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Nutritional and health effects of coffee


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An increasing number of studies have shown that, in spite of its nutritional limitations, coffee is a complex mixture of bioactive substances that may act together to help prevent diseases when consumed in a proper way. This chapter reviews the literature on the nutritional and health-related aspects of regular coffee consumption, then examines the potential side effects, and looks ahead to future research in this area.
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Achieving sustainable
cultivation of coffee
Breeding and quality traits
Edited by Dr Philippe Lashermes
Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), France
© Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing Limited, 2018. All rights reserved.
Chapter taken from: Lashermes, P. (ed.), Achieving sustainable cultivation of coffee, Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing,
Cambridge, UK, 2018 (ISBN: 978 1 78676 152 1;
Nutritional and health effects of coffee
Adriana Farah, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
1 Introduction
2 Nutrients and bioactive compounds of coffee
3 Main beneficial health effects of coffee
4 Potential side effects of coffee drinking
5 Final considerations
6 Acknowledgements
7 Where to look for further information
8 References
1 Introduction
Good health and well-being are essential for all humans and depend upon good nutrition.
Only when an individual has good health can he or she fully utilize their physical and
mental potentials.
Since the beginning of humanity, plant foods have been used to promote health and
prevent disease. Coffee has been exalted by people of different nations and times not
only because of its distinctive aroma and taste but also due to its stimulating and health-
promoting effects (Bizzo et al., 2015).
The earliest potential references to coffee consumption are found in the Old Testament,
where a bean was referred to as a ‘parched pulse’, and the first written mention of coffee is
attributed to Razes, a tenth-century Arabian physician, who indicated that coffee cultivation
may have begun as early as 575 AD (Smith, 1987; Folmer et al., 2017). However, the first
written documentation of the medicinal properties and uses of coffee was reported by
the Middle Eastern physician, Avicenna (980–1037 AD), who used it as a decongestant,
muscle relaxant and diuretic infusion. It is said that in the thirteenth century, a doctor-priest
from Mocha, Sheikh Omar, also discovered coffee in Arabia and used it as a cure for many
different types of illnesses (Ukers, 1935). The earliest coffee houses opened in Mecca
in the fifteenth century, but were primarily reserved for religious purposes. After they
were popularized, following a trip to Aleppo, Dr. Leonard Rauwolf, a German physician,
introduced the beverage to Western Europe in the sixteenth century and referred to it as
being ‘almost as black as ink and very good in illness, chiefly that of the stomach’ (Ukers,
1935; Folmer et al., 2017).
Nutritional and health effects of coffee
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Neither the Greek physician Hippocrates (460–377AD) nor the Roman physician Aelius
Galenus (129–199 AD), who later expanded Galenic theories, ever mentioned coffee, as
it was not consumed in their region at that time. However, the followers of Hippocratic–
Galenic medicine, which dominated physiology from the fourth century BC to the
nineteenth century, used it to balance the body’s ‘humours’ in accordance with individual
temperaments. Coffee was considered to be beneficial to people with a lymphatic or
bilious temperament, whereas sanguine or nervous subjects were advised to use it more
reservedly. Consequently, coffee houses, which were first introduced in Europe in the
seventeenth century, were often recommended for those suffering from maladies as part
of their treatment (Bizzo et al., 2015). In the eighteenth century, they also became places
for social gathering and commerce, and over time, more coffee houses opened up and
became popular (Folmer et al., 2017).
Despite its recognition as a medicinal agent or simply a beverage with an attractive taste,
throughout history, coffee has occasionally been seen as a villain, and to date, remainders of
this reputation still exist. The perception of coffee as an intoxicating drug and the sensitivity
of some people to caffeine are the main reasons for this, along with past discussions on
its potential contribution to the development of cancer or other diseases. However, over
the last few decades, the appearance of modern scientific technology, in combination
with large and reliable databases and sophisticated statistics, has enabled the separation
of confounding factors in epidemiological studies such as existing medical conditions,
smoking or a poor-quality diet. Additionally, an increasing number of studies have proved
that despite its nutritional limitations, coffee is a complex mixture of bioactive substances
that may act together to help prevent diseases when consumed appropriately. In view of
this, our understanding of coffee and its healthful properties has changed dramatically.
Currently, the general opinion is that moderate coffee consumption is not associated with
increased long-term risks amongst healthy individuals and can be incorporated into a
healthy and diverse diet, in combination with other healthful behaviours (US Department
of Agriculture – USDA, 2015).
This chapter presents a brief literature review of the nutritional and main health-related
aspects of regular coffee consumption.
2 Nutrients and bioactive compounds of coffee
The chemical composition of roasted coffee beans has been detailed in previous
chapters. In summary, they contain approximately 43% carbohydrates (of which 70–85% is
comprised of polysaccharides, arabinogalactans, mannans and glucan, and the remaining
amount includes sucrose, reducing sugars, lignins and pectins); 7.5–10% proteins; other
nitrogenous compounds (1% caffeine, 0.7–1% trigonelline and 0.01–0.04% nicotinic acid);
10–15% lipids (of which approximately 75% correspond to triacylglycerols, 18.5% to esters
of diterpens and free diterpens and the remaining amount to esters of sterols, free sterols,
sterylglucosides, waxes, tocopherols and phosphatides); 25% melanoidins, 3.7–5%
minerals and ~6% organic and inorganic acids, and esters (1–4% chlorogenic acids and
other phenolic compounds, 1.4–2.5% aliphatic acids and quinic acid and <0.3% inorganic
acids), in addition to other minor compounds that may be exclusive to a particular species
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Nutritional and health effects of coffee 3
(Farah, 2012; Speer and Kölling-Speer, 2017). In this chapter, we will focus on the most
common species found around the world, Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora, which
are also the most consumed and the only species studied with respect to human health.
The coffee beverage or brew is an aqueous extract derived from the infusion or
percolation of roasted and ground coffee beans, using hot or cold water. The reported
amounts of nutrients, main bioactive compounds and other non-nutrients in coffee
brews are presented in Table 1. It is worth noting that a coffee brew exhibits very high
variability in terms of chemical composition due to many possible variations in raw
material production, processing and brewing, which lead to the final product (the brew).
The first variable is the blend, which can contain different percentages of coffee beans,
each with distinct chemical compositions derived from genetic aspects, origin and degree
of maturation (the latter being considered only in the case of a lower quality blend), grown
under different conditions and processed via varying postharvest methods. There are
also many existing types of roasting profiles and roasting degrees. The roasted beans
can then be ground to different sizes and the proportion of powder to water classically
used can change dramatically between countries and cultures. For example, whilst in
most European countries, the use of 6 g per 100 mL is common for filtered coffees, in
Brazil, 10 g or more is used. In Italy, 20 g of ground roasted coffee is also not uncommon
for 100 mL. In espresso coffee, although traditionally 6–8 g is used per 25 mL water,
an extreme proportion of 10 g per 25 mL water is nowadays often used by third-wave
baristas. In addition, there are a variety of brewing methods where pressure, temperature
and contact time between the water and the ground coffee vary, and therefore require
different amounts of powder. Some methods use filters made up of different materials,
which may also influence the composition of the final brew. On top of all this, the size of
a cup can vary from about 25 mL for an Italian espresso to 600 mL (20 oz) in the United
States. The standard American cup, however, is often reported as being equivalent to
approximately 250 mL (8 fluid oz). The traditional European filter cup has been defined
in different studies, including that of Floegel et al. (2012), as containing 150 mL. Finally,
analytical methods may cause differences in the reported compositional results, especially
for the least sensitive and specific methods. Thus, it is understandable that there are no
rigorous standard values that represent the chemical composition of a cup of coffee, but
rather a range of values. Table 1, therefore, reports the ranges of values found in the
literature, but higher or lower values can be found, depending on the compound.
It is worth noting that the yield of a brew (i.e. the amount of solids extracted from the
ground coffee found in a cup) may vary from as low as 14% to as much as 60% during
soluble coffee production, thus affecting the composition of the brew. Further to this, the
extractability of a compound by water will also depend on the amount of soluble solids
in the water. Water, containing a high amount of minerals like calcium, magnesium and
chloride may extract less solids from the ground coffee, and may also influence the flow
time in an espresso machine (Folmer, pers. comm.). Considering that up to 40 g of coffee
could be used to prepare 100 mL of a coffee beverage, the amount of soluble solids in
coffee brews has been reported to vary from 2 to 6 g per 100 mL cup (Pettraco, 2005) (also
referred to as a TC ranging from 2 to 6%). In the traditionally weaker American coffees,
measurements of the amount of solids in a few cups yielded 1.2–1.5 g per 100 g. It is worth
highlighting that the amount of solids depends upon the degree of roasting.
The main components of the brew are now briefly described.
Nutritional and health effects of coffee
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Table 1 Content range of nutrients, bioactive compounds and other non-nutrients in coffee brews
obtained from ground and roasted blends of C. arabica species or blends of C. arabica and C. canephora
species (Trugo, 1985; Macrae, 1985; Clifford, 1985; Urgent et al., 1995; Nunes et al., 1997; Balzer, 2001;
Alcázar et al., 2003; Petracco, 2005; Boekschoten et al., 2006; Lang et al., 2010,2011; Farah, 2012; Rubach
et al., 2014; Lachenmeier, 2015; USDA, 2017; Glória and Engeseth, 2017)
Nutrients and non-nutrients
Content rangea
(from blends of C. arabica or C. arabica and C. canephora sp.)
Macronutrients mg per 100 mL
Water 94 000–98 500 (TC 1.5–6%)
Simple sugarsb0–100 (one report up to 200 mg)
Proteins 120–400
Lipids 180–400
Soluble fibresc200–700 (more commonly between 400 and 500)
Aliphatic acids and quinic acidf692–2140
Thiamin (B1) 0.001
Riboflavin (B2) 0.177
Niacin (B3, nicotinic acid)d0.8–10 (more commonly up to 5)
Pyridoxine (B6) 0.002
Folate (B9, DFE)e1
Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid 0.2
Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) 0.01
Vitamin K (phylloquinone) 0.1
Tocopherols (α, β, γ) Traces, only in unfiltered coffees
Minerals: Total ashes 150–500
Potassium, K 115–320
Calcium, Ca 2–4
Sodium, Na 1–14
Phosphorus, P 3–7
Iron, Fe 0.02–0.13
Zinc, Zn 0.01–0.05
Manganese, Mn 0.02–0.05
Bioactive compounds mg per 100 mL
Caffeine 50–380 (commonly between 50 and 150)
Trigonelline 12–50
N-methylpyridinium 2.9–8.7
Diterpenes (cafestol and kahweol) 0.2–1.5 (paper filtered); 2.6–10 (boiled)
Chlorogenic acids 32–500 (commonly 50–150)
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Nutritional and health effects of coffee 5
2.1 Macronutrients
As with other types of plant beverages, coffee brews do not contain excessive amounts of
macronutrients (absorbable carbohydrates, proteins and lipids) and calories, unless they are
consumed with sugar, milk or cream. According to the USDA National Nutrient Database
(2017), 100 mL of filtered coffee (breakfast blend) contains approximately 2 kcal. Exceptions
include boiled coffees and similar types of brews, which contain a reasonable amount of
lipids as both soluble and insoluble materials are consumed. The nutritional quality of coffee
proteins is limited and approximately 50% of this fraction is insoluble and lacks the essential
amino acid, tryptophan (Macrae, 1985). In addition, during roasting, most simple sugars and
proteins are degraded or changed via the Maillard and pyrolysis reactions and so the amount
of protein in the cup is low (120–400 mg per 100 mL, USDA 2017). The detection of up to
200 mg per 100 mL of simple sugars, mainly arabinose, galactose and mannose, and lower
amounts of sucrose, fructose and glucose, has been reported for brewed coffee and dissolved
soluble coffee at 2% (coffee/water), with the latter being higher (Macrae, 1985; Trugo, 1985).
Galactomannans and type 2 arabinogalactans are considered to be the predominant soluble
dietary fibres in a coffee beverage (often between 140 and 650 mg per 100 mL), of which
approximately 70% is comprised of galactomannans (Gniechwitz et al., 2007; Farah, 2012);
however, care is needed to distinguish polysaccharides from total carbohydrates in order to
avoid overestimation.
Nutrients and non-nutrients
Content rangea
(from blends of C. arabica or C. arabica and C. canephora sp.)
Sum of other phenolic
Melanoidins 500–1500
β-carbolins (norharman and
Serotonin 0–1.4
Melatonin 0.006–0.008
Polyamines (spermine and
Some undesirable compoundsgµg per 100 mL
Acrylamide 3.9–7.7
5-hydroxytryptamidesh1.2–34.3 (filtered), 350–840 (espresso and French press)
a Content varies with blend, origin, agricultural practices, roasting method and degree, grid, brewing method,
amount of coffee powder to water and analytical method.
b Arabinose, mannose, galactose, sucrose and minor monosaccharides.
c Polysaccharides, mainly galactomannans and type II arabinogalactans.
d Daily recommendations for adults:16 mg for men and 14 mg for women (WHO/FAO, 2002).
e Dietary Folate Equivalent.
f pH 4.3 (acidic coffee, light roast), to 5.8. Common values around 5.0.
g These undesirable compounds do not include incidental contaminants.
h N-alkanoyl-5-hydroxytryptamides (C5HTs).
i Content decreases rapidly after brew preparation.
Nutritional and health effects of coffee
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2.2 Micronutrients
With regards to micronutrients, the brew may contain a reasonable amount of vitamins and
minerals. Niacin, in the form of nicotinic acid, is the main vitamin in a coffee brew and is
also known as vitamin B3 or PP (pellagra preventing), and participates as a coenzyme in
various metabolic processes involved in energy metabolism and tissue health. Additionally,
it contributes to the normal functioning of the nervous system, among many other functions.
Deficiency of this vitamin causes pellagra, a disease characterized by skin lesions and
diarrhea, among other symptoms (Arauz et al., 2015). Regular coffee consumption can supply
an essential part of the daily recommendation for adults, which is 16 mg for men and 14 mg
for women according to FAO standards (WHO/FAO, 2002). Niacin can also be produced
in the liver from a reasonable amount of tryptophan (60mg thyptophan makes 1mg niacin),
which is present in animal proteins, nuts, and some other seeds. The intake of niacin from
coffee is particularly important in places where tryptophan consumption is low, such as in the
rural and less developed areas of Central America and Central Africa where corn (which is
poor in niacin and tryptophan) is the staple food (Carpenter, 1983; Macrae, 1985). However,
it is worth noting that people who consume corn as tortillas or similar foods made with corn
flour pre-treated with alkaline water are not at risk of niacin deficiency as those who consume
untreated corn and corn flour (Carpenter, 1983). Most recently, supplementation of nicotinic
acid has been used to decrease low and very low density lipoproteins (LDL and VLDL) levels
(Le Bloch et al., 2010) and to contribute to the hepatoprotective effect of coffee (Arauz et al.,
2015) and therefore, an additional food source of niacin, like coffee is welcome considering
that excess amounts of the vitamin are excreted in urine (Wang et al, 2001).
Coffee brews may also contain very small amounts of nicotinamide, another form of niacin,
and other B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, folic acid), ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and
phylloquinone (vitamin K) (Macrae, 1985; USDA 2017). Unfiltered coffees can contain small
residual amounts of tocophenols (α, β and γ – the latter two predominate), although during
and after roasting almost all of the original amount in green coffee (about 60 mg/100g) is
degraded or oxidized (Macrae, 1985).
Considering the different factors that create a large variability in the composition of
roasted coffee, in addition to differing brewing methods and the extractability of different
minerals, the values of total ash ranging between 150 and 500 mg per 100 mL have been
reported, including data from dissolved soluble coffee (containing 7–10% ash), prepared
at 2% (ground coffee to water). For infusions prepared from ground coffee in Poland
(Grembecka et al., 2007), the consumption of 300 mL (2 cups) was estimated to supply,
on average, 4.5% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for Mg, 3.5% for K, 2.8%
for Mn, 2.4% for Cr, 1.9% for P, 0.32–0.43% for Ca and Na, 0.26–0.33% for Cu and Fe,
0.13% for Zn and 2.6–15.6% for Ni. Higher average percentages were estimated from the
ingestion of a 300-mL beverage prepared from instant coffee: 12.3% for Mg, 8.9% for K,
8.6% for Mn, 4.9% for Cr, 7.4% for P, 1.6% for Ca, 2.5% for Na, 0.32% for Cu, 2.9% for Fe,
0.35% for Zn and 4.9–29.7% for Ni. Estimates indicate that the consumption of coffee in
typical amounts does not exceed the tolerance limits for the ingestion of toxic metals, such
as Pb and Cd.
In a study performed in Portugal (Oliveira et al., 2012), two cups of instant coffee (total of
4 g) were estimated to supply 9.5% of the RDA for K, 5.2% for Mg, 4.4% for Mn, 3.5% for
Ni, 2.2% for P, 1.5% for Fe, 0.5% for Cr, 0.4% for Ca and 0.2% for Na. In a more recent study,
also performed in Portugal (Oliveira et al., 2015), one cup of an espresso coffee beverage
(prepared from 5 to 6 g of ground coffee) was estimated to provide 5.2–7.0% of the RDA for
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Nutritional and health effects of coffee 7
K, 2.8–7.2% for P, 1.4–2.2% for Mg, 1.4–1.9% for Mn, 0.14–0.28% for Ca, 0.07–0.15% for Fe
and <0.02% for Na.
Other similar studies indicate that regular coffee intake (300 mL) does not contribute,
in most cases, to amounts higher than 10% of the daily recommendations in different
2.3 Bioactive compounds
It is well known that nutrients are required to maintain normal body functions and are
therefore bioactive. However, the term ‘bioactive compounds’ commonly refers to minor
food constituents that exert biological functions other than nutritional functions. These
compounds are commonly found in plants, and in a few animals that feed on them, and
their chemical structures and biological functions vary widely.
Although most health-related aspects of coffee have been attributed to the beverage
and not to individual compounds, mechanistic studies have suggested that some specific
bioactive compounds play key roles as co-adjuvant agents in disease prevention. In
addition to caffeine, the most studied bioactive compounds of coffee are chlorogenic acids
and their lactones, trigonelline and their derivatives, the diterpenes, cafestol and kahweol
and melanoidins. The polysaccharides, galactomannans and type II arabinogalactans,
and β-carbolines are amongst the emerging bioactive compounds for which there is still
insufficient information to substantiate any health effects. Also, relatively recently, it has
been suggested that some coffee amines exert positive effects on health when consumed
in low quantities, which are referred to as bioactive amines. Each of these compounds or
group of compounds will be introduced hereafter and their effect on health will be briefly
discussed. The main undesirable compounds in coffee are also introduced.
2.3.1 Caffeine
Caffeine is the most well-studied compound present in coffee, and its mechanisms of
function are generally well documented. First, there are psychostimulating effects which
include an acute impact on mental performance as well as long-term influence on the risk
of developing neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. Caffeine
has also been found to improve physical performance, which will be discussed in the next
section on the health effects of coffee. Most recently, a number of studies have reported
new bioactive effects for caffeine, and one of the emerging effects is the enhancement
of the antioxidant effect of coffee. Caffeine metabolites, especially 1-methylxantine and
1-methylurate, have exhibited an antioxidant activity in vitro (Moura-Nunes et al., 2009).
Corroborating these results, the average plasma iron-reducing capacity of human subjects
after regular coffee consumption was higher than that recorded after the consumption of
decaffeinated coffee, suggesting that whole coffee is more efficient than decaffeinated
coffee with respect to its antioxidant capacity (Moura-Nunes et al., 2009).
There are a few in vitro studies showing that caffeine contributes to the antibacterial effect
of coffee against Streptococcus mutans, a significant contributor to cariogenic bacteria, as
well as intestinal pathogenic bacteria (Antonio et al., 2010). Over the last few years, it has
also been suggested that caffeine exerts an antihyperlipidemic effect (decreased storage
of triglycerides and cholesterol) by inhibiting lipogenesis and stimulating lipolysis through
the regulation of the gene expression responsible for lipid metabolism in liver cells (Quan,
2013). These are just a few of the various emerging effects of caffeine.
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2.3.2 Chlorogenic acids and their derivatives
Chlorogenic acids and their derivatives – Chlorogenic acids are the main phenolic compounds
in coffee and this group of compounds includes approximately ten major esters and four
major lactones (produced during roasting), in addition to dozens of trace compounds. The
total amount of chlorogenic acids in C. canephora beans is almost double than that found
in C. arabica beans, and because chlorogenic acids are partly degraded or transformed
during roasting, dark roasted coffees contain lower amounts of these compounds. In roasted
products, the difference between species is significantly reduced.
These compounds are frequently referred to as powerful antioxidants and anti-
inflammatory compounds due to the results of in vitro and animal studies, as well as a
few human studies (Santos et al., 2006; Torres and Farah; 2016, Folmer et al., 2017), but
the mechanism of action of the different compounds and how they are related to the
prevention of the disease remains, to a large extent, unknown.
Owing to the high concentration of chlorogenic acids in coffee brews (Table 1),
compared with chlorogenic acids and other phenolic compounds in foods, in general, they
may play a major role in the diet of consumers as a source of antioxidative compounds.
The significant contribution of chlorogenic acids to the dietary intake of antioxidative
compounds is exemplified in a number of reports from different countries in which, based
on their official food consumption database or other types of surveys, coffee was the main
contributor to total dietary antioxidant capacity, that is, Brazil (66%), Norway (64%), Italy
(38% for women and 27% for men), Spain (45%), Japan (56%) and the Czech Republic
(54.6% for women and 43.1% for men) (Torres and Farah, 2016). However, it should be
kept in mind that the intake of chlorogenic acids from coffee does not replace the intake
of antioxidants from other foods, as each has its own specific bioactivity.
Together with other polyphenols, carotenoids and additional classes of antioxidative
compounds, chlorogenic acids and their lactones have been associated with a decrease in
the risk of Alzheimer’s and type 2 diabetes, amongst various degenerative diseases (Kasai
et al., 2000; Obuleso et al., 2011; Farah, 2012).
Long before epidemiological studies investigated the association between coffee
consumption and health effects, the antimutagenic property of chlorogenic acids and their
metabolites was discovered. Recent studies have confirmed these findings and elucidated
several mechanisms of chemopreventive action, which include modulating the expression
of the enzymes that are involved in endogenous antioxidant defences, DNA replication,
cell differentiation and ageing (Feng et al., 2005; Ramos, 2008;Jurkowska, 2011), metal
chelation, inactivation of reactive compounds and metabolic pathway changes (Kasai et
al., 2000; Farah, 2012). In the colon, for example, chlorogenic acids may inactivate free
reactive radicals and as a result help prevent colon cancer (Ludwig et al., 2014).
Additional health effects observed in vitro and in animal studies include hepatoprotective
(including cirrhosis, liver cancer and other liver diseases), immune-stimulatory and
antibacterial and antiviral activities. Synthetic derivatives of these compounds have also
inhibited HIV-1 replication in cells, which could play a role in research towards drugs
that inhibit HIV (Farah, 2012). Additionally, recent in vitro studies have suggested that
after coffee consumption, the unabsorbed portion of chlorogenic acids may serve as a
substrate to stimulate the growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria; however, this effect
requires further investigation due to conflicting data in different studies (Sales et al., 2017).
Trace amounts of other phenolic compounds, that is, isoflavones, proantocyanidins
and lignans, have been identified in coffee (Farah and Donangelo, 2006), which possibly
enhance the beneficial effects of chlorogenic acids.
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Nutritional and health effects of coffee 9
2.3.3 Melanoidins and polysaccharides
Melanoidins and polysaccharides – Coffee melanoidins have gained importance over the
years because of their contribution to, amongst others, the antioxidant and antimicrobial
effects of coffee (Rufián-Henares and Morales, 2007). This is at least, in part, due to the
incorporation of chlorogenic acids and other bioactive compounds into their structure
during roasting (Farah, 2012).
As melanoidins are not digested, they may act, in combination with coffee polysaccharides
(mainly galactomannans and type II arabinogalactans), as soluble dietary fibres. They are
largely indigestible and thus fermented in the gut (Borrelli et al., 2004; Gniechwitz, 2008).
A recent study concluded that the consumption of 0.5–2 g melanoidins per day (present
in 2–5 cups) contributes up to 20% of the recommended 10 g of daily soluble dietary fibre
intake. It has also been hypothesized that these substances may stimulate the growth of
beneficial bacteria in the lower digestive tract (Fogliano and Morales, 2011), in the same
way as chlorogenic acids; however, the data remain controversial.
As with chlorogenic acids (Passos et al., 2014), it has been hypothesized that melanoidins
can enhance immune-stimulating properties and contribute significantly to reducing the risk
of colon cancer (Vitaglione et al., 2012; Moreira et al., 2015; Fogliano and Morales, 2011),
which might occur in different ways: i) by increasing the elimination rate of carcinogens
through higher colon motility and faecal output, ii) by decreasing colon inflammation
through improved microbiota balance (prebiotic effect) and iii) by serving as a ‘sponge’ for
free radicals in the gut (Garsetti et al., 2000; Folmer et al., 2017).
2.3.4 Trigonelline and derivatives
Trigonelline and derivatives – Trigonelline is another compound that has gained importance
in recent years due to its potential contribution to the protective effect of coffee against
diseases. In vitro and animal studies have reported different involvements of trigonelline
against type 2 diabetes (Yoshinari and Igarashi, 2010), as well as neuroprotective (Hong et al.,
2008; Tohda et al., 2005), antitumour (Hirakawa et al., 2005) and phytoestrogenic effects
(Farah, 2012). Beans from C. arabica species contain higher amounts of this compound,
compared with C. canephora, and as with chlorogenic acids, trigonelline undergoes changes
and degradation during roasting; hence, dark roasted coffees contain low amounts. However,
10–20% of the original amount of trigonelline is converted into nicotinic acid (niacin) (Farah,
2012). In addition to its vitamin function, niacin is also involved in other bioactive functions,
presenting antidiabetic (Yoshinari and Igarashi, 2010), antioxidant and hepatoprotective (Arauz
et al., 2015) effects in vitro and in animal studies. The compound n-methylpyridinium and
other pyridinium derivatives are additional thermal degradation products generated by the
decarboxylation of trigonelline. It has been reported that like trigonelline, n-methylpyridinium
promoted higher glucose utilization in liver cells, stimulating cellular energy metabolism and
contributing to the protective effect against type 2 diabetes (Riedel et al., 2014). Pyridinium
derivatives have also been reported to present antioxidant/chemopreventive (Somoza et
al., 2003), hepatoprotective (Gebicki et al., 2008), vasoprotective (Lang et al., 2011) and
antithrombotic effects (Kalaska et al., 2014).
2.3.5 Diterpenes
Diterpenes – Cafestol and kahweol are diterpenes present in coffee mainly in the form of
salts or esters of (predominantly) saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. They represent
Nutritional and health effects of coffee
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approximately 20% of the lipid fraction of coffee, with cafestol being more abundant. Higher
levels of diterpenes are found in C. arabica than in C. canephora species. Coffee diterpenes
exhibit strong anticarcinogenic and hepatoprotective properties in vitro (Farah, 2012).
Diterpene levels in the coffee cup vary significantly based on the natural variations in
green coffee beans, roasting conditions and preparation methods (Urgert et al., 1997; Gross,
1997;Urgert and Katan, 1995). Whilst filtered and soluble coffees are practically diterpene-
free (due to their poor solubility in water, they are trapped by paper filters), espresso-based
methods contain higher levels of diterpenes, which are, on the other hand, significantly
lower than those found in French press or Turkish coffee (2–10 mg per cup) (Farah, 2012).
2.3.6 β-carbolines
β-carbolines – These are alkaloids formed in coffee mainly during roasting and the
two identified β-carbolines in coffee are norharman and harman. Despite some past
controversies regarding the neurological and toxicological effects of these compounds
in studies using high doses in animals, β-carbolines have been recently associated
with potentially positive effects, including neurological ones, with antidepressive and
neuroprotective properties. It has also been suggested that they may reduce the risk of
diabetes. The total concentration of these compounds in the brew is highly variable in the
literature, from 4 to 80 µg per 100 mL, but typical concentrations are reported to be in the
range of 4–20 µg per 100 mL, being primarily dependent on the coffee species. Roasted
C. canephora beans have consistently higher amounts of β-carbolines than C. arabica
beans (Farah, 2012;Rodrigues and Casal, 2017;Casal, 2017).
2.3.7 Bioactive amines
Bioactive amines – These compounds are organic bases with psychoactive, neuroactive or
vasoactive activity and participate in a number of processes in the human body. Coffee amines
that present positive health effects in in vitro and in animal studies, other than their known
physiological effects in the body, are called bioactive amines. However, no direct association
between their presence in coffee and benefits to human health has been found. The main
bioactive amines are the indolamines, serotonine and melatonin, and the polyamines,
spermine and spermidine. Mean reported concentrations of serotonin in coffee beverages
vary from non-detected to 90 µg per 100 mL in most coffee beverages, but from 372 to
1354 µg per 100 mL in Turkish coffee. Information regarding melatonin is rare; however,
levels ranging from 6 to about 8 µg per 100 mL have been found. Although serotonin is
a neuroactive substance with various positive effects on well-being, serotonin from the
diet cannot cross the blood–brain barrier and can only be produced in the brain; however,
serotonin from the diet can have other potentially relevant roles including broncho- and
vasoconstrictor, antihypertonic, antioxidant and antiallergic and antidiuretic effects. It can also
help to modulate the volume and acidity of gastric juice. Spermine and spermidine (reported
amounts for each vary from non-identified to more than 150 µg per 100 mL brew) are efficient
free radical scavengers in several chemical and enzymatic systems. Other amines have also
shown positive effects on health when in low quantities (Gloria and Engeseth, 2017).
2.4 Undesirable compounds in coffee
A few compounds derived from microbial contamination (ocratoxin A, biogenic amines),
pesticides or chemical reactions that occur during the roasting process (mainly acrylamide,
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Nutritional and health effects of coffee 11
furan and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons – PAH) have been of concern to health authorities
such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations (FAO) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).
2.4.1 Ocratoxin A
Ocratoxin A and similar toxins are derived from green bean contamination with mould and
can be avoided by carefully harvesting, processing and storing coffee, which is reflected in
good quality. Ocratoxin A is gradually degraded by the high temperatures of roasting and
its residual levels in roasted coffee are regulated in many countries. In the European Union,
regulation 1881/2006 states that for roasted coffees, the maximum limit is 5 µg per kg.
2.4.2 Pesticides
Pesticides comprise a large number of substances belonging to different chemical groups,
which are used to control plant diseases, pests or weeds. They can be neurotoxic or inhibit
vital metabolic reactions in living beings, targeting different mechanisms, and individual
pesticides present different levels of toxicity. In order to protect human safety and health
resulting from pesticide application during coffee production, many countries have put these
chemicals under strict legislation and surveillance. For example, in the United States, the FDA
establishes the maximum amount of a pesticide allowed to remain in food, as part of the
process of regulating pesticides. Presently, tolerance limits for about 43 pesticides in coffee
are listed by the FDA. In Japan, the maximum tolerated residual limits are amongst the lowest
(often 0.01 ppm). Despite all the regulations, pesticide residues have been found via analyses
of green coffee performed prior to importing at differing occasions and in different countries.
Due to restrictions and monitoring, the residual levels of pesticides in commercial ground
and roasted coffees are usually very low and within the established limits. The solubility
of residual pesticides after roasting is often low and therefore low amounts are found in
the brew, especially in filtered coffee. However, the toxicity of their metabolites in seeds or
degradation products during roasting has not been well studied and could be higher than
that of the pesticides themselves (Farah, 2012; Cunha and Fernandes, 2017).
2.4.3 Acrylamide, furan and PAH
Acrylamide, furan and PAH are derived from reactions that occur during roasting, more
specifically Maillard and pyrolysis (Farah, 2012), which can occur in many other heated
foods such as French fries or bread. Studies assessing the risk of their concentrations in
brews have not found considerable amounts which could cause harm to human health, as
epidemiological studies have failed to find a link between these compounds in coffee and an
elevated risk of cancer or other diseases (Lipworth et al., 2012; Nkondjock, 2012).Amongst all
these compounds, acrylamide is the most abundant and the one which many food and health
authorities have been most concerned about. It is formed at the beginning of the roasting
process and its levels decrease thereafter to a certain degree (Farah, 2012). Acrylamide has
been associated with cancer in one study using laboratory rodents which were exposed to
extremely high concentrations (1000–10 000 times physiological ranges) (Mucci and Adami,
2009). Whilst the US FDA (FDA, 2016) reported that coffee is a significant source of acrylamide
exposure for adults, the EFSA’s recent opinion on acrylamide stated that health authorities
do not see any direct evidence of cancer risk (EFSA 4104, 2015b; Folmer et al., 2017). The
Nutritional and health effects of coffee
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European Commission’s recommended indicative value is 450 µg acrylamide per kg of roast
and ground coffee, a level which is generally achievable for commercial products.
Furan, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural are heterocyclic, low molecular weight
molecules with a furan ring and potential carcinogenicity in common. Furan has been
classified as a possible carcinogen (Group 2B) by the International Agency for Research
on Cancer (IARC). Group 2B status is assigned to compounds and exposure conditions
for which there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and insufficient evidence
of carcinogenicity in experimental animals, and therefore requires further investigation.
No human studies are available regarding the effects of furan and there is a significant
uncertainty in the extrapolation of risk from animal assays performed in the laboratory
to the equivalent risk for humans. When dealing with furfuryl and furan derivatives, the
EFSA report (EFSA, 2011) concluded that notwithstanding some indications of in vitro
genotoxicity, based on available data of exposure and on in vivo genotoxicity studies, which
gave negative results for the carcinogenicity evaluation in rats and mice, under normal
conditions, these compounds are of no concern to human health (Folmer et al., 2017).
Regulatory bodies, including the US FDA and the EFSA, have made no recommendations
regarding the maximum levels of furan in the dietary intake.
In coffee, these compounds are formed during the roasting stage mainly via thermal
degradation/Maillard reaction of reducing sugars, alone or in combination with amino
acids or via the thermal degradation of amino acids. The consumed levels of furan in coffee
are highly variable and reflect not only the preparation methods but also the roasting
conditions; however, these compounds are not exclusive to coffee. The major contributors
to furan exposure in adults and teenagers were estimated to be fruit juice, and milk-based
and cereal-based products. Additionally, jarred baby foods were also major contributors
in toddlers (Ferreira et al., 2017).
Examples of a range of furan concentrations, obtained using coffees from the Spanish
market prepared by different methods, are 12–146 µg per litre with the lowest values
found in instant and filtered coffee and the highest values found in espresso. Boiled
coffee was not evaluated. The concentration for commercially packed coffee capsules was
approximately 240 µg per litre. The furan content of coffee brews from automatic coffee
vending machines ranged from 11 to 262 µg per litre; however, this is not representative
of what people would consume. Due to its high volatility, after coffee preparation, losses
occur rapidly upon mixing and waiting for the brew to cool down (Ferreira et al., 2017).
The most important contributors of HMF in the diet are dried fruits, caramel, vinegar, bread
and coffee. The content of HMF in coffee samples from coffee vending machines (8 g of
ground coffee to 100 mL water) ranged between 4 and 60 mg per litre with a mean content
of 28.8 mg per litre. The concentrations of furfural in coffee brews from European vending
machines ranged between 0.30 and 1.30 mg per litre (Ferreira et al., 2017). To date, no
measures have been identified to mitigate furan without impacting the typical coffee aroma.
PAH, from which benzo[a]pyrene is the most relevant from a toxicity point of view,
can be formed in coffee and other foods that are severely roasted or exposed to very
high temperatures. This compound is classified by the IARC as probably carcinogenic
to humans. However, the level of exposure to PAH from coffee is low and within the safe
limits set by International Agencies (IARC, 2010; EFSA, 2008).
2.4.4 Biogenic amines
Biogenic amines are organic bases of low molecular weight that participate in the regular
metabolic processes of plants, microorganisms and animals. They are produced in the
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Nutritional and health effects of coffee 13
body and can also be provided by the diet and from the microbial flora of the intestine; at
high concentrations, however, they can pose a toxicological risk.
Examples include histidine, tyramine, tryptamine, cadaverine and putrescine. Histidine
is the most toxic and is associated with a hypotensive effect and headaches. Putrescine,
cadaverine and tyramine seem to be toxic in higher doses in animals, but the individual
sensitivity to these compounds in humans varies considerably and causes different responses.
In coffee, biogenic amines originate from the action of microbial enzymes on amino acids
during fermentative processes, suggesting inappropriate storage or low-quality defective
fermented seeds. Roasting may deconjugate and increase the amount of some free biogenic
amines, whilst most other amines are degraded (Gloria and Engeseth, 2017b; Farah, 2012).
3 Main beneficial health effects of coffee
The role of coffee drinking for the purpose of socialization and relaxation is indirectly
important for health, as stress plays a major role in the development of several diseases
that may lead to serious complications and death. Additionally, coffee has been shown
to help prevent degenerative disorders, many of which are related to neurostimulating,
antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. A prospective US cohort study (Freedman et al.,
2012) examined the association of coffee drinking with subsequent cause-specific and
total mortality in the National Institutes of Health– AARP Diet and Health Study. This study
involved more than 400 000 people and is, so far, the largest human study investigating
coffee and health. A significant inverse association between coffee and specific deaths
due to heart disease, respiratory disease, stroke, injuries and accidents, diabetes and
infections was found (all of which are amongst the 10 leading causes of death, WHO,
2017–Fig.1). Total mortality was reduced considerably by up to 16% for both men and
women who drank 4–5 cups of coffee a day. Similar associations were observed whether
participants drank predominantly caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee (Folmer et al., 2017).
Although scientific studies can link certain compounds to specific mechanisms, it is likely
that most contributions to decreasing the risk of certain diseases are caused by synergistic
or additive effects with various compounds present in coffee. The next section presents
summaries of research results on the effect of coffee and health, exploring the most
studied effects individually.
3.1 Coffee consumption for mental and physical performance
and well-being
The stimulating effect of coffee is well known and is due to caffeine’s ability to enhance
mental performance, which includes enhancing alertness and perception (Einother and
Giesbrecht, 2012). According to the EFSA, who reviewed existing evidence of caffeine
on mental performance (EFSA 2045, 2011c), generally, a dose of 75 mg is required to
obtain these effects, although very large differences in individual responses to caffeine
are observed. Caffeine consumption can also improve other functions such as memory
(Nehlig, 2010; Borota et al., 2014) and mood (Smith, 2005; Olson et al., 2010). Coffee
components other than caffeine have also been shown to influence cognitive performance
in an elderly population, though to a smaller extent than caffeine. Decaffeinated coffee
enriched in chlorogenic acids can improve alertness and reduce headaches and mental
Nutritional and health effects of coffee
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fatigue in comparison to non-enriched decaffeinated coffee. The effects may be partly
attributed to chlorogenic acids, but other compounds naturally present in coffee are also
suggested to play a role (Camfield et al., 2013; Cropley et al., 2012; Folmer et al., 2017).
The large inter-individual variability of the stimulating effects of caffeine is due to the
difference in the ability to metabolize and eliminate it from the body. Whilst for most
people, it takes about three to six hours to eliminate 50–75% of the caffeine and its
metabolites (Goldstein, 2010), for some people, it can take much longer. The effects
of several cups of coffee on these individuals, usually called ‘slow metabolizers’, may
therefore be accumulative for a while. The variability in the enzymatic breakdown of
caffeine may account for its variable effect on sleep induction and arousal (Youngberg
et al., 2011). The stimulating effects of caffeine tend to be stronger when the individual is
in a state of fatigue or in elderly people (van Boxtel and Schmitt, 2004). However, habitual
caffeine consumers may suffer less from these issues as they develop a tolerance. In this
case, caffeine will, for example, still disrupt their sleep, but to a lesser extent than for
people who are not habitual consumers (Childs and de Wit, 2012; Drapeau, 2006). It is the
responsibility of each person to pay attention to his or her response to caffeine intake at
different times of the day, and adapt intake patterns accordingly.
Coffee and other caffeine vehicles have been used by athletes for a long time, and
the initial papers discussing the mechanisms involved date back to 1978 (Costill, 1978).
More specifically, caffeine exerts a positive effect on the endurance and exercise capacity,
due to the effect on neural mechanisms (Spriet and Gibala, 2004;Folmer et al., 2017).
Caffeine also seems to reduce the pain perception due to an increase in the secretion
of β-endorphins which exhibit analgesic properties (O’Connor et al., 2004). It is well
documented that caffeine can enhance endurance and coordination, stop–go events (e.g.
team and racket sports) and sports involving sustained high-intensity activity lasting from
Figure 1 The ten leading causes of death in the world by percentage (data from WHO, 2017, updated
in 2014).
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Nutritional and health effects of coffee 15
1 min up to an hour (e.g. swimming, rowing and running races) (Jenkins, 2008; Hogervost
et al., 2008; Folmer et al., 2017).
Based on the scientific studies, the active dose of caffeine was found to be 3 mg per kg
of bodyweight, to be taken 1 h before exercise (EFSA, 2054, 2011c; Goldstein et al., 2010).
For a person weighing about 70 kg, this amount would thus be equivalent to 210 mg.
According to the EFSA caffeine safety report (EFSA 4102, 2015a), it is safe to consume
single doses of 200 mg of caffeine less than 2 h prior to intense exercise. However, the
amount and time prior to exercise for an optimal effect will vary for different individuals
due to differences in metabolic rates (Folmer et al., 2017). In 1994, caffeine was removed
from the list of banned substances.
The impact of caffeine on the mental and physical health of women and children is
a more recent area of interest, even if the initial papers appeared in the early 1990s.
Evidence suggests that the normal hormonal changes during pregnancy slow the body’s
ability to metabolize caffeine. Therefore, a given dose of caffeine can have longer-lasting
effects (as long as 15 h in the third trimester) (Kuczkowski, 2009). Even though the EFSA
report on caffeine safety (EFSA 4102, 2015a) concludes that its consumption is safe
for pregnant and lactating women, it recommends an intake reduction to a maximum
of 200 mg throughout the day. Based on scientific findings, there is no risk of adverse
birth weights for caffeine consumption below these values. Nevertheless, the risks of very
high intake (more than 600 mg of caffeine per day) include foetal growth retardation and
low weight for gestational age (Sengpiel et al., 2013). Although there is no consensus in
studies suggesting that caffeine could delay the time of conception, it may be prudent for
women who have difficulty in conceiving to limit the caffeine intake to less than 300 mg
per day (Higdon and Frei, 2006; Folmer et al., 2017).
It is known that caffeine is present in the milk of lactating coffee drinkers with a peak
appearing about 1 h after consuming a caffeinated beverage (Stavchansky et al., 1988;
Nehlig and Debry, 1994). For this reason, doctors recommend that breastfeeding women
keep caffeine intake below 200 mg per day (EFSA 4102, 2015a). At these levels, studies
show that the sleep time of nursing infants is similar to controls (Santos et al., 2012; Clarc
and Landholt, 2016; Folmer et al., 2017).
When it comes to children and coffee consumption, there are major cultural differences
in both overall coffee consumption and consumption guidelines. For example, in most
European countries, habitual coffee consumption starts when children become adults, and
until the age of 10, chocolate and tea are the main sources of caffeine (EFSA 4102, 2015a).
Brazil has implemented an active coffee school programme based on the findings that
20% coffee added to a glass of whole milk helps children perform better in school (ABIC,
2016). Additionally, there are studies that show that caffeine may attenuate the symptoms
of attention-deficit syndrome (Garfinkel et al., 1981). European adolescents consume less
coffee and their source of caffeine intake is widely distributed amongst different types
of food and beverages (EFSA 4102, 2015a). In the United States, this section of the
population primarily consumes caffeine from soft drinks (USDA, 2015).
As information on the impact of caffeine on the health of children and adolescents is
scarce, it is difficult to derive general conclusions on safe intake levels. Caffeine doses of
about 1.4 mg per kg bodyweight or more may impact sleep quality in adults, particularly
when consumed close to bedtime (EFSA 4102, 2015a). For this reason, and because data
on safe habitual caffeine intake for children and adolescents are insufficient, the EFSA
suggests a limit of 3 mg of caffeine per kg of bodyweight per day (EFSA 4102, 2015a),
which would equal around 90 mg for a 10-year old (Folmer et al., 2017).
Nutritional and health effects of coffee
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Canadian authorities are more conservative and suggest a limit of 2.5 mg per kg of
bodyweight per day (Health Canada, 2011). The short-term risk associated with children
and caffeine consumption is that caffeine may cause anxiety and nervousness (Nawrot
et al., 2003).
3.2 Coffee and cognitive health
The acute effects of caffeine were discussed in the mental performance section. In this
section, we will look at the long-term effects of coffee on reducing the risk of cognitive
degenerative diseases. Cognitive functions such as verbal ability, inductive reasoning and
perceptual speed decrease after 20 years of age. Genetics, life events and lifestyle factors
impact the rate and amplitude of this decline (Hedden and Gabrieli, 2004; Folmer et al.,
2017). A large number of epidemiological studies relate the regular consumption of coffee
to a reduced appearance of cognitive decline in the elderly (Arab et al., 2013; Ritchie,
2007; Corley, 2010). A meta-analysis of these human studies suggests that there is a clear
protective effect of caffeine consumption, rather than from coffee itself (Santos et al.,
2010; Ryan, 2002).
Alzheimer’s disease is the most frequent cause of dementia, leading to a progressive
cognitive decline. Whilst there is currently no medication for Alzheimer’s disease (Waite,
2015), there are studies that show an inverse association between the coffee consumption
and the development of Alzheimer’s disease, with a 27% risk reduction (Barranco Quintana
et al., 2007; Waite, 2015; Folmer et al., 2017). The mechanism is believed to be related to the
anti-inflammatory effect of caffeine on the A1 and A2 receptors, in addition to reducing the
deposits of toxic beta-amyloid peptide in the brain, a pathological characteristic in patients
with Alzheimer’s disease (Rosso, 2008; Arendash and Cao, 2010). In addition to caffeine,
the intake of polyphenols also seems to help decrease the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.
Emerging evidence from animal models also links chlorogenic acids to the prevention of
neurodegenerative disease and ageing (Esposito et al., 2002; Ramassamy, 2006). Although
the involvement of coffee polyphenols in the human cognitive function has not been well
studied, the number of findings on the in vitro neuroprotective effects of polyphenols in
general is rapidly increasing (Lakey-Beitia, et al., 2015). Initial indications relate the anti-
inflammatory effects of polyphenols to the reduced risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.
Other proposed mechanisms could be i) inhibition of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase
and butyrylcholinesterase in the brain, as this retards acetylcholine and butyrylcholine
breakdown and ii) the prevention of oxidative stress–induced neurodegeneration due to its
high antioxidative activity (Oboh et al., 2013, Folmer et al., 2017).
Similar to Alzheimer’s disease, a large number of epidemiological studies have reported
an inverse relationship between the caffeine consumption and the risk of developing
Parkinson’s disease. The latter is a neuropathological disorder that slows down the
motor function, whilst generating resting tremors, muscular rigidity, gait disturbances
and impairing postural reflex. It involves the degeneration of neurons in the brainstem
(Kuwana et al., 1999). Coffee consumption appears to reduce, or delay, the development
of Parkinson’s disease. From the meta-analysis of 26 studies, a 25% lower risk of Parkinson’s
disease was found in coffee drinkers compared with non-coffee drinkers. The mechanism
is probably related to the capacity of caffeine to block the A2 adenosine receptors in the
brain (Costa et al., 2010). Studies recently outlined a possible additional mechanism. A
rodent model showed that trigonelline may exert a neuroprotective effect, inducing a
significant reversal of motor dysfunction (Nathan et al., 2014; Folmer et al., 2017).
© Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing Limited, 2018. All rights reserved.
Nutritional and health effects of coffee 17
3.3 Coffee and cardiovascular disease
One of the misinterpretations linking coffee and health stemmed from the belief that
the risk of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in the world according to
the WHO (13.2% and 2% of deaths due to ischaemic and hypertensive cardiovascular
diseases, respectively, WHO, 2017;Fig.1), was increased by drinking coffee. This belief was
supported by the fact that caffeine increases blood pressure and acutely reduces insulin
sensitivity after coffee consumption. However, it is now known that most acute caffeine
effects cease to exist with regular coffee consumption due to adaptation mechanisms
and that other coffee components, mainly chlorogenic acids and trigonelline, have
compensatory effects on endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance. Additionally,
in vitro and animal studies indicate that coffee has high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory
potential, improves endothelial dysfunction and reduces insulin resistance, which are key
mechanisms for cardiovascular protection (Rebello and Van Dam, 2013).
Corroborating these findings, dozens of studies have shown the inverse association
between coffee consumption and cardiovascular diseases. Andersen et al. (2006)
studied the relationship of coffee drinking with total mortality and mortality attributed to
cardiovascular disease, cancer and other diseases with a major inflammatory component.
A total of 41 836 postmenopausal women aged 55–69 years at baseline were followed
for 15 years. During this period, there were 4265 deaths. Evaluating the causes of
mortality, the authors observed that coffee consumption increasingly reduced the risk
of cardiovascular and other inflammatory diseases in postmenopausal women, thereby
decreasing mortality from these diseases. This effect was attributed to the ability of coffee
to inhibit inflammatory processes via its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory compounds.
A meta-analysis was carried out by Crippa et al. (2014), using 21 prospective studies,
with 997 464 participants and 121 915 reported deaths. Results indicated that coffee
consumption is inversely associated with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality
and that the risk was increasingly reduced for those who consumed 3 to 4 cups. Similar
results were observed by Malerba et al. (2013).
Another recent study by Ding et al. (2015) examined the causes of death of 19 524
women and 12 432 men from two large cohort studies in the United States, the Harvard
Health Professionals Follow-up Study and the Nurses’ Health Study (1 and 2). Inverse
associations were observed between the consumption of regular and decaffeinated coffee
and the deaths due to cardiovascular and neurological diseases. When restricting to those
that had never smoked, the all-cause mortality risk was also increasingly reduced as the
number of cups increased; however, higher consumption reduced the benefit somewhat.
Stroke is the second leading cause of death in the world as estimated by the WHO
(11.9% of the total deaths, WHO, 2017; Fig.1); however, data on the association between
coffee consumption and risk of stroke are scarce. A study by Lopez-Garcia (2009)
analysed data from a prospective cohort of 83 076 women in the Nurses’ Health Study for
24 years. Results evidenced that long-term coffee consumption is not associated with an
increased risk of stroke in women. In contrast, data suggested that coffee consumption
may modestly reduce this risk. Decaffeinated coffee was associated with a trend towards
a lower risk of stroke after adjustment for caffeinated coffee consumption. Using data
from 11 prospective studies with 479 689 participants and 10 003 cases of stroke, a meta-
analysis performed by Larsson and Orsini (2011) corroborated the results obtained for
women, finding an inverse, although modest, association between moderate coffee
consumption and risk of stroke.
Nutritional and health effects of coffee
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3.4 Coffee and type2 diabetes
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by a high blood glucose level, which can cause
complications such as cardiovascular diseases, stroke, chronic kidney failure, foot ulcers
and damage to the eyes (IDF, 2012). There are three main types of diabetes: type 1, in
which the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin and which is generally genetically
determined; type 2 diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the world (2.7%
of the universal deaths, WHO, 2017), starts with insulin resistance (lack of insulin may
also develop) and is promoted by obesity and a sedentary lifestyle (Coope et al., 2015);
and gestational diabetes, an often transient disease that occurs when pregnant women
develop a high blood sugar level (IDF, 2015; Folmer et al., 2017).
Floegel et al. (2012) investigated the association between the coffee consumption
and the risk of chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes. They used data from 42 659
participants collected over 8.9 years from the European Prospective Investigation into
Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. They found an inverse association of consumption of
more than 4 cups (150 mL) of regular coffee per day with the overall risk of type 2 diabetes.
A number of similar studies have observed such effects related to regular coffee
drinking. A recent meta-analysis of large epidemiological studies confirmed the link
between moderate coffee consumption and a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes
across different populations (Ding et al., 2014). The findings from these systematic studies
demonstrate a clear inverse association between the coffee consumption and the risk of
developing diabetes. Compared with no, or infrequent, coffee consumption, the risk of
developing type 2 diabetes was reduced linearly, with a 33% reduction for 6 cups per
day. In a similar comparison, drinking up to four cups per day of decaffeinated coffee was
associated with a 20% reduced risk (Ding et al., 2014). This suggests that the protective
effects of coffee on diabetes are independent of caffeine.
Animal studies have indicated that the main compounds responsible for the protective
effect are chlorogenic acids (Kempf, 2010) and its derivatives, as well as trigonelline (van
Dijk et al., 2009; Rios et al., 2015). They appear to preferentially target hepatic glucose
metabolism by improving insulin sensitivity (Lecoultre et al., 2014). Other proposed
mechanisms observed in in vivo and in vitro studies include the regulation of key enzymes
of glucose and lipid metabolism, such as glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fatty acid
synthase and carnitinepalmitoyltransferase (Waite, 2015). In a human study, trigonelline
generated significantly lower glucose and insulin levels after an oral glucose load
compared with a placebo (Rios et al., 2015).
3.5 Coffee and liver diseases
There are a number of diseases that can impact liver health and include both liver cancer
and cirrhosis, a progressive disease caused by liver steatosis (fatty liver) and alcohol abuse,
where the healthy tissue is replaced by the scar tissue and eventually prevents the liver
from functioning correctly (Saab et al., 2014). According to a recent meta-analysis of 16
human studies, coffee consumption reduces the risk of developing liver cancer by 40%
compared with no coffee consumption (Larsson and Wolk, 2007; Bravi et al., 2013).
In a clinical study performed in Brazil, caffeine consumption greater than 123 mg per
day was also associated with reduced hepatic fibrosis (Machado et al., 2014). In addition,
the study observed positive effects of regular coffee consumption in patients with chronic
hepatitis C.
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Nutritional and health effects of coffee 19
A number of in vitro studies have demonstrated the strong role of the chlorogenic
acids present in coffee in protecting the liver from damage at various levels, possibly by
preventing cell apoptosis and oxidative stress damage due to the activation of the body’s
natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory systems (Ji et al., 2013). Coffee melanoidins have
also been reported to have a protective effect on liver steatosis in obese rats (Vitaglione
et al., 2012), which suggests that the melanoidins in coffee may have an influence on liver
fat and functionality. Although melanoidins do not seem to be absorbed in humans, they
can function as an antioxidant dietary fibre, like the unabsorbed portion of chlorogenic
acids, quenching radicals and improving the reduced/oxidized glutathione balance in
the colon. At the same time, they may act to promote the growth of a beneficial colon
microbiota, affecting inflammatory pathways in the colon and consequently in the liver
(Folmer et al., 2017).
3.6 Coffee and cancer
In the broadest sense, cancer represents the final result of abnormal cell growth and can
occur in most human tissues. The carcinogenicity of coffee drinking was assessed by the
IARC in 1991. At that time, coffee was classified as ‘possibly carcinogenic to humans’
(Group 2B), based on limited evidence of an association with cancer of the urinary bladder
from case-control studies, and inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental
animals. When subsequent studies were controlled for smoking, they failed to show an
elevated risk of bladder cancer (Butt and Sultan, 2011). Recently, the IARC re-evaluated
the carcinogenicity of drinking coffee and other hot beverages (Loomis et al., 2016), using
a much larger database of more than 1000 observational and experimental studies. In
assessing the accumulated epidemiological evidence, more weight was given to well-
conducted prospective cohort and population-based case-control studies that controlled
adequately for important potential confounding factors, including smoking (tobacco) and
alcohol consumption. In conclusion, there was no consistent evidence associating drinking
coffee with bladder cancer. In contrast, for endometrial cancer, the five largest cohort studies
showed mostly inverse associations with coffee drinking. These results were supported by
the findings of several case-control studies and a meta-analysis. Inverse associations with
coffee drinking were also observed in cohort and case-control studies of liver cancer in
Asia, Europe and North America. A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies estimated
that the risk of liver cancer decreases proportionally with coffee intake. No association or
a modest inverse association for female breast cancers was found. Similarly, no association
was found for pancreas and prostate cancers. Data were also available for more than 20
other cancers, including lung, colorectal, stomach, oesophageal, oral cavity, ovarian and
brain cancers and childhood leukaemia. Although the volume of data for some of these
cancers was substantial, evidence was inadequate for all the other cancers reviewed for
reasons including inconsistency of findings across studies, inadequate control for potential
confounding factors, potential for measurement error, selection bias or recall bias or
insufficient numbers of studies (Loomis et al., 2016). As a result of this re-evaluation, coffee
was upgraded by the IARC and is no longer considered to be potentially carcinogenic.
In summary, epidemiological data demonstrated that coffee consumption is actually
associated with a lower overall risk of cancer, especially liver and endometrial cancers.
There are several compounds in coffee that have been found to play a protective role
against cancer, and the most well-known are chlorogenic acids and their derivatives. The
contribution of melanoidins has also been suggested to decrease the risk of colon cancer
Nutritional and health effects of coffee
© Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing Limited, 2018. All rights reserved.
(see chlorogenic acids and melanoidins topics in this chapter). Based on in vitro and animal
evidence, coffee diterpenes are also strong candidates.
Epidemiologic studies have shown an increased risk of oesophageal cancer from
drinking hot beverages such as maté, tea or coffee. It has been observed that the intra-
oesophageal temperature is increased by 6–12°C when coffee was drunk at 65°C (Islami
et al., 2009). The high-temperature injures the oesophageal mucosa and consequently
causes inflammation or forms reactive nitrogen species, a type of free radical. It has been
suggested by the IARC that drinking coffee, and other hot beverages, at temperatures
above 65°C increases the risk of oesophageal cancer (Loomis et al., 2016). Although in
some countries, coffee is consumed at temperatures below 65°C, in other countries, the
temperature can be much higher. In public places, serving coffee at very high temperatures
may influence people to drink it hotter than they would at home, so people should be
aware of this factor for all hot beverages, soups and hot foods in general.
4 Potential side effects of coffee drinking
4.1 Hyper stimulation and sleep quality and duration by caffeine
Caffeinated coffee can cause irritability and anxiety, and reduce sleep quality by increasing
the time required to fall asleep, interfering with the depth of sleep and reducing the total
time spent sleeping. It can also cause more frequent awakening or sleep fragmentation
(Folmer et al., 2017; Clarc and Landholt, 2016; Huang et al., 2011). The use of caffeine
in energy drinks, and the risk of overdosing in children, motivated health authorities to
evaluate and publish guidelines on safe caffeine consumption. The most recent report
is the EFSA’s 2015 scientific opinion on caffeine safety (EFSA 4102, 2015a). National
health authorities have also published reports like the US Department of Agriculture
report (2015). The general agreement is that the habitual consumption of up to 400 mg
of caffeine per day, and up to 200 mg per serving, does not cause safety concerns for
non-pregnant adults. Considering a range between 100 and 200 mg caffeine per cup, this
would translate into 2–4 cups per day.
4.2 Caffeine tolerance, dependence and withdrawal
Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world, and the issue of
possible dependence on caffeine has been discussed for many years. In fact, different
drugs affect different people in different ways, and caffeine is no exception. It is therefore
difficult to make general statements on dependence, tolerance and withdrawal; however,
there is no such brain circuit that links caffeine to dependence. Caffeine does not affect
areas involved in reinforcing and rewarding (Nehlig, 2010). According to the standard for
measuring any potential drug abuse and dependence (as defined by the Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association, 2000),
there are no criteria that qualify caffeine for potential drug abuse (Folmer et al., 2017).
As with any drug, regular caffeine users will establish a partial tolerance to caffeine.
However, studies have shown that this tolerance only applies to effects such as jitteriness,
anxiety and an increased heart rate. Users do not develop a tolerance to the benefits of
caffeine consumption such as improved mental performance, although sometimes slightly
higher doses of caffeine are required (Satel, 2006).
© Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing Limited, 2018. All rights reserved.
Nutritional and health effects of coffee 21
The types of caffeine withdrawal symptoms which are most often reported are
headaches; feelings of weariness, weakness and drowsiness; impaired concentration;
fatigue and work difficulty; depression; anxiety; irritability; increased muscle tension and
occasional tremors, nausea or vomiting. Withdrawal symptoms generally peak 20–48 h
after the last caffeine was consumed, although users can generally avoid these if caffeine
consumption is progressively decreased (Nehlig, 2010; Folmer et al., 2017).
Excessive coffee intake does not cause organic toxicity, but it can generate negative
side effects, such as those associated with caffeine withdrawal. Symptoms related to the
toxicity of coffee can occur at levels well below fatal doses; for example, concentrations
above 15 mg caffeine per kg of bodyweight may be toxic for the cardiovascular, nervous
and gastrointestinal systems (e.g. 1 g of caffeine for a person weighing 70 kg). Although
such caffeine levels are not easily obtained through acute coffee intake, users may easily
consume caffeine pills in such quantities. Reported overdose symptoms are hypertension
or hypotension, tachycardia, vomiting, fever, delusion, hallucinations, arrhythmia, cardiac
arrest, coma and death. Fatalities most commonly result from seizures and cardiac
arrhythmias at plasma levels of 100–180 µg per mL (Childs and de Wit, 2012; Folmer et al.,
2017). However, caffeine-related deaths have not been associated with coffee drinking
(Yamamoto, 2015).
4.3 Cholesterol-raising effects of diterpenes
Epidemiologic and mechanistic studies have reported that the diterpenes, cafestol, and
to a lesser extent, kahweol, naturally found in coffee oil and in unfiltered coffees, can
alter lipid enzymes and thus influence cholesterol levels. This relationship was found to
be linear with increasing cafestol consumption (Urgert and Katan, 1997). A meta-analysis
of a set of 18 clinical intervention trials on coffee consumption and cholesterol and serum
lipids was performed by Jee et al. (2001). The authors corroborated the dose–response
relationship between coffee consumption and cholesterol and observed a strong increase
upon the consumption of 6 or more cups of boiled coffee per day, which was not observed
when a paper filter was used.
The high consumption of diterpenes has been associated with elevated homocysteine
and low-density lipoprotein levels in human plasma, which may indirectly increase the risk
of cardiovascular diseases (Farah, 2012).
4.4 Gastro-oesophageal reflux or heartburn
Gastro-oesophageal reflux, also called heartburn, is caused by the reflux of gastric fluid
into the oesophagus due to the low pressure in the sphincter muscle at the junction of
the stomach and oesophagus. A number of people suffering from this condition have
mentioned that coffee may be one of the food products causing this complaint. Although
some studies have tried to investigate this, the role of coffee consumption in reflux is still
unclear. It has, for example, been reported that a few compounds in coffee stimulate the
production of gastric juice, which is very acidic when first produced in the stomach (pH
1–2). Chlorogenic acids, Nβ-alkanoil-5-hydroxytryptamides (C5HTs) from coffee wax, and
to a lesser extent, caffeine, are some of the main compounds thought to promote this
effect (Fehlau and Netter, 1990). Additionally, it has been hypothesized that the roasting
products of chlorogenic acid such as pyrogallol, like C5HTs, irritate the gastric mucosa
(Darboven, 1997). In addition to the stimulation of gastric juice, coffee consumption also
Nutritional and health effects of coffee
© Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing Limited, 2018. All rights reserved.
seems to cause muscle contraction impairment (relaxation effect) of the lower oesophageal
sphincter in some individuals, promoting heartburn, which has been attributed to caffeine
(Terry et al., 2000). The pH of a coffee brew is mildly acidic, commonly fluctuating between
5.8 and 5.5 in robusta coffees and between 4.3 and 4.8 in fresh lightly roasted acidic
arabica coffees, with approximately pH 5.0 being more usual in dark roasted blends. This
is much higher than the pH of gastric juice or, for example, the pH of apple juice (pH
4.3–3.3) or citric juice (pH 2.3–3.3) (Farah, unpublished).
Therefore, based on current knowledge, the stimulation of gastric juice production
along with the relaxation of the oesophageal sphincter seems to be the most likely causes
for heartburn, although some studies support the contribution of the acidity of foods
to heartburn (Feldman and Barnett, 1995). Since there are only a few studies on this
subject and none in humans, more mechanistic and clinical studies are necessary to prove
the involvement of each of these specific coffee compounds in this disease, as well as
improving conditions in their absence.
Some pre-roasting technological methods have been developed which aim to decrease
heartburn, although no clinical studies have yet proved that these treatments are effective
in humans. Reducing coffee wax, and thus C5HTs, can be achieved by applying steam
treatment, either as a stand-alone process, or as part of the water or CO2 decaffeination
methodologies (which in addition decreases the content of chlorogenic acids and caffeine).
5 Final considerations
Since the initial studies published in medical journals in the eighteenth century, coffee
has been through many waves of approval and disapproval. As science has evolved and
confounding factors could be accounted for, an increasing number of studies have found
correlations between coffee consumption and reduced risk of developing certain diseases.
As in vitro and animal studies confirm the involvement of active coffee components in
specific diseases, the challenge remains to fully understand the mechanisms that these
active compounds exert, as coffee is a molecularly highly complex beverage made up of
thousands of compounds. It is, however, becoming more evident that it is not only the
specific compounds in coffee, but rather the beverage as a whole that is responsible for its
beneficial effects.
Despite the potentially positive contribution of coffee to reducing the risk of certain
diseases, these findings need to be related to each other and, more importantly, to
lifestyle factors that influence the risk of developing certain diseases and longevity. Some
of these include not smoking, good nutrition (a balanced and varied diet including five
servings of fruit and vegetables daily), exercise, low alcohol consumption and low stress,
all of which have a strong documented impact on disease prevention and life expectation
(Khaw et al., 2008).
6 Acknowledgements
The author would like to thank Britta Folmer, from Nestlé Nespresso SA, for her valuable
contribution to this chapter. The Research scholarships provided by the Brazilian National
© Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing Limited, 2018. All rights reserved.
Nutritional and health effects of coffee 23
Council for Scientific and Technological Development – CNPq and the Research Support
Foundation of Rio de Janeiro – FAPERJ are greatly appreciated.
7 Where to look for further information
7.1 Recommended books
Folmer, B. (Ed). (2017). The Craft and Science of Coffee. Elsevier, London,1st edition.
Farah, A. (Ed). (2017). Coffee: Chemistry Quality and Health Implications. Royal Society of
Chemistry, UK, 1st edition, In press.
Preedy, V. (Ed). (2015). Coffee in Health and Disease Prevention. Elsevier, London, UK, 1st
Feng, I. (2012). Coffee: Emerging Health Effects and Disease Prevention. IFT Press/Willey-
Blackwell, USA.
7.2 Recommended websites
International coffee organization (ICO): The International Coffee
Organization (ICO) is the main intergovernmental organization for coffee, bringing
together producing and consuming countries to tackle the challenges faced by
the world coffee sector through international cooperation. It makes a practical
contribution to the world coffee economy and to improving the standards of living in
developing countries by enabling government representatives to exchange views and
coordinate coffee policies and priorities, and enabling government representatives
to exchange views and coordinate coffee policies and priorities at regular high level.
On this site, in addition to the information on world coffee production, exports and
imports, general global information on coffee is also found.
Association for Science and Information on Coffee (ASIC): ‘ASIC
is a completely independent organization in the world whose scientific vocation is
specifically devoted to the coffee tree, the coffee bean and the coffee drink’. On ASIC’s
site, you will find the proceedings of the previous colloquia as well as information and
links on the latest publications on coffee agronomy, chemistry, technology, coffee
and health and physiological effects of coffee.
The Specialty Coffee Association (SCA) that is a membership-based association acts
as a unifying force within the specialty coffee industry and works to make coffee better
by raising standards worldwide through a collaborative and progressive approach.
Members of the SCA include coffee retailers, roasters, producers, exporters and
importers, as well as manufacturers of coffee equipment and related products. For
more information, access SCA was formed in January 2017
following the merger of the SCAA and SCAE, acting in the United States and Europe.
The respective websites are currently still active and information on training, education,
events and standards can still be found ( and
A website fully dedicated to entire information on coffee and health is www. It is a science-based resource developed for health care and
other professional audiences and provides the latest information and research into
coffee, caffeine and health.
Nutritional and health effects of coffee
© Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing Limited, 2018. All rights reserved.
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... Asam klorogenat merupakan senyawa fenolik yang memiliki sifat larut dalam air. Senyawa aktif asam klorogenat ini terbentuk dari esterifikasi asam kuinat dan asam trans-sinamat tertentu termasuk asam kafein, asam ferulat, dan asam p-kumarat (Farah, 2018). ...
... Kandungan asam klorogenat dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor antara lain jenis kopi dan kematangan buah saat panen. Biji kopi robusta memiliki kadar asam klorogenat yang lebih tinggi yaitu sekitar 6,1-11,3 mg per gram biji kopi dibandingkan dengan biji kopi jenis lainnya (Farah, 2018). ...
... Coffee exhibits a pleasantly pungent flavor, which makes it suitable for enhancing the flavor of soymilk products. Additionally, coffee has been associated with many positive health outcomes and is considered functional [35]. ...
Full-text available
This study aimed at developing a probiotic fermented soymilk-based dessert containing coffee and soybean hull. Nine fermented formulations were elaborated with 10% powdered soymilk (w/v), varying percentages of sugar, arabica soluble coffee, and soy hull. They were fermented with probiotic strains of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria (10 6 CFU/mL). One hundred and twenty-nine adults from Rio de Janeiro/RJ and Curitiba/PR, Brazil, evaluated the acceptance of the formulated products. The final formulation was physicochemically characterized. During 6h fermentation, the probiotics count increased from 10 6 to 10 8 in both strains. The well-accepted formulation contained 15% sucrose, 1% soy hull, and 0.5 or 1.5 % soluble coffee (score: 6.6±1.5 on a 9-point-scale). Alternatively, sucrose can be replaced by other types of sweeteners. Young people (n=45) who drank 2-4 cups of coffee per day liked the product the most (score: 7.1±1.4). While fermentation did not affect the total soy isoflavones content, it decreased the content of coffee chlorogenic acids by 32.6% but produced bioavailable phenolic acids as metabolites. A decrease in the content of flatus-producing oligosaccharides was also observed. In conclusion, probiotics fermentation and the addition of arabica soluble coffee made possible the development of a well-accepted and potentially healthy beany-flavor-free, dairy-free, pudding-like dessert.
... Justifications for providing coffee in the workplace include improving social and personal well-being and encouraging informal encounters (Stroebaek, 2013). Research reveals that coffee improves alertness and memory function; additionally, taking short breaks from working enhances productivity (Farah, 2018;Unnava, Singh, & Unnava, 2018). ...
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This case revolves around ALDO, a Canadian wholesale distributor and third-party sourcing provider, as well as a retailer of fashion footwear, handbags, and accessories. The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, roughly between February and August 2020, had a devastating impact on the footwear industry and its supply chain. To survive at a challenging time for the retail industry, ALDO needed to exit from its restructuring process, encourage customers to shop, gain market share, and attract a younger target demographic. Students are asked how ALDO could emerge stronger and pursue growth. *The teaching notes for all cases in this issue of the Journal of Critical Incidents are available from the case authors de-noted on the contents page. They are also available from the Editor or the SCR’s Executive Director.
... Coffee is an important beverage for most people and accounts for 75% of regular soft drink (which does not contain alcohol) consumption (Ciaramelli et al., 2019), and around 500 billion cups of coffee are consumed per year in the world. The components of coffee are extremely rich in compounds that have various health benefits relate to radical scavenging capability (Cano-Marquina et al., 2013;Ciaramelli et al., 2019;Esquivel & Jiménez, 2012;Farah, 2018). ...
... The coffee is an important beverage for most of the people and accounting for 75% of the regular soft drink (doesn't contain alcohol) consumption (Ciaramelli, Palmioli, & Airoldi, 2019) and around 500 billion cups of coffee consumed per year in the world. The components of coffee are extremely rich in compounds which have various related to health benefits with radical scavenging capability (Ciaramelli, Palmioli, & Airoldi, 2019;Esquivel & Jiménez, 2012;Cano-Marquina, Tarín, & Cano, 2013;Farah, 2018). Due to high potential health benefits of coffee, coffee is considered as a functio na l beverage (Cheong, et al., 2013;Farah & Lima, 2019). ...
In this study, we determined how roasting levels (light, medium, dark) of Arabica coffee seed and three brewing techniques – decoction methods (Turkish coffee), infusion method (filter coffee) and pressure methods (Espresso) – affect total antioxidant capacity in a cup of coffee beverage by electrochemical methods such as square wave stripping voltammetry (SWSV), differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The highest antioxidant capacity was found in espresso coffee prepared with light roasted coffee seeds as equivalent the rutin and caffeic at 9.4 ± 0.2 g/L and 19.7 ± 0.7 g/L, respectively with SWSV on a carbon paste electrode (CPE). The antioxidant capacity of coffee beverages was influenced by roasting degree, extraction time and brewing methods significantly. SWSV, DPSV and CV voltammetric methods, fast, reliable, fully validated and without any pretreatment are alternative to conventional analytical methods to evaluation antioxidant values in coffee brews.
... The average consumption of Arabic coffee in Saudi by a typical adult was estimated to be between 60 and 300 mL in one sitting, and an individual annually consumes the equivalent of 1.6 kg of coffee (Butt & Sultan, 2011). Coffee consumption has some positive effect on health, such as improving some functions including memory, mood, and cognitive performance (Borota et al., 2014;Olson et al., 2010;Nehlig, 2010;Farah, 2018). Several studies on humans have demonstrated that coffee intake is effective in decreasing the hazard of liver cancer incidence by 40% compared with others who do not consume coffee (Bravi et al., 2013). ...
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Coffea arabica (Rubiaceae) is a basic drink for all Gulf societies, especially Saudi Arabia, it is the main part of the Saudi tradition. This investigation was carried out to track the chemical composition, caffeine content by UV–visible spectrophotometer, acrylamide content by using a gas chromatograph, free radical scavenging capacity by DPPH methods as well as determined the browning index and separated the volatiles compounds using GC–MS for the most common three degree of roasted Arabic coffee; light (180 ± 10 °C; 6.0 ± 1.0 min), medium (180 ± 10 °C; 8.0 ± 1.0 min), and dark (180 ± 10 °C; 10.0 ± 1.0 min). Data revealed that light roasted coffee has the highest significant (p < 0.05) value of moisture content (4.80%), crude protein (13.05%), and lowest value of ether extract (10.39%) and crude fiber (24.24%). The caffeine content was found to be 1.13% in light coffee, which increased to 1.17% in medium coffee, then decreased to 1.08% in dark coffee. The quantity of acrylamide detected in light roasted coffee (0.41 mg/100 g) was the greatest, whereas medium roasted coffee comparatively produced low amounts (0.31 mg/100 g). The light roasted coffee gave the highest antioxidant activity (88.72 mg TE/g), while the dark roasted coffee gave the least activity (78.76 mg TE/g). Browning index increases with roasting time. Hydrocarbons, alcohols, and esters were the most represented in roasted coffee headspace. Silanes and sec-butyl nitrite compounds were absent in the medium roasted headspace. Except for amines, all 11 classes of volatile compounds were present in the headspace of dark roasted coffee.
... In numerous studies conducted to date, phenolic compounds as antioxidative agents are linked to strong health-promoting benefits [19]. The qualitative and quantitative content of these physiologically active compounds is influenced by numerous factors, including coffee species and its geographical origin, storage and roasting conditions, the type of coffee brewing preparation, etc. [20][21][22][23], whereby various possibilities could be created to produce coffee or coffee blends with specific and prominent sensory and antioxidative attributes. ...
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Considering the current trend in the global coffee market, which involves an increased demand for decaffeinated coffee, the aim of the present study was to formulate coffee blends with reduced caffeine content, but with pronounced antioxidant and attractive sensory properties. For this purpose, green and roasted Arabica and Robusta coffee beans of different origins were subjected to the screening analysis of their chemical and bioactive composition using standard AOAC, spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. From roasted coffee beans, espresso, Turkish and filter coffees were prepared, and their sensory evaluation was performed using a 10-point hedonic scale. The results showed that Arabica coffee beans were richer in sucrose and oil, while Robusta beans were characterized by higher content of all determined bioactive parameters. Among all studied samples, the highest content of 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (14.09 mg g−1 dmb), 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (8.23 mg g−1 dmb) and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4.65 mg g−1 dmb), as well as caffeine (22.38 mg g−1 dmb), was detected in roasted Robusta beans from the Minas Gerais region of Brazil, which were therefore used to formulate coffee blends with reduced caffeine content. Robusta brews were found to be more astringent and recognized as more sensorily attractive, while Arabica decaffeinated brews were evaluated as more bitter. The obtained results point out that coffee brews may represent a significant source of phenolic compounds, mainly caffeoylquinic acids, with potent antioxidant properties, even if they have reduced caffeine content.
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This research was aimed at analyzing the acute effects of Arabica black coffee consumption on blood glucose, insulin, and serum cortisol levels, as well as determining the pharmacological effects of black coffee as an antihyperglycemic. A randomized control trial with healthy female subjects was used in this study. There were 20 volunteers in total: 9 as the control group and 11 as the trial group. The treatment included brewing 10 grams of Gayo Arabica black coffee powder with 150 ml of boiling water. Blood glucose, insulin, and cortisol levels were measured twice, before and after 60 minutes of coffee consumption. An independent sample t-test (p < 0.05), Pearson correlation test (p < 0.05), and simple linear correlation test (p < 0.05) were used to analyze the data. Blood glucose levels and serum cortisol levels decreased significantly after coffee consumption in the trial group (p = 0.002* and p = 0.001*). There was no significant negative correlation between glucose and insulin levels (r = -0.122; p = 0.721). On the other hand, there was a significant positive correlation between cortisol levels and blood glucose (r = 0.651; p = 0.002*). In conclusion, a single cup of Gayo Arabica black coffee reduces blood sugar and serum cortisol levels, but does not increase serum insulin levels. Blood glucose levels correlate positively with serum cortisol levels in healthy female.
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Atherosclerotic plaque deposit in the carotid artery is used as an early estimate to identify the presence of cardiovascular diseases. Ultrasound images of the carotid artery are used to provide the extent of stenosis by examining the intima-media thickness and plaque diameter. A total of 361 images were classified using machine learning and deep learning approaches to recognize whether the person is symptomatic or asymptomatic. CART decision tree, random forest, and logistic regression machine learning algorithms, convolutional neural network (CNN), Mobilenet, and Capsulenet deep learning algorithms were applied in 202 normal images and 159 images with carotid plaque. Random forest provided a competitive accuracy of 91.41% and Capsulenet transfer learning approach gave 96.7% accuracy in classifying the carotid artery ultrasound image database.
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Coffee is the most frequently consumed functional beverage world wide. The average daily coffee consumption is increasing. This crop, which plays an important role in the global economy is under great threat from climate change. To with stand the current climate change, farmers have to learn crop cultivation techniques, strategies to protect crops from diseases, and understand which type of seed varieties to use to avoid crop loss. The present review briefly discusses the coffee cultivation techniques, impact of climate changes on coffee production, processing techniques of coffee, and the importance of coffee in our society, including its chemical composition and prevention against, major diseases. Furthermore, the importance and role of advanced nanotechnology along with molecular approaches for coffee crop improvement and facing challenges are explained.
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It is well known that coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide. Since its discovery, it has played an important role in the life of many people, even though throughout history people have debated the consequences of drinking coffee to the human body and mind. The pleasurable taste and stimulating properties have been worshiped and hated. But along with these love and hate waves science has evolved and revealed that coffee is a complex mixture of substances that may act together to prevent diseases. Today the debate around the stimulating properties of caffeine has moved from “good versus bad” to the quantities needed for a beneficial impact, and amounts corresponding safe consumption. This chapter will explore these aspects bringing an overview of the evolution of coffees role in the well-being of people through history.
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The invention relates to a method for the treatment or prevention of diseases or conditions associated with vascular endothelium dysfunction or liver injury comprising the administration to a patient in a need of such treatment or prevention of a therapeutically or prophylactically effective amount of a compound selected from the group consisting of: wherein R represents hydrogen atom, CH3, OH, pyridyl (C5H4N), 1-methylpyridyl (C5H4N—CH3) or pyridyl substituted with hydroxy group ((OH)C5H3N), and X represents a physiologically acceptable counterion.
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Purpose The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relative contribution of the most commonly consumed plant foods in Brazil to the total antioxidant capacity (AC) of Brazilian’s diet. The importance of regional consuming habits and income for dietary AC was also approached. Methods The annual per capita consumption database from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) was used for identification of the most consumed plant foods in Brazil. Out of 124 key plant foods, 42 top AC contributing candidates were selected for AC determination based on both the frequency of consumption, and AC results reported in the literature, and in our preliminary assays. The selected food products were prepared according to the Brazilian Food Guide, and their AC was measured by TEAC and FRAP assays. Dietary AC was determined by combining these AC results with IBGE consumption data, and the relative contribution of each plant food was calculated. Results Among all evaluated food products, coffee and green maté tea presented the highest AC, followed by toasted maté tea, red wine, açaí—a native Amazonian fruit—and beans. Associating AC with the annual consumption database from IBGE, coffee alone contributed, on average, to 66 % of dietary AC; other beverages, including maté and wine, contributed altogether to 13 % of dietary AC; beans contributed to 9 %, cereals and derivatives contributed to 4 %; and in natura fruits and vegetables contributed to only 3 and 2 %, respectively. In the North region, fruits were important contributors to AC—mostly because of high açaí consumption, while in the South maté and wine also gained importance, with wine contribution being specially associated with high household income. Conclusions Coffee is the main contributor to the total dietary AC in Brazil, regardless of household income. Maté tea, açaí and beans are other major dietary AC contributors.
Among chemical components present in coffee, biogenic amines play important roles in food safety. Concerns are associated mainly with histamine and tyramine. The first is not inherent to good quality coffee, but can be detected in defective or poor quality beans. Tyramine is inherent to coffee, especially C. canephora, which usually has higher tyramine contents compared to C. arabica. The presence of histamine in coffee is undesirable as it is hazardous to human health, especially for histamine-sensitive individuals. Putrescine and cadaverine in coffee can potentiate the toxic effects of simultaneously ingested histamine. High concentrations of tyramine in coffee could cause hypertensive crisis in individuals under treatment with classic monoaminoxidase inhibitor drugs (MAOI). Both amines along with phenylethylamine and tryptamine can also trigger headache in individuals with migraine.
Coffee: Emerging Health Benefits and Disease Prevention presents a comprehensive overview of the recent scientific advances in the field. The book focuses on the following topics: coffee constituents; pro- and antioxidant properties of coffee constituents; bioavailability of coffee constituents; health benefits and disease prevention effects of coffee; and potential negative impacts on health. Multiple chapters describe coffee's positive impact on health and various diseases: type 2 diabetes; neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson's and Alzheimer's); cancer (prostate, bladder, pancreatic, breast, ovarian, colon and colorectal); cardiovascular health; and liver health. Coffee's positive effects on mood, suicide rate and cognitive performance are addressed as are the negative health impacts of coffee on pregnancy, insulin sensitivity, dehydration, gastric irritation, anxiety, and withdrawal syndrome issues. Written by many of the top researchers in the world, Coffee: Emerging Health Benefits and Disease Prevention is a must-have reference for food professionals in academia, industry, and governmental and regulatory agencies whose work involves coffee. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and the Institute of Food Technologists.