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UNIVERSAL DESIGN AND ACCESSIBILITY FOR PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES IN MASJID NEGARA, MALAYSIA

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Abstract

span lang="EN-US">Malaysia to become seeks to become a fully developed country by 2020. Among nine central challenges demonstrated in the body of the “Vision 2020” is “the challenge of establishing a fully caring society” (WAWASAN 2020). Along with developed societies overcoming such dysfunctional built environments has become under consideration in Malaysia as well to remove barriers and provide equal access of people with disabilities (PWDS) to all public services. Notwithstanding practical steps taken, there are still dissatisfactions from the members of public toward public buildings which cause restriction in PWDS daily life. Previous studies has also raised claims against inaccessibility of mosque buildings as well. In order to realization of a barrier-free built environment for a huge portion of Malaysia population, this research aimed to investigate accessibility and usability of Malaysian mosques for PWDS. Masjid Negara was selected for the purpose of this study. The most recent revision of available Malaysian Standard of MS 1184:2014, “Universal Design and Accessibility in the Built Environment - Code of Practice”, became the reference in this study. A comprehensive evaluation checklist was constructed for the purpose of a systematic observation including 162 checkpoints under 22 items of accessibility.</span
JOURNAL OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE
P-ISSN: 2086-2636 E-ISSN: 2356-4644
Journal Home Page: http://ejournal.uin-malang.ac.id/index.php/JIA
134 | Journal of Islamic Architecture, 4(4) December 2017
UNIVERSAL DESIGN AND ACCESSIBILITY FOR PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES IN
MASJID NEGARA, MALAYSIA
| Received November 17th 2017 | Accepted November 22nd 2017 | Available online December 15th 2017 |
| DOI: 10.18860/jia.v4i4.4499 |
Nangkula Utaberta
Department of Architecture,
Faculty of Design and Architecture,
University Putra Malaysia
Corresponding Author:
nangkula@upm.edu.my
Mahsa Dabbagh Niya
Department of Architecture,
Faculty of Design and Architecture,
University Putra Malaysia
Azmal Bin Sabil
Department of Architecture,
Faculty of Design and Architecture,
University Putra Malaysia
azmalsabil@icloud.com
ABSTRACT
Malaysia to become seeks to become a fully developed country by 2020.
Among nine central challenges demonstrated in the body of the “Vision
2020” is “the challenge of establishing a fully caring society” (WAWASAN
2020). Along with developed societies overcoming such dysfunctional built
environments has become under consideration in Malaysia as well to remove
barriers and provide equal access of people with disabilities (PWDS) to all
public services. Notwithstanding practical steps taken, there are still
dissatisfactions from the members of public toward public buildings which
cause restriction in PWDS daily life. Previous studies has also raised claims
against inaccessibility of mosque buildings as well. In order to realization of a
barrier-free built environment for a huge portion of Malaysia population, this
research aimed to investigate accessibility and usability of Malaysian
mosques for PWDS. Masjid Negara was selected for the purpose of this
study. The most recent revision of available Malaysian Standard of MS
1184:2014, “Universal Design and Accessibility in the Built Environment -
Code of Practice”, became the reference in this study. A comprehensive
evaluation checklist was constructed for the purpose of a systematic
observation including 162 checkpoints under 22 items of accessibility. .
KEYWORDS:
People with Disabilities, Accessibility, Masjid Negara, MS 1184:2014
INTRODUCTION
TheparliamentofMalaysiaapprovedthe
“PersonswithDisabilitiesAct”in2008thatincludes
therstrightbasedlegislation[1].SincePWDSare
increasingduringtheseyears,theMalaysian
governmentlegislatedthePWDSActin2008and
supporteditsapplicationalloverthecountryby
providingsuitableaccesstopublictransportation,
publicbuildings,otherpublicfacilitiesandbasicthings
[2].Basedonthisact,inMalaysia,publicfacilities,
services,basicthings,buildings,facilitiesrelatedto
publictransportation,informationandcommunication
technology,education,culturallife,employment,
relaxingactivitiesandsportshouldbeavailablefor
PWDS.Therefore,since2008,dierentgroups
includingauthorities,governmentagencies,
nongovernmentalorganizations(NGOs),architects
andenvironmentaldesignershavepaidspecial
attentiontotheworriesandimportantaairs
regardingaccessofPWDStodierentfacilities.
Nowadays,itisknownthatpeoplewith
impairmentshavebeenrestrictedtoaccesstosocial,
cultural,economicandcivicaairsbecauseof
architecturalanddesignbarriers[3].Barriersin
architecturecauseproblemsforPWDSingoinginto
andoutofbuildingsandalsousingavailablefacilitiesin
thesebuildings.Whentheyarehavingproblemsin
accesstobuildings,itisoneofthemainbarrierswhich
avoidPWDStotakepartinthesociety.Inorderto
increasetheirpresenceinpublicplacesandimprove
thequalityoftheirlives,thebuiltenvironmentsshould
beeasilyaccessibleforthesepeople.Accordingto
someinvestigators,theunreachableenvironmentscan
negativelyinuencethewelfareandhealthofdisabled
people[4].Theenvironmentwhichisinaccessiblefor
thedisabledpeoplecanleadtounprotectedstress,
poorselfesteemandtheirembarrassmentwhilethey
areinthepublicplaces[5].
TheMalaysiangovernmentinlocalscalehas
triedtoenactlawsinordertodefendthedisabled
people’srights.ThestrategicobjectivesoftheNational
WelfarePolicyguidecountry’spoliciesand
programmerstothisend.Inresponsetoitspointof
view,presentaccessiblestandardsinthiscountry
comprisesomecodesandstandards.Amongthemis
themostupdatedstandardthatwasenactedin2014
includesMS1184,UniversalDesignandAccessibilityin
theBuiltEnvironment‐CodeofPractice(Second
Revision).Thesestandardsaretheonlyvalidand
Nangkula Utaberta et al
Journal of Islamic Architecture, 4(4) December 2017 | 135
updatedrulesinMalaysiathatwereenactedto
increaseaccessibilityofthebuiltenvironment,
particularlypublicbuildings.
Therearenumbersofterminologyindening
accessibilitiesofPeoplewithDisabilities(PWDS),
includingUniversalDesign,InclusiveDesign,Barrier
freeEnvironment,AssistiveTechnology,Adaptive
Environments,DesignforALL,AssistiveTechnology,
LifespanDesignandTransgenerationalDesign.
UniversalDesign,AccessibleDesignandBarrierfree
Designareamongthemostfrequentlyused
terminologiesinarchitecturediscipline[6].
Insomesenses,therearevarioustheoretical
distinctionsbetweenuniversaldesignandbarrierfree
designoraccessibility.Firstdistinctionisasfollows:
whilebarrierfreedesignandaccessibilityaremainly
relatedtothesubjectsofaccessconcentratingon
disability,universaldesignasalogicalresultdoesn’t
concentrateonlyonPWDS.Toadegree,universal
designextensivelyexplainsabouttargetedusersand
thediversitynature.Itdoesn’tonlyconcentrateon
disabledpeoplebutalsoparticipationofallkindsof
peopleindierentaspectsofasociety[7].Ithasalso
protestedagainstthevirtualseparationofdisabled
peoplefromothersocialgroupsbyspecialdesign
interferences[8].Theseconddistinctionisthat
politicalandlegalmanipulationhavebroughtabout
barrierfreedesignandaccessibility[10]while,
universaldesignembracesthepowerofmarketthat
causescheaper,commonandinterestingproductsand
environments[11].Thethirddistinctionisthat
standardizationasthemainmethodofbarrierfree
designandaccessibility[12],whileincreasingexibility
andadaptabilitytothegreatestamountcouldbethe
achievementofuniversaldesign.
Inspiteofaccessibilitycodesthatexplain
outlook,standardizedshapesofphysicalenvironments
foraveragedisabledpeoplewithminimumlevelof
disabilities[7],universaldesigndoesn’tconsiderany
particularshapebutshowssevenprincipleswhichare
performancebasedthatobligedesignerstoapplytheir
owninnovativenesstoincreaseitsapplicabilityinlow
varietyofpositionsandrequirements[8].Finally,while
barrierfreeandaccessibledesignsinaconceptual
mannerconsideraccessibilityasanadditiontodesign
andinherentlystimulateBandAidmethodstodelete
thepresentobstacles,universaldesignproactive
integrationofaccessibilityasanessentialconstructof
design[9].Therefore,accessibledesignwillalways
emergefromuniversaldesignbuteveryaccessible
designcannotbeconsideredasuniversaldesign.
ItiscrucialinconsideringPWDSneedin
designingapublicspacesorbuilding.Inthispaper,one
oftheimportanttypeofpublicbuildingwillbedeeply
studied,whichismosqueasdiscussedattheearlier
partofthepaper.Indiscussingthemosque,itisa
symbolofreligiousfaithfulnessandproofofunityand
consensusofMuslims.Religiousplacesareregardedas
thephysicalenvironmentswhichareconnectedto
religiousorholyhappeningsthatcanimproveessential
humanvaluesandhumanspirit[13].Theseplacesare
oftenfoundedwithregardtoarchitectural
constructionsandart[14].InIslamicculturemosqueis
regardedasaplaceforworshiping,thereforeitis
identiedasthemainconstructintheIslamicworld.
Oneofthemostsignicantpublicbuildingsis
mosquebuildings.ParticularlyinMuslimcommunities,
thistypeofbuiltenvironmenthasspecialimportance.
Spiritualsanctuaryofthesecongregationalcommunity
centersinMalaysiamultipliesasthemajorityofits
populationareMuslims.Inadditiontoencouraging
Muslimstoattendtheirvetimeprayinginmosques,
severalimportantprayersalloverayearareheldin
mosques.Moreover,complimentaryreligiouseventsin
additiontodierentceremoniesalltogetherimplythe
importanceoftheseplacesforthemembersofMuslim
communities[15].Moreover,thegovernment’s
insistenceonprovidingapublicprayhallinMalaysian
buildingsincreasestheirpopularityandattentionto
publicneedsintheseplaces.Similartoanyotherpublic
builtenvironments,theimportanceofaccessibilityin
Malaysianmosquesisstrictlyemphasized.Inarecent
studybyAbdulRahim,universaldesignofmosque
buildingsisstressed”togivethePWDSanequal
opportunityforperformingtheircongregational
prayerstogetherwithotherdevotedMuslims”[16].
Inthegeneralpointofview,mosque
consideredasaplacethatwhichactivitiesrelatedto
thesocietyandreligionshouldbeplannedand
performed.Oneoftheplacesthatplaysveryimportant
andessentialroleinshapingcharacterofIslamic
communitiesandhelpsitsfollowerstoactaccording
torulesofIslamismosque.Theseplaceshavebeen
actingascentersofactivityfortheirpolitical,social,
religious,andinstitutionalactivities.Thefollowing
mainsocioreligiousroleofmosquesasareligious
placeincommunity:areligiousfoundation,apolitical
center,alegalinstitution,andfoundationofpeaceand
securelocation,anadministrativeinstitution,aunitto
obtaininformation,asocialorganization,andan
educationalinstitute[17].
AccordingtoJAKIM,allmosquesinMalaysia
areclassiedintovegeneralgroups,including
principal,state,district,qariah,andprivatemosques.
Themostsignicantmosquesamongallareprincipal
mosquesand14statemosquesineachof13statesand
onefederalterritoryofMalaysia.MasjidNegara(1965)
isconsideredasoneofthethreeprincipalmosquesin
Malaysia[18].Inthisstudy,themainobjectiveisto
evaluatethecurrentconditionofMasjidNegarain
termofuniversaldesignforPWDSgroup.Thedata
fromthisevaluationwilljustifythelevelofawareness
andconsciousofMalaysianpeopleandgovernmentto
theneedofPWDSgroup.Basedontheevaluateddata,
hopefullytherewillbeaneyeopeningtoallparties
andtheactiontobetakeninimprovingthisissue.
METHODS
Firstly,aninitialobservationofallstudycases
wasdone.Throughthisobservation,spatial
organizationofMasjidNegarainadditiontotheir
numberoflevelsandpubliclyaccessiblespacesand
Universal Design And Accessibility For People With Disabilities In Masjid Negara, Malaysia
136 | Journal of Islamic Architecture, 4(4) December 2017
facilitieswereidentiedindetail.Aroughlyplanof
eachoorwassketchedwhiledepictingtheboundary
ofbuilding,entrances,verticalaccessibilities,praying
areas,andablutionareas.Theresultsfromthis
primitiveobservationinlinewiththespatial
requirementsofMasjidNegarafromliteratureledto
theidenticationoftheprincipaldimensionsofan
accessiblemosque.
Inthenextstep,MalaysianStandardofMS
1184:2014“UniversalDesignandAccessibilityinthe
BuiltEnvironment‐CodeofPractice(Second
Revision)”placedasasourceofrelianceanda
comprehensiveevaluationchecklistswereconstructed
initsbasis.Thestructureofthesechecklistswasbased
ontheprincipaldimensionsidentiedintherststep
inonehandandtherelevantregulationslegislatedin
MS1184ontheotherhand.Thesechecklistsincluded
of23itemsofaccessibilitywith162evaluative
checkpointsintotal.Amongthem,3itemswith26
checkpointswererelatedtothewindows,conference
rooms,andguesthouses.Windowrelatedcheckpoints
wereputasidesinceinpublicbuildingslikemosque,
eithertheyarenotavailableorarenotadjustableby
ordinarypeople.Moreover,duetothepresenceof
conferenceroomsandguesthousesinsomeofthe
studycases,theywereevaluatedbutarenotreported
here.Thisexclusionisduetothefactthat,notall
mosquebuildingsallaroundthecountryincludedof
theseadjunctfacilitiesandthereforetheresultswould
notberepresentativeinthissense.All20remained
itemswith136checkpointswereadjustedintothese
fourdivisionsofaccessibilitydimensions(Table1).
Throughthisstage,datawerecollectedbyusing
evaluationchecklistsandusingrelatedobservation
equipmentbyapplyingsuitabletechniquesandtools
whicharerelatedtotheresearch. 
Table 1. Accessibility Evaluation Dimensions, Items and
Checkpoints
DISCUSSION

Thendingswasrecordedandtabulatedbased
ontheTable1asdescribedinmethodologypart.The
collecteddatadividedintothreecategoriesbasedon
theactualconditioninMasjidNegara,arethecurrent
conditionmetthestatediteminthecheckpointas
statedinTable1orno.Thecategoriesincludedmet,
notmeetandnotavailable.
Table 2. Accessibility evaluation dimensions, items and
checkpoints in Masjid Negara
Ingeneral,only26%ofthecheckedpointswere
completelymetthecriterialegislatedbythe
accessibilitystandards.Although49%oftheevaluated
itemswerenotprovidedatall,buttherest25%ofthe
existingfacilitiesdidnotmeetthestandards.
AccordingtotheresultscategorizedinTable2,this
mosqueismoreaccessibleintermsofaccessto
buildingdimension.47%requirementsofaccessto
buildingwasmetwhile22%wasnot.Moreover,31%of
therequirementswerenotprovidedatall.Contraryto
theaccesstobuildingdimension,thismosqueis
inaccessibleintermsoftoiletandwetareassothat0%
oftherequirementsweremet.The33%oftheexisting
situationofthisdimensiondonotmeetthestandards
and67%ofthemwerenotavailableinthismosque.
Inanotherpart,horizontalcirculationwith37%
totallymet,36%notmeetand27%notavailable
requirementswasmeasuredasthesecondaccessible
dimensionofMasjidNegara.Finallywasthevertical
circulationdimensionofaccessibilitywith18%fullymet
accessibilityscores,10%notmeet,and71%notprovided
requirementsofaccessibility.
Inlinewiththeuniversalattemptstofree
surroundingsfrombarrierstoreachsocialjustice,this
studytriedtogoforsamemissioninMalaysiacontext.
No Accessibility
DImension No Items Included Number of
Checkpoints Total
Checkpoints
1 Access to
building
1 ArrivalbyMotorVehicle 1
31
2 Parking 9
3 PathtoBuilding 11
4 EntranceandFinalFireExit 10
2 Horizontal
Circulation
1 Reception 1
25
2 HorizontalCirculation 8
3 GuardingAlongPathsandRamps 1
4 Terrace,Verandas,andBalconies 1
5 Doors 12
6 FloorandWallSurface 1
7 SignageandGraphicSymbols 1
3 Vertical
Circulation
1 Ramp 10
55
2 Stair 11
3 Lift 18
4 VerticalandInclinedLifting
Platform 4
5 EscalatorandMovingWalks 12
4 Toilet and Wet
Areas
1 Toilet 3
25
2 ToiletforAmbulantDisabled
People 1
3 WheelchairAccessibleToilet 20
4 IndividualShowerRoom 1
TOTAL 136
National Mosque
Dimension Items Included Situation
Meet Not Meet Not
Available
Access to building
ArrivalbyMotorVehicle50%50%0%
Parking29%4%67%
PathtoBuilding38%16%46%
EntranceandFinalFireExit71%18%11%
Total Average 47% 22% 31%
Horizontal
Circulation
Reception60%20%20%
HorizontalCirculation50%38%12%
GuardingAlongPathsandRamps67%0%33%
Terrace,Verandas,andBalconies50%50%0%
Doors37%42%21%
FloorandWallSurface0%100%0%
SignageandGraphicSymbols0%0%100%
Total Average 38% 36% 27%
Vertical Circulation
Ramp48%24%28%
Stair44%27%29%
Lift0%0%100%
VerticalandInclinedLiftingPlatform0%0%100%
EscalatorandMovingWalks0%0%100%
Total Average 18% 10% 71%
Toilet and Wet
Areas
Toilet0%33%67%
ToiletforAmbulantDisabledPeople0%0%100%
WheelchairAccessibleToilet0%0%100%
IndividualShowerRoom0%100%0%
Total Average 0% 33% 67%
26% 25%
49%
Total Average of Accessibility
Nangkula Utaberta et al
Journal of Islamic Architecture, 4(4) December 2017 | 137
Accessibilityofmosquebuildings,themostsignicant
publicbuildingintheIslamiccommunities,wasstudied
accordingtothelatestMalaysianStandards.Thisstudy
conductedtoaddressaccessibilityissuesandbarriers
inMalaysianmosquebuildings.Directobservation
helpedthisresearchtoconstructmoreaccurate
interpretationoftheaccessiblemosquebuildingand
existingcommonbarriers.
MasjidNegaracontainnumbersofhistoryand
acknowledgementasoneoftheiconicbuildingthat
reectthenationalarchitectureidentitybackthen
whenitwasbeenbuilt.But,aswhathavebeenshown
intheresult,it’smerelynotmeetuptoeven30%of
MalaysiaUniversalDesignandAccessibilityintheBuilt
Environment‐CodeofPractice.Theremaycomewith
numbersoffactors,whichthemostlogicalsenseisthe
timewhenthismosquehasbeenbuilt.Backthenin
1960’s,therearelackofawarenessdesign
considerationforpeoplewithdisabilities.Furthermore,
thereisnosuchasuniversaldesigncodepractices
existduringthattime.Mostofthescholarswillagree
toinspirethearchitecturalbeautyofthismosque.In
contrary,thismosqueshownnongoodexamplefrom
universaldesignandaccessibilitypointofview.
CONCLUSION
Theresultsfromthisstudyconrmedtwo
propositionsofthisstudywhichemphasizedbothon
inaccessibilityofMalaysianmosquebuildingsand
incomprehensivenessofavailableguidelinesand
standards.Moreover,theresultwasinconsistence
withpreviousstudieswhichdeclaredlowlevelof
accessibilityinMalaysianpublicbuildings.Thisresult
doesnotsupportthenationaltargetofthecountry
thatwishestobecomeadevelopednationby2020.It
isbecausesocialjusticeasaprerequisitefor
developmentrequiresequalaccessofallpeopletoall
facilitiesandservicesprovidedinthesociety.Inother
words,peopleapartfromtheirlevelofabilities,
physicallyormentally,shouldhaveequalrightsin
socialrightsenjoyment.
Thecurrentstudyprovidedasightintothe
accessibilitylevelofMalaysiannationalmosques.
Althoughthendingsofthisresearchlimitedtove
selectedbuildings,buttheycanbeplacedasabasefor
alltypesofmosquedesignsinanysizeandlevelof
importance.Thendingscouldalsobeconsideredin
refurbishmentofexistingmosquebuildingsmuch
moresinceveryseldomisnewmosqueconstruction.
Furtherstudiesrequiredaswelltoexpandthendings
ofthisresearchandtoprovideequalopportunitiesfor
ourfellowmen.
Themaingoalofthisstudywastoevaluate
accessibilitylevelofMalaysianmosquebuildingsfor
PWDS.Aqualitativecasestudywasconductedby
meansofasystematicobservationbasedonthelatest
MalaysianStandardofMS1184:2014.Similartoany
otheracademicresearchthereweresomelimitations
forthisstudyaswell.Althoughitwastriedtochoose
thebestwayinconductingtheresearch,butitmight
notbepreciouslycomprehensiveandperfect.Theseall
shortcomingswereduetotheknowledge,time,and
nanciallimitationshowever,theyprovided
opportunitiesforfurtherstudiesthough.
Itisrecommendedforthefuturestudiesto
conductacomparativecasestudybetweena
successfulpatternofmosqueintheIslamicworldand
arepresentativemosqueinMalaysiaorevenallresults
fromthisstudy.Moreover,itisrecommendedto
patentanaccessibleablutionareaforpeoplewith
dierentlevelofdisabilities.Itcanbecomepossibleby
studyinganthropometricsofpeoplewithdierent
typesofimpairmentsandactivitiesrequiredinablution
areas.Someavailableprefabricatedexamplesof
ablutionsunitsforPWDShasgivenintheappendixD.
Theycanbeasuitablealternativestoberetrottedin
theexistingmosques.Moreover,their
anthropometricscanbeconsideredasareferencesfor
futuredesigns.
Itisalsosuggestedthat,theexistingcodeof
practiceofMS1184bestudiedinreferencetothe
notionofuniversaldesignanditsseptetprincipals.As
thereferencedMalaysianStandardentitled“universal
designandaccessibilityinbuiltenvironment”,itwould
befruitfulifthisclaimbecomereassessed
academically.
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... For the Muslim community, mosque is a necessity in fulfilling the preservation of five essentials of maqasid al-shari'ah of faith, self, intellect, lineage, and property, in its respective ways (Asiah, Azila, et al., 2015). According to JAKIM, Malaysian mosques classifies into five general groups, and mosques usually are the principal, state, and some private funded mosques (Asiah, Azila, et al., 2015;MS2577:2014MS2577: , 2014Utaberta, Niya et al., 2017). ...
... As elaborated by Asiah, Azila, et al. (2015), mosque institution is also devised towards providing supports for the PwDs through its activities and number of programs are among the elements assessed in increasing mosques' ratings. The importance of providing accessibility is to give the PwDs an equal opportunity for them to perform congregational prayers in respect of helping them perform their obligation as other devoted Muslims (Asiah & Nur Amirah, 2014;Utaberta et al., 2017). ...
... Universal Design is the basis of creating accessibility in the built environment and practically in mosque environment as many researchers (Fletcher, 2016;Heylighen, Linden et al., 2017;Kurniawan, 2010;Mahsa et al., 2015;Nur Amirah, Ismail et al., 2018a;Shah, Shar et al., 2018;Utaberta et al., 2017) has reinterpreted it within its definition of 'design of products and environments usable by all people to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.' Several researchers within the local context, such as (Kadir & Jamaludin, 2013;Mahsa et al., 2015), have also regarded Universal Design as a significant component for social sustainability in sustaining well-being, safety, and accessibility in encouraging participation and social interaction within a livable community. ...
Article
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Mosques are frequently visited because it is a place for worshipping God for devoted Muslims and its communal qualities. The lack of accessibility creates physical barriers for PwDs and the elderly and has discouraged them from joining congregational prayers. Mosque accessibility is a prolonged issue that needs mitigation hence the access challenges. Five accessibility challenges are discussed by assessing the Mosque's typical design and its facilities to its level of accessibility. Conclusively, the five access challenges reviewed in Access Auditing of mosque's cases should be the focus for renovation and upgrading to be an inclusive Mosque.
... For the Muslim community, mosque is a necessity in fulfilling the preservation of five essentials of maqasid al-shari'ah of faith, self, intellect, lineage, and property, in its respective ways (Asiah, Azila, et al., 2015). According to JAKIM, Malaysian mosques classifies into five general groups, and mosques usually are the principal, state, and some private funded mosques (Asiah, Azila, et al., 2015;MS2577:2014MS2577: , 2014Utaberta, Niya et al., 2017). ...
... As elaborated by Asiah, Azila, et al. (2015), mosque institution is also devised towards providing supports for the PwDs through its activities and number of programs are among the elements assessed in increasing mosques' ratings. The importance of providing accessibility is to give the PwDs an equal opportunity for them to perform congregational prayers in respect of helping them perform their obligation as other devoted Muslims (Asiah & Nur Amirah, 2014;Utaberta et al., 2017). ...
... Universal Design is the basis of creating accessibility in the built environment and practically in mosque environment as many researchers (Fletcher, 2016;Heylighen, Linden et al., 2017;Kurniawan, 2010;Mahsa et al., 2015;Nur Amirah, Ismail et al., 2018a;Shah, Shar et al., 2018;Utaberta et al., 2017) has reinterpreted it within its definition of 'design of products and environments usable by all people to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.' Several researchers within the local context, such as (Kadir & Jamaludin, 2013;Mahsa et al., 2015), have also regarded Universal Design as a significant component for social sustainability in sustaining well-being, safety, and accessibility in encouraging participation and social interaction within a livable community. ...
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Grand Mosque is a frequently visited building because it is a place for worshipping God for devoted Muslims and its communal qualities. The lack of access to Mosque creates physical barriers for PwDs and elderly and has discouraged them to join congregational prayers. Mosque accessibility is a prolonged issue that needs to be mitigated. There are five identified access challenges that will be discussed. Revisits mosque’s design intentions and conducting Access Audit at grand mosques for accessibility. Finally, grand mosque design philosophies should consider diversity of users to visit, performing congregational prayers and socially inclusive for all Mosque's functions.
... Even so previous studies mostly reported on the general public buildings, there is still a lack of studies on awarded buildings such as Green Building Index (GBI). Therefore, this study evaluated the GBI building by limitation to the masjid as Muslims are the majority in Malaysia according to Utaberta, et al (2018). ...
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