
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF
CREATIVITY IN EDUCATION? 7
SECTION 3
WHAT ARE THE POTENTIAL
ROLES FOR DIGITAL
TECHNOLOGIES IN
SUPPORTING CREATIVITY? 11
SECTION 4
HOW MIGHT WE TEACH FOR
CREATIVITY WITH DIGITAL
TECHNOLOGIES? 13
SECTION 5
HOW ARE PEOPLE USING
DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES
CREATIVELY? 15
SECTION 6
HOW CAN WE ASSESS
CREATIVITY, LEARNING AND
DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES? 25
SECTION 7
WHAT ARE THE
IMPLICATIONS FOR
PRACTICE, CURRICULUM
AND DESIGN? 27
SECTION 8
WHAT ARE SOME OF
THE BARRIERS? 29
BIBLIOGRAPHY 31
Literature Review in Creativity,
New Technologies and Learning
REPORT 4:
FUTURELAB SERIES
Avril M Loveless, School of Education
University of Brighton
This report has been designed to enable both rapid identification
of the key findings and in-depth exploration of the literature.
The key findings and implications of the report are presented within the
Executive Summary and Implications Sections. The main body of the review enables
readers to explore in more detail the background to these headline issues.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
In recent years people in many sectors
of society have expressed disquiet about
a lack of creativity in the curriculum.
From Telford to Tokyo artists, writers,
performers, teachers, psychologists,
philosophers and representatives of the
cultural and commercial industries have
warned against the consequences of
constraining children and young people’s
creative potential.
What then, might we mean by ‘creativity’?
Creativity can be regarded as not only a
quality found in exceptional individuals, but
also as an essential life skill through which
people can develop their potential to use
their imagination to express themselves,
and make original and valued choices in
their lives. Societies of the 21st century
require active participation in the fast-
changing ‘Knowledge Age’ in which
there is an interaction between people,
communities, creative processes, knowledge
domains and wider social contexts.
What is the role of digital technologies in
these processes? Digital information and
communications technologies (ICT) can be
seen as a set of tools which can be chosen
as and when they are appropriate in the
creative process. In addition, it can be
argued that the characteristics of ICT can
also make a distinctive contribution to
those processes, providing new tools,
media and environments for learning to
be creative and learning through being
creative. Learners and teachers can use
ICT to support imaginative expression,
autonomy and collaboration, fashioning
and making, pursuing purpose, being
original and judging value. ICT can offer
opportunities to be creative in authentic
contexts in ways which have not been as
accessible or immediate without new
technologies. Such accessibility and
flexibility, however, present challenges
to teachers and schools in confronting
present models of resources, timetables,
curriculum and assessment requirements,
which can inhibit learners’ engagement
with creative processes and lead to a
superficial or fragmented focus on
products. Creativity can be promoted and
extended with the use of new technologies
where there is understanding of, and
opportunities for, the variety of creative
processes in which learners can engage.
Key issues to be discussed by those
interested in creativity in education include
the understandings of ‘creativity’; the
features of ICT which enable learners to
be creative; the creative activities which are
already going on and the contexts in which
learners can realise their creative potential.
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF
CREATIVITY IN EDUCATION?
The British Government responded to
the debates about creative and cultural
education to meet the economic,
technological and social challenges of
the 21st century by initiating a range of
projects to enhance learners’ creative
experiences. The potential of digital
technologies to enable new forms of
engagement, access and educational
achievement is recognised in the
development of proposals such as ‘Culture
Online’ - a service offering interactive
access to national arts and cultural
resources through the internet and digital
television. Providing access to culture
through the internet does not, however,
make the experience creative in itself, and
our perceptions of what we might mean
by ‘creativity’ need to be explored.
2
creativity can
be regarded as
an essential
life skill
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Understandings of the nature of creativity
have changed in scope and depth over the
last hundred years. Many have focused on
the characteristics of exceptional
individuals in our culture, from van Eyk to
Van Gogh, Darwin to Dawkins, Telemann to
Thelonius Monk. More recently there has
been an acknowledgement of the creative
potential of all individuals in different
knowledge domains, or subjects not
confined to traditional definitions of the
‘arts’ or ‘sciences’. An ethos which
encourages creativity in different
communities and environments also has
an influence on individuals and groups.
Creativity can now be recognised and
valued at the level of individuals, peer-
groups or the wider society and considered
as an essential element in participating in
and contributing to the life and culture of
society. There have been many attempts to
define ‘creativity’ and useful theoretical
frameworks have been formulated which
describe the interaction between qualities
in people and communities, creative
processes, subject areas and social
contexts. The National Advisory Committee
on Creative and Cultural Education
(NACCCE) draws upon a range of
conceptualisations of creativity and
presents a definition which is a useful
framework for educators - ‘imaginative
activity fashioned so as to produce
outcomes that are both original and of
value’. This definition is helpful in that it
expresses five characteristics of creativity:
using imagination; a fashioning process;
pursuing purpose; being original and
judging value. Creativity in education can
encompass learning to be creative in order
to produce work that has originality and
value to individuals, peers and society, as
well as learning to be creative in order to
support ‘possibility thinking’ in making
choices in everyday life.
WHAT ARE THE POTENTIAL ROLES
OF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES IN
SUPPORTING CREATIVITY?
The use of the term ICT is inadequate to
describe the variety of technologies,
settings and interventions through which
new technologies have an impact on
people’s lives. Digital technologies exhibit
features of provisionality, interactivity,
capacity, range, speed and automatic
functions which enable users to do things
that could not be done as effectively, or at
all, using other tools. People who are ‘ICT
capable’ are certainly able to use a variety
of skills and techniques with particular
technologies. More importantly, they are
also able to understand the reasons why
digital technologies might be appropriate
for particular tasks and situations, make
informed choices in their use, evaluate
their impact and be open to new
developments and possibilities. It is the
interaction between the distinctive features
of ICT and the characteristics of creativity
that opens up new perspectives on the
development of creativity in education.
HOW MIGHT WE TEACH FOR
CREATIVITY WITH DIGITAL
TECHNOLOGIES?
Teaching for creativity with digital
technologies presents challenges in two
areas – the use of ICT to support creativity
in traditional settings such as schools,
and the development of ICT resources
to support innovation in new learning
environments for creative activity and
collaboration. Within the more familiar
settings of schools and classrooms,
models of access to ICT resources
should reflect characteristics of creative
3
understandings
of the nature of
creativity have
changed in scope
and depth over
the last hundred
years
REPORT 4
LITERATURE REVIEW IN CREATIVITY, NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND LEARNING
AVRIL M. LOVELESS, SCHOOL OF EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF BRIGHTON
environments and teaching strategies
which include:
• awareness of the ways in which
creativity is related to knowledge across
the curriculum
• opportunities for exploration and play
with materials, information and ideas;
• opportunities to take risks and make
mistakes in a non-threatening
atmosphere
• opportunities for reflection,
resourcefulness and resilience
• flexibility in time and space for the
different stages of creative activity
• sensitivity to the values of education
which underpin individual and local
interest, commitment, potential and
quality of life
• teaching strategies which acknowledge
‘teaching for creativity’ as well as
‘teaching creatively’.
The designs of new communications
technologies for creative interactions are
presenting challenges to expectations of
traditional classroom settings in terms of
spaces, time, portability, connectivity and
flexibility for individuals and communities.
Learners can engage in a range of
activities, from using interactive
whiteboards and wireless portable
computers, to working together in
virtual spaces to exchange and build
ideas and artefacts.
HOW ARE PEOPLE USING DIGITAL
TECHNOLOGIES CREATIVELY?
Many learners and teachers have
established a wide range of activities to
support approaches to creativity and
exploit the features of digital technologies
in processes such as:
developing ideas: supporting
imaginative conjecture, exploration
and representation of ideas
making connections: supporting,
challenging, informing and developing
ideas by making connections with
information, people, projects and
resources
creating and making: engaging in
making meanings though fashioning
processes of capture, manipulation
and transformation of media
collaboration: working with others
in immediate and dynamic ways to
collaborate on outcomes and
construct shared knowledge
communication and evaluation:
publishing and communicating
outcomes for evaluation and critique
from a range of audiences.
These activities are not always discrete
or sequential and there can be
synchronicity in their expression and
overlap of applications for different
purposes. Examples of such activities
range from using simulations and
adventure games to explore the question
‘what would happen if…?’, to publishing
hypertext stories or constructing avatars
to meet and interact in three-dimensional,
virtual worlds. This wealth of activity
illustrates how children and young
people are able to use ICT to demonstrate
creative characteristics in the interaction
between people and processes in subject
areas which are authentic, relevant
and challenging.
4
the designs
of new
communications
technologies for
creative
interactions are
presenting
challenges to
expectations of
traditional
classroom
settings
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
HOW CAN WE ASSESS CREATIVITY,
LEARNING AND DIGITAL
TECHNOLOGIES?
Attempts to produce methods for the
assessment of creativity have not been
straightforward, and few of the many
instruments and tests devised have been
able to measure the concept adequately.
There are tensions between assessment of
creative activities for different reasons. Do
we want measures of creativity for ‘high
stake standards’, such as statutory tests
and national examinations? Do we want
to be able to assess creativity in order
to give feedback to individuals on their
achievements and ways forward for
progression? Do we want to have means
to recognise and celebrate meaningful and
original personal expression? Assessment
of pupils’ ICT capability is no less
problematic. It is easier to identify whether
pupils can or can’t use particular skills
and techniques than to find correlations
between the use of these techniques and
their attainment in other subjects. It is not
easy to use traditional measures and tests
to identify the indirect effects of the use
of ICT on motivation, attitude, problem-
solving capability, critical thinking and
information handling abilities. Some
teachers and researchers have developed
positive approaches to the complexity
of assessment by using dimensions
along a range of criteria for the use
of technologies to support creative
processes. Many have recognised that
traditions and expertise in assessment
in both art and media education can
inform approaches to peer review,
evaluation and formative assessment,
recognising the unique contributions
of new technologies.
WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS
FOR PRACTICE, CURRICULUM
AND DESIGN?
Thinking about the potential of digital
technologies to promote teaching and
learning for creativity raises a number of
issues for teachers’ work in classrooms
and informal sessions, for teacher
education and for the types of questions
investigated in research. It is important to
realise that there are a number of
frameworks for describing and supporting
our shared understanding of creativity, and
recognise that the use of digital
technologies can make a unique
contribution to creative processes. It will
be challenging to approach the planning
and management of creative learning
environments and develop confidence in
appropriate teaching strategies. The
design of strategies for assessment of
pupils’ creativity with ICT will be complex,
and will need to recognise the ways in
which our understanding of the interaction
between creativity and digital technologies
is emerging from practice and reflection.
We can therefore learn much from careful
case studies of each other’s experiences
and discussion of a range of imaginative
research methodologies for further
investigation. Lastly we need to continue in
our attempts to find ways in which we can
describe, explain and analyse our creative
practices with ICT, in order to contribute
to theoretical frameworks which are
useful to educators in a variety of contexts.
WHAT ARE SOME OF THE BARRIERS?
The review has indicated that there are key
factors which underpin creative processes
and have an impact on the success of
5
attempts
to produce
methods for the
assessment of
creativity have
not been
straightforward
teaching for creativity, and that digital
technologies can play a distinctive role in
both of these aspects of creativity and
learning. There are, however, barriers to
the development of creativity in traditional
educational settings, in that the creative
ethos of schools and classrooms and the
approaches to the uses of ICT will need to
be addressed. Neither are insurmountable,
but each needs to be recognised as a
constraint upon learners realising the
potential of the creative use of digital
technologies.
It is said that fear and vanity are often the
two emotions which prevent us from
realising our potential in many areas of
life, and addressing them takes
confidence, trust and courage in
individuals and within communities. New
approaches to flexibility and exploration in
ways of working, teaching strategies,
curriculum, assessment and management
of time and resources in schools could be
tried, but this will require the
encouragement of an ethos of creative
challenge and celebration of imagination
and ‘possibility thinking’ for teachers,
learners and designers.
1INTRODUCTION
The focus of the review is on the
interaction between characteristics of
creativity in people, communities, subject
domains and social contexts, and features
of digital technologies which make a
distinctive contribution to those processes.
The term ‘creativity’ had been defined in
wide-ranging ways. These include
descriptions of creative processes as
spiritual paths’ (Nachmanovitch 1990); or
a seeming mystery and paradox which
needs to be ‘tamed’ in order to be
understood as the computational
psychology of Artificial Intelligence (Boden
1992); or reflected in neurobiological
processes (Zeki 2001). Prentice highlights
the dangers of using a ‘complex and
slippery concept’ leading to confusions and
contradictions which do not help educators
to focus on the purpose and possibilities of
creative processes in the curriculum:
Too often the case for creativity is made
either in general terms that do little more
than assert that it is intrinsically a good
thing for each individual to have a dose of,
or more narrowly in instrumental terms
that link it to the economy.
(Prentice 2000, p147)
Bold claims are made for the expression
of creativity in children and young people
through the use of new technologies, from
mobile phones to digital video and music.
International governments’ policies reflect
a priority for the use of ICT in the spheres
of education and culture (Sharp and Le
Metais 2000), and awards are granted to
individuals and organizations that use
technology creatively to benefit society
(Rosencrance 2000). Commentators on
the convergence of digital technologies in
entertainment such as TV and video games
state that audiences are getting new
creative options (Fishcetti 2000), and
computer games are an emerging art
form (Jenkins 2000). Sectors of the
creative industries are able to draw upon
the ease and availability of digital
production, reproduction and distribution,
and consumers of cultural ‘products’,
from texts to performances, can also be
potential producers (Blythe 2001). Yet
some critics assert that the presence of
computers stifles children’s experiences
of play, community and creativity and
constrains opportunities for physical
6
fear and vanity
are often the two
emotions which
prevent us from
realising our
potential
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
experiences in a range of media and
social settings (Healy 1998).
The British Government has responded to
the debates about creative and cultural
education to meet the economic,
technological and social challenges of the
21st century. The Minister of State for the
Arts, Baroness Blackstone, identified a
range of projects and initiatives to
enhance learners’ experiences of the
creative arts. These initiatives highlight the
role of new technologies in developing
particular projects. The potential of digital
technologies to enable new forms of
engagement, access and educational
achievement is recognised in the
development of proposals such as ‘Culture
Online’ - a service offering interactive
access to national arts and cultural
resources through the internet and digital
television. BBC Education produces
programming and content for television,
radio and the BBC Learning website and,
at the time of writing (summer 2002), a
digital Curriculum Online is being
developed to supply digital content for
schools (Blackstone 2002). The National
Foundation for Educational Research in
England and Wales (NFER) carried out a
thematic review on behalf of the
Qualifications and Curriculum Authority
(QCA), focusing on information from 19
educational systems to provide a
comparative analysis of the arts, creativity
and cultural education. The potential of
new technology to provide resources for
arts education was recognised in many
countries (Sharp and Le Metais 2000). At
the time of writing the QCA is also
undertaking a literature review in the area
of Creativity and Education and developing
materials which will be available in 2003.
This review attempts to present a
framework of themes arising from the
literature in order to inform the debate
among educators, policy makers,
technology developers and the wider
community. It emphasises the complexities
of the interaction between a variety of
factors in the consideration of creativity,
ICT and learning, in contrast to a clear
distinction between ICT as an ‘Electronic
Prometheus’ (Kirschenmann 2001) or a
‘Fool’s Gold’ (Cordes and Miller 2000).
2WHAT IS THE ROLE OF
CREATIVITY IN EDUCATION?
2.1 HOW HAS CREATIVITY
BEEN DEFINED?
2.1.1 WHAT ARE SOME KEY
THEMES IN DEFINING CREATIVITY?
The development of different perspectives
in describing creativity has been traced,
from the concerns of the 1950s to 1970s in
areas of personality, cognition and the
stimulation of creativity in individuals, to
the awareness in the 1980s and 1990s of
the influence of environments and social
contexts on the creativity of individuals,
groups and organizations (Rhyammar and
Brolin 1999). Cropley (2001) reviews a
range of attempts to classify creativity:
from Guilford’s address to the American
Psychological Association in 1949 in which
he called for attention to ‘divergent’
thinking in human psychology, to the
imperative to consider the role of creativity
in successful technological and economic
ventures after the shock to the US of
Sputnick in 1957. He identifies common
elements to the variety of discussions of
creativity – novelty, effectiveness and
ethicality - and focuses his approach to
creativity on people demonstrating
7
thinking about
the concept of
creativity has
changed in
recent years
SECTION 2
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF
CREATIVITY IN EDUCATION?
characteristics and interacting with others
in environments congenial to creativity.
Jeffrey and Craft argue that thinking about
the concept of creativity has changed in
recent years and suggest that current
creativity discourse also encompasses:
• ‘operating in the economic
and political field
• acting as a possible vehicle for
individual empowerment in institutions
and organizations; and
• being used to develop effective
learning’. (Jeffrey and Craft 2001, p3)
There have been several recent reviews of
the literature which help to describe and
theorise understandings of the nature of
creativity (Yeomans 1996; Dust 1999;
Rhyammar and Brolin 1999; Sternberg
1999; Beattie 2000; Craft 2000; Edwards
2000 - 2001; Cropley 2001). Dust’s review
(1999) draws upon the work of a number of
researchers such as Barron, Gardner and
Csikszentmihalyi to discuss the processes
and levels of creativity, the characteristics
of creative individuals and the role played
by the domain of endeavour and the wider
society. The review addresses the stated
aims of the National Endowment for
Science, Technology and the Arts (NESTA),
making recommendations for achieving
the objectives of exploration, exploitation
and explanation in order to fulfil the main
aim to promote talent, innovation and
creativity in the fields of science,
technology and the arts. Craft reminds us
that much of the work cited in the
literatures has been undertaken in the US,
UK and Europe and the debate needs to
acknowledge the possibilities of ‘cultural
saturation’ in western concepts of
creativity which might limit our
understandings of creativity in other
cultures (Craft, 2000, p14).
A key issue in discussing and defining
creativity is whether the focus is upon
exceptional creative individuals, such as
Albert Einstein or Charlie Parker, who shift
paradigms in society’s ways of knowing, or
upon all individuals and their potential for
self-actualisation through ‘little c
creativity’ or ‘possibility thinking’
supporting people in making choices in
everyday life (Craft 2000). It is this broader
view of promoting creativity in all
individuals which underpins this paper.
2.1.2 CREATIVITY IN INDIVIDUALS
A useful starting point for considering
frameworks for creativity is to consider
characteristics in individuals. Examples of
personal qualities of creative individuals
have been collated by Shallcross (1981)
and described as: openness to experience;
independence; self-confidence; willingness
to take risk; sense of humour or
playfulness; enjoyment of experimentation;
sensitivity; lack of a feeling of being
threatened; personal courage;
unconventionality; flexibility; preference for
complexity; goal orientation; internal
control; originality; self-reliance;
persistance (cited in Craft 2000, p13).
Another perspective on the personal
qualities of creative individuals is
described in Sternberg and Lubart’s
‘confluence model’, in which six resources
converge: intellectual abilities; knowledge;
styles of thinking; personality; motivation
and environment (Sternberg and Lubart
1999). Gardner presents a pluralist theory
of mind which recognises multiple
intelligences in individuals (Gardner 1983;
Gardner 1996).
Csikszentmihalyi identifies a common
characteristic of creative people as ‘flow’ –
the automatic, effortless, yet highly
8
SECTION 2
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF
CREATIVITY IN EDUCATION?
focused state of consciousness when
engaged in activities, often painful, risky or
difficult, which stretch a person’s capacity
whilst involving an element of novelty or
discovery (Csikszentmihalyi 1996). He
elaborates the description of this
characteristic in identifying nine
elements which such activity provides:
• clear goals
• immediate feedback
• balance between challenges and skills
• merging of action and awareness
• elimination of distractions
• lack of fear of failure
• lack of self-consciousness
• distortion of sense of time
• autotelic activity (enjoyment for
its own sake).
Individual states of intuition, rumination,
reverie, even boredom play a role in
creativity and problem-solving, and some
studies indicate how creativity is enhanced
in a state of reverie and imagery (Lynn and
Rhue 1986; Claxton 1999; Claxton 2000).
Such states are not just ‘letting it flow’ or
‘leaving it to luck’, but acknowledging a
way of knowing which is not necessarily
conscious and draws upon resources of
knowledge, skill and experience in order to
make new combinations, explorations and
transformations (Boden 2001).
2.1.3 CREATIVITY IN SUBJECTS
A different conceptual framework for
describing creativity acknowledges the
influence of a range of researchers in the
field, yet presents a holistic view of people,
processes and domains (Craft 2000). She
asserts that creativity involves people
having agency over their environment,
being able to make and act upon choices
to be creative and inventive. People can
adapt to existing problems and find ways of
getting round them, or innovate and do
things differently. Creativity involves being
in relationship with oneself, other people
and with subject domains, and such
relationships can also be reflected in the
need for an audience and feedback for the
outcomes of creative activity. She also
includes discussion of people’s multiple
facets of mind or intelligences, including
unconscious intelligence and ‘flow’ as well
as essentialist personality factors. The
description of creative processes in Craft’s
framework identifies the impulse or source
of creativity which feeds the unconscious,
intuitive, spiritual and emotional levels,
which in turn support levels of
imagination, problem-solving and
divergent thinking. Being able to take
risks is the next level in which the person
engages in the ‘creativity cycle’ of
preparation, letting go, germination,
assimilation, completion and preparation.
These processes express, shape and
encourage creativity as an approach to life.
Domains are suggested in her framework
as a way of describing ways of knowing
beyond rigid subject definitions, and open
up the consideration of creativity in all
areas of knowledge, not just the traditional
‘arts’ or ‘creative subjects’. The term
‘creative subjects’ refers to curriculum
areas broadly corresponding to Bell’s
framework for ‘Education through the Arts’
(Bell 2000, p11):
• visual and performing arts, minimally
music/art/drama including dance
• designing and making, minimally three-
dimensional design including crafts,
9
intuition,
rumination,
reverie, even
boredom play
a role in
creativity and
problem-solving
technology and the built environment
• written arts, minimally poetry-making,
creative writing and more broadly the
literary arts including story-telling.
Such a conceptualisation of creativity
highlights the interactions of personal
qualities and creative processes within
subject domains and areas of the
curriculum. Beattie (2000) cites Fishkin’s
use of the term ‘germinal creativity’ to
describe young people’s creative potential
as they develop their knowledge and
understanding of particular domains
(Fishkin 1998).
2.1.4 CREATIVITY AS A
SOCIAL PRACTICE
The importance of the social and cultural
context in which people demonstrate
creativity must also be considered. Recent
research in communities of practice also
presents a view of learning as social,
situated and characterised by interaction
and communication between individuals
(Lave and Wenger 1991; Wenger 1998).
Leach (2001) cites examples of creative
individuals, such as Nobel Prize winners or
musicians, who benefited from association
with other creative people within their
communities which supported and
celebrated the creative process. Feldman,
Csikszentmihalyi and Gardner (1994)
propose that creativity arises from the
interaction between the ‘intelligence’ of
individuals, the domain or areas of human
endeavour, disciplines, crafts or pursuits,
and the field, such as people, institutions,
award mechanisms and ‘knowledgeable
others’ through which judgements of
individual performances in society
are made.
Csikszentmihalyi develops his discussion
of the field as a component of creativity
wherein other individuals act as
‘gatekeepers’ to a domain by recognising,
preserving and remembering creative
outcomes (Csikszentmihalyi 1996). He
presents a systems model in which
creativity is in the interaction between a
person’s thoughts and actions, their
knowledge and skills within a domain and
a sociocultural context which can
encourage, evaluate and reward. In such
a systems model, the recognition and
value of creativity is related as much to
the wider context of domains and fields
as to individuals. This has important
implications for thinking about creativity
and learning, where the context could be a
school classroom or a large corporation
which can either nurture or dismiss the
development of creative individuals, groups
and communities.
2.2 WHAT IS THE PLACE OF
CREATIVITY IN EDUCATION?
‘Creativity is an essential life skill, which
needs to be fostered by the education
system(s) from the early years onward’
(Craft 1999, p137). Such a statement
emphasises the importance of playfulness,
imagination and creativity in learning for
children, young people and adults and the
role that schools might play in promoting
these qualities in learning experiences
(Anning 1994; Shagoury-Hubbard 1996;
Whitaker 1997).
The National Advisory Committee on
Creative and Cultural Education (NACCCE)
responded to the 1997 UK Government
White Paper ‘Excellence in Schools’ by
presenting a report that argued for a
national strategy in creative and cultural
10
creativity
involves being in
relationship with
oneself, other
people and with
subject domains
SECTION 2
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF
CREATIVITY IN EDUCATION?
education to ensure a broad and flexible
education that recognised the talents of
all children. The report, ‘All Our Futures’,
defined creativity as, ‘imaginative activity
fashioned so as to produce outcomes that
are both original and of value’ (NACCCE
1999, p29). This definition is helpful in
that it expresses five characteristics
of creativity:
• using imagination – the process of
imagining, supposing and generating
ideas which are original, providing an
alternative to the expected, the
conventional, or the routine
• a fashioning process – the active and
deliberate focus of attention and skills
in order to shape, refine and manage
an idea
• pursuing purpose – the application
of imagination to produce tangible
outcomes from purposeful goals.
motivation and sustained engagement
are important to the solving of the
problem
• being original – the originality of an
outcome which can be at different levels
of achievement: individual originality in
relation to a person’s own previous
work; relative originality in relation to a
peer group; and historic originality in
relation to works which are completely
new and unique
• judging value – the evaluative mode of
thought which is reciprocal to the
generative mode of imaginative activity
and provides critical, reflective review
from individuals and peers.
The NACCCE framework and report raises
questions about the nature and purposes
of creative experiences for learners in
schools and communities, and the
distinction between teaching for creativity
and creative teaching (Jeffrey 2000;
Prentice 2000; Joubert 2001). The five
elements arising from the NACCCE
definition can be used with the interactive
dimensions of people and communities,
processes, domains, and fields, discussed
in the definitions of creativity in Section
2.1, to provide a framework to describe the
contribution of ICT to creativity in learning.
3WHAT ARE THE POTENTIAL ROLES
OF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES IN
SUPPORTING CREATIVITY?
The use of the term ICT as a single term is
inadequate to describe the range of
technologies and the wide variety of
settings and interventions in which they
are used. McFarlane argues that there is a
need for a more detailed and developed
discourse to reflect the relationship
between a form of ICT, the way in which it
is used and any impact it may have on the
users, from using word processors for
writing letters to monitoring and
measuring environmental changes with
sensors (McFarlane 2001). Tolmie also
draws attention to the need to consider the
complexities of the contexts in which ICT
resources are used, rather than expect a
blanket take-up which produces uniform
outcomes for all pupils in all situations
(Tolmie 2001). Kennewell considers the
analysis of the effects of ICT in
combination with other factors and
describes a framework for using
affordances and constraints of ICT in
educational settings (Kennewell 2001). In
this paper, the use of the term ICT implies
the broad range of information and
communications technologies which can
be used for different purposes by learners
and teachers in many situations.
11
the provisionality
of ICT enables
users to make
changes, try out
alternatives and
keep a ‘trace’ of
the development
of ideas.
Interactivity can
engage users
at a number
of levels
SECTION 3
WHAT ARE THE POTENTIAL
ROLES OF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES
IN SUPPORTING CREATIVITY?
Digital technologies exhibit features which
can be exploited by users in order to make
a distinctive contribution to activities, that
is, enable the users to do things that could
not be done as effectively, or at all, using
other tools. These features have been
described as provisionality, interactivity,
capacity, range, speed and automatic
functions (Department for Education and
Employment 1998). The provisionality of
ICT enables users to make changes, try
out alternatives and keep a ‘trace’ of the
development of ideas. Interactivity can
engage users at a number of levels, from
the playing of a game which gives
feedback on decisions made, to the
monitoring of a space probe through
immediate and dynamic feedback. ICT
demonstrates capacity and range in the
ways in which it affords access to vast
amounts of information locally and globally
in different time zones and geographical
places. The speed and automatic functions
of ICT allow tasks of storing, transforming
and displaying information to be carried
out by the technologies, enabling users to
read, observe, interrogate, interpret,
analyse and synthesise information at
higher levels. Recognising the potential of
these features is a significant element of
ICT capability, enabling children and
teachers to make decisions about when
the use of ICT in a particular context is
appropriate (Sharp, Potter et al 2000).
Loveless argues that ‘ICT capability’ is
more than competence with a set of skills
and techniques with particular digital
technologies, but encompasses such skills
being turned to use. It can be described as
an ability which is used actively, involving
understanding, informed choice, critical
evaluation and being open to or
susceptible to development (Loveless
1995). Learners can demonstrate such
capability in knowing, not only how to
search the world wide web or manipulate a
digital photograph, but also why and when
such skills might be appropriate for
different reasons in different situations to
solve different problems. Such a
description of ICT capability relates to an
ecological concept of ability in which
‘ability is person plus the opportunities for
assistance which their environment
affords, plus the skill at detecting, creating
and managing these resources’ (Claxton
1999, p226).
A characteristic of creativity with digital
technologies would be the recognition of
the potential of the features of ICT to be
exploited and experimented with to support
creative processes. Learners and teachers
therefore need to have a range of
experiences in which they can engage, play
and become familiar with the distinctive
contributions that ICT can make to their
creative practices which other media and
tools do not offer. See Table 1.
Table 1: The features of ICT and the
NACCCE Framework for Creativity
Features NACCCE
of ICT Framework
for Creativity
Provisionality Using imagination
Interactivity A fashioning process
Capacity Pursuing purpose
Range Being original
Speed Judging value
Automatic
functions
12
the speed and
automatic
functions of ICT
allow tasks of
storing,
transforming
and displaying
information to
be carried out by
the technologies
SECTION 3
WHAT ARE THE POTENTIAL
ROLES OF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES
IN SUPPORTING CREATIVITY?
4HOW MIGHT WE TEACH
FOR CREATIVITY?
4.1 DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTS
FOR LEARNING
Establishing environments with ICT in
which learners and teachers can develop
creativity presents challenges in two areas
– the use of ICT to support creativity in
traditional settings such as schools,
and the development of ICT resources
to support innovation in learning
environments. Edwards cites Arieti (1979)
who describes how societies and cultures
have the ability to both enhance and
detract from creativity and asserts that
technology plays a crucial role in providing
access to cultural means (Edwards 2000 -
2001, p226).
Craft et al [2001] present a range of well-
supported discussions of the elements of
learning environments which are conducive
to creative developments. Characteristics
of these environments include:
• awareness of the ways in which
creativity is related to knowledge
across the curriculum, not just the
‘arts’ and that the rules and structures
underpinning ‘conceptual spaces’ in
different knowledge domains can be
combined, explored and transformed
(Boden 2001)
• opportunities for exploration and play
with materials, information and ideas
(Craft 2000)
• opportunities to take risks and make
mistakes in a non-threatening
atmosphere (Davies 1999)
• opportunities for reflection,
resourcefulness and resilience
(Claxton 2000)
• flexibility in time and space for the
different stages of creative activity
(Claxton 1999)
• sensitivity to the values of education
which underpin individual and local
interest, commitment, potential and
quality of life (Beetlestone 1998)
• teaching strategies which acknowledge
‘teaching for creativity’ as well as
‘teaching creatively.’ (NACCCE 1999)
4.2 ICT AND THE PHYSICAL
LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
Examples of the use of ICT to support
creativity in traditional settings have been
presented in earlier sections, but there
needs to be recognition of the different
models of access to ICT resources in
schools. Consideration needs to be given
to the development of teaching strategies
which are appropriate and purposeful in
these different contexts. There is an
increasing presence of whiteboards and
data projectors to support interactive
whole-class teaching and presentation
(Glover and Miller 2001); ICT suites are
available in pooled, timetabled rooms in
primary and secondary schools (Loveless
2001); and portable technologies for
student and teacher use are used in many
curriculum areas (Thorpe and Roberts-
Young 2001). Researchers have identified a
range of factors of personal approaches in
professional development for both
creativity and the integration of ICT in
teaching (see for example Craft 1997;
Watson 2001).
Challenges are being made to expectations
of traditional classroom settings. Open and
flexible spaces for interaction between
people and technologies have been
13
societies and
cultures have
the ability to both
enhance and
detract from
creativity
SECTION 4
HOW MIGHT WE TEACH
FOR CREATIVITY?
designed to support creativity and
resourcefulness. Commercial and
university research laboratories have been
established to reflect the need for flexibility
and multi-disciplinary teams (Anonymous
2001). An example of an educational
environment designed for creative
interaction can be found at Highwire, a
City Learning Centre in London (see
www.highwire.org.uk). As well as using ICT
in fixed, physical spaces, the developments
in the design of personal mobile and
wearable technologies can support
learners in any location at any time.
Sariola and his colleagues working in
Finland (2002) describe the early ‘weak
signals’ they detected in the potential of
‘mobile learning’ with digital technologies
ranging from telephony to video
conferencing, which indicated ways in
which students could extend the times and
places of their learning (Sariola 2002).
Sharples describes a framework for the
design and formative evaluation of a new
genre of educational technology which
raises questions about theories of
computer-mediated learning and
developments in human-computer
interfaces (Sharples 2000), and
developments in improving human-
technology interaction for stimulating
creativity and intuition are currently being
investigated in the INVITE research project
(Intuitive Human-Technology Interaction in
the Information Society) (Bullinger and
Ziegler 2002).
4.3 ICT AND THE VIRTUAL
LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
As well as the physical spaces in which ICT
resources are made available to promote
learners’ creativity, ICT applications
themselves can provide environments for
creative activity. Storyboard software, such
as Kar2ouche, has been demonstrated to
support pupils’ engagement with and
understanding of complex texts
(Birmingham and Davies 2001). The use
of Virtual Reality environments and
Knowledge Forums as spaces for
potentially creative collaboration is
discussed in more detail in Section 5
(Bruckman and Resnick 1995; Scardamalia
2000; Ahlberg, Kaasinen et al 2001; Bailey
and Moar 2001; Leach 2001). There is
development in the use of Managed
Learning Environments or Virtual Learning
Environments in education, yet in the field
of Knowledge Management, however,
Shani et al indicated that the contribution
of specific groupware technology to team
creativity was inconclusive and there was
a complex interaction of many factors in
the team’s performance (Shani, Sena et
al 2000).
The use of Knowledge Forums for
collaborative knowledge building within
groups of peers, novices and experts can
also be seen as the development of tools
for creative collaboration which reflect
beliefs, values and theories about how
learners learn and the roles that teachers
might adopt. Scardamalia describes the
design challenges in developing knowledge
building communities in which participants
work creatively with ideas:
• provide ‘a way in’ to knowledge creation
for all students. This requires that
students acquire agency over their own
minds. It is this ‘epistemic agency’ that
allows them to begin to create, examine
and improve ideas
• engage students directly with ‘idea
improvement’ and with ‘problems of
understanding’. This requires that
students become constructivists
14
challenges
are being made
to expectations
of traditional
classroom
settings
SECTION 4
HOW MIGHT WE TEACH
FOR CREATIVITY?
themselves – understanding that
knowledge is constructed and
continually improved upon by people,
and this is something they can do
• render the hidden aspects of knowledge
creation transparent and foster these
processes in day-to-day discourse.
‘Knowledge-building technology’ serves
this purpose
• provide social supports for knowledge
creation. This is the role of ‘knowledge
building communities
• sustain work at the cutting edge of
abilities and disciplines. This is fostered
through a ‘Knowledge Society Network’.
(Scardamalia 2000, p5)
In thinking about how we might teach for
creativity with digital technologies, a key
factor is the development of learning
environments which provide opportunities
and promote an ethos which support
creativity. Contexts which are conducive to
creativity reflect qualities of exploration,
play, taking risks, reflection, flexibility,
focus, commitment and sensitivity to
valuing the endeavours of individuals and
communities. Such environments may be
traditional classrooms and schools, or
innovative approaches to the design
and location of places to learn, or
even virtual spaces created by the
technologies themselves.
Teachers and learners working in more
traditional spaces need to consider the
demands placed upon them by the sheer
physicality of the resources, from ICT
suites to portable computers, and
recognise that in such a fast-changing
field, today’s ‘solution’ may be tomorrow’s
‘problem’. Establishing a suite of
computers or sets of interactive
whiteboards in a school may address
problems of access and coverage of
material at a particular time in a school’s
development, yet become too fixed and
inflexible as the confidence, competence
and rationale for using ICT in creative
ways develops. Designers of innovative
environments for creative learning,
whether in physical places such as
Highwire, or with resources such as
mobile technologies, can consider the
‘weak signals’ in early work in human-
technology interaction which can indicate
possibilities for further development.
Creative imagination is needed to
recognise the potential of the technologies
themselves, from Virtual Reality to
Knowledge Forums, to afford new kinds of
spaces for trying out ideas, collaborating
and building knowledge communities.
The following section will address various
creative practices which are currently
being expressed with digital technologies.
5HOW ARE PEOPLE USING DIGITAL
TECHNOLOGIES CREATIVELY?
It is important to note that it is not the
access to digital resources which ‘delivers
creativity, but the opportunities such
access affords for interaction, participation
and the active demonstration of
imagination, production, purpose,
originality and value. Creative activities
with new technologies can include
developing ideas, making connections,
creating and making, collaboration,
communication and evaluation. Each of
these activities draws upon an interaction
of the features of ICT and elements of
creative processes. These activities are not
always discrete or sequential and there
can be synchronicity in their expression
and overlap of applications for different
15
contexts which
are conducive to
creativity reflect
qualities of
exploration, play,
taking risks,
reflection,
flexibility, focus,
commitment
and sensitivity
SECTION 5
HOW ARE PEOPLE USING
DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES CREATIVELY?
purposes. The following sections present
examples of such activities which illustrate
how children and young people are able to
use ICT not only to demonstrate elements
of ICT capability, but also to support and
enhance the development of creative
characteristics in the interaction between
people, processes, domains and fields.
5.1 DEVELOPING IDEAS WITH ICT
The ICT strand of ‘Developing ideas and
making things happen’ is often associated
with the use of digital technology to
explore the question ‘what would happen
if….? The provisionality, interactivity and
capacity of ICT to represent information in
a variety of modes underpins the potential
of digital technologies to promote
resources for imaginative play, exploration,
trying out ideas, approaches to problem-
solving, taking risks in conjecture, and
making connections between ideas.
Software to support this includes
simulations for modelling, spreadsheets or
control technology to sense, monitor,
measure and control sequences of events
mediated by devices such as
programmable toys or control software
applications. Examples and discussion of
such applications have been available in
the literature for many years (see for
example Loveless 1995). Loveless cites
Kemmis et al who developed a model in
which Computer Assisted Learning (CAL)
could be described. They outlined
paradigms of computer use as
Instructional, Emancipatory, Revelatory
and Conjectural Computer use which is
‘revelatory’ allows guided discovery and
the revealing and construction of
underlying models. This paradigm can be
seen in the use of simulations and
adventure games. Computer use which is
‘conjectural’ encourages playful
exploration and the testing of ideas which
enable learners to construct their own
models and test hypotheses (Kemmis,
Atkins et al 1977).
Examples of the conjectural approach to
the use of computers are found in the use
of Logo as a programming language which
could support a ‘constructionist’ view of
learning, in which exploration, play and
the testing of hypotheses in ‘Microworlds
play an important role (Subhi 1999).
Papert’s early vision of the use of Logo
in schools has not been realised, yet
there have been a number of
developments arising from the work in
this field. Imagine is a new generation
of Logo which is a computational system
‘to stimulate the emergence of new
cultures for constructing, exploring and
understanding… It employs creative
computer environments to:
• encourage motivation in specific topics
• explore, visualise and demonstrate
relations and dependencies
• simulate and model
• act as a microworld for discovery…
creating and building…
• solve problems with constraints
• test…’
(Kalas and Blaho 2002, p91-92)
See also the ‘Thinking Skills, Technology
and Learning’ Literature Review for
Futurelab, in which Logo is also discussed
in some detail.
Developments are also being made in the
design of materials to support children’s
exploration, problem-solving and scientific
enquiry. In the US, researchers in the MIT
16
SECTION 5
HOW ARE PEOPLE USING
DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES CREATIVELY?
Media Laboratory have developed a range
of programmable ‘toys’ or ‘digital
manipulatives’ - beads, blocks and
bricks - which reflect this purpose
(Sargent, Resnick et al 1996) (see
http://toys.media.mit.edu/). The Beyond
Black Boxes (BBB) Project used tiny,
programmable computational devices
called Crickets which could be embedded
into everyday objects to control, sense and
communicate with one another via infrared
light. The aim of the project was to
‘reintroduce a vigorously creative,
aesthetic, and personal dimension into the
design of scientific instrumentation –
particularly in the context of science
education’ (Resnick, Berg et al 2000, p2).
Such work was also an attempt to counter
the ‘opacity’ of computers in scientific
processes. This project has been
developed further in the Playful Invention
and Exploration Network (PIE), which has
established a network of museums
working in collaboration with the MIT
Media Laboratory, to disseminate the
constructive use of new digital
technologies (see http://llk.media.mit.edu/
projects/pie). In Europe, the eTui project is
part of the i3 – ‘I cubed’: Intelligent
Information Interfaces – research
organization. The collaborative project
investigated ‘tool-cases’ for learning
about learning, and in the UK, Ultralab
developed an interactive toy that can
learn, and be taught by children (see
http://www.ultralab.ac.uk/projects/etui/
index.shtml).
There is a wealth of high specification
digital technology available for exploration
and creation of ideas from film production
tools to CAD/CAM and virtual reality
simulations. These are used in a range of
professions and occupations such as
architecture, engineering, film-making and
design. One example of such applications
is provided in the description of a course in
Virtual Design and Representation at
Cornell University (winter 2000). The
application of cheaper and more
accessible versions of such software for
developing ideas with children and young
people is taking place in some contexts
within and out of schools.
Web based resources are also available for
learners to explore and test ideas online.
Cannon et al investigated the design of a
web-based National Laboratory of Virtual
Manipulatives, in which elementary school
children could interact with and design
new mathematical objects that are not
easily constructed physically (Cannon, Heal
et al 2000). Other examples of the
provisionality, interactivity and range of ICT
which can underpin playful approaches to
trying out imaginative ideas include the
Tracy Beaker web pages on the BBC
Schools website (see http://www.bbc.co.uk/
cbbc/tracybeaker/); the BlockCorner site
(see http://www.blockcorner.com
/content.html) or the Sodaplay site
which enables users to construct and
animate models on screen (see
http://www.sodaplay.com/). Building on
developments in shared 3D Virtual
Environments accessible on the internet,
The Vertex Project focused on the ways in
which children explored the design and
creation of virtual spaces and objects
using interactive virtual reality software
(Bailey and Moar 2001).
Digital technologies have also been used
to support the early stages of imaginative
play, speculation and ‘brainstorming’.
Baron et al review the literature to support
the development of methodologies for
investigating representations of the
relationships in IT systems using concept
17
digital
technologies
have also
been used to
support the early
stages of
imaginative play,
speculation and
‘brainstorming’
maps and computer-based concept
mapping tools (Baron, Bruillard et al 1999).
The use of software applications such as
Inspiration is supported by a bibliography
on visual learning to underpin an
approach to the use of concept maps
by individuals and groups (see
http://www.inspiration.com/vlearning/sugg
estread/index.cfm?fuseaction=suggested).
An innovative use of ICT in drama has been
developed by Simpson, who describes the
ways in which digital cameras and image
manipulation software can be used in
exploration and improvisation ‘within’
drama activities rather than just recording
final outcomes. Digital images are used in
the ‘sketching’ stages of the exploration
and interpretation of texts, such as the
multi-layered illustrated children’s book,
‘Not Now, Bernard’. They are then
developed as an integral element of the
drama as children respond to their
constructed, manipulated images and
incorporate them into their developing
improvisations (Simpson 1999).
5.2 MAKING CONNECTIONS
Finding things out in order to support,
challenge, inform and develop ideas is an
important element in the processes of
using imagination, fashioning and pursuing
purpose. ICT can play a role in making
connections with other people, projects,
information and resources through the
internet, world wide web and CD-Rom and
the use of these communications
technologies is well-documented (see
http://www.teachingideas.co.uk/welcome).
Many websites act as portals or starting
points for information about creative uses
of new technology. It is beyond the scope of
this review to provide a comprehensive list
of such sites, but examples of sites with
news, events, resources, research and
links to related sites can be found through
government and public agency portals.
(See Table 2 for examples in the UK.)
As reviewed in Section 1, the British
Government has identified a number of
initiatives to provide online access to
creative practitioners and materials
(Blackstone 2002). Culture Online will
provide new digital materials for the
school curriculum and lifelong learning.
They will be made available in a variety of
ways, including new and existing websites,
through a Culture Online gateway and
linked to the DfES Curriculum Online
portal and the National Grid for Learning.
Projects will be developed by partnerships
which might include cultural and arts
organisations, broadcasters, creative
media companies and educational
publishers (see http://www.
cultureonline.gov.uk/).
Table 2: Examples of websites for
information and networking in the UK
British Educational Communications
Technology Agency (Becta)
www.becta.org.uk
National Endowment for Science,
Technology and the Arts (NESTA)
www.nesta.org.uk
Association of Teachers of
Mathematics (ATM)
http://www.atm.org.uk/
Association of Teachers
of English (NATE)
http://www.nate.org.uk
18
finding things
out in order to
support,
challenge,
inform and
develop ideas is
an important
element in the
processes of
using
imagination,
fashioning and
pursuing
purpose
SECTION 5
HOW ARE PEOPLE USING
DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES CREATIVELY?
National Drama – the association
for drama educators
http://www.nationaldrama.co.uk
Association for Science
Education (ASE)
www.ase.org.uk
Design and Technology
Association (DATA)
http://www.data.org.uk
National Society for Education in
Art and Design (NSEAD)
http://www.nsead.org/
Creating Spaces, network of education
professionals promoting the creative
use of digital technologies
http://www.creatingspaces.org.uk
There are also many examples of websites
created by individuals or organizations to
provide resources for particular age
phases and subject areas. One example is
the EarlyBirds Music website which
provides multimedia examples of video,
sound and links to music resources for
early, primary and special education (see
http://www.earlybirdsmusic.com). BBCi
provides access to artists’ work which can
be downloaded, viewed and listened to
through its website (see
http://www.bbc.co.uk/arts/digital/guestarti
sts/index.shtml). Another example in the
secondary sector is the Digital Art
Resource for Education, DARE (see
http://www.dareonline.org). This initiative
is a collaboration between the Institute of
International Visual Arts (inIVA), Middlesex
University’s School of Lifelong Learning
and Education (LLE) and the Lansdown
Centre for Electronic Arts (LCEA).
A key aim of DARE is to enable teachers
and young people to access some of the
ideas, issues and processes of a culturally
and stylistically diverse matrix of recent
work. The internet is probably unique in its
existence as both an experimental medium
and as a space for research, display and
exchange, and the DARE site allows users
to view how artists have been exploiting
as well as critiquing the internet.
(Sinker 2001, p33)
Access to worldwide galleries and
museums can provide resources for
stimulation and research. Access to
practitioners such as artists, designers,
engineers and architects through e-mail or
video conferencing can establish networks
and communities sharing expertise,
questions and work in progress. The 24
Hour Museum is the National Virtual
Museum which acts as a gateway to
over 2,500 museums, galleries and
heritage attractions in the UK (see
http://www.24hourmuseum.org.uk). The
Museum Open Learning Initiatives (MOLLI)
is another example of such a ‘window’ to
artefacts, activities and work produced by
children and adults in the community in
response to particular exhibitions and
to individual artists’ work (see
http://www.molli.org.uk). The Quest
website of the Natural History Museum in
London is an example of a constructivist
approach to use of the web for scientific
enquiry (see www.nhm.ac.uk).
5.3 CREATING AND MAKING
MEANING
The weaving of imagination, fashioning,
pursuing purposes and being original
needs to move beyond the use of tools and
techniques for their own sake in the
19
creation, drafting, editing and refining
processes towards creating tangible
outcomes, such as an image, a poem,
a drama, a 3D construction or a movie.
This involves not only the physical act of
making, but also an ongoing ‘dialogue’
where ‘the maker produces and the work
responds’. The artist Terry Taylor places
this dialogue at the centre of his work
with children and digital images:
It is the representation of meaning that
is the key that elevates production to a
position beyond the merely decorative…
By dialogue I mean the dynamic and
creative cognitive processes involved
when encoding and decoding meaning
in visual texts…This takes time and a
continuation of intention and cannot
be achieved by ad hoc projects based
on mechanical processes.
(Loveless 2000)
The Glebe Project and the Access Project
took place in primary schools where
children worked with visual artists. They
used different media, including the digital
technologies of scanners, cameras and
graphics software, to capture and
manipulate images in order to create and
make meanings in the visual arts. The
children produced pieces in response to a
variety of stimuli and were encouraged to
display and evaluate each other’s work in
progress. The digital images were not
always the final products, but sometimes
acted as stimuli or sketches for
development of representations in other
media. The children’s skills with ICT
techniques were demonstrated and
developed in the context of their desire to
explore and produce specific effects, whilst
the aims of the projects were clearly
focused on the creative expression of
meanings (Loveless 1999; Loveless 2000).
The investigation of children’s use of
multimedia and presentation tools to
create multimodal texts with images,
written text and sound also recognises the
development of multiliteracies in work
across the curriculum (Cope and Kalantzis
2000; Callow 2002). Mavers draws on the
work of Kress in discussing young
children’s understandings of multimodality
in the use of the internet and the changing
‘communicational landscape’ (Mavers
2002). Atherton has carried out extensive
work with primary school children using
multimedia across the curriculum and
described the planning and time required
for the children to engage with the
processes of creating and making complex
multimedia pieces. The children’s work
demonstrated a good understanding of the
ways in which the authors could construct
interactive presentations with visual
images, sound, animation and hyperlinks
(Atherton 2002).
In a research project carried out with
secondary pupils using multimedia
authoring in the art curriculum, Long
demonstrates not only the processes of
development, manipulation and evaluation
of digital images, but also growing
awareness of the potential of
multimodality in pupils’ art work. During
an eight month period, pupils worked with
multimedia software on an art project
taking ‘Movement’ as a theme. They
expressed some disquiet as to whether
their pieces were ‘art’ as they incorporated
moving visual images and sound with
reference to popular culture. In
challenging their conceptualisations
that art inhabits space whilst music
inhabits time, as well as different aspects
of the school curriculum, they ‘also
experienced the idea that art and image
making is changed as a process when it
20
the weaving
of imagination,
fashioning,
pursuing
purposes and
being original
needs to move
beyond the use
of tools and
techniques for
their own sake
SECTION 5
HOW ARE PEOPLE USING
DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES CREATIVELY?
becomes part of a transmittable and
infinitely repeatable set of information’
(Long 2001, p261).
In these examples the technology played a
distinctive role in these activities by
providing opportunities for the pupils to
capture, edit and transform digital data in
order to make meanings. The creative
processes of imagination, fashioning and
‘flow’ were supported by the immediacy of
the presentation, the ease of manipulation
and the possibilities of ‘leaving a trail’ of
work in progress in order to trace the
development of ideas, or revisit them in
order to explore other possible routes.
These characteristics of ICT are also being
exploited in software applications which
are accessible for young learners for the
creative moving images with digital video,
music, and the creation of 3D virtual worlds.
The British Educational Communications
and Technology Agency (Becta) is running
an award scheme for Creativity in Digital
Video (www.becta.org.uk) which will
present examples of DV work in schools.
See also the website of Apple Computer,
Inc for examples of pupils’ work with
creating and editing digital video
(see http://www.apple.com/education/dv/).
The Interactive Education Project at the
University of Bristol includes work with
digital music (Sutherland, Breeze et al
2002) (see also http://www.
interactiveeducation.ac.uk/music_designs.
htm ). The Vertex Project at Middlesex
University is exploring the ways in which
children build and use structures, spaces
and avatars in virtual worlds shared with
other users on the Internet (Bailey and
Moar 2001).
In a response to concerns from the
Alliance for Childhood that computers
stifle creativity (Cordes and Miller 2000),
Abbott et al present a critique and
describe a range of examples of children’s
creating and making work with multimedia
and web technologies (Abbott, Lachs et al,
2001; Lachs and Wiliam 1998; Lachs 2000).
However, there could be a danger of
reading many of the published examples
and descriptions of creative production as
positive and progressive. Some
researchers, however, draw attention to
more problematic aspects of the creating
and making work with digital technologies.
Sefton-Green and Buckingham noted the
limited nature of ‘creative production’ that
was taking place in young people’s
experience with and access to digital
technologies at school and at home
(Sefton-Green and Buckingham 1998).
Sefton-Green and Parker investigated how
primary school children used edutainment
software to create and edit stories,
recognising that editing is the key creative
act in the production of moving image
‘texts’ such as films or television
programmes. The research demonstrated
that the software available for this age
range supports animation and
composition, rather than conventional
editing and the report argued that
existing edutainment software packages
aimed at children are severely limited
in their creative potential (Sefton-Green
and Parker 2000)
(see http://www.bfi.org.uk/
education/research/edit-play/).
5.4 COLLABORATION
Recent understandings of the
characteristics of human learning have
recognised its social, situated and
distributed nature in which knowledge is
constructed through interaction and
21
communication with others in
communities (Lave and Wenger 1991;
Somekh 2001). The speed and range of
communications technology enable
learners to collaborate with others in
immediate and dynamic ways during their
creative work in progress. Collaboration
with artists, writers and fictional
characters in ‘non-residence’ through
e-mail or video conferences offers learners
opportunities to work with others to
generate ideas, pursue purpose and
evaluate ongoing, original work. Junior
children in Robin Hood School in
Birmingham used video conferencing
facilities to establish contact with artist
Nick Eastwood, look at his work, ask him
questions and receive feedback from him
on their own work created in response to
the experience (see http://www.becta.
org.uk/technology/desktopvc/telecomms/
art.html). Children participating in the
Interactive Education Project focused on
the use of e-mail to explore how
awareness of audience and purpose
shapes writing by corresponding with two
‘Viking settlers’ (Sutherland, Breeze et
al 2002).
The Bristol Internet Project was set up in
1998 to enable children in schools in two
different communities in the city to
collaborate with each other on making
visual images over time and distance. They
used digital cameras and ‘paint’ programs
to construct images of themselves which
were attached to e-mail messages to their
‘key pals’ in the other school, asking
questions such as ‘Who am I?’. Artists in
each school worked with the children to
interpret, respond to and manipulate the
images received before sending them back
with their developed ideas (Loveless 2000).
Similarly, the Virtual Identities Digital Arts
Project involved post-16 art and design
students in schools in Liverpool and Kent.
The students sent ‘digital postcards’ which
represented their personal identity to their
partners who interpreted and manipulated
the image, whilst keeping 20 per cent of
the original image (Leach 2001).
The internet can also be used as a ‘shared
space’ beyond a straightforward exchange
and collaborative manipulation of images.
The Hands-On Dance project at the
University of Leeds enabled interactive
dance workshops between novice and
more experienced dancers to take place
using e-mail discussion, internet video
conference rehearsals and an interactive
website (Popat 2001). Text-based virtual
reality environments can be viewed as
spaces for creative collaborations in story
telling and role play. Bruckman and
Resnick, for example, have worked with
researchers and children using MUDS
(Multi-User Domains) (Bruckman and
Resnick 1995), and Abbott discusses the
linguistic forms of real time written chat in
such environments (Abbott 1998). The
development of 3D shared spaces in virtual
reality internet games and applications has
been highlighted in the work of the Vertex
Project (Bailey and Moar 2001).
5.5 COMMUNICATION, PUBLICATION
AND AUDIENCE
Presentation and communications
technologies enable learners to present
and celebrate their work to a range of
audiences, from a Powerpoint presentation
in a classroom to a website available to an
unknown, and unpredictable, audience.
Richard Hitcham School, for example,
publishes children’s work from all areas of
the curriculum, including the variety of
pieces produced in a project working with
22
SECTION 5
HOW ARE PEOPLE USING
DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES CREATIVELY?
an artist in residence sharing his
own painting and digital work (see
http://www.hitchams.suffolk.sch.uk/ict_art
/index.htm). Similarly, initiatives such as
‘Walkers’ Showcase’ enable children to
publish a wide variety of their creative
work, from scanned images of art work in
other media to poetry and sound files of
them playing musical instruments (see
http://www.walkersshowcase.co.uk/
index.jsp). Examples of a range of pupils
work with multimedia, digital video and
web publishing can also be seen in the
work of Highwire, a City Learning Centre
in Shoreditch, London (see
http://www.highwire.org.uk).
It is the consideration of purpose and
audience which can lead children into
more detailed evaluation of the levels of
originality and the critical, reflective
consideration of value in their work. Lachs
emphasises the importance of the
awareness of audience in the whole
design, creation and presentation process
of making multimedia (Lachs 2000). In
Atherton’s work with multimedia in
primary classrooms, the children may be
making a game for their younger siblings
or a presentation for a visiting dignitary,
but she places appropriate interaction and
communication with audiences centrally to
the processes of design, making and
evaluation (Atherton 2002).
It is beyond the scope of this review to
consider a particular domain in detail, but
there are some useful indications of the
potential of ICT in creativity and learning in
the ways in which practitioners in the arts
and cultural industries employ digital
technologies. Mak presents evidence of
negative attitudes towards computers in
art amongst 64 high school students who
were familiar with digital technologies and
art in their curriculum. She discusses the
reinterpretations and changes which would
need to take place in understandings of
pluralistic styles, realism, interactivity,
originality and ownership with ‘digital art’
(Mak 2001).
Some theatre practitioners warn against
the loss of spontaneity and community
which can accompany the use of
technology in the theatre and theatre
research practices (Carson 1999). Beardon,
however, draws attention to the
development of Visual Assistant software
designed to promote improvisation,
expression and communication of visual
and spatial ideas about theatre
performances (Beardon 1999). Designers
also express concern that the high levels
of technical expertise required in new
inter-disciplinary design studies may lead
to a loss of quality without evaluation of
processes and outcomes. Neilson and
Trias propose a model for evaluation which
reflects reason, function, emotion and
senses and technology (2000). Examples of
the work of artists using digital media are
commissioned and exhibited by galleries
such as ‘Wired Worlds’ at the UK National
Musuem of Photography, Film and
Television (Ferris 2000); new works are
presented and discussed at conferences
such as ISEA (see http://www.isea.qc.ca),
whilst ‘tradigital’ is a term used to
describe artists and groups whose works
bridge traditional and digital worlds
(Gollifer 2000).
5.6 MOVING FORWARD
The practices described in the previous
examples illustrate how people have
engaged their imagination in recognising
the potential of ICT to make a distinctive
23
ICT resources
can support the
creation and
development
of ideas if they
reflect an
approach to
open-ended
exploration in
design and use
contribution to creative processes of
developing ideas, making connections,
creating and making, collaboration and
communication for audiences. This
contribution affords opportunities for
experiences which are not as easily
accessible or possible with other media
and tools.
ICT resources, whether hardware or
software, can support the creation and
development of ideas if they reflect an
approach to open-ended exploration in
design and use. Such resources are often
developed to high specifications within
commercial or research environments, but
thoughtful and well-informed design can
present these ideas more appropriately for
younger or less-experienced users. The
designers of the concept-mapping
software Inspiration, for example, indicate
a bibliography of resources and research
into learning which stimulated their
thinking in the design. It is the examination
of the concepts which underpin ICT tools
for practice in design, manufacture, editing
or virtual reality which will support the
development of hardware and software
created to mediate learning, rather than
the production of ‘cut down’ applications
for office productivity. Analysis of case
studies of innovative use of ICT in
exploratory and playful ways could provide
insights into deeper understandings of
both creative processes and ICT capability.
The use of ICT to make connections is a
powerful and positive use of the technology
which provides access to cultural
experiences and perspectives across time
zones and geographical spaces. Access,
however, is only part of the story, and
attention could be given to the nature and
design of truly interactive learning
experiences with resources such as the
world wide web. The Quest website at
the Natural History Museum, for example,
provides not only access to artefacts
but also opportunities for communication
with ‘experts’ and knowledge building
through activity.
Creating and making with ICT tools
enables users to capture and manipulate
information and provides immediacy for
feedback and development, yet we must
recognise that digital technologies are
recent tools and media which we are still
exploring. There are parallels with the
introduction of earlier technologies such
as photography and film which were first
used to imitate rather than express new
ideas. We are still in the early days of
understanding the characteristics and
potential of the new digital medium which
can be manipulated to literally ‘paint by
numbers’ in the manipulation,
transformation and processing of data
(Mitchell 1994; Loveless 1997). Designers
and developers of ICT resources could
consider innovative ways to work with and
develop understandings of the nature of
digital technologies as both a tool and a
medium in creative processes.
The range of creative practices discussed
in this review will of course develop with
time, and probably in unpredictable ways.
There are four questions we can ask to
assist us in developing a critical awareness
of our practices:
• how are we using digital technologies
at present to mimic activities we have
done by other means?
• what is gained and what is lost in
experience and expression in using
digital technologies in creative
practices?
24
the use of
ICT to make
connections is a
powerful and
positive use of
the technology
SECTION 5
HOW ARE PEOPLE USING
DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES CREATIVELY?
• how are we exploiting features of
ICT which enable us to express
different ideas?
• how do we evaluate the processes and
outcomes of work with these
comparatively recent tools and media?
The following section indicates how we
might develop our sense of value and
judgement of creativity and digital
technologies.
6HOW CAN WE ASSESS
CREATIVITY, LEARNING AND
DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES?
6.1 ASSESSING CREATIVITY
The assessment of creativity is complex
and problematic in structures of
assessment in which quantifiable,
measurable outcomes are considered to
be ‘high stakes’ and valued for the purpose
of making judgements and comparisons
between individuals, institutions and
systems. Beattie draws attention to the
complexity of identifying and assessing
creativity, stating that over 200
instruments have been developed for the
purpose and citing Sternberg (1991) in
claiming that none have been able to
measure the concept adequately. She
offers detailed suggestions for the format
of creativity assessment tasks and the
criteria required for judgements which
focus on creative processes, environments
and student expression as well as final
outcomes (Beattie 2000). Sefton-Green
discusses the complexities of evaluation of
creativity in relation to a range of
curriculum subjects and highlights the
tensions which underlie views of childhood
and power relationships in assessment in
schooling. He acknowledges the dilemma
which teachers face in evaluating pupils’
creative work, not only in terms of the
pupils as learners needing to improve and
progress, but also regarding the pupils as
makers of personal meanings, expression,
values and attitudes (Sefton-Green 2000).
The NACCCE report, ‘All Our Futures’,
acknowledges the role of assessment and
inspection frameworks in raising
standards of school achievement in the
UK, but includes recommendations for an
easing of pressure of assessment, a closer
consideration of appropriate assessment
strategies for different areas of the
National Curriculum, and greater
emphasis on formative assessment for
learning (NACCCE 1999).
6.2 ASSESSING ICT CAPABILITY
The assessment of ICT capability is no less
problematic. McFarlane presents an
account of the three perspectives on ICT in
schools which influence policy, practice
and perspectives on assessment:
• ICT as a set of skills or competences
• ICT as a vehicle for teaching and
learning in and across the curriculum
• ICT as an agent of change in teaching
and learning.
Her discussion highlights the inadequacy
of approaching assessment strategies for
ICT capability without consideration of the
context and purpose of use of resources.
She also emphasises the inappropriate
nature of current standardised assessment
and testing instruments which do not
recognise the indirect effects of the use of
ICT on learners’ motivation, attitude,
problem-solving capability, critical thinking
25
digital
technologies
are recent tools
and media
which we are
still exploring
SECTION 6
HOW CAN WE ASSESS CREATIVITY,
LEARNING AND DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES?
and information-handling abilities
(McFarlane 2001). The National
Curriculum Attainment Target for ICT is
presented in terms of process and higher
order thinking, yet the terms are not
closely defined, nor related to levels and
areas of attainment in other curriculum
subjects (McFarlane, Williams et al 2000).
There are, however, examples in the
literature which indicate approaches to
meaningful evaluation and assessment of
learners’ creativity and ICT capability.
McFarlane et al describe how the use of
multimedia authoring enabled 9/10 year
old pupils to create multimedia pieces
which demonstrated their understanding
of content and conceptual relationships in
drugs education topics more clearly than
written tests. In discussing the potential of
such tools and processes in assessment,
they call for further research and
discussion of how teachers can ‘interpret,
evaluate and assess the processes,
practices, skills and competences
evidenced in the form, structure and
content of pupil-authored multimedia
work’ (McFarlane, Williams et al
2000, p210-211).
6.3 ASSESSING CREATIVITY AND
ICT CAPABILITY
Useful starting points for the discussion of
evaluation and assessment of creativity
and ICT have been offered by Jonassen
(Jonassen 2000) and Lachs (1998) who
both suggest dimensions along a range of
criteria. Jonassen focuses on the use of a
range of ICT applications (or ‘Mindtools’)
within subject domains to demonstrate
knowledge construction, self-regulation,
collaboration, critical thinking and creative
thinking. Lachs emphasises the
importance of peer review and evaluation
as well as teachers’ formative assessment.
In evaluating pupils’ multimedia and web
work she proposes dimensions for criteria
for audience interactivity, planning non-
linear environments, data collection
and design, subject matter and working
with others.
Sinker offers a detailed discussion of the
issues associated with evaluating young
people’s creative multimedia production
(Sinker 2000). She suggests that there is a
need to draw upon traditions and expertise
in both art and media education in the use
of multimedia technologies in teaching and
learning, echoing earlier calls for such
collaboration in the development of
photography. She recognises that such
work is still in its infancy and that the use
of digital technologies raises questions
about the evaluation and judgement of
creative processes and products that
are different from more traditional tools
in arts practice.
The multimedia terrain, with its strata of
meanings, its combination of media, its
compilation of data, and its branching,
tangential connections would seem the
ideal tool for this ‘postmodern’ age. But its
chameleon character – a tool for writing,
reading, talking and listening, a tool for
drawing and looking, a tool for animating
and viewing and a tool for gaming,
interacting and consuming – makes it less
easy to gauge in evaluative terms.
(Sinker 2000, p195)
26
SECTION 6
HOW CAN WE ASSESS CREATIVITY,
LEARNING AND DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES?
7WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS
FOR PRACTICE, CURRICULUM
AND DESIGN?
7.1 IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE
In the context of this review, implications
for practice are focused on three areas:
• classrooms or planned informal settings
• teacher education
• research.
7.1.1 IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE
IN CLASSROOMS OR PLANNED
INFORMAL SETTINGS
A Creativity Framework should underpin
planning, practice and evaluation.
The framework should recognise the
interaction between individuals and
communities, processes, domains and
fields, and the characteristics of
imagination, fashioning, pursuing pur
pose, originality and value judgements.
In planning, for example, teachers
could identify the learning intentions,
teaching strategies and opportunities
for assessment to reflect an area such
as Developing Ideas or Collaboration,
in which the features of ICT contribute
to the NACCCE framework for
creative processes.
The learning environment established in
educational settings should acknowledge
and reflect characteristics which are
conducive to creative developments:
• awareness of the ways in which
creativity is related to knowledge across
the curriculum, not just the ‘arts’
and that the rules and structures
underpinning ‘conceptual spaces’ in
different knowledge domains can be
combined, explored and transformed
• opportunities for exploration and play
with materials, information and ideas
• opportunities to take risks and make
mistakes in a non-threatening
atmosphere
• opportunities for reflection,
resourcefulness and resilience
• flexibility in time and space for the
different stages of creative activity
• sensitivity to the values of education
which underpin individual and local
interest, commitment, potential and
quality of life
• teaching strategies which acknowledge
‘teaching for creativity’ as well as
‘teaching creatively’.
The models of access to ICT resources
should provide opportunities for whole
class, group and individual work which can
be focused and flexible according the
nature and demands of the processes and
activities. This may involve a reappraisal of
access to ICT in classrooms, dedicated
suites, clusters, sets of portable resources
and provision in the home.
Hardware and software resources should
reflect a range of tools and media suitable
for activities throughout the Creativity
Framework, from developing ideas to
publishing and reviewing outcomes.
Learners should have opportunities
to develop ICT skills and techniques
in authentic and challenging creative
contexts.
27
a creativity
framework
should underpin
planning,
practice and
evaluation
SECTION 7
WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR
PRACTICE, CURRICULUM AND DESIGN?
Learners should have opportunities to
make informed choices of ICT tools and
media available for different creative
processes and stages.
Consideration should be given to flexibility
in time and space for creative activities.
Strategies for appropriate formative
assessment of creativity and ICT capability
should be developed and evaluated.
7.1.2 IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE
IN TEACHER EDUCATION
Continuing professional development
should be available at local, regional and
national level to develop awareness of and
confidence in:
• frameworks for creativity
• potential for interaction with
ICT capability
• pedagogy and management of learning
environments
• evaluation and assessment strategies
• case studies of practice in other
settings.
Models of professional development and
initial teacher education should provide
opportunities for experiences of creative
processes with ICT in a range of
curriculum subject domains.
7.1.3 IMPLICATIONS FOR
PRACTICE IN RESEARCH
Research should conceptualise theoretical
models of creativity with ICT which can
support a range of research questions,
methodologies and modes of presentation
of the practices which are ongoing or
being developed.
Research should make connections
between the different strands of creativity
research and educational
ICT research.
Examples of creative practice and
development with ICT should be described,
analysed, theorised and presented for peer
review in order to provide greater breadth
and depth in the literature. This could be
achieved through the encouragement of
small-scale evaluations of ongoing work
which apply rigorous research techniques,
as well as more large scale and
longitudinal research designs.
The role of ICT in supporting the research
process itself as a creative activity should
be investigated.
Strategies for research in the field should
address the themes outlined in this review:
the interaction between creativity and ICT
capability; cross-disciplinary and cross-
phase communication of practice;
evaluation and assessment of creativity
and ICT capability; developing learning
environments for creativity with ICT.
7.2 IMPLICATIONS FOR
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
Consideration should be given to
explorations of broad knowledge
domains through cross-curricular
and thematic work.
Curriculum areas should identify creativity
frameworks in their subject domains, the
interaction with ICT capability and the
28
SECTION 7
WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR
PRACTICE, CURRICULUM AND DESIGN?
appropriate use of ICT as a tool and
as a medium.
Assessment strategies which are
appropriate for identifying the interaction
between creativity and ICT capability, and
useful in providing formative feedback
within knowledge domains, should be
developed and evaluated.
Ongoing examples of innovative practice
should be analysed in terms of their
potential to inform curriculum
development.
7.3 IMPLICATIONS FOR THE DESIGN
OF LEARNING RESOURCES
Guidelines for a ‘creative toolkit’ of ICT
resources should be identified to enable
individuals and communities to have
access to technologies which enable them
to engage in a range of creative processes
from conjecture to evaluation. This might
include descriptions of the types of ICT
applications and equipment which could
support a range of creative practices -
from portable devices to capture digital
images and sound to multimedia authoring
software or programmable toys.
Guidelines for the evaluation of ‘creative
learning resources’ should be developed to
enable designers and users to make
informed decisions about the claims made
for products and materials. These might
include exemplars and questions to ask
about ICT resources to determine their
potential to support developing ideas or
creating and making, or their potential to
promote individual or collaborative work,
or publish outcomes of creative work in
order to engage in evaluative feedback
from others.
Guidelines for the design of creative digital
learning resources should provide
opportunities for interaction between
higher order ICT capability and creative
processes. The design and development of
learning resources, whether by
commercial or non-commercial producers,
should recognise potential to support
progression and interaction in creative
processes, from imaginative activity and
making informed decisions about
appropriate media and tools, to engaging
in critical evaluation.
8WHAT ARE SOME OF
THE BARRIERS?
The review has indicated that there are key
factors which underpin creative processes
and have an impact on the success of
teaching for creativity, and that digital
technologies can play a distinctive role in
both of these aspects of creativity and
learning. There are, however, barriers to
the development of creativity in traditional
educational settings. None are
insurmountable, but each needs to be
recognised as a constraint upon learners
realising the potential of the creative use
of digital technologies.
There are some critical concerns about the
development of creativity in schooling in
the UK. Kimbell has highlighted the
‘profound state of alarm about the creative
condition of the experience received by our
youngsters in school’ (Kimbell 2000, p206).
He states that the necessary conditions for
creative acts are affective and cognitive
support and a trusting relationship
between children and teachers which
allows risk and failure. Yet he argues that
the artistry required of teachers to inspire
and encourage pupils’ creativity is
29
artistry required
of teachers to
inspire and
encourage
pupils’ creativity
is marginalised
and damaged by
the ‘dead hand’
of the regulatory
organisations
SECTION 8
WHAT ARE SOME
OF THE BARRIERS?
marginalised and damaged by the ‘dead
hand’ of the regulatory organisations, such
as Ofsted, which value standards and
management over creativity and risk-
taking (p208).
Although many countries focus on
creativity and cultural education, there are
recognised to be challenges in curriculum
overload and low status of the arts in
schools (Sharp and Le Metais 2000). In the
English National Curriculum the time and
attention given to creative subjects in the
primary curriculum is also being squeezed
by the demands of the National Literacy
and Numeracy Strategies and the focus
upon school performance in league tables
of children’s achievement in Standard
Assessment Tests in English, Mathematics
and Science. There is also evidence that
the time allocated to consideration of
creative subjects is also limited in teacher
education provision (RSA 1998).
Access to a range of technologies to
support creative practices is important and
sizeable government resources have been
given to support the development of ICT in
schools, libraries, museums and
community spaces. Many of the British
government initiatives relate to providing
access to the internet to support the
development of ICT capability in the
creative spheres, yet in a preliminary
consideration of the impact of the National
Grid for Learning Initiative (NGfL),
researchers note the need for caution in
claiming significant and purposeful access
to the internet for children and young
people in school and home (Furlong,
Furlong et al 2000). Teachers need not
only access to technologies, but also a
framework to promote understanding and
confidence in their own creative teaching
practice and professional development.
It is said that fear and vanity are often the
two emotions which prevent us from
realising our potential in many areas of
life, and addressing them takes
confidence, trust and courage in
individuals and within communities. New
approaches to flexibility and exploration in
ways of working, pedagogy, curriculum,
assessment and management of time and
resources in schools could be tried, but
this will require the encouragement of an
ethos of creative challenge and celebration
of imagination and ‘possibility thinking’.
30
teachers need
a framework
to promote
understanding
and confidence
in their own
creative teaching
practice and
professional
development
SECTION 8
WHAT ARE SOME
OF THE BARRIERS?
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... Teknolojinin geliĢebilmesi için yaratıcılığa gereksinim olduğu gibi yaratıcılığı geliĢtirmek için de teknoloji süreç içerisinde kullanılabilmektedir. Teknoloji yaratıcılık gibi üst düzey düĢünme becerilerinin geliĢmesinde önemli bir katalizör olabilir. Bireyler teknoloji ile karmaĢık ve zor iĢlemleri daha kısa zamanda ve kolaylıkla gerçekleĢtirebilirler ve böylece yaratıcılık gibi üst düzey düĢünme becerilerini kullanmak için daha fazla zaman bulabilirler (Loveless, 2002). Ayrıca bireyler teknolojinin sağladığı tasarım kolaylığı ve sınırsız imkanlar ile yeni bilgileri, ürünleri, sanat eserlerini ve endüstriyel ürünleri daha da yaratıcı Ģekilde tasarlayabilirler. ...
... BĠT'ler, Özellikle deneme yanılma olanağı ile üretim sürecinde bireylere alternatif olasılıkları deneyerek değiĢiklik ve düzeltme yapabilme; etkileĢim olanağı ile bireye süreç içinde aktif olma, kendi karar verme sürecini ayarlayabilme fırsatı sunmaktadır. BĠT'ler aynı zamanda bilgiye ve kaynaklara sınırsız eriĢim sağlayarak, bilgiyi depolama, tekrar çağırma, transfer etme, dönüĢtürme, sorgulama, yorumlama, analiz ve sentez yapma fırsatı sunmaktadır (Loveless, 2002). Ayrıca Loveless (2002)' a göre yaratıcılığı desteklemek amacıyla BĠT'ler düĢünceyi geliĢtirme, bağlantı kurma, yaratma ve anlam katma, iĢbirliği yapma ve iletiĢim kurma, yayınlama, sunma ve değerlendirme amaçlı kullanılabilmektedir. Shneiderman (1999) ise bilgisayarın yaratıcılığı desteklemek amaçlı dört aĢamalı kullanılmasından bahsetmiĢtir. ...
... BĠT'ler aynı zamanda bilgiye ve kaynaklara sınırsız eriĢim sağlayarak, bilgiyi depolama, tekrar çağırma, transfer etme, dönüĢtürme, sorgulama, yorumlama, analiz ve sentez yapma fırsatı sunmaktadır (Loveless, 2002). Ayrıca Loveless (2002)' a göre yaratıcılığı desteklemek amacıyla BĠT'ler düĢünceyi geliĢtirme, bağlantı kurma, yaratma ve anlam katma, iĢbirliği yapma ve iletiĢim kurma, yayınlama, sunma ve değerlendirme amaçlı kullanılabilmektedir. Shneiderman (1999) ise bilgisayarın yaratıcılığı desteklemek amaçlı dört aĢamalı kullanılmasından bahsetmiĢtir. Birinci aĢama bilgiyi toplama (collect) aĢamasıdır ve bu aĢamada yapılmıĢ çalıĢmalara, projelere ve kaynaklara eriĢilebilir. ...
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Bu araştırmanın amacı İlköğretim ikinci kademe öğrencilerin üç boyutlu animasyonlar hazırlamada kullanabilecekleri Alice yazılımının bilişsel araç olarak kullanılabilirliğini incelemek, yazılımı 7 hafta boyunca kullanarak üç boyutlu animasyonlar hazırlayan ilköğretim 6. ve 7. sınıflara devam eden altı öğrencinin yazılım hakkındaki görüşlerini ve öğrencilerin hazırladıkları projeleri değerlendirmektir. Çalışma sonucunda öğrenciler yazılımı genel olarak “eğlenceli”, “renkli” ve “eğitici” olarak tanımlayarak yazılımın kullanımın kolay olduğunu ve ihtiyaç duydukları nesnelere kolayca erişim sağladığını belirtmişlerdir. Bununla birlikte öğrenciler yazılımda Türkçe dil desteğinin olmamasının bir dezavantaj olduğunu belirtmişlerdir. Öğrenciler yazdıkları senaryoları rahatlıkla Alice yazılımı ile tasarlamaktan duydukları memnuniyeti dile getirirlerken yazılımı gerçek yaşamdaki bazı problemleri çözmek için kullanma eğiliminde oldukları da ortaya çıkmıştır. Öğrencilerin Alice yazılımını kullanarak proje için yazdıkları senaryoları %90 oranında gerçekleştirebildikleri, proje senaryolarının akıcılığının iyi düzeyde olmasına karşın özgünlüğünün (orijinalliğinin) vasat düzeyde olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Araştırmada öğrencilerin tasarım yapmalarına olanak tanıyan Alice gibi 3 boyutlu animasyon yazılımlarının ilköğretim ikinci kademeden başlayarak kullanılmasının gerekliliği vurgulanmıştır.
... In addition, engaging in video-enabled assignments spurs students to anticipate extra obligations in their learning while providing a rich, memorable and real learning experience [6]. Among numerous technological equipment on the disposal of instructors and learners, virtual video has been diagnosed as particularly useful for selling lively and innovative learning [7,8]. ...
Article
This study determines the effect of video-assisted Discovery Learning on the mathematical communication skills of junior high school students. The research sample was determined by cluster random sampling of the seventh-grade students of SMP Negeri 29 Semarang, Indonesia. The research data were analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), continued with the Scheffe test. The results showed that: (i) the Discovery Learning model assisted by video learning had a significant effect on the mathematical communication abilities of students (F = 11,926; P = 0.05); (ii) there were differences in the mathematical communication ability between students using the Discovery model and those using conventional models (F = 9,729; P = 0.05); and (iii) there were differences in the mathematical communication skills of students watching instructional videos and those who did not (F = 8,592; P = 0.05). The authors conclude that the Discovery Learning model assisted by instructional videos is more effective and has a significant effect on the mathematical communication abilities of secondary high school students
... The cultural field can become the national dynamic of the artistic urge that can represent all these constituencies (Scottish Executive, 2004). These documents formed the framework for recent policy discussions (Craft, 2005) in which the British Government replied to discussions on artistic education to solve the fiscal, technical, and social demands of the 21st century (Loveless, 2002). Another paper calling for innovation in primary education was the National Primary School Plan in the United Kingdom (Hayes, 2004). ...
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Although creativity is necessary at all educational stages, this article forcibly says that it is inevitable at the primary educational stage. This article is of commentary type that comments on how creativity is essential in primary education. The article further proves that creativity and education cannot be separated but are concomitant for several reasons which have been discussed in this article. It also explains why, in the Pakistani educational system, creativity has been ignored so far. It also informs the Pakistani educational system that they should embrace the critical concept of creativity. This research article was mainly based on three objectives i.e., to analyze the policy documents of various countries regarding creativity, to draw the conceptual framework which may consider as a foundation for the creativity researchers and then on the basis of conceptual framework the curriculum can be designed for Pakistani context regarding creativity. Thus, the authors have analyzed the various countries' educational policy documents to prove the strong evidence that creativity also needs to be placed in the Pakistani curriculum and educational system, especially at the primary level. One the basis of this analysis, the researchers had drawn the conceptual framework which explicitly shows the characteristics, importance and focus of creativity regarding the primary educational level of Pakistan. The researchers also put forward this opinion that the drawn conceptual framework can be used as a foundation for the creativity researchers to design creative curriculum. This article also draws some messages from past literature and leaves some blank spaces for the future researchers.
... Once in the workforce, people can express their creativity if there is an open, welcoming environment where ideas are shared freely without consequences. Loveless indicated that 21st-century societies actively require interactions "between people, communities, creative processes, knowledge domains, and wider social contexts" [24] (p. 2). ...
Article
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Positive creativity involves creative ideas and products that are beneficial to humanity. This paper discusses the importance of fostering positive and transformational creativity in PK-12 and college settings, and concrete classroom strategies for nurturing positive creativity through a service learning pedagogy. A brief history of service learning pedagogy is discussed, along with a practical application of the K-12 Developmental Service Learning Typology, a theoretical service learning pedagogical model. This practical application highlights three examples of how service learning can foster positive and transformational creativity: experiential learning through community service or volunteering, problem-based learning through community exploration, and using Destination Imagination as a form of social or community activism. The latter two examples demonstrate using curiosity to create positive, novel, and useful products through a cycle of deep exploration of topics that each student has an intense interest in, called the Roberts Curiosity Community Exploration Cycle (R-CCEC).
... Around 91% of teachers in 19 countries asserted that the creativity of learners had improved through using a variety of digital tools to design and create technological products such as math games (Brinda et al. 2015). Specifically, the use of ICT can promote learners' creativity by growing ideas, leading connections by collaboration and communication, creating and doing with effective technology tools (Loveless 2002). Attempting to find out the effect of using online technologies on creative thinking, Wheeler et al. (2002) piloted 41 sixth-grade students and concluded that the contribution of ICT to the development of creative thinking displayed on 3 aspects: problem-solving, creative awareness, and social connection. ...
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This article discusses determinant factors of creative thinking skills in students, including demographic features, within and out-of-school experiences, digital usage and ICT (Information and Communication Technology) skills. Structural equated model constructed from 1181 observations from Vietnamese secondary students reveals that students’ digital usage and ICT skills, together with experiences within and outside school are strong predictors of their creativity levels. Demographic features, academic performance and after-school tuition are found insignificant to school learners’ creative abilities. The results provide significant insights into the current situation of skills education and policy implications to improve instructional quality of Vietnam’s education system and other nations with similar sociocultural contexts. Received: 11 November 2021 / Accepted: 14 December 2021 / Published: 5 March 2022
... With the advent of information and communication technology, educators have become increasingly interested in adapting the interactive platform to engage the student learning activities (Enriquez, 2010;Ifenthaler & Schweinbenz, 2013;Koile & Singer, 2008;Loveless, 2002). Interactive technologies, including smartphones, tablets, apps, interactive whiteboards, and classroom response systems, have generated active discussions that focus on students' learning performance and abilities (Gikas & Grant, 2013). ...
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Proceedings of the International University Carnival on e-Learning (IUCEL) 2021
... With the advent of information and communication technology, educators have become increasingly interested in adapting the interactive platform to engage the student learning activities (Enriquez, 2010;Ifenthaler & Schweinbenz, 2013;Koile & Singer, 2008;Loveless, 2002). Interactive technologies, including smartphones, tablets, apps, interactive whiteboards, and classroom response systems, have generated active discussions that focus on students' learning performance and abilities (Gikas & Grant, 2013). ...
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The current COVID- 19 pandemic has forced many countries to halt the spread of the virus by closing schools, colleges and universities. Educators, parents and students continue to struggle adapting new ways of going out about their lives. With the shift from face-to-face instruction to online education, developing and designing online learning platforms, tools and materials have certainly been a challenge for special education teachers in providing engaging learning experience to their students. In the context of English language learning, the deaf and hard of hearing students at Politeknik Ungku Omar (PUO) need a variety of approaches and support in terms of appropriate adaptations, modifications and accommodations made to the online instruction and learning activities. This innovative research aims to evaluate the effectiveness of 3D Virtual Learning Environment (3D VLE) Vocab-Game that is designed not only to improve deaf students’ English Vocabulary but to better engage them in fun virtual classroom activities.
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Contemporary early childhood research investigates ways of extending children’s scientific understanding and knowing in the world around them. The current study followed an innovative approach, adopting the design thinking model of IDEO to promote and deepen children’s scientific thinking and understanding of the ‘water cycle’. Digital technologies such as concept map software, simulations, interactive whiteboard and others, were also successfully integrated and played a significant role in the whole process. A total of 61 children from three Greek kindergartens participated in the study (33 boys and 28 girls) and their mean age was 5.2 years. Teachers’ diaries of the activities following the IDEO phases, digital recordings of children’s responses, drawings and concept maps were utilised for the documentation of the teaching intervention. The results revealed that the IDEO model was very helpful and contributed to reaching positive learning outcomes. Children were active participants throughout the intervention and their scientific knowledge was enhanced. Future research with a design thinking framework in exploring science in early childhood education settings is strongly recommended by also successfully integrating digital tools.
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