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Expanding the insights into the usefulness of Brachystegia eurycoma Harms: A review of its nutritional and medicinal values


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Brachystegia eurycoma is a leguminous plant that is popular amongst the people of the Southern part of Nigeria for its ethnomedicinal and nutritional values. However, this legume has been grossly underutilized despite the promise that it holds for food and drug development. Hence, this review sheds light on the past and present states of research as well as the way to go regarding future research on the nutritional and medicinal values of Brachystegia eurycoma (B. eurycoma) with a view to inciting research interests that may lead to food and drug development from the plant. This review is based on a literature search of scientific journals and books from the library and electronic sources, which revealed that the seeds possess most of the nutritional and medicinal values of the plant. Extracts and purely isolated compounds from the plant have been reported to have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, wound healing, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, and blood glucose lowering activities as well as lipid profile, liver enzyme, and gastrointestinal motility modulation activities. Toxicological evaluation of extracts from this plant did not show any significant acute and sub-acute toxicities in rodents. Evaluation of the gums from the seeds of the plant has proven their application as food and pharmaceutical adjutants. Taken together, the findings from this review have unveiled the need for further scientific exploration of the constituents of B. eurycoma as potential sources of new food/nutritional adjuvant and medicines.
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VOL 7, NO. 1
Expanding the insights into the usefulness of Brachystegia eurycoma Harms:
A review of its nutrional and medicinal values
Ighodaro Igbe, Agbonlahor Okhuarobo
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
Plants are a cheap and reliable source of food and
medicine. Certain nutrients like proteins and vita-
mins, which are important to make a balanced meal
or diet, are cheaper to get from plants than from
animals [1,2]. In the same way, plants used as med-
icines in folkloric medicine are cheaper than mod-
ern medicines in orthodox medicine. Given that
resources are very scarce in developing countries,
cheaper options of meal and medicines are often
preferred by a majority of the population in those
countries. Hence, it is amazing that plants have
remained an important source of food and medicine
in the developing world. Wild legumes are among
the plants which have been commonly used in the
developing world as a cheap and reliable source of
nutrition and medicine. Notable among these nutri-
tious and medicinal legumes is B. eurycoma [2].
B. eurycoma is an economic tree that belongs to the
family Caesalpiniaceae. It is a dicotyledonous legume
that grows in the swaps or rain forests and well-
drained soil of South-Eastern Nigeria and Western
Cameroun. It is a huge tree which has twisted and
spreading branches with a bark that often exudes a
April and May and the fruits ripen between September
and January. The fruits occur as broad leathery dark
purplish brown pods containing four to six brown
B. eurycoma is called Achi in Igbo, Ekalado or Eku in
Yoruba, Okweri in Edo, Akpakpa or Taura in Hausa,
Apaupan in Ijaw, and Odukpa in Ibibio [8] (Fig. 1).
Contact Ighodaro Igbe Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University
of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.
© EJManager. This is an open access arcle licensed under the terms of the Creave Commons Aribuon Non-Commercial License (hp://
crea which permits unrestricted, noncommercial use, distribuon and reproducon in any medium, provided
the work is properly cited.
Brachystegia eurycoma is a leguminous plant that is popular amongst the people of
the Southern part of Nigeria for its ethnomedicinal and nutrional values. However,
this legume has been grossly underulized despite the promise that it holds for food
and drug development. Hence, this review sheds light on the past and present states
of research as well as the way to go regarding future research on the nutrional and
medicinal values of Brachystegia eurycoma (B. eurycoma) with a view to incing
research interests that may lead to food and drug development from the plant. This
review is based on a literature search of scienc journals and books from the library
and electronic sources, which revealed that the seeds possess most of the nutrional
and medicinal values of the plant. Extracts and purely isolated compounds from the
plant have been reported to have analgesic, an-inammatory, an-microbial, wound
healing, an-oxidant, an-cancer, and blood glucose lowering acvies as well as lipid
prole, liver enzyme, and gastrointesnal molity modulaon acvies. Toxicological
evaluaon of extracts from this plant did not show any signicant acute and sub-acute
toxicies in rodents. Evaluaon of the gums from the seeds of the plant has proven
their applicaon as food and pharmaceucal adjutants. Taken together, the ndings
from this review have unveiled the need for further scienc exploraon of the con-
stuents of B. eurycoma as potenal sources of new food/nutrional adjuvant and
Received September 07, 2017
Accepted November 22, 2017
Published January 05, 2018
Nutrional; chemical
constuents; pharmacology;
Brachystegia eurycoma
2 J Intercult Ethnopharmacol • 2018 • Vol 7 • Issue 1
Ighodaro Igbe, Agbonlahor Okhuarobo
agents for soups in Eastern Nigeria [9,10]. The seeds
are used in folkloric medicine to maintain body
temperature, soften stool, and protect against colon
and rectal cancer [11]. A range of proximate, phyto-
chemical, and pharmacological screening has been
carried out in different parts of the plant following
anecdotal account of its nutritious and medicinal
value by local residents and traditional medical
practitioners, respectively, in the localities where
the plant predominately grows. Phytochemical
screening has shown that B. eurycoma contains
phenolic compounds, alkaloids, saponins, and tan-
nins. Nutritious compounds present in the plant
include carbohydrate, proteins, lipids, and minerals
[12]. Other than its nutritional value, different parts
of the plant have been demonstrated to possess
biologic/pharmacologic activities, namely, analge-
ing, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, and blood glucose
enzyme modulation activities.
Given its nutritional and medicinal value and
the assurance it holds for the development of food/
nutritional products, nutraceuticals, and medicines,
the need to do a comprehensive literature search
on the plant with a view to updating the current
state of knowledge and stimulating research inter-
ests has become imperative, as such an update will
provide a one stop research resource which will
assist researchers to carry out research to further
explore the plant as a potential source of new food/
nutritional adjuvant and medicine. To this end, this
review focuses on the nutritional and medicinal val-
ues of B. eurycoma.
Nutrional Value
The B. eurycoma seeds have been shown to be com-
posed of certain nutrients, minerals, vitamins, and
food-like chemicals which are essential to human
nutrition [13]. Anti-nutrients such as cyanides,
phytate, and tannins may be toxic and result in
poor palatability and bioavailability, and hence,
      
B. eury-
coma and the levels of these anti-nutrients (Table 1)
detected were below the lethal dosage approved by
regulatory body like National Agency for Food Drug
and Control in Nigeria [14]. Additionally, it has been
proven that different processing methods (Table 2)
the seeds are subjected to in the process of using it
as food or medicine or for analysis could success-
fully reduce, remove, or deactivate these anti-nu-
trients [2]. This evidence indicates that, overall, the
seeds of B. eurycoma are composed of nutrients,
essential minerals, and vitamins and the presence
of anti-nutrients is not an obstacle to its use as food
or medicine.
Table 1. An-nutrient values of Brachystegia eurycoma
harm seeds [14].
An-nutrients Value (%)
Cyanide 0.84
Phytate 0.296
Tanins 0.039
Figure 1. Brachystegia eurycoma: seeds and fruits. 3
Expanding the insights into the usefulness of B. eurycoma: a review
Nutrive/proximate composion
The plant, B. eurycoma, is an affordable source of
proteins, carbohydrates, and calories. While these
nutrients are all essential to human nutrition, their
composition in the plant differs [13]. Proximate
   
  
        
proximate analysis of the seeds showed the values
      
        
respectively [14]. Yet another report revealed pro-
       
tively [12]. The seeds have also been demonstrated
this oil revealed the presence of fatty acids such
as linoleic, palmitic, oleic, and stearic acids. This
       
groundnut seed oil, thus indicating the seeds as an
      
fatty acids such as oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stea-
ric acids in addition to phospholipids such as phos-
phatidic, phosphatidylinositol, phospatidyserine,
and phosphatidyethanolamine have also been
      
other hand, Ikegwu et al. [19] reported the crude
      
tively. The differences in these nutrients composi-
tion of the seeds highlighted in these reports may
be several factors such as environmental factors,
the age of the plant, time of collection as well as
differences in the method of processing the seeds
for proximate analysis. This is more so as varia-
tions in proximate and nutritive compositions of
the seeds of B. eurycoma have been demonstrated
to be due to different processing methods [15,18].
Both essential and non-essential amino acids have
also been detected in the raw and processed seeds
(Table 3). The amino acid content of the processed
seeds showed a slight deviation from one another
and from that of the raw seeds which again suggests
that the amino acid content of the seeds is depen-
dent on the processing method the seeds were sub-
jected to [14,15]. Closely related to these nutrients
and equally relevant to human and animal nutrition
are minerals and vitamins which the seeds of the
plant have also been shown to be composed of [2].
Mineral composion
Analysis has revealed the presence of essential min-
erals (macro and microelements) in the seeds of B
eurycoma. The macro and microelements that have
been shown to occur in the B. eurycoma seeds are
sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potas-
sium (K), phosphorus (P), iron (Fe), copper (Cu),
and zinc (Zn), respectively. Harmful heavy metals
or microelements such as lead (Pb), cobalt (Co),
chromium, arsenic, and cadmium were not found
following analysis of the seeds [12,15]. The per-
centage occurrence of these minerals was different
in these reports. This was probably due to the dif-
ferent methods used in preparing or processing the
seeds for analysis as shown by Aremu et al. [15].
Vitamin composion
Nutritionally valuable water soluble vitamins nec-
essary for different processes and functions in the
human body have also been detected in the seeds
of B. eurycoma. These include vitamins C (ascorbic
and thiamine (vitamin B1) [12]. The realization of
the vitamin content, as well as the mineral and nutri-
ents contents, have continued to make the seeds
Table 2. Processing methods for the seeds of Brachystegia
eurycoma harm.
Descripon of processing methods References
The tradional method of processing involves
roasng the seeds for 10–15minutes followed by
soaking in water to expose the cotyledons. The
cotyledons are then soaked in water overnight
aer which the water is drained o and the
cotyledons sun dried and ground into ne powder.
1 kg of clean and wholesome seeds is soaked in
water for 24 hours to loosen the seed coat or hull.
The loosened hulls are washed o with water and
the de-hulled seeds are then air-dried and milled
The seeds were dehulled by gentle roasng for
5 minutes and soaking in tap water for 3 hours.
The de-hulled seeds are then boiled in dislled
water for 45 minutes at 100°C. The boiled seeds
are drained using a perforated basket, dried in the
oven at 50°C, and grounded into ne powder with
a food blender.
The seeds were dehulled by gentle roasng for 5
minutes and soaking in tap water for 3 hours. The
dehulled seeds were then wrapped in blanced
banana leaves and allowed to ferment for 3 days
aer which they were dried in an oven at 50°C and
grounded into ne powder with a food blender.
The seeds were dehulled by gentle roasng for 5
minutes and soaking in tap water for 3 hours. The
dehulled seeds were then roasted in a hot iron
pan unl the seed turned from green to brown
followed by drying to a constant weight at 50°C.
4 J Intercult Ethnopharmacol • 2018 • Vol 7 • Issue 1
Ighodaro Igbe, Agbonlahor Okhuarobo
attractive for culinary applications in the prepara-
tion of food, food products, and nutraceuticals.
Culinary Applicaon
    B. eurycoma is used in local culi-
nary practices as food additives in soup making in
ing agent, and thickening agent in soups [11]. It also
      -
tion in soups commonly consumed in south eastern
Nigeria [10,19]. The soups in which it is normally used
as a food additive include egusi (melon), ofe onugbu
(bitter leaf), oha (made from oha leaves), and ofe
nsala. Additionally, it has been used in bakery prod-
ucts and meat-based products as a functional agent
vor it imparts in soups, it also imparts a gummy tex-
ture when used in soups and this is a desirable char-
acteristic for the eating fufu, garri, pounded yam, and
other staple food normally eaten with soups [20]. The
observation that hydrocolloids-starch extracted from
       -
acteristics and swelling power properties [20–22]
prompted its trial as a stabilizing agent in watermelon
fruit juice, and it was found to favorably compete with
established hydrocolloids or food gums such as gum
Arabic and guar gum [13]. Additionally, its appli-
cation as a stabilizer in yogurt has also been inves-
tigated. The sensory scores of yogurt made with B.
eurycoma seeds were generally accepted by a 20-man
judging panellists and the yogurt contained higher
protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate levels and lower
moisture level versus control. The microbial count
from the yogurt was within acceptable range and no
mould growth was observed. Overall, the evidence
from this investigation showed that stabilizer from B.
eurycoma improved the proximate, organoleptic, and
physicochemical properties of stirred yogurt [23].
This evidence indicates the promise of B. eurycoma
as a potential food gum for routine use in the making
of fruit juice in the fruit juice industry. Besides its use
as food based on its nutritional value, its use as food
based on its medicinal value (nutraceutical value)
has also been explored. The dietary inclusion of the
seeds has been evaluated in the prevention of colon
carcinogenesis in rats [24]. Reports in this regard are
very rare and the only one motioned in this review
is still inconclusive. However, it is worthy of mention
given that with time research may establish its eligi-
bility as a useful neutraceutical. While the evidence
reviewed so far highlights its consumption as food
due to its nutritional and medicinal values, other evi-
dence which is highlighted in next paragraph shows
that it is also consumed solely as medicine because if
its medicinal value.
Ethnomedicinal Value
The seeds have been used in folkloric medicine to
soften stool, and protect against colon and rectal
cancer [8,11]. The plant has been used for treating
microbial infections such as syphilis, dysentery, and
sore throat [25]. It has also been used as a herbal
remedy to control body temperature because
       
Furthermore, in traditional medical practice, it is
used for the management of guinea worm infections,
Table 3. Amino acid composion (g/100g) of Brachystegia eurycoma seeds.
Amino acids Raw seeds [15] Boiled seeds [15] Fermented seeds [15] Roasted seeds [15] Processed seeds [10]
Lysine 3.46 3.24 3.40 3.03 2.24
Hisdine 2.27 2.18 2.37 2.02 1.73
Arginine 4.40 4.14 4.57 3.88 5.09
Asparc acid 12.16 11.15 11.91 10.52 3.94
Threonine 3.12 3.39 3.20 2.87 1.66
Serine 2.60 2.31 2.63 2.09 0.91
Glutamic acid 9.70 9.39 10.07 8.33 4.60
Proline 3.46 3.15 3.46 2.65 1.83
Glycine 3.39 3.41 3.39 3.00 1.44
Alanine 4.09 3.99 4.18 3.80 2.43
Cysne 0.86 0.79 0.86 0.66 0.66
Valine 3.42 3.24 3.45 2.75 2.83
Methionine 0.91 0.91 0.89 0.65 0.73
Isoleucine 3.01 2.79 3.52 2.70 2.32
Leucine 8.25 8.00 9.26 7.70 5.16
Tyrosine 3.18 2.86 3.65 2.86 2.05
Phenylalanine 3.80 3.37 4.13 3.03 2.66
Tryptophan ND ND ND ND ND
ND: Not Determined. 5
Expanding the insights into the usefulness of B. eurycoma: a review
Figure 2. Structures of compounds isolated from Brachystegia eurycoma [28, 29, 30, 31, 32].
     
    B. eurycoma
in ethno medicinal management of different medical
conditions have prompted several types of research
into the phytochemical screening of extract of differ-
ent parts of the plant as well as the pharmacological
screening of the extracts and phytochemical isolates
from parts of the plant. On the other hand, insights
from the physicochemical properties of the seed
as a pharmaceutical excipient for application in the
manufacture of pharmaceuticals.
Phytochemical Constuents
Phytochemical screening has revealed the pres-
ence of diverse secondary plant metabolites like
and tannins in stem bark, and seeds of the plant.
         
plant [12]. Steroids, in addition to alkaloids, sapo-
nin, and tannins, have been also detected in the cold
and hot aqueous extract and the ethanol extract
of the stem bark [9]. Ethanol extracts of the seed
        
      
of compounds from the plant are scarce. However,
few compounds have been isolated from the plant
(Fig. 2) and the plant parts from which they were
isolated are detailed in Table 4. A new compound
isolated from the seeds by column and thin layer
6 J Intercult Ethnopharmacol • 2018 • Vol 7 • Issue 1
Ighodaro Igbe, Agbonlahor Okhuarobo
chromatographic methods has been characterized
and named 2-(-4-ethyl phenyl)-5-hydroxy-3-meth-
  
furo-chromen-4-one, isolated by column and thin
layer chromatographic techniques from the seeds
and characterized as 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-phe-
   
reported [29]. Furthermore, another new polyphe-
     -
ylenebis (4-tert-butyl-2-methylphenol) has been
isolated from the stem exudates of the plant [30].
    -
thoxy-3-methyl-2,3-dihydrobenzoic furan-2-yl
      
as 4-(4-phenyl-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-1-yl) have
been isolated from the stem exudates and etha-
nol extract of the stem bark, respectively [31,32].
Several compounds have been isolated from the vol-
atile oil extracted from the leaves of the plant. These
compounds include oxygenated monoterpenoids
   
    -
   
Other compounds that have been isolated include
     
detection of several bioactive secondary plant
metabolites and compounds in the plant has partly
prompted researchers to screen extracts and iso-
late from parts of the plant for different pharmaco-
logical activities.
The need to validate the claim of its therapeutic
value in folkloric medicine and develop therapeu-
tic agents from bioactive phytochemical isolates
detected in the plant have led scientists to screen the
plant especially the seeds and stem bark for various
biologic/pharmacological activities. Several studies
have shown that this plant exhibited various biolog-
   
antimicrobial, wound healing, antioxidant, blood
      
enzyme modulation activities as well as growth
inhibitory and cytotoxic activities. Additionally, the
need to address safety concerns has also led to the
toxicological screening of the plant.
Analgesic acvity
The methanol extract of the stem bark following
reduced acetic acid-induced writhes in Swiss albino
mice at the doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) tested.
On the other hand, the methanol extract only at a
p 
reaction latency in the hot plate test in Swiss albino
mice compared to control [35].
An- inammatory acvity
Again, the methanol extract at a dose of 100 mg/
kg following oral administration, exhibited a signif-
icant (p     
paw edema within the second and fourth hour of
the experiment in Wistar rats as well as dextran-in-
 
the experiment in Wistar rats [35]. In another report,
(p      
at a dose of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, respectively,
administered orally. Also, the ethanol extract of the
   p    
    
mg/kg, respectively. On the other hand, the methanol
inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema at a
dose of 50 and100 mg/kg, respectively, as well as
   
       
    
ethanol extracts of the seeds and stem bark, the
aqueous extract of the leaves at the doses tested
     
  
edema at a dose of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg as well
  p     -
duced paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema
Table 4. Compounds isolates of Brachystegia eurycoma harm.
Compound Type Plant part References
2-(-4-ethylphenyl)-5-hydroxy-3-methyl-6,7-dihydrofuro-chromen-4-one Furo-chrome-4-one Seeds [28]
5-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-phenyl-6,7-dihydrofuro-chrome-4-one Furo-chrome-4-one Seeds [29]
bis-6,6-methylenebis (4-tert-butyl-2-methylphenol) Polyphenol terary butyl Stem exudates [30]
3-hydroxy-2,2-bis(6-methoxy-3-methyl-2,3-dihydrobenzoic furan-2-yl Propanal Stem exudates [31]
4-(4-phenyl-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-1-yl) Naphthalene pentenoic acid Stem bark [32] 7
Expanding the insights into the usefulness of B. eurycoma: a review
   
that the extracts of B. eurycoma possess considerable
An- microbial and wound healing acvity
    
activity of extracts and pure compounds isolated
from B. eurycoma are abound (Table 5). Using the
agar diffusion and broth dilution methods, cold
and hot aqueous and ethanol extracts of the stem
bark of B. eurycoma were screened for anti-bac-
terial activity against four pathogenic bacteria
strains—Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus vulgaris.
Only the cold aqueous extract showed a mild zone
of inhibition (3 mm) against E. coli with a minimum
inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12 mg/ml and
minimum bactericidal concentration of 25 mg/ml
[9]. Similarly, the aqueous extract of the wood sam-
ple has been demonstrated to inhibit the growth
and cellulolytic activity of Bacillus subtilis 
Propanal isolated from the stem exudates have been
demonstrated to have marked antibacterial activ-
ity against P. aeruginosa, Streptococcus faecalis, and
Bacillus cereus
respectively [31]. A new naphthalene petenoic acid
isolated from the ethanol extract of the stem bark
has also been shown to have anti-bacterial activity
against S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. faecalis
     
order of antibacterial activity of the naphthalene
petenoic acid was E. ColiP. aeruginosaS. faecalis
S. aureus [32]. Other report shows the anti-fungal
activity of the plant. Ethanol and water extracts of
the stem bark at a concentration of 2 mg/ml inhib-
      Aspergillus
fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans,
Epidermophyton floccosium, Fuscarium solani, Mucor
mucedo, Microsporum audonii, and Tricophyton ver-
rucasum following 43 hours of incubation [38].
  -
ro-chrome-4-one has been reported to possess in
vitro antifungal activity. Using the disc diffusion
method, the new furo-chromen-4-one was shown to
inhibit the growth of three fungal species—A. niger,
Penicillium notatum, and Fusarium oxysporium with
   
gel made from B. eurycoma gum has been demon-
strated to heal wound made by excision model in
rats faster than mucin alone. It was also observed
that B. eurycoma gel alone promoted wound healing
faster when used alone. This is not surprising given
the anti-microbial properties of B. eurycoma which
tackles microbial contamination of wounds, a phe-
nomenon that often prolongs the healing time of
wounds [39].
An-oxidant acvity
In vitro antioxidant activity of B. eurycoma has been
investigated using the ferric thiocyanate method.
A new compound named 2-(-4-ethylphenyl)-5-
one isolated from the seeds of the plant has been
demonstrated to have free radical scavenging activ-
mum concentration of 100 and 500 µg/ml, respec-
tively [28]. The ethanol extract of the seeds had
been demonstrated to possess free radical scav-
enging activity against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydra-
zyl (DPPH) [40]. Similarly, the methanol extract of
   -
ical scavenging against DPPH and reducing power
against Fecl3 solution [41].
An-ulcer acvity
The B. eurycoma     p 
0.05) anti-ulcerogenic activity and inhibited etha-
     
respectively. The extract also decreased ulcer index
in a dose-dependent manner with the highest dose
Table 5. Anmicrobial acvity of extracts and pure compound isolates from B. eurycoma.
Type of extract or pure isolate Anmicrobial acvity Acvity spectrum References
Cold aqueous extract of the stem bark Bacteriostac and
E. coli [9]
Aqueous extract of wood samples Bacteristac B. sublis [37]
Propanal from stem exudates Bacteristac P. aeruginosa, S. faecalis, and B. cereus [31]
Naphtalene petenoic acid from stem bark Bacteristac S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and S. faecalis [32]
Ethanol and water extract from stem bark Fungistac A. avors, A. fumigatus, A. niger, Candida
albicans, E. occosium, F. solani, M. mucedo,
M. audonii, and T. verrucasum
Furo-chromen-4-one from the seeds Fungistac A. niger, P. notatum, and F. oxysporium [29]
8 J Intercult Ethnopharmacol • 2018 • Vol 7 • Issue 1
Ighodaro Igbe, Agbonlahor Okhuarobo
     
protection index [42].
Eect on blood glucose, lipid prole, and liver
Treatment with aqueous extract of the seeds of B.
eurycoma alone or in combination with aqueous
extracts of Detarium microcarpu and Mucuna pru-
   p  
blood glucose levels compared to vehicle treated
female Wistar rats [43]. Similarly, the methanol
extract of the seed powder has been demonstrated to
    
the pathology and complications of type 2 diabetes
[41]. Aqueous extract of the seeds at a dose of 200
(p  
low-density lipoproteins, high-density lipoproteins
and triglycerides in female Wistar rats. Similarly, the
aqueous extract of the seeds at a single dose of 200
  p  
in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine
aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase liver
enzymes. Its combination of the aqueous extracts of
D. microcarpu and M. pruriens-
cant change in the levels of these enzymes [43].
Growth inhibitory and cytotoxic acvity
The methanol extract and aqueous fractions at a
concentration of 20 mg/ml were demonstrated to
completely inhibit the germination of guinea corn
seeds in 24 hours. The methanol extract and aque-
bition of the length of radicles with an IC50 of 5 mg/
      
the cytotoxic activity revealed that the methanol
      
with an LC50-
  
other reports show that the ethanol extract of the
seeds is devoid of any anti-cancer activity against
the tested cell lines [40].
Eect on gastrointesnal molity
Normal intestinal transit, castor oil induced diar-
        
rodents and spontaneous, acetylcholine, and high
KCl induced intestinal contractions have been used
to investigate the in vivo and in vitro acitivities,
respectively, of the methanol extract of B. eurycoma
stem bark on gastrointestinal motility. On the other
hand, the crude methanol extract of B. eurycoma
in normal intestinal transit time, it caused a sig-
 p      -
ment in castor oil induced diarrhea versus control.
Additionally, the methanol extract caused a dose
well as a reduction in diarrhea score, number, and
weight of wet stools. The extract (300 mg/kg) also
      
lower than that produced by 5 mg/kg loperamide
    in vitro analysis
showed that the crude methanol extract, aqueous,
and chloroform fractions caused an attenuation of
spontaneous, acetylcholine, and KCl induced con-
tractions of isolated duodenum in a concentra-
tion-dependent fashion [8].
Acute toxicity evaluation of the methanol extract
of the stem bark revealed neither mortality nor
signs of toxicity in male Swiss albino mice [35]. In
vivo sub-acute toxicity study of the aqueous stem
bark extract at doses 100–800 mg/kg administered
       -
ence in the pattern of weight gain in both sexes of
Wistar rats used when compared to control rats.
Similarly, sub-acute treatment with the same dose
range of the methanol extract did not cause any sig-
heart, kidney, liver, and spleen. However, sub-acute
0.05) increase in the weight of the lungs compared
to control. On the other hand, while sub-acute treat-
        
serum concentration of biochemical parameters
such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transami-
nase, alkaline phosphatise, total bilirubin, and con-
jugated bilirubin versus control, it caused an ele-
vation in haematological parameters such as white
blood cells and lymphocytes, although there was no
     -
eters evaluated. Additionally, the sub-acute treat-
ment caused vascular congestion, mild periportal
 -
fer cell activation in the liver [45]. These pharmaco-
logical and toxicological evaluations are important
aspects of the process of drug development. Equally
important to the process of drug development is the
evaluation of pharmaceutical excipients necessary
for pharmaceutical dosage forms formulation. 9
Expanding the insights into the usefulness of B. eurycoma: a review
Pharmaceucal Applicaon
B. eurycoma seeds have been severally evaluated
as an excipient for application in food and pharma-
ceutical formulations due to the reported relevance
of some of its technological properties such as
physicochemical, functional, rheological, and past-
Also, some of its physical and mechanical proper-
ties relevant to the design and building of process-
ing equipment for B. eurycoma seeds have been
the potential of paving the way for the production
of a processing equipment that will optimize the
the phytochemical content, physical and rheologi-
well as optimize post-harvest handling procedures
for B. eurycoma. A report of the preliminary evalua-
tion of its seed mucilage as a pharmaceutical binder
revealed that tablets formulated with B. eurycoma
seeds mucilage were softer than those formulated
with gelatin and had good uniformity of weight as
well as rapid dissolution rate and good disintegra-
      
applicability of B. eurycoma mucilage as a binder in
situations where the fast release of a drug is desired
[51]. On the other hand, the mixture of B. eurycoma
gum and egg albumin were investigated and found
to be useful in producing metronidazole tablets
with slow release properties [52]. The results from
these investigations indicate that B. eurycoma has
the potential for producing tablets with either fast
       
as a binder in tablets, B. eurycoma gum have also
been evaluated as a stabilizer in drugs and foods
such as ice creams. In ice creams, the gum was com-
parable to established stabilizers such as sodium
carboxylmethylcellulose and sodium alginate [53].
The evaluation of the suspending properties of B.
eurycoma seed gum in sulphamethoxazole suspen-
sion revealed it had better suspending properties
 
than standard suspending agents like acacia and
tragacanth gums. The gum extract displayed high
viscosity at high concentrations which make it a
desirable candidate as a stabilizer and thickener
where high viscosity is desired [54]. Similarly, the
evaluation of the suspending properties of B. eury-
coma seed gum extract in metronidazole suspen-
sion had also been reported. The metronidazole
suspension formulated with B. eurycoma at a con-
        
high sedimentation rate compared to compound
tragacanth at the same concentration. However,
B. eurycoma gum formed a suspension with bet-
ter esthetic than the suspension formulated with
tragacanth gum [55]. Additionally, evidence from
as a stabilizing or emulsifying agent in formula-
B. eurycoma gum as
a binder in the production of metronidazole tablets
with low brittle fracture tendency had also been
reported. In this report, the brittle fracture index
(BFI) of tablets formulated with B. eurycoma gum
was not statistically different from BFI of tablets
Signicance of Current Research and Strategy
for Future Research on B. eurycoma
The research reports highlighted in this review
show that the seeds of B. eurycoma possess most
of the nutritional and medicinal value of the plant.
Little wonders the seeds have been used as food
additives and medicines in ethnomedical practice
as well as received more attention for exploration
as a potential source of modern medicines, food,
and pharmaceutical adjuvant. However, the leaves
and stem bark are other parts of the plant that have
also been explored as a potential source of modern
medicines. Consequently, extracts have been iso-
lated from the seeds, stem bark, and leaves as well
as very few bioactive compounds from majorly the
seeds. The extracts and isolated compounds from
the seeds, stem bark and leaves have been screened
pharmacologically and have been shown to possess
    -
matory, antimicrobial, wound healing, antioxidant,
antiulcer, blood glucose lowering, liver enzyme,
     
well as growth inhibitory and cytotoxic activities.
The results from the antimicrobial screening of the
plant so far are promising, given that the plant has
demonstrated the broad antimicrobial spectrum of
activity in being inhibitory to the growth of both
bacteria and fungi. Hence, the plant should be given
more attention as a potential source of broad spec-
trum antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial poten-
observed at a time when there is the urgent need
to look at medicinal plants as a potential source of
antimicrobial agents. This urgent need is in the light
of a major threat facing mankind in the form of anti-
      
10 J Intercult Ethnopharmacol • 2018 • Vol 7 • Issue 1
Ighodaro Igbe, Agbonlahor Okhuarobo
pharmacological activities exhibited by parts of the
plant is a further testimony, set apart from the eth-
nomedicinal claims, that the plant parts contain bio-
active compounds capable of modulating biologic
activities. However, given that most of the phar-
macological studies were investigated with crude
extracts of the plant, it has become imperative for
the medicinal properties of the plant to be properly
harnessed by isolating more pure compounds from
the bioactive parts of the plant and screening such
compounds for biologic/pharmacologic activities.
The apparent safety of the plant in an ethnomedici-
safety of the plant in animals. Nevertheless, it will
be useful to do an extensive chronic toxicological
screening of the crude extracts and pure isolates
from the plant to obtain a better toxicological pro-
     
so as the preliminary pharmacological screening
reviewed showed that the plant has the potential
for the development of medicines for chronic con-
      
Additionally, the quest to source modern food and
medicines from the plant has also led to the isola-
tion of gum from the seeds which had shown great
potential for application as suspending agents,
      -
      
are less expensive, non-toxic, ecofriendly, and bio-
synthetic gums which make natural gums superior
development of quality food and active pharmaceu-
tical ingredients (API) adjuvants should motivate
intensive research efforts geared toward the pro-
duction of safe and affordable API adjuvants for rou-
tine manufacturing processes in food and pharma-
ceutical industries. Thus, if achieved will go a long
way to reducing the cost of local production of food
and medicines. Given that, cost is a major obstacle
limiting access to quality medicines in developing
       -
cines on account of the use of locally sourced APIs
and pharmaceutical adjuvants will expand access to
  
the nutritional and medicinal usefulness or impor-
tance of B. eurycoma underscores the need not only
for its usefulness to be optimally harnessed through
further research but also for its usefulness to be
properly preserved. Preservation of the usefulness,
in turn, depends on the conservation of the rain for-
ests or vegetation harboring the plant. Hence, it has
become urgent to put adequate measures in place
to conserve this plant through prevention of defor-
estation of the natural habitat of the plant more so
as there are alarming reports of forest resources
depletion in South Eastern Nigeria which harbors
sented in this review has provided an expansion of
the insights into the usefulness and potential of B.
eurycoma as nutrition and medicine. These insights
have in turn shed lights on the need for the pres-
ervation of the plant through prevention of the
deforestation of the natural habitat of the plant.
Furthermore, these insights have also revealed the
need for further research on the plant with a view
to discovering lead compounds that may give rise to
new therapeutic agents, food, and pharmaceutical
adjuvants. Thus, this review will serve as a useful
resource in the quest for the development of food
and medicines from B. eurycoma.
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      
        
and mucilages: a review on multifaceted excipi-
ents in pharmaceutical science and research. Int J
        
Pharmaceuticals: Industrial Policy and Access to
Medicines, An Overview of Key Concepts, Issues
and Opportunities for Future Research. Health,
Nutrition and Population (HNP) discussion paper;.
World Bank, Washington, DC.
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medical technologies and its effect on access in low
and middle income countries: a systematic review
        
eastern Nigeria: who loses?. The Environmentalist
        
Onwuagba SM. Impact of deforestation on biodiver-
sity in Anambra State, Nigeria. Int J Ecol Ecosolution
... The high cost of proteins has encouraged the use of protein sources from underutilized legumes, especially for the rural communities (Bolanle 2010;Singh et al. 2022). These include wild legumes, which serve as reliable and cheap sources of nutrition and medicine (Igbe and Okhuarobo 2018). It has been observed that monotonous food intake has affected the health and well-being of man. ...
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The genetic variability of ten accessions of Afzelia africana Sm. seeds were obtained from ten States in Southern Nigeria was determined using Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The electropherogram revealed three distinct polymorphic bands ranging from 33-104 kDa. The dendrogram showed the relationship among the accessions based on the similarity index using the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Means (UPGMA), revealing two clusters. Cluster 1 comprised accession from Rivers State. Accessions from other states were grouped in the second cluster, consisting of two groups. Majority of the accessions clustering in one group indicated low genetic variability. The accession from Rivers State is the root of dendrogram, which indicates that it may be the oldest in the evolutionary trend. Accessions in the same group should not be combined in a breeding programme. SDS-PAGE as a protein marker has proven to be helpful in the identification of genetic variation in A. africana.
... Brachystegia eurycoma seed flour forms a gel with water and produces a gummy texture when used in soups, thereby making it desirable for the eating of garri and pounded yam 14 . In Nigeria, the Igbos calls it achi, while it is called akalado or eku by Yorubas, akpakpa, or apaupan by the Ijaw and okwen by the Edos 15 . Brachystegia eurycoma seed gum compares favorably with commercial gums used in the food industry 14 . ...
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This study was conducted to evaluate gastroretentive metronidazole tablets formulated using Brachystegia eurycoma gum as a matrix. The gum was isolated from powdered dried Brachystegia eurycoma seeds. Gastroretentive metronidazole tablets were produced by direct compression technique using Brachystegia eurycoma gum, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, or their combination as the matrix. Sodium bicarbonate was used as a gas generating agent. The tablets were evaluated based on hardness, friability, weight uniformity, drug content, swelling studies, buoyancy lag time, and total buoyancy time. Hardness ranged from 4.57 ± 0.053 to 11.81 ± 0.90 Kgf. None of the tablets deviated from the mean tablet weight by more than ± 5%. The friability of the tablets was within 0.28 to 1.00% except for formulation MF1 that was 1.93%. Drug content was between 91.51% and 109.53%. The buoyancy lag time was between 2.35 and 20.15 min, and tablets from all the formulations maintained a total buoyancy time of above 12 h. Eighty percent (80%) of metronidazole was released from formulations MF1 to MF5 after 6, 9, 7, 5, and 12 h, respectively. The kinetics of release was by first order and Higuchi model, whereas the mechanism of release was by diffusion for formulations MF1 to MF3 and by non Fickian diffusion for formulations MF5 to MF6. Tablets from the optimized formulation, MF2 was stable after storage for one year at room temperature. Gastroretentive metronidazole tablets formulated using Brachystegia eurycoma gum as matrix showed good post compression properties on evaluation, especially buoyancy lag time, total buoyancy time, and in-vitro release.
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Brachystegia eurycoma (BE), Afzelia Africana (AA) and Mucuna solannie (MS) flours were blended (%, w/w) at varying proportions: 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 100:0, with 100% of flours as the control; then analyzed based on the phyto-chemical, functional and proximate compositions. Tanin, saponin, alkaloid and flavonoid values were 4.19, 1.47, 1.49 and 1.15 mg 100 g-1 dm; 3.44, 0.45, 1.34 and 1.13 mg 100 g-1 dm; and 4.1, 0.61, 1.36 and 1.18 mg 100 g-1 dm in MS, AA and BE flours respectively. Increased AA and BE proportions in MS flour increased the swelling index (1.49%-1.76%) whereas AA and BE inclusions (%) resulted in significant (P≤0.05) increase in the moisture content of the composite flours (8.3%-14%). Increase in % AA flour inclusion resulted in significant improvement in carbohydrate content while % BE flour inclusion recorded a decrease. As % BE flour inclusion increased from 20% to 40%, % protein content in the blends significantly improved (15.65%-16.25%) while % AA inclusion, increased protein content by 30%. The study could help to optimize the products made from MS, AA and BE flour blends, in terms of their properties than products made solely from single flour.
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Hydrocolloid was extracted from dehulled "achi" (Brachystegia eurycoma) seed with the aim of evaluating its functionality as a food stabilizing ingredientin fruit juice industries. The "achi" seeds were sorted, cleaned, milled into flour and defatted to extract the hydrocolloid (food gum) from it, after which the functional properties were analyzed. 3g of the extracted hydrocolloid was added to 300ml of water melon fruit juice. To compare its effect with other conventional hydrocolloids, Guar gum and Arabic gum were also added to the same quantity of water melon fruit juice. Viscosity analysis was carried out at four different temperatures of 40 o C, 50 o C, 60 o C and 70 o C.The result showed that the extracted hydrocolloid from "achi" seed had a swelling index of 3.67%, a wettability of 43minutes and 23 seconds, and a bulk density of 0.82. There was a decrease in the apparent viscosities of Guar gum, Arabic gum and "achi" hydrocolloid as well as the control water melon fruit juice samples as the temperature increased. Although, it was observed that the melon fruit juices with different hydrocolloids showed that the juice with Arabic gum had the highest mean viscosity value of 56, 54.8 and 52 at 40 o C, 50 o C and 60 o C respectively while Guar gum had the highest mean value of 22 at 70 o C. So, the "achi" hydrocolloid can compete favorably with other hydrocolloids or food gums in the fruit juice industry.
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Brachystegia eurycoma, a plant in the Fabaceae family has been used ethno-medicinally in the softening of bulky stool, and has been associated with protection of colonic cancer. This study was therefore aimed at the evaluation of possible modulatory effect of the stem bark extract of Brachystegia eurycoma (BE) on gastrointestinal motility. The in vivo activity of BE on gastrointestinal motility was evaluated using the following experimental models viz: normal intestinal transit, castor oil-induced diarrhoea, and intestinal fluid accumulation tests in rodents. The in vitro activity on isolated intestinal motility was also investigated on the following parameters viz: spontaneous, acetylcholine-and high KCl-induced intestinal contractions. BE (100, 300 and 700 mg/kg p.o.) produced a moderate decrease in normal intestinal transit while significantly (P < 0.05) reducing the propulsive movement in castor oil-induced diarrhoea compared with the control group (5% tween 80 10 ml/kg, p.o.). The extract also produced a dose-dependent, significant increase in the onset of diarrhoea. BE (100, 300 and 700 mg/kg) additionally reduced the diarrhoea score, number and weight of wet stools. The in-vivo antidiarrheal index (ADIin-vivo) of 37.14% produced by the extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg was lower compared to that produced by loperamide 5 mg/kg (54.74%). In vitro results revealed that the crude extract, the aqueous and chloroform fractions inhibited both spontaneous, acetylcholine and KCl-induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, the stem bark extract of Brachystegia eurycoma has been shown to exhibit antidiarrheal activity, possibly mediated by anti-muscarinic receptor activity or interaction with calcium channels
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Evaluation of Brachystegia eurycoma (harms) seed dietary inclusion in the prevention of colon carcinogenesis Atawodi Sunday, Iliemene Uju Ahmadu Bello University, Dept. of Biochemistry, Zaria, Nigeria, Introduction: Considering cancer as an end stage of a chronic disease process which can be prevented by a positive lifestyle and natural medicinal and food materials before the final outcome of invasive and metastasis, this study investigated the colon carcinogenesis preventive effects of Brachystegia eurycoma seed in experimental rats. Methods: Rats were fed with dietary inclusion of the seed sample at 2.5%, 5% and 10% orally before ten weeks of intra-rectal administration of methyl nitrosourea (MNU, 0.2 ml of 1.2%), which was continued throughout the period of MNU administration. Forty-two male albino rats were divided into six groups of seven rats each. Group 1 was normal control, group 2 was MNU control, group 3, 4 and 5 were given 2.5%, 5% and 10% dietary inclusion þ MNU, respectively, while group 6 was given 10% dietary inclusion without MNU induction. Results: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was observed to be significantly (P<0.05) higher in the MNU control group than in all other group. Significantly (P<0.05) lower activity of glutathione-s transferase was observed in the MNU control group. The histopathological examination of the colon showed deep mucosal ulceration with moderate inter-glandular inflammation in the MNU control group. Further examination of the colon with immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay showed presence of moderate damaged mismatch repair (MMR) gene MutL homolog 1 (MLH1) in the MNU control group, while no damage of this gene was observed in all other groups. Conclusion: These results showed that dietary inclusion of B. eurycoma seeds protected the rats from MNU-induced toxicity and equally prevented or delayed the onset of the process of carcinogenesis with potential positive impact on the health of the populace that consumes it.
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Brachystegia eurycoma is predominantly grown in the eastern region of Nigeria. Its seed is used in food majorly as a soup condiment, flavoring agent and soup thickener. The proximate, mineral and amino acid compositions were determined on raw and processed seeds (boiled, fermented and roasted) of Brachystegia eurycoma using standard analytical techniques. The processing methods showed deviations in the nutrients from the raw seeds. Crude protein was reduced by the processing methods with exception of the roasting method. Crude fat was reduced in all processing methods in this order: Raw > fermented > roasted > boiled samples. All of the processing methods enhanced calcium content in this order: Raw < boiled < fermented < roasted samples. Boiling and fermenting reduced the content of magnesium by 72.6 and 30.2%, respectively while boiling, fermenting and roasting increased potassium content by 124.5, 12.2 and 120.4%, respectively. Generally, all of the samples were found to be a good source of essential minerals, and harmful heavy metals such as lead, chromium, arsenic and cadmium were not at detectable range of atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The amino acid profile revealed that amino acids in the fermented sample were better concentrated than those in the raw and other processed samples. The total essential amino acids (TEAA) ranged from 28.63 g/100g crude protein in the roasted sample to 34.79 g/100g crude protein in the fermented sample. The limiting amino acid (LAA) was Met + Cys (TSAA) for all of the samples.
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A comprehensive study on the effect of processing on fatty acid and phospholipid compositions of Brachystegia eurycoma seed flour was conducted. Processing methods (boiling, fermentation and roasting) were adopted using standard analytical techniques. The most concentrated fatty acids (%) were linoleic acid (47.95 – 50.91) > oleic acid (26.51 – 30.91) > palmitic acid (11.51 – 14.16) > stearic acid (3.06 – 5.54). Lenoceric, erucic, and arachidic acids were present with none of them recording up to 1% while caprylic, capric and margaric acids were not at the detection limit of GC. All the processing methods increased the contents of palmitic, palmitoleic, linoleic and linolenic acids. The oleic acid content was reduced in boiled, fermented and roasted samples by 60.93, 59.97 and 63.77%, respectively. The phospholipid analysis gave result (%) of phosphatidic > phosphatidylinositol > phospatidyserine > phosphatidyethanolamine concentrations. Generally, the processing methods showed deviations in fatty acid and phospholipid components from the raw seeds. There was a clear indication that the raw and processed samples of B. eurycoma seed oils contained a high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids, making them a healthy low fat food.
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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently one of the major threats facing mankind. The emergence and rapid spread of multi- and pan-drug-resistant organisms (such as vancomycin-, methicillin-, extended-spectrum β-lactam-, carbapenem- and colistin-resistant organisms) has put the world in a dilemma. The health and economic burden associated with AMR on a global scale are dreadful. Available antimicrobials have been misused and are almost ineffective with some of these drugs associated with dangerous side effects in some individuals. Development of new, effective, and safe antimicrobials is one of the ways by which AMR burden can be reduced. The rate at which microorganisms develop AMR mechanisms outpaces the rate at which new antimicrobials are being developed. Medicinal plants are potential sources of new antimicrobial molecules. There is renewed interest in antimicrobial activities of phytochemicals. Nigeria boasts of a huge heritage of medicinal plants and there is avalanche of researches that have been undertaken to screen antimicrobial activities of these plants. Scientific compilation of these studies could provide useful information on the antimicrobial properties of the plants. This information can be useful in the development of new antimicrobial drugs. This paper reviews antimicrobial researches that have been undertaken on Nigerian medicinal plants.
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Brachystegia eurycoma is a mainstay in the treatment of malaria, diabetes, hypertension, microbial infections and inflammatory conditions in folkloric medicine in Eastern Nigeria. Thus, the present study investigated the in vivo sub-acute toxicity of its aqueous stem bark extract. Toxicological evaluation was done using organ weight index, haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters, following daily oral administration of 100, 400 and 800 mg/kg of the extract to albino Wistar rats for 14 days. The extract at all doses caused no significant changes in the organ weight index of selected organs except for 100 mg/kg which caused a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the weight of lungs compared to control. There was significant elevation of white blood cells and lymphocytes observed at all doses of extract tested. However, B. eurycoma caused mild periportal infiltrates of chronic inflammatory cells and Kupffer cell activation in the liver, lymphoid aggregate activation in the lungs as well as activation of lymphoid follicle and sinus histiocyte in the spleen, thus indicating activation of the immune system. Overall, the results suggest that aqueous extract of B. eurycoma stem bark is not toxic in rats, although it has a tendency to activate the immune system. Keywords: B. eurycoma, immunity, spleen, toxicity.
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Snail mucin was obtained from the mucilage of Archachatina marginata (Family Arionidae). The wound healing effect of the snail mucin was evaluated wth special attention to the effect when combined with honey in Brachystegia eurychoma gel preparation. Brachystegia eurycoma gum, snail mucin and honey were combined in different concentrations in the treatment of wound madeby excision model in rats. It was observed that mucin when combined with honey and in the Brachystegia eurycoma gel heals faster than when used alone. Brachystegia eurycoma gum was also observed to effect fast healing of the wounds when used alone. Complete healing was observed in 15 days post treatment. Honey in combination with mucin as well as the Brachystegia eurycoma gel should be harnessed in pharmaceutical formulations for the treatment of wounds Brachystegia eurycoma gum in right combinations with mucin and honey for wound healing, prevents bacteria infecion, scar formation and promotes regeneration of hair follicles. Keywords : Snail mucin, Honey, Brachystegia eurychoma gum, Gel, Wound healing Animal Research International Vol. 4 (2) 2007 pp. 685-697
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Brachystegia eurycoma Harms (Fabaceae) is used Nigeria for its anti-inflammatory, anti-malaria, anti-diabetics, and antihypertensive properties in combination with other plants. The seeds have particularly served as thickener in certain soups like ‘egusi’ and ‘ogbono’ in the eastern part of Nigeria. The growth inhibitory and cytotoxic effects of the methanol extract of the leaves and its organic solvent fractions were evaluated on the radicles of guinea corn Sorghum bicolor seed and tadpoles of Raniceps ranninus respectively. The extract and the aqueous fraction completely inhibited the germination of the guinea corn seeds in 24 h at a concentration of 20 mg/ml. The lengths of the radicles produced were significantly (<0.05) reduced with increase in the concentration of the extract and the fractions. The extract had an IC50 of 5 mg/ml while the aqueous fraction was observed to have 1.61 mg/ml. The cytotoxic effects of the tested extract and its fractions were observed to be concentration and time related. The aqueous fraction produced 100 % mortality at the concentration of 100 μg/ml with LC50 of 30 μg/ml whereas the extract produced 96.67 ± 3.33 % mortality at 200 μg/ml with LC50 of LC50 of 62.5 μg/ml. In conclusion, the results obtained confirmed the probable use of B. eurycoma leaves in treating tumour related ailments and the activities are enhanced with partial purification with the aqueous fraction showing higher activities. Keywords: Brachystegia eurycoma, Growth inhibitory effects; Cytotoxic.