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Romanian spontaneous flora provides a lot of resources for the determination of different chemical compounds. This study uses flower samples from Calendula officinalis L. extracted through maceration. The chemical compounds determined were: (+)-catechin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, rutin, resveratrol and quercetin. They were analyzed by using an optimized HPLC method. (+)-Catechin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and quercetin could not be identified in the analyzed samples. The greatest amount of phenolic compound found was rutin and the smallest quantity was determined for ferulic acid. The quantified compounds have proven to have benefits regarding human health, thus they can be used as functional compounds and can be included in food products and food supplements.
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Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis Series E: FOOD TECHNOLOGY 97
Vol. XXI (2017), no. 2
HPLC DETERMINATION OF POLYPHENOLS FROM CALENDULA OFFICINALIS
L. FLOWERS
Short communication
Adina FRUM
'Lucian Blaga' University of Sibiu, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Food Industry and
Environmental Protection, No.7, I. Ratiu Street, 550012, Sibiu, Romania
Abstract: Romanian spontaneous flora provides a lot of resources for the determination of different chemical
compounds. This study uses flower samples from Calendula officinalis L. extracted through maceration. The
chemical compounds determined were: (+)- catechin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, cinnamic acid, ferulic acid,
gallic acid, rutin, resveratrol and quercetin. They were analyzed by using an optimized HPLC method. (+)-
Catechin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and quercetin could not be identified in the analyzed samples. The
greatest amount of phenolic compound found was rutin and the smallest quantity was determined for ferulic acid.
The quantified compounds have proven to have benefits regarding human health, thus they can be used as
functional compounds and can be included in food products and food supplements.
Key words: common marigold, functional compounds, HPLC, phenolic compounds
INTRODUCTION
Chemical compounds extracted from plants
have been used for a long period of time for
the prevention of diseases or as adjuvants in
their treatment. Several properties as antifungal
(Mironescu et al., 2009, Georgescu &
Mironescu, 2011), antibacterial and antiviral
have been proved to be useful in the
preservation of human health (Swamy et al.,
2016).
Phenolic compounds are of great interest
nowadays due to their benefits regarding
human health. They can be used as adjuvants
in the treatment of several diseases, mostly
oxidative-stress related diseases, because of
their antioxidant properties (Martins et al.,
2016, Zhang et al., 2016). Thus they can be
used in cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and
gastrointestinal diseases, cancer (Martins et al.,
2016, Aguilera et al., 2016), diabetes (Liu et
al., 2016), obesity (Hernandez-Saavedra et al.,
2015) and inflammatory diseases (Petrova et
al., 2016).
Calendula officinalis L. is a plant that grows
annually and that is included in the Asteraceae
family (El-Nashar et al., 2016). It has a flower
stem that can reach 60 cm and the color of the
flowers can vary from yellow to orange. They
bloom starting from June to late autumn
(Sausserde & Kampus, 2014). It is commonly
found in Romaniain the spontaneous flora as
well as in the cultivated one.
Its' chemical composition depends on the
region and the period in which the plant has
been harvested (Gomez Honorio et al., 2016).
Thus the diversity in chemical compounds that
was determined lead us to examine the content
in several phenolic compounds that poses
health benefits from the plants harvested from
Romania.
Studies regarding the uses of Calendula
officinalis L. flowers in food industry show
that they can be consumed fresh (di Tizio et
al., 2012), dried or processed as tea, candy or
liqueur (Acikgoz, 2017).
The aim of this study is to analyze the
Calendula officinalis L. flowers regarding their
content in several chemical compounds that
have been proven to possess health benefits.
Series E: Food technology
ACTA
UNIVERSITATIS
CIBINIENSIS
Series E: Food technology
ACTA
UNIVERSITATIS
CIBINIENSIS
Series E: Food technology
ACTA
UNIVERSITATIS
CIBINIENSIS
Series E: Food technology
ACTA
UNIVERSITATIS
CIBINIENSIS
Series E: Food technology
ACTA
UNIVERSITATIS
CIBINIENSIS
10.1515/aucft-2017-0020
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Frum, HPLC determination of polyphenols from Calendula officinalis L. flowers 98
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Extraction
The flowers of C. officinalis L. were harvested
from Romania, Sibiu County in august, when
the flowers reached maturity. The extract was
made by maceration of 1g of dried flowers in
10 mL of purified water for 72 hours at room
temperature. After the time expired the sample
was filtered and analyzed using an HPLC
method.
Analysis
The determination of the analyzed phenolic
compounds regarding their identity and
quantity was carried out by using an HPLC
system, 1200 series provided by Agilent
Technologies. The column that was used in
order to complete the analysis was the Zorbax
Eclipse Plus C18 with the following
dimensions: 250 mm x 4,6 mm i.d. x 5µm at
25ºC. The elution was chosen by using three
mobile phases. Mobile phase (m.p.) A was
purified water, B, methanol and C,purified
water: glacial acetic acid (96:4). The method
followed a strict gradient program: at 0 min
15% m.p.B and 85%m.p. C, at 15 min,75%
m.p. A and 25% m.p. B, at 20 min, 15% m.p.
A and 85% m.p. B, at 40 min, 40% m.p. A and
60% m.p. B, at 45 min, 5% m.p. A and 95%
m.p. B, at 55 min, 5% m.p. A and 95% m.p. B,
at 60 min, 85% m.p. A and 15% m.p. B and at
70 min, 85% m.p. A and 15% m.p. B. The used
flow rate was gradient style too. At 0 min the
flow rate was 0.5 mL/min and from 15 to 70
min 0.8 mL/min. 5 µL was the injection
volume used and the wavelengths were 360,
330, 303 and 280 nm (Frum et al., 2017). The
standard compounds used were of HPLC
purity and came from Sigma Aldrich.
The quantities of the phenolic compounds in
the analyzed samples were determined
depending on the compounds' aria from the
standard chromatogram. In order to acquire an
exact quantification of the phenolic
compounds, the analysis was performed in
triplicate.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The qualitative determination of the chemical compounds analyzed was accomplished by the
comparison of the retention times (RT) of the phenolic compounds determined in the standard mixture
chromatogram (Figure 1) to the compounds found in the sample chromatogram (Figures 2 and 3) at
each compounds' specific wavelength. The (+)-catechin, cinnamic acid, gallic acid and syringic acid
were identified at 280 nm, resveratrol at 303 nm, ferulic acid, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid at 330
nm and quercetin and rutin at 360 nm. Thus several compounds, like quercetin, chlorogenic acid,
caffeic acid and (+)- catechin, were not detected. (Table 1, Figures 1-3).
Table 1. The identification of phenolic compounds
Wavelength
Compound
Standard RT (min)
Sample RT (min)
280 nm
Gallic acid
6.68
6.69
(+)-Catechin
12.51
-
Syringic acid
20.57
20.51
Cinnamic acid
24.37
24.42
303 nm
Resveratrol
22.82
22.87
330 nm
Chlorogenic acid
15.46
-
Caffeic acid
20.30
-
Ferulic acid
22.37
22.35
360 nm
Rutin
22.51
22.47
Quercetin
23.76
-
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Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis Series E: FOOD TECHNOLOGY 99
Vol. XXI (2017), no. 2
Figure 1. Graphic representation of the mixture of standards
1. Gallic acid, 2. (+)-Catechin, 3. Syringic acid, 4. Cinnamic acid, 5. Resveratrol,
6. Chlorogenic acid, 7. Caffeic acid, 8. Ferulic acid, 9. Rutin, 10. Quercetin
Figure 2. Graphic representation of the analyzed sample
1. Gallic acid
The greatest quantity of phenolic compound
quantified was 3.10 mg/ 100 g vegetal product
(v.p.) for rutin, followed by 2.79 mg / 100 g
v.p. for syringic acid. Quantities below 1 mg /
100 g v.p. were determined for cinnamic acid:
0.83 mg / 100 g v.p., gallic acid: 0.8 mg / 100
g v.p., resveratrol: 0.49 mg / 100 g v.p., and
the smallest quantity: 0.24 mg / 100 g v.p. was
determined for ferulic acid (Fig. 4).
The determined phenolic compounds posses a
great interest regarding human health, thus
they can be used in the food industry like
functional compounds.
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Frum, HPLC determination of polyphenols from Calendula officinalis L. flowers 100
Figure 3. Graphic representation of the analyzed sample
3. Syringic acid, 4. Cinnamic acid, 5. Resveratrol, 8. Ferulic acid, 9. Rutin
Figure 4. The quantification of several phenolic compounds
CONCLUSIONS
The quantities of chemical compounds in
vegetal products can fluctuate depending on
the geographical region of growth, time of
harvesting, climate and soil composition.
This study was based on the qualitative and
quantitative determination of several chemical
compounds extracted from flowers of a
common plant from Romania. Several
compounds, like (+)- catechin, chlorogenic
0,0
0,5
1,0
1,5
2,0
2,5
3,0
3,5
Gallic acid Siringic acid Cinnamic
acid Resveratrol Ferulic acid Rutin
mg phenolic compound / 100 g v.p.
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Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis Series E: FOOD TECHNOLOGY 101
Vol. XXI (2017), no. 2
acid, caffeic acid and quercetin were not
detected.
The greatest quantity of phenolic compound
was determined for rutin and the lowest for
ferulic acid.
Due to the phenolic composition of the C.
officinalis L. flower extract, it can be used in
the industry as ingredients for several types of
food for the obtaining of food with health
benefits or dietary supplements.
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The objective of this review was to assess, based on human data, the role of phenolic compounds in selected plant foods consumed as part of the Mediterranean diet in the prevention of chronic diseases (CDs) like cardiovascular disease, cancer and neurodegenerative conditions. Fruits and vegetables are rich sources of phenolic compounds and based on scientific data it would be expected that their consumption, as part of the diet, would be responsible for their documented preventive role of chronic diseases. The results of the review of scientific literature on human clinical trials revealed that in some studies polyphenols exert a positive effect in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, essentially blood pressure and arterial dilation, certain types of cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. However, such effects are not consistent with other clinical studies in which no effect has been found. Therefore, the level of evidence for a beneficial effect in humans of phenols on the prevention of CDs is weak and need to be strengthened by additional studies addressing potential confounding factors, such as interaction of phenols with other bioactive substances in foods and potential pro-oxidant effects.
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Phenolic compounds including phenolic acids, flavonoids and proanthocyanins are widely distributed in plants as a protective mechanism against biotic and abiotic stresses. Fruits, vegetables, grains, spices and herbs are the richest source of dietary polyphenols. High intake of these foods has been linked to lowered risk of most common degenerative and chronic diseases that are known to be caused by oxidative stress. This review intends to summarize briefly recent progress on the chemistry and biochemistry of dietary polyphenols, their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and the underlying molecular mechanisms of their involvement in inflammation mediated metabolic diseases are also discussed. Perspectives for future research are also briefly discussed.
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Background: Numerous diseases have been related with free radicals overproduction and oxidative stress. Botanical preparations possess a multitude of bioactive properties, including antioxidant potential, which has been mainly related with the presence of phenolic compounds. However, the mechanisms of action of these phytochemicals, in vivo effects, bioavailability and bio-efficacy still need research. Scope and Approach: The present report aims to provide a critical review on the aspects related with the in vivo antioxidant activity of phenolic extracts and compounds from plant origin. Key findings: Biological functions beyond the human metabolism were discussed, comparing in vivo vs. in vitro studies, as also focusing the conditioning factors for phenolic compounds bioavailability and bio-efficacy. Furthermore, an upcoming perspective about the use of phytochemicals as life expectancy promoters and anti-aging factors in human individuals was provided. Conclusions: Overall, and despite all of those advances, the study of the biological potential of numerous natural matrices still remains a hot topic among the scientific community. In fact, the available knowledge about the responsible phytochemicals for the biological potential, their mechanisms of action, the establishment of therapeutic and prophylactic doses, and even the occurrence of biochemical inter-relations, is considerable scarce.