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Dried of Poultry Waste Urea-Molasses Block (dpw-umb) as Potential for Feed Supplementation

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  • Animal Science Faculty, Brawijaya University, Indonesia, Malang

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The research purpose was to determine the nutrient content of dried poultry waste molasses block (DPW-UMB). The use of dried poultry waste in the manufacture of the urea-molasses block was as a substitute of urea and could improve the value added in dry season. The treatments used for research were T1 (15% manure layer chicken and 25% molasses), T2 (10% manure layer chicken and 30% molasses), and T3 (20% manure layer chicken and 30% molasses). Chemical analysis: the dried of poultry waste were analyzed for dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, and gross energy. The statistical formulation diet composed with Microsoft Excel Ver. 2016. The results showed that the 20% manure layer chicken and 30% molasses (T3) were better than T2 and T1 on nutrient content with 92.04% Dry Matter (DM), 13.34% Crude Protein (CP), 13.39% Crude Fiber (CF), 37.16% ash, 3.44% fat, but low in Gross Energy (GE) (2631.63 kcal/kg). It could be concluded that dpw-umb T3 were dried of poultry waste contained sufficient levels of gross energy, crude protein, crude fibre, ash, and fat it could be used as feedstuff for ruminants for supplementation with the required nutrients.
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Agripet Vol 17, No. 2, Oktober 2017 145
A Study: Dried of Poultry Waste Urea-Molasses Block (DPW-UMB) as
Potential for Feed Supplementation
(Studi : kotoran ayam molasses (kamblok) sebagai potensi supplementasi pakan)
Danung Nur Adli 1, Osfar Sjofjan 1 dan Mashudi 1
Feed Animal Nutrition Department Animal Husbandry Faculty, Brawijaya University
ABSTRACT The research purpose was to
determine the nutrient content of dried poultry
waste molasses block (DPW-UMB). The use of
dried poultry waste in the manufacture of the urea-
molasses block was as a substitute of urea and could
improve the value added in dry season. The
treatments used for research were T1 (15% manure
layer chicken and 25% molasses), T2 (10% manure
layer chicken and 30% molasses), and T3 (20%
manure layer chicken and 30% molasses). Chemical
analysis: the dried of poultry waste were analyzed
for dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ash, fat,
and gross energy. The statistical formulation diet
composed with Microsoft Excel Ver. 2016. The
results showed that the 20% manure layer chicken
and 30% molasses (T3) were better than T2 and T1
on nutrient content with 92.04% Dry Matter (DM),
13.34% Crude Protein (CP), 13.39% Crude Fiber
(CF), 37.16% ash, 3.44% fat, but low in Gross
Energy (GE) (2631.63 kcal/kg). It could be
concluded that dpw-umb T3 were dried of poultry
waste contained sufficient levels of gross energy,
crude protein, crude fibre, ash, and fat it could be
used as feedstuff for ruminants for supplementation
with the required nutrients.
Keywords: dpw-umb, urea, and manure
ABSTRAK. Tujuan penelitian ini bertujuan untuk
mengkaji kandungan nutrisi dari Kotoran Ayam
Molasses Blok (KAMBLOK) dengan analisis
proksimat. Sebagai bahan pengganti urea dengan
kotoran ayam kering dalam pembuatan urea
molasses blok dan meningkatkan nilai tambah
dalam suplementasi Kotoran Ayam Molasses Blok
(KAMBLOK) pada musim kemarau. Perlakuan
yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah Kotoran
Ayam Molasses Blok (KAMBLOK) dengan T1
(Kotoran Ayam Petelur 15% dan Molasses 25%),
T2 (Kotoran Ayam Petelur 10% dan Molasses 30%),
T3 (Kotoran Ayam Petelur 20% dan Molasses 30%).
Analisis kandungan nutrisi yang dilakukan adalah
bahan kering, protein kasar, serat kasar, abu, lemak,
dan gross energi. Analisis statistik menggunakan
Microsoft excel versi 2016. Hasil Penelitian
menunjukan Kotoran Ayam Molasses Blok
(KAMBLOK) T3 lebih baik dari T2 dan T1 pada
bahan kering (BK) 92, 04%, protein kasar (PK)
13,34%, serat kasar (SK) 13,39%, abu 37,16%,
lemak 3,44% tetapi rendah dalam gross energi (GE)
adalah 2.631,63 kal/kg. Kesimpulan dari penelitian
ini adalah kotoran ayam mengandung beberapa
kandungan yaitu protein kasar, gross energy, serat
kasar, abu, dan lemak yang bisa digunakan sebagai
pakan potensial untuk supplementasi.
Kata kunci: Kamblok,urea, dan kotoran ayam petelur
2017 Agripet : Vol (17) No. 2 : 145-150
INTRODUCTION
1
The number of beef cattle population
decreased during the dry season. The feedlot
system was not supported by the balance of
quality and feed availability in dry and rainy
season. The large quantity of forage was
available in rainy season but limited in the dry
Corresponding author : danungnuradli1994@gmail.com
DOI : https://doi.org/10.17969/agripet.v17i2.8391
season. Therefore, the fattening of beef cattle
was restricted due to the use of rice straw for
feeding. Normally, rice straw was given to beef
cattle during the dry season.
According to Andi and Wahdi (2011)
rice straw is a by-product of grain production.
Rice straw has low nutrient content on protein,
crude fibre, and nitrogen. Low nutrient content
decreases rumen microbial population.
Supplementation from the feed which consists
A Study: Dried of Poultry Waste Urea-Molasses Block (DPW-UMB) as Potential for Feed Supplementation (Danung Nur Adli, S.Pt, et al)
146
of energy, mineral, vitamin, protein, and non-
protein-nitrogen (NPN) was essential to
fattening process. Urea molasses block (UMB)
is one type of feed supplement which contains
microelements. Supplementation from the
molasses block containing soluble
carbohydrates provides NPN as a source of
ammonia and minerals to enhance the
formation of microbial protein. Bacteria
produce enzymes which digest crude fiber and
synthesize protein as the feed source for
microbial or as known as microbial protein.
Siti et al. (2012) stated that UMB can be used
for supplementation that consists of rice bran,
pollard, salt, lime, and mineral.
In addition, Andi and Wahdi (2011)
stated that the nitrogen is element on the urea-
molasses block is useful in protein synthesize.
The principal of digestion in regard to forages
is the rumen, where the feed is retained for
substantial periods of time and subjected to
extensive microbial fermentation. The
utilization of urea NPN as animal feed
provided in layer chicken manure (Vatta et al.,
2007). Boushy and Poel (2000) stated layer
manure chicken consists of the pathogenic
microorganism. The low content of essential
amino acid and metabolic energy from the
manure is suggested to not be given for more
than 5% of total ration (Sinaga and Silalahi,
2012).
FAO (2010) stated the poultry industry
produced 22 million tons of manure from over
18 billion population of poultry. The negative
effect from poultry waste needs to be recycled.
The one method to recycle is by drying the
poultry waste as a source of nitrogen in the
urea-molasses block. The dried poultry waste
has been used as an animal feed for ruminant.
The animal waste and layer chicken manure in
feed have limits considered and adapted. The
laying chicken on its manure has high CF
content (14.9% DM). Nitrogen need in the beef
cattle has an alternative by using sources of
nitrogen from manure layer chicken and use
balanced with microbial activity (Ghaly and
Macdonald, 2012).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Materials
The principal equipment for the
manufacture of dried poultry waste urea-
molasses block (DPW-UMB) are gloves,
bucket capacity 10.000 g, plastic 500 g, UMB-
block 500g with shape round and love,
pressing tool, and analytic scale. The principal
ingredients are molasses, manure layer
chicken, rice bran, limestone, cement, brick,
salt, water, urea, and mineral mix. Treatment
one (T1) were (15% manure layer chicken and
25% molasses), (T2) were (10% manure layer
chicken and 30% molasses), (T3) (20% manure
layer chicken and 30% molasses).
Methods
The poultry waste was collected from
under the battery cages of laying house
accommodating approximately 50,000 hens.
The first step poultry waste collected was fresh
and was not subjected any treatment on the
farm. It was placed in clean plastic bags and
transported to the Janggan Village. The poultry
waste drying at temperature 1050C. The
second step are chemical analysis: the dried of
poultry waste were analyzed for dry matter,
crude protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, and gross
energy according to AOAC (1990).
Statistical analysis
The statically formulation diet composed with
Microsoft Excel Ver. 2016.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Crude Protein (CP) of Dried Poultry Waste-
Urea Molasses Block (DPW-UMB)
Based on Table 1 result from proximate
analysis conducted in the Nutrition and Feed
Animal Laboratory, Animal Husbandry
Faculty, Brawijaya University on the DPW-
UMB are showing the content of nutrients in
each treatment. The several factors affected are
processing, formulation, and kind of material
from one place. The table show the content of
the DPW-UMB on crude protein (CP) T3
highest than T1 and T2 the result is 13.34%
compared with 10.05% and 10.33% this is
because the percentage of formulation ration
Agripet Vol 17, No. 2, Oktober 2017 147
layer manure is 20% than T1 and T2 15% and
10%. The highest are due to the level dried
poultry waste given with level manure are
highest than T1 and T2.
Nurhayu et al. (2010) stated urea
molasses block (UMB) nutrient content consist
urea and molasses showed crude protein is
12.76%. Crude protein (CP) on T3 is 13.34%
using dried poultry waste combining with
molasses the statistics better than urea
molasses block (UMB). Comparison crude
protein content on the dried layer chicken is
13.47% and dried broiler excreta is 21.59%.
The result was similar to Sinaga and Silalahi
(2012) stated the content of protein in the dried
poultry waste is 12-31% layer chicken.
Table 1. DPW-UMB nutrient content
Treatments
Code
Name
Feedstuff Content
DM
CP
CF
Ash
Fat
GE
(%)
(cal/kg)
18-07-2016
T1
61.42
10.05
17.41
27.26
3.51
3065.82
29-08-2016
T2
90.92
10.33
8.20
31.69
3.95
2949.50
T3
92.04
13.34
13.39
37.16
3.44
2631.63
Source: (Nutrition and Feed Animal Laboratory, Animal Husbandry
Faculty, Brawijaya University Malang, 2016).
Note: the chemical analysis: the dried of poultry waste were analyzed for
dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, and gross energy according
to AOAC (1990).
Gross Energy (GE) of Dried Poultry Waste-
Urea Molasses Block (DPW-UMB)
Energy is defined as the ability or
capacity to work in living organism. Energy is
essential for the maintenance of life processes
including cellular metabolism, growth,
reproduction, and physical activity. Gross
energy (GE) is the quantity of heat resulting
from the complete oxidation of food, feed, or
other substances. Gross Energy (GE) from
dried poultry waste urea-molasses block on the
T1 is higher than T2 and T3 from the table show
3065.82 cal/kg higher than 2949.50 cal/kg and
2631.63 cal/kg. The level of gross energy
highest depend on the molasses content in the
feedstuff that given the sources of the energy.
Molasses is residual crop from sugarcane in the
liquid form and bagasse is solid form the
content of the molasses is providing energy
and source of carbohydrate. The molasses
taken from Rejosari sugarcane industry. The
molasses is reached maximum during dry
season and residues cannot utilize well in the
Magetan Regency.
The molasses gave 25% for T1 and 30%
for T2 and T3. The result of T1 higher because
during the mixing with other feedstuff
molasses absorb well into dried poultry waste
urea-molasses block. The method during made
of DPW-UMB is the factor to given the result
of content DPW-UMB. The result matches
with Mubi et al., (2013) stated molasses and
sugar are sources of energy for ruminants.
Molasses can increase microbial growth in the
rumen.
Bata (2008) give additional information
stated the main uses of molasses are as a
binding agent or binder in feedstuff. The
molasses act granules to improve palatability in
feedstuff ration. Wayne et al. (2003) stated
microbial production is high-quality by-pass
protein and drastically altered rumen VFA. The
result giving additional statement from Arnita
et al. (2010) stated rumen microbial growth
requires N availability as much as 1.28% N or
equivalent with 8% protein.
Dry Matter (DM) of Dried Poultry Waste-
Urea Molasses Block (DPW-UMB)
Dry Matter (DM) from dried poultry
waste urea-molasses block on the T1 is lower
than T2 and T3 from the table show 61.42%
lower than 90.92% and 92.04%. Dried poultry
waste urea-molasses block packaged and sun
drying for seven days. The drying does not
literally cover on the T1 and dry matter only
61.42 % indicate still wet. The greater
availability of dissolved carbohydrates causes
increased activity of fermentation by bacteria
to produce lactic acid. The fermentation
activity causing loss dry matter in the dried
poultry waste urea-molasses block. Decreasing
dry matter is affected by respiration and
fermentation respiration will cause a lot of the
nutrients to break down and reduce the dry
matter, while fermentation will produce lactic
acid and water. The higher water produced
during made of DPW-UMB, then loss of dry
matter increase. The dry matter loss affected by
increased levels of water coming fermented
form of simple sugars the result compared with
A Study: Dried of Poultry Waste Urea-Molasses Block (DPW-UMB) as Potential for Feed Supplementation (Danung Nur Adli, S.Pt, et al)
148
Agarwal et al. (2015) stated the omasum helps
in the absorption of water and variation in
omasum dry matter was 0.6%, 1.2%, and 3.3%
of the body weight in the dairy cows and beef
cattle. Decreasing dry matter is affected by
respiration and fermentation respiration will
cause a lot of the nutrients to break down and
reduce the dry matter, while fermentation will
produce lactic acid and water. The higher water
produced during made of DPW-UMB, then
loss of dry matter increase. The pressing
processing help to reduce water content that
can be seen in figure 11. The dry matter loss
affected by increased levels of water coming
fermented form of simple sugars the result
compared with Agarwal et al. (2015) stated the
omasum helps in the absorption of water and
variation in omasum dry matter was 0.6%,
1.2%, and 3.3% of the body weight in the dairy
cows and beef cattle.
Fats of Dried Poultry Waste-Urea Molasses
Block (DPW-UMB)
Lipids or fats are a heterogeneous group
of organic compounds found in living
microorganism. Lipid are soluble in the
organic solvents like ether or chloroform. Fats
are required for a long term storage of
metabolic energy to supply essential fatty acids
and to carry fat vitamin. Fat in the dried
poultry waste urea-molasses block on the T3 is
lower than T2 and T1 from the table 1 show
3.44% lower than 3.95 and 3.51% its because
condition happen from rice bran while the rice
bran as gave the fats condition to the feedstuff
and increase the content of the fat.
Nurhayu et al. (2010) stated urea molasses
block (UMB) nutrient content consist urea and
molasses showed fat is 2.51%. Fat on T3 is
3.44% using dried poultry waste combining
with molasses the statistics better than urea
molasses block (UMB). The rice bran provides
some key nutrients including fat and
phosphorus. Rice bran helps absorbent for the
moisture contained in molasses and gives
structure to the block. The fats are high
digestible and reducing dustiness.
Crude Fiber (CF) of Dried Poultry Waste-
Urea Molasses Block (DPW-UMB)
Crude fiber from dried poultry waste
urea-molasses block on the T1 is higher than T2
and T3 from the table show 18.41% higher than
8.20 and 13.39%. The T1 are highest due to the
level of the dried poultry waste given that
increasing the crude fiber. Crude fiber will
stimulate the process of rumination and rumen
contractions, which in turn will improve the
fermentation process the fiber feed. The main
result of the fermentation of fibrous
carbohydrates is acetic acid. Crude fiber
content of high feed can be a limiting factor for
consumption. Crude fiber that is both bulky
feed will stay longer in the rumen and can
suppress consumption.
Nurhayu et al. (2010) stated urea
molasses block (UMB) nutrient content consist
urea and molasses showed crude fiber (CF) is
6.65%. Crude fiber (CF) on T3 is 18.41% using
dried poultry waste combining with molasses
the statistics better than urea molasses block
(UMB). Crude fiber is also an indicator of the
low digestibility of a feed material. The
digestibility of crude fiber depends on the
content of crude fiber in formulations. The
result match with Wayne et al. (2003) stated
supplementation in the solid form effect same
with the concentrate because both have a
function to increase growth and number of
rumen microbes.
Ash of Dried Poultry Waste-Urea Molasses
Block (DPW-UMB)
Ash content from dried poultry waste
urea-molasses block on the T3 is highest than
T2 and T1 from the table show 37.16% higher
than 31.69% and 27.26%. Those condition due
to the dried poultry waste formulation. The ash
content from dried poultry layer waste is
6.95% combining with dried broiler waste
6.49%. Ash is residues remaining after all the
combustible material has been turned off. The
nutritionally ash values have little importance
on DPW-UMB in this component salt and
limestone given the content of ash. The cement
function in the DPW-UMB is for source silica
(micro-mineral) and hardener. The ash content
has positive correlation with crude protein (CP)
Agripet Vol 17, No. 2, Oktober 2017 149
content in dry poultry waste urea-molasses
block.
Nurhayu et al. (2010) stated urea
molasses block (UMB) nutrient content consist
urea and molasses showed ash is 14.04%. Ash
on T3 is 37.16% using dried poultry waste
combining with molasses the statistics better
than urea molasses block (UMB).
Determination of total ash can be used for
many purposes for this case to determine
whether or not a treatment on this case made of
dried poultry waste urea-molasses block. The
total ash knowing type of material composed,
and as a determinant of the nutritional value
parameters of a feedstuff.
CONCLUSIONS
It could be concluded that dpw-umb T3
were dried of poultry waste contained
sufficient levels of gross energy, crude protein,
crude fibre, ash, and fat it could be used as
feedstuff for ruminants for supplementation
with the required nutrients.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This research has been supported by
RISTEKDIKTI that qualified in the national
scientific paper (PIMNAS 28) at Haluoleo
University Kendari. The authors thank to
Janggan Farmer group as our partner for this
research.
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... As a result the quality of meat is depends on the feed and antibiotics use by farmers as feed additives. Different substances often referred to as natural growth promoters (NGPs) are supposed to achieve high consumer acceptance since they do not usually pose any risk that will lead to bacterial (Adli et al., 2017). ...
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Peningkatan reproduksi sapi induk brahman cross post-partum dengan pemberian pakan supplemen multinutrient block plus medicated
  • S Andi
  • A Wahdi
Andi, S., Wahdi, A., 2011. Peningkatan reproduksi sapi induk brahman cross post-partum dengan pemberian pakan supplemen multinutrient block plus medicated. J. Ilmiah Aplikasi Isotop dan Radiasi. 1907: 127-143.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists Official Methods of Analysis
AOAC, 1990. Association of Official Analytical Chemists Official Methods of Analysis, Washington, AOAC Benjamin Franklin Station.
Agricultural handbook: poultry meat and eggs. 1 st edn, FAO Investment Centre Division
  • Fao
FAO, 2010. Agricultural handbook: poultry meat and eggs. 1 st edn, FAO Investment Centre Division, Rome Italy.
Drying of poultry manure for use animal feed
  • A E Ghaly
  • K N Macdonald
Ghaly, A.E., Macdonald, K.N., 2012. Drying of poultry manure for use animal feed.