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Plastic toys as a source of exposure to bisphenol-A and phthalates at childcare facilities

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Infants and toddlers are constantly exposed to toys at childcare facilities. Toys are made of a variety of plastics that often use endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol-A (BPA) and phthalates as their building blocks. The goal of this study was to assess the non-dietary exposure of infants and toddlers to BPA and phthalates via leaching. We have successfully developed wipe tests to evaluate the leachability of BPA and phthalates from toys used at several day care facilities in Philadelphia. Our studies have shown an average leaching of 13–280 ng/cm² of BPA and phthalates. An estimate of total exposure of infants to BPA and phthalates is reported. The leaching of the chemicals was observed to be dependent on the washing procedures and the location of the day care facilities. Using bleach/water mixture two or more times a week to clean the toys seems to reduce the leaching of chemicals from the toys. There is a huge data gap in the estimated intake amounts and reported urinary concentrations; this is the first study that provides valuable information to address these data gaps in the existing literature.
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Plastic toys as a source of exposure to bisphenol-A
and phthalates at childcare facilities
Gangadhar Andaluri &
Muruganandham Manickavachagam &
Rominder Suri
Received: 15 March 2017 /Accepted: 22 December 2017 /Published online: 6 January 2018
#Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018
Abstract Infants and toddlers are constantly exposed to
toys at childcare facilities. Toys are made of a variety of
plastics that often use endocrine-disrupting chemicals
such as bisphenol-A (BPA) and phthalates as their build-
ing blocks. The goal of this study was to assess the non-
dietary exposure of infants and toddlers to BPA and
phthalates via leaching. We have successfully developed
wipe tests to evaluate the leachability of BPA and
phthalates from toys used at several day care facilities
in Philadelphia. Our studies have shown an average
leaching of 13280 ng/cm
of BPA and phthalates. An
estimate of total exposure of infants to BPA and
phthalates is reported. The leaching of the chemicals
was observed to be dependent on the washing proce-
dures and the location of the day care facilities. Using
bleach/water mixture two or more times a week to clean
the toys seems to reduce the leaching of chemicals from
the toys. There is a huge data gap in the estimated intake
amounts and reported urinary concentrations; this is the
first study that provides valuable information to address
these data gaps in the existing literature.
Keywords Childcare facilities .Plastic toys .Bisphenol
A.Phthalates .Exposure
Toys and childcare articles made from plastics are com-
monly used in childcare facilities. Plastics contain
chemicals that might be hazardous to human health
and the environment (BPA, phthalates, lead, etc.). Chil-
dren are particularly vulnerable to toxic chemicals since
their organs are still developing. Young children are at a
greater risk since they often insert plastic objects such as
baby bottles, sippy cups, teething rings, and toys into
their mouths. BPA is a high-production-volume chemi-
cal that is frequently used in the production of polycar-
bonate hard plastics and epoxy resins that are used in
many industries (US-EPA 2009). Exposure to BPA is
widespread in the USA; it is estimated that more than
1 million lb of BPA is released into the environment
every year (US-EPA 2009). A survey conducted by US
Center for Disease Control and prevention (CDC) in
20092010 has found that nearly 90% of the individuals
aged 6 and above had detectable concentrations of BPA
in their urine. This widespread exposure is of concern
because BPA exhibits hormone-like properties and
some laboratory animal studies report developmental
effects in fetuses and newborns exposed to low doses
of BPA. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
has also reported concerns about the potential effects of
BPA on the brain, behavior, and the prostate glands of
fetuses, infants, and children (NIEHS 2010,US-FDA
2014). Recent evaluations by the FDA have determined
that exposure to dietary BPA for infants and adults is
less than previously estimated. Initially, dietary expo-
sure was estimated at 185 and 2420 ng/kg bw/day for
Environ Monit Assess (2018) 190: 65
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this
article ( contains
supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
G. Andaluri :M. Manickavachagam :R. Suri (*)
NSF, Water and Environmental Technology Center, Temple
University, 1947 N 12th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... The main sources of BPA and phthalates in blood are dietary sources such as food and drinks packaged in cans and polycarbonate bottles, as well as paper and plastic films [9]. These chemicals could leach from polycarbonate plastics and plastic films used for food packaging and storage containers [2]. ...
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Selected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were measured in adult female menstrual blood for the first time in Ghana, Africa, taking into account the importance of non-invasive means of matrices sampling in vulnerable groups, such as pregnant women, the elderly or chronically ill people. The menstrual blood samples of twenty (20) female adults between the ages of 25–45 years were sampled. The Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method was applied for the extraction and clean up, while gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to measure the selected EDCs in adult female menstrual blood, taking into account the composition of menstrual discharge. Diethyl phthalate (DEP), Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were detected in all samples, whereas bisphenol A (BPA) was found in 13 participants. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) was detected in 7 participants, Di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) was detected in 3 participants, Bis (2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) and pyrimidine were detected in 2 participants, while benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) was detected in only 1 participant. The maximum concentration of DEP measured was 115.6 µg.L-1and the minimum was 439 µg.L-1. DEHP was the next most abundant phthalate with a maximum measured concentration of 982 µg.L-1 and minimum of 95 µg.L-1. The presence of parent phthalates (rather than metabolites) in menstrual blood of all participants studied suggests that bioaccumulation of selected phthalate compounds such as DEHP, DEP and DBP may be occurring with appreciable human toxicity though the carcinogenic exposure risks of DEHP via various routes were much lower than 1 × 10−6 considered to be very low.
... Bisphenols along with their derivatives have several fascinating applications in food and paper industry, plastic fabrication, used in making of toys and water bottles, as well as manufacturing of personal care products [27] [28,29]. 4-(4-isopropoxy-benzenesulfonyl)-phenol (BPSIP) is one of the derivatives of the bisphenol. ...
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In this study, we have developed a reliable electrochemical sensing platform for determining the residue of 4-(4-iso-propoxy-benzenesulfonyl)-phenol (BPSIP), an endocrine disruptor in blood serum, plastic and paper samples. A wide concentration range of BPSIP was electrochemically determined for the first time on glassy carbon electrode modified with newly developed gadolinium doped zinc oxide-multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite (Gd@ZnO-MWCNTs/GCE). The Gd@ZnO-MWCNTs nanocomposite was prepared by simple procedure through stirring under reflux condition and was characterized by several physicochemical techniques such as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrochemical activity of the prepared nanocomposite was investigated by the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). It was observed that Gd@ZnO-MWCNTs/GCE exhibits lower oxidation potential toward oxidation of BPSIP due to its fast electron transfer capability and high conductivity. A wide linear concentration ranges from 0.5 to 80 µM was attained with LOD of 0.2 µM. The sensitivities were found to be 26.33 µA mM⁻¹and 14.89 µA mM⁻¹ in two successive concentration ranges. The kinetic studies were also performed by employing chronoamperometry in the presence of BPSIP at Gd@ZnO-MWCNTs/GCE that exhibits catalytic rate constant (kcat) of 7.54 × 10² M⁻¹ s⁻¹ and the diffusion coefficient (D) of 1.56 × 10–5 cm²s⁻¹. Further, the fabricated Gd@ZnO-MWCNTs/GCE has shown excellent reproducibility with resultant RSD of 0.21% and storage stability of 21 days with 86% retention in current. Graphical abstract
... Most of these studies have focussed on quantifying and comparing leaching behaviours from consumer plastics under different user conditions (Kubwabo et al., 2009;Ehlert et al., 2008) and/or understanding human health concerns associated with exposure to plastic leachates (Erythropel et al., 2014;Vandenberg et al., 2007). These studies have shown that prolonged and persistent dermal contact with plasticised plastics (e.g., toys (Schettler et al., 2006)) and/or the consumption of contaminated materials (e.g., leaching into foodstuff (Soto-Cantú et al., 2008)) are the primary mechanisms underlying plasticiser exposure and toxicity in humans (Schettler et al., 2006;Net et al., 2015;Sampson and De Korte, 2011;Andaluri et al., 2018). However, plastic leachates are also toxic to aquatic organisms (Kühn et al., 2020;Thaysen et al., 2018;Sarker et al., 2020;Bejgarn et al., 2015;Schrank et al., 2019;Heindler et al., 2017;Iwamuro et al., 2003;Rozman et al., 2021) and their transport into environmentally relevant matrices has not yet been fully elucidated (Teuten et al., 2009). ...
Plastic pollution in our oceans is of growing concern particularly due to the presence of toxic additives, such as plasticisers. Therefore, this work aims to develop a comprehensive understanding of the leaching properties of plasticisers from microplastics. This work investigates the leaching of phthalate acid ester (dioctyl terephthalate (DEHT) and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)) and diphenol (bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol S (BPS)) plasticisers from polystyrene (PS) microplastics (mean diameter = 136 μm to 1.4 mm) under controlled aqueous conditions (temperature, agitation, pH and salinity). The leaching behaviours of plasticised polymers were quantified using gel permeation chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and thermal gravimetric analysis, and the particle's plasticisation characterised using differential scanning calorimetry. Leaching rates of phthalate acid ester and diphenol plasticisers were modelled using a diffusion and boundary layer model, whereby these behaviours varied depending on their plasticisation efficiency of PS, the size of the microplastic particle and the surrounding abiotic conditions. Leaching behaviours of DEHT and DEHP were strongly influenced by the microplastic-surface water boundary layer properties, thus wave action (i.e., water agitation) increased the leaching rate of these plasticiser up to 66 % over 21-days whereas BPA and BPS plasticisers displayed temperature- and size-dependent leaching, limited by molecular diffusion throughout the bulk polymer (i.e., the microplastic). This information will improve predictions of plasticiser concentration (both that remaining in the plastic and released into the surrounding water) at specific time points during the lifetime of a plastic, ultimately ensuring greater accuracy in the assessment of toxicity responses and environmental water quality.
... Phthalates are widely used plasticizers in paints, textiles, cosmetics, food packaging, toys, and other industrial and consumer products (Andaluri et al., 2018;Xu et al., 2020). Phthalates can fill the spaces in the lattices formed by polymers such as polyvinyl chloride, giving the plastic flexibility. ...
Purpose This study aimed to investigate the relationship between phthalate metabolites and renal function. Methods We analyzed data from 9989 participants who took part in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2005 to 2018. Renal function was reflected by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), and hypertension. We used generalized linear regression to estimate the correlation between covariate-adjusted creatinine-normalized phthalate metabolites and renal function. In addition, subgroup analysis was used to further compare the effect differences between various populations. Results In the adjusted model, we found differential associations between phthalates and plasticizers metabolites and renal function. We found that Mono-benzyl phthalate, Mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, and Mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate were positively associated with lower eGFR with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 1.38 (1.14, 1.67), 1.30 (1.09, 1.57), and 1.27 (1.04, 1.53). While Mono-ethyl phthalate, Mono-(2-ethyl)-hexyl phthalate, Mono-isononyl phthalate and Mono-isobutyl phthalate were negatively associated with lower eGFR with OR values of 0.79 (0.69, 0.90), 0.64 (0.52, 0.78), 0.65 (0.51, 0.82) and 0.80 (0.63, 1.00), respectively. In addition, we found that Mono(carboxyoctyl) phthalate and Mono-isobutyl phthalate were negatively associated with hypertension with ORs of 0.86 (0.78, 0.96) and 0.84 (0.72, 0.98). But phthalates and plasticizers metabolites were not associated with UACR. Conclusion This study found differences in the effects of phthalates and plasticizers metabolites on kidney function, which may raise concerns about possible changes in kidney function resulting from exposure to current levels of plasticizers.
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A novel magnetic Bi2WO6/TiO2/Fe3O4 photocatalyst was synthesized by a hydrothermal approach. The pattern, structure, elemental composition, light-absorbing properties, and magnetism of Bi2WO6/TiO2/Fe3O4 were characterized and analyzed. The performance, influencing factors, and mechanism of Bi2WO6/TiO2/Fe3O4 towards bisphenol A (BPA) degradation were investigated and deduced. BPA removal up to 95% was achieved with the addition of 1.25 g/L Bi/Ti/Fe2 (molar ratio of Bi2WO6:TiO2:Fe3O4 = 2:1:0.17) in the solution containing 10 mg/L BPA at pH 5.6. The performance of Bi/Ti/Fe2 was stable for five cycles at least after extracted from the reacted solution by magnet. Photoexcited h⁺, •OH, and •O2⁻ formed in the reaction mainly contributed to BPA degradation. The Bi/Ti/Fe2 composite was composed of a three-layer petal structure from outside to inside to be Bi2WO6, TiO2, and Fe3O4. This structure was conducive in forming a heterojunction between TiO2 and Bi2WO6, inhibiting the merging of photoexcited e⁻ and h⁺, and improving the photocatalytic efficiency. Graphical Abstract
The global burden of hypertension, the major cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) globally, remains unresolved. Exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to hypertension (HTN) in adults and the elderly globally according to previous studies. Nonetheless, evidence on the association of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and HTN risk in the general adult population in the United States was limited. To investigate the relationship between PAH exposure and HTN in adults in the United States, cross-sectional data during 2003 and 2016 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) on a stratified multistage random sample of the civilian non-institutionalized population were utilized. After eliminating individuals with incomplete information of interest, the final analysis contained 8951 subjects aged ≥20. In the multivariate logistic regression model, 1-hydroxynaphthalene and 2-hydroxyfluorene were found positively associated with increased risk of HTN among overall participants after adjusting for the covariates. 1-hydroxynaphthalene and 2-hydroxynaphthalene showed positive associations with HTN risk among overweight participants. In the Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) model, 1-hydroxynaphthalene and 2-hydroxyfluorene presented great importance to HTN risk among overall individuals. In the male subgroup analyses by BKMR, 2-hydroxyfluorene presented a positive effect on HTN risk when the remaining OH-PAHs were set at their 25th, 50th, and 75th percentile. Our findings highlight the complexities of estimating the risk of HTN associated with mixed PAH exposure, and additional longitudinal studies are required to determine the exact link between PAH exposure and HTN risk, as well as the underlying mechanisms.
Background Phenolic compounds with potential adverse health effects are gradually being replaced. Little is known about the potential health risks of BPA, BP3, and TCS exposure in children and adolescents aged 6–19 years in the United States. Objectives To determine trends and rates of change in hazard indices (HI) for three phenolics in U.S. children and adolescents for BPA, BP3, TCS, and to assess changes in gender, race/ethnicity, age, and potential health risks. Methods Metabolic biomonitoring data from field-collected urine samples from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were utilized. Daily intake of three phenols (bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, and triclosan) between 2005 and 2016 in children and adolescents were obtained. Cumulative risk indicators, including hazard quotient (HQ), hazard index (HI), and maximum cumulative ratio (MCR), were used for the health risk assessment of the three phenols. Results During this period, the change in LSGM HI was −2.9% per cycle [95% Cl: (−3.7%, −2.2%)], and the percentage of participants with HI > 0.1 decreased from 15.6% to 10.5%. Children (6–11 years) had higher mean HI values than adolescents (12–19 years), while female had higher LSGM HI values than male. MCR values were generally low and negatively correlated with HI. However, the average value of MCR increased from 1.722 to 2.107 during this period. Conclusion Exposure to phenolics among U.S. children and adolescents has changed in recent decades. However, gaps in data limit the interpretation of trends but legislative activity and advocacy campaigns by nongovernmental organizations may play a role in changing trends. Moreover, there are growing concerns about the potential health risks associated with exposure to multiple phenols in children and adolescents.
Over the past few decades, male fertility has been decreasing worldwide. Many studies attribute this outcome to endocrine disruptors exposure such as bisphenol A (BPA), which is a chemical compound used in plastics synthesis and exhibiting estrogenic activity. In order to assess how the window of exposure modulates the effects of BPA on the testis, prepubertal (15 dpp to 30 dpp) and pubertal (60 dpp to 75 dpp) male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to BPA (50µg/kg bw/day), 17-β-estradiol (E2) (20µg/kg bw/day) as a positive control, or to a combination of these compounds. For both periods of exposure, the rats were sacrificed and their testes were collected at 75 dpp. The histological analysis and the quantification of the gene expression of testis cell markers by RT-qPCR confirmed the complete spermatogenesis in all groups for both periods of exposure. However, our results suggest a deleterious effect of BPA on the blood-testis barrier in adults after pubertal exposure as BPA and BPA+E2 treatments induced a decrease in caveolin-1 and connexin-43 gene expression; which are proteins of the junctional complexes. As none of these effects were found after a prepubertal exposure, these results suggested the reversibility of BPA's effects. Caution must be taken when transposing this finding to humans and further studies are needed in this regard. However, from a regulatory perspective, this study emphasizes the importance of taking into account different periods of exposure, as they present different sensitivities to BPA exposure.
The present article addressed the fabrication of an efficient electrochemical sensor to analyze bisphenol A (BPA) using Crataegus as an environmentally friendly fuel agent for the synthesis of TbFeO3/CuO nanocomposite. CuO nanostructures synthesized in the presence of Gloriosa superba leaves extract as an alkalizing agent. This novel nanocomposite was used as a modifier and BPA electrochemical behavior examined on the TbFeO3/CuO/Screen printed electrode (SPE) with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), chronoamperometry, and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Obtained outputs demonstrated improvements in electrochemical response due to the application of the modified electrode. According to the calibration curve, linear ranges were between 0.04 and 300.0 μΜ for BPA and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.009 μΜ. Finally, this sensor was employed successfully for detecting BPA in the water samples.
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BPA is still the subject of extensive research due to its widespread use, despite its significant toxicity resulting not only from its negative impact on the endocrine system but also from disrupting the organism’s oxidative homeostasis. At the molecular level, bisphenol A (BPA) causes an increased production of ROS and hence a change in the redox balance, mitochondrial dysfunction, and modulation of cell signaling pathways. Importantly, these changes accumulate in animals and humans, and BPA toxicity may be aggravated by poor diet, metabolic disorders, and coexisting diseases. Accordingly, approaches using antioxidants to counteract the negative effects of BPA are being considered. The preliminary results that are described in this paper are promising, however, it should be emphasized that further studies are required to determine the optimal dosage and treatment regimen to counteract BPA toxicity. It also seems necessary to have a more holistic approach showing, on the one hand, the influence of BPA on the overall human metabolism and, on the other hand, the influence of antioxidants in doses that are acceptable with the diet on BPA toxicity. This is due in part to the fact that in many cases, the positive effect of antioxidants in in vitro studies is not confirmed by clinical studies. For this reason, further research into the molecular mechanisms of BPA activity is also recommended.
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Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in numerous industrial and consumer product applications resulting in ubiquitous exposure. Children’s exposure is of particular concern because of evidence of developmental effects. Childhood exposure is estimated for different age groups in two ways. The “forward” approach uses information on BPA concentrations in food and other environmental media (air, water, etc.) combined with average contact rates for each medium. The “backward” approach relies on urinary biomonitoring, extrapolating backward to the intake which would have led to the observed biomarker level. The forward analysis shows that BPA intakes are dominated by canned food consumption, and that intakes are higher for younger ages. Mean intake estimates ranged from ~125 ng/kg-day for 1 year-olds to ~73 ng/kg-day among 16–20 years olds. Biomonitoring-based intakes show the same trend of lower intakes for older children, with an estimate of 121 (median) to 153 (mean) ng/kg-day for 2–6 years, compared with 33 (median) to 53–66 (mean) ng/kg-day for 16–20 years. Infant intakes were estimated to range from ~46 to 137 ng/kg-day. Recognizing uncertainties and limitations, this analysis suggests that the “forward” and “backward” methods provide comparable results and identify canned foods as a potentially important source of BPA exposure for children.
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Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) is omnipresent. Both the extent of the exposure and its toxicological relevance are controversially discussed. We aim to reliably determine and evaluate the extent of BPA body burden in the German population from 1995 to 2009 based on 600 24 h urine samples and corresponding plasma samples from the Environmental Specimen Bank. We determined total and unconjugated BPA in urine and plasma using on-line solid-phase extraction high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.1 μg/l. In the stored urines, total BPA was quantifiable in >96% (median: 1.49 μg/l; 95th percentile: 7.37 μg/l), whereas unconjugated BPA was quantifiable only in <15% of the samples. Total BPA concentrations decreased over time, but 24 h urine volumes increased. Therefore, daily intakes calculated from the 24 h urines remained rather constant at a median of 0.037 and a 95th percentile of 0.171 μg BPA/kg body weight/day. In 60 corresponding plasma samples, total BPA levels were generally below the LOQ of 0.1 μg/l and, if quantifiable, most BPA was unconjugated, thus hinting to external contamination. We see total BPA in urine as the most appropriate and robust marker for BPA exposure assessment (if controlled for BPA contamination). Unconjugated BPA in urine and unconjugated or total BPA in plasma where contamination or breakdown of the glucuronide cannot be ruled out are of no value for human exposure assessment.
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The indoor environment has not been fully incorporated into the environmental justice dialogue. To inform strategies to reduce disparities, we developed a framework to identify the individual and place-based drivers of indoor environment quality. We reviewed empirical evidence of socioeconomic disparities in indoor exposures and key determinants of these exposures for air pollutants, lead, allergens, and semivolatile organic compounds. We also used an indoor air quality model applied to multifamily housing to illustrate how nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) vary as a function of factors known to be influenced by socioeconomic status. Indoor concentrations of multiple pollutants are elevated in low-socioeconomic status households. Differences in these exposures are driven by the combined influences of indoor sources, outdoor sources, physical structures, and residential activity patterns. Simulation models confirmed indoor sources' importance in determining indoor NO(2) and PM(2.5) exposures and showed the influence of household-specific determinants. Both theoretical models and empirical evidence emphasized that disparities in indoor environmental exposure can be significant. Understanding key determinants of multiple indoor exposures can aid in developing policies to reduce these disparities.
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Nationally representative data on urinary levels of bisphenol A (BPA) and its metabolites in the United States from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to estimate daily BPA intakes. In addition, NHANES data on potential sources of BPA exposure and personal characteristics were explored for their association with urinary BPA levels. On the basis of 2005-2006 NHANES urinary BPA data and assumptions described in this paper, median daily intake for the overall population is approximately 34 ng/kg-day. Median daily BPA intakes for men are statistically significantly higher than for women; there is a significant decrease in daily BPA intake with increasing age. Gender- and age-specific median intakes differ from the overall population by less than a factor of 2. Although estimates of daily BPA intake have decreased compared with those from the 2003-2004 NHANES, it is premature to draw conclusions regarding trends at this time, as there is no indication that BPA use declined from 2003 to 2006. On the basis of an assessment of urinary BPA and questionnaire data from the 2005-2006 NHANES, consumption of soda, school lunches, and meals prepared outside the home--but not bottled water or canned tuna--was statistically significantly associated with higher urinary BPA.
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The concentrations of a suite of persistent organic chemicals were measured in multiple media in 10 child day care centers located in central North Carolina. Five centers served mainly children from low-income families, as defined by the federal Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) assistance program, and five served mainly children from middle-income families. The targeted chemicals were chosen because of their probable carcinogenicity, acute or chronic toxicity, or hypothesized potential for endocrine system disruption. Targeted compounds included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pentachloro- and nonyl-phenol, bisphenol-A, dibutyl and butylbenzyl phthalate, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, the organophosphate pesticides diazinon and chlorpyrifos, and the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D). Sampled media were indoor and outdoor air, food and beverages, indoor dust, and outdoor play area soil. Concentrations of the targeted compounds were determined using a combination of extraction and analysis methods, depending on the media. Analysis was predominantly by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC/ECD). Concentrations of the targeted pollutants were low and well below the levels generally considered to be of concern as possible health hazards. Potential exposures to the target compounds were estimated from the concentrations in the various media, the children's daily time-activity schedules at day care, and the best currently available estimates of the inhalation rates (8.3 m(3)/day) and soil ingestion rates (100 mg/day) of children ages 3-5. The potential exposures for the target compounds differed depending on the compound class and the sampled media. Potential exposures through dietary ingestion were greater than those through inhalation, which were greater than those through nondietary ingestion, for the total of all PAHs, the phenols, the organophosphate pesticides, and the organochlorine pesticides. Potential exposures through dietary ingestion were greater than those through nondietary ingestion, which were greater than those through inhalation, for those PAHs that are probable human carcinogens (B2 PAH), the phthalate esters, and 2,4D. For the PCBs, exposures through inhalation were greater than those through nondietary ingestion, and exposures through dietary ingestion were smallest. Differences in targeted compound levels between the centers that serve mainly low-income clients and those that serve mainly middle-income clients were small and depended on the compound class and the medium.
As part of the Danish Indoor Environment and Children’s Health (IECH) study, dust samples were collected from 500 bedrooms and 151 daycare centers of children (ages 3 to 5) living on the island of Fyn. The present paper reports results from the analyses of these samples for five phthalate esters (diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) and three PAHs (pyrene, benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)). The three PAHs and DEHP were detected in dust samples from all sites, while DEP, DnBP, DiBP and BBzP were detected in more than 75% of the bedrooms and more than 90% of the daycare centers. The dust mass-fractions of both phthalates and PAHs were log-normally distributed. With the exception of DEP, the mass-fractions of phthalates in dust were higher in daycare centers than homes; PAH mass-fractions in dust were similar in the two locations. There was no correlation among the different phthalates in either homes or daycare centers. In contrast, the PAH were correlated with one another – more strongly so in homes (R2=0.80–0.90) than in daycare centers (R2=0.28–0.45). The dust levels of several phthalates (BBzP, DnBP and DEHP) were substantially lower than those measured in a comparable study conducted 6–7 years earlier in Sweden. Although usage patterns in Denmark differ from those in Sweden, the current results may also reflect a change in the plasticizers that are used in common products including toys. PAH levels were roughly an order of magnitude lower than those measured in Berlin and Cape Cod residences, suggesting that the Danish sites are less impacted by motor vehicle emissions.
Infants are exposed to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) through breast milk and baby formula. Detoxication by conjugation of BPA may be limited in infants. We demonstrate BPA exposure in 11 neonates and 1 young infant, but find no evidence of a low capacity for BPA conjugation.
Purpose: The present report describes the distribution of breast milk and urinary free and total bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations, from 27 postpartum women and their 31 infants, and explores the influence of age, sex, and nutritional source on infant BPA urinary concentration. Methods: Both free (unconjugated) and total (free plus conjugated) BPA concentrations from women's breast milk samples and infants' urine samples were measured by online solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests of group comparisons were conducted. Results: Total BPA was detected in 93 % of urine samples in this healthy infant population aged 3-15 months who were without known environmental exposure to BPA [interquartile range (IQR) = 1.2-4.4 μg/L)]. Similarly, 75 % of the mothers' breast milk samples had detectable concentrations of total BPA (IQR = 0.4-1.4 μg/L). The magnitude and frequency of detection of free BPA in the children's urine and the mothers' breast milk were much lower than the total concentrations. Conclusions: Total BPA was detected in 93 % of this healthy infant population aged 3-15 months who are without known environmental exposure to BPA. Neither free nor total BPA urinary concentrations differed significantly by infant's sex or by nutritional source (breast milk and/or formula) while age group was of borderline significance. There were no significant correlations between free or total BPA concentrations in mothers' breast milk and their infants' urine.
Limited published information exists on young children's exposures to bisphenol A (BPA) in the United States using urinary biomonitoring. In a previous project, we quantified the aggregate exposures of 257 preschool children to BPA in environmental and personal media over 48-h periods in 2000-2001 at homes and daycares in North Carolina and Ohio. In the present study for 81 Ohio preschool children ages 23-64 months, we quantified the children's urinary total BPA (free and conjugated) concentrations over these same 48-h periods in 2001. Then, we examined the quantitative relationships between the children's intakes doses of BPA through the dietary ingestion, nondietary ingestion, and inhalation routes and their excreted amounts of urinary BPA. BPA was detected in 100% of the urine samples. The estimated median intake doses of BPA for these 81 children were 109 ng/kg/day (dietary ingestion), 0.06 ng/kg/day (nondietary ingestion), and 0.27 ng/kg/day (inhalation); their estimated median excreted amount of urinary BPA was 114 ng/kg/day. Our multivariable regression model showed that dietary intake of BPA (p = 0.04) and creatinine concentration (p = 0.004) were significant predictors of urinary BPA excretion, collectively explaining 17% of the variability in excretion. Dietary ingestion of BPA accounted for >95% of the children's excreted amounts of urinary BPA.
The main objective of this study was to generate a fast analytical method to determine the five phthalates benzylbutylphthalate (BBP), dibutylphthalate (DBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), di-isodecylphthalate (DIDP), and di-isononylphthalate (DINP) in house dust. To achieve this liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was used for measurement. The risk of lab- and cross-contamination was nearly eliminated completely as a very short and fast sample preparation including a sieving step and an ultrasonic extraction for the analytes from the dust samples was used. Quantification through internal standard calibration resulted in low limits of determination (DEHP 4 mg kg(-1) to DBP 14 mg kg(-1)). A potential interaction between the analytes DIDP and DINP during chromatographic measurement could be excluded while performing a two level factorial design. Furthermore it was examined to what extend carpet and plastic materials respectively have influence on the total amount of phthalates in dust. It could be shown that apartments in which a minimum of both of these sources appeared revealed the lowest total amount of sum of phthalates in dust (median 362 mg kg(-1)).