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Construction is one of the significant sectors of Indian economy and is an integral part of the development. Today India's urban population is the second largest in the world and its future development leads to increased demand for housing to cope with this problem India should desperately need to plan for acquisition of land and rapid creation of dwelling units. One of the most important factors in determining the success of a construction project in terms of speed, quality cost and safety of work is the formwork used in the project as it accounts about 35 to 40 percent of the total project cost of the structure. When considering a construction projects both the client and contractor want to finish the job early as the client wants to use the building for the intended purpose as soon as possible. The contractor wants to finish the construction as soon as possible to gain a higher profit. The most efficient way to speed up the work in mass housing construction is by achieving a very short floor cycle. The floor cycle of a building mainly depend on the formwork type, as it is the main time factor of a building project. The aim of our study is to present about the existing formwork system used in mass housing construction in Tamil nadu and to show how each one will affect the project duration, project cost and the quality of the work. For that, a research has been carried out and the results will present in this paper.
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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET)
Volume 8, Issue 6, Nov - Dec 2017, pp. 29–41, Article ID: IJARET_08_06_004
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijaret/issues.asp?JType=IJARET&VType=8&IType=6
ISSN Print: 0976-6480 and ISSN Online: 0976-6499
© IAEME Publication
ALUMINIUM FORMWORK SYSTEM USING IN
HIGHRISE BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION
R. Thiyagarajan
Teaching Fellow, Division of Structural engineering, College of Engineering Guindy,
Anna University, Chennai – 600025, Tamil Nadu, India
V.Panneerselvam
Research Scholar, Division of Structural engineering, College of Engineering Guindy,
Anna University, Chennai – 600025, Tamil Nadu
K. Nagamani
Professor and Head, College of Engineering Guindy,
Anna University, Chennai – 600025, Tamil Nadu, India
ABSTRACT
Construction is one of the significant sectors of Indian economy and is an integral
part of the development. Today India’s urban population is the second largest in the
world and its future development leads to increased demand for housing to cope with
this problem India should desperately need to plan for acquisition of land and rapid
creation of dwelling units. One of the most important factors in determining the success
of a construction project in terms of speed, quality cost and safety of work is the
formwork used in the project as it accounts about 35 to 40 percent of the total project
cost of the structure. When considering a construction projects both the client and
contractor want to finish the job early as the client wants to use the building for the
intended purpose as soon as possible. The contractor wants to finish the construction
as soon as possible to gain a higher profit. The most efficient way to speed up the work
in mass housing construction is by achieving a very short floor cycle. The floor cycle
of a building mainly depend on the formwork type, as it is the main time factor of a
building project. The aim of our study is to present about the existing formwork system
used in mass housing construction in Tamil nadu and to show how each one will affect
the project duration, project cost and the quality of the work. For that, a research has
been carried out and the results will present in this paper.
Key words: Aluminium System, Aluform System, Block Work and Plastering,
Construction, Deck Panel, Formwork, Wall Panel.
Cite this Article: R. Thiyagarajan, V.Panneerselvam and K. Nagamani, Aluminium
Formwork System Using In Highrise Buildings Construction. International Journal of
Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology, 8(6), 2017, pp 29–41.
http://www.iaeme.com/ijaret/issues.asp?JType=IJARET&VType=8&IType=6
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1. INTRODUCTION
Construction is one of the significant sectors of Indian economy and is an integral part of the
development. Today India’s urban population is the second largest in the world and its future
development leads to increased demand for housing. To cope with this problem India should
desperately need to plan for acquisition of land and rapid creation of dwelling units.
Construction is a complex process involving basically the areas of Architectural planning,
Engineering and Construction. According to the Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce
and Industries (FICCI), keeping in view the existing housing crisis, the country shall need
addition of more 2.5 million new dwelling units annually”(Kulkarni, 2001). The recent years
voiced the active participation of private sectors in finding the solution over the prevailing
situation on housing front. Keeping in view the gigantic task of providing affordable shelter to
masses, adoption of a cost effective technology assumes greater significance. The present
strain on Indian economy and the overgrowing demands for housing calls for adoptions of
appropriate building technology which could lead to economy and speed in construction. As a
result of experimentation of innovate construction techniques and modern construction
management it is now possible to achieve an overall saving to the extent of 10 percent in the
total cost of housing construction compared to the cost of traditional housing. There is growing
realization today that speed of construction needs to be given greater importance especially for
large housing projects. This is not only essential for the faster turnover of equipment and
investment also leading possible to the reduction in the housing cost – but also for achieving
the national objective of creating a large stock to overcome shortest possible time.
2. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
Our study aims to prove, for mass housing low-rise constructions, Aluminium Formwork
System will be the best suitable formwork system in terms of Safety, Quality, Cost and
Duration over the conventional formwork system, by analyzing the on- going projects in Tamil
Nadu and referencing the completed projects all over India.
3. NEED FOR STUDY
The disparity between the supply and demand for affordable housing is tremendous. Rapid
urbanization has resulted in a geometric increase in the housing demand, which cannot be
fulfilled using conventional materials and methods of construction. The traditional or
conventional method of construction for mass housing is comparatively, a slow process and
has limited quality control, particularly when a large size project is involved. It is therefore
obligatory to work out a method or a scheme where the speed and quality of construction are
controlled automatically by a systematic approach. Therefore Aluminium Formwork System
(AFS) identified to be suitable for Indian conditions for mass housing construction where
quality and speed can be maintained at a reasonably high level. It is adoptable for any design
of a building and establishes a kind of assembly line production.
The methodology of using aluminium formwork takes in to consideration on the following
important parameters such as the number of housing units and the time that is available and
works out the component of input as formwork. The whole structure is constructed with cast-
in-situ load bearing walls by using pre-engineered aluminium forms with form-finished
concrete and no plaster on any face.
R. Thiyagarajan, V.Panneerselvam and K. Nagamani
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4. FORM WORK
Formwork is a die or a mould including all supporting structures, used to shape and support
the concrete until it attains sufficient strength to carry its own weight. It should be capable of
carrying all imposed dead and live loads apart from its own weight. Formwork has been in use
since the beginning of concrete construction. New materials such as steel, plastics, fiber glass
and Aluminium are used in formwork. Greater attention is being given to the design,
fabrication, erection and dismantling of formwork as a temporary structure. Form work
includes the surface in contact with the concrete and all necessary supporting structure.
5. PRESENT TECHNOLOGY AVAILABLE IN INDIA
Some of the advanced technologies of formwork catering to the speed of construction are given
below:
5.1. Pre-Fabrication Technology
The Pre-cast concrete elements in roofs, floors and in walls have become more common as
these eliminate shuttering; centering and plastering labor and saves material cost.
Figure 1
Prefabricated Technology (Larsen & Toubro Limited, Bhoiwada, Mumbai)
5.2. Tunnel Formwork Technology
It is a technology, constructing large number of housing within short time using steel forms to
construct walls & slabs in one continuous pour in Fig.2.
5.3. Aluminium formwork System
Aluminium formwork System is a system for forming the cast in-place concrete structure of a
building. It is also a system for scheduling and controlling the work of other construction trades
such as; steel reinforcement, concrete placement, and mechanical and electrical trades in Fig.
3.
Aluminium Formwork System Using In Highrise Buildings Construction
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Figure 2 Tunnel Formwork Figure 3 Aluminium Formwork
6. ANALYZING THE CURRENT MARKET TREND IN PRIVATE
SECTOR
6.1. Housing Scenario in India
The progress made by the construction industry of any country could be considered as the index
of development of that country. Further, the number of pucca houses built in any country could
be another index. While there has been a progressive rise in stock of housing in India since
independence, the speed thereof has not kept pace with the rapid growth of population and
urbanization. As a result, the shortage of accommodation is increasing continuously and the
situation has become acute in urban areas.
As per 2011 census, the country had a population of 1210.98 million, out of which, 377.10
million (31.16 percent) lived in urban areas. During 2001 – 2011, the urban population of India
grew at a CAGR of 2.8 percent, resulting in the increase in level of urbanization from 27.81
percent to 31.16 percent.
This growing concentration of people in urban areas has led to problems of land shortage.
Considering these factors, there currently exists a wide gap between the demand and supply of
housing (both in terms of quality and quantity) in urban India. According to estimates of the
technical Group constituted by the ministry of housing shortage in the country at the end of the
10th year Five Year plan was estimated to be 24.71 million for 66.3 0 million households.
The group further estimated that
88 percent of this shortage pertains to houses for Economically Weaker Sections
(EWS)
11 for Lower-income Groups (LWS)
0.04 Million shortage for both Middle and High-income Groups.
During the 11th Five Year plan, the group estimated that the total housing requirement in
Indian cities by the end-2012 will be the tune of 26.53 million dwelling units for 75.01 million
households. If the current increase in backing of housing is maintained, a minimum of 30
million additional houses will be required by 2020.
R. Thiyagarajan, V.Panneerselvam and K. Nagamani
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6.2. Urban Population Set To Outgrow Overall Population Growth
India’s urban population has grown at a CAGR of 2.8 percent over 2001 – 2011, resulting in
an increase in the urbanization rate from 27.8 percent to 31.20 percent. Out of India 1.21 billion
population, 377 million people are Urban Dwellers. The Federation of Indian Chambers of
Commerce (FICCI) estimates that by 2050, the country’s cities would witness a net increase of
900 million people. Furthermore, over 2012 2050, the Pace of Urbanization is likely to
increase at a CAGR of 2.1 percent- Double than that of China.
Figure. 4 Outgrow Overall Population Growth.
6.3. State-Wise Housing Shortage In 2012
10 states contribute to three – Fourths of the urban housing shortage. The state wise data shows
a mixed picture where both developed as well as less developed states have families living in
poor housing conditions. Following states are housing shortage. The top 10 states, in terms of
urban housing shortage, contribute to 14.3 million or 76 Percent of housing shortage.
Figure 5
Category-Wise Housing Shortage In 2012
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Figure 6
Category-Wise Based Income In 2012
7. ALUMINIUM FORMWORK
The panels of aluminium formwork are made from high strength aluminium alloy, with the
face or contact surface of the panel, made up of 4mm thick plate, which is welded to a formwork
of specially designed extruded sections, to form a robust component
The panels are held in position by a simple pin and wedge arrangement system that passes
through holes in the outside rib of each panel. The panel fits precisely, securely and requires
no bracing. The walls are held together with high strength wall ties, while the decks are
supported by beams and props. Since the equipment is made of aluminium, it has sections that
are large enough to be effective, yet light enough in the weight to be handled by a single worker.
Individual workers can handle all the elements necessary for forming the system with no
requirement for heavy lifting equipment or skilled labor. By ensuring repetition of work tasks
on daily basis it is possible for the system to bring assembly line techniques to construction site
and to ensure quality work, by unskilled or semi-skilled workers.
Trial erection of the formwork is carried out in factory conditions which ensure that all
components are correctly manufactured and no components are missed out. Also, they are
numbered and packed in such a manner so as to enable easy site erection and dismantling
Figure 7 Aluminium formwork (Larsen & Toubro Limited, Malad, Mumbai, 2016)
R. Thiyagarajan, V.Panneerselvam and K. Nagamani
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7.1. Merits of Aluminium Formwork
In contrast to most of the modern construction systems, which are machine and equipment
oriented, the formwork does not depend upon heavy lifting equipment and can be handled
by unskilled labors.
Fast construction is assured and is particularly suitable for large magnitude construction of
respective nature at one project site.
Construction carried out by this system has exceptionally good quality with accurate
dimensions for all openings to receive windows and doors, right angles at meeting points
of wall to wall, wall to floor, wall to ceiling, etc, concrete surface finishes are good to
receive painting directly without plaster.
System components are durable and can be used several times without sacrificing the
quality or correctness of dimensions and surface.
Monolithic construction of load bearing walls and slabs in concrete produces structurally
superior quality with very few constructions joined compared to the conventional column
and beam slabs construction combined with filter brick work or block work subsequently
covered by plaster.
In view of the four – day cycle of casting the floor together with all slabs as against 14 to
20 day cycle in the conventional method, completed RCC structure is available for
subsequent finish trades much faster, resulting in a saving of 10 to 15 days per floor in the
overall completion period.
As all the walls are cast monolithic and simultaneously with floor slabs requiring no further
plasters finish. Therefore the time required in the conventional method for construction of
walls and plastering is saved.
As fully completed structural frame is made available in one stretch for subsequent
finishing items, uninterrupted progress can be planned ensuring, continuity in each trade,
thereby providing as cope for employing increased labor force on finishing item.
As the system establishes a kind of “Assembly line production” phase – wise completion
in desired groups of buildings can be planned to achieve early utilization of the buildings.
7.2. Limitation of Aluminium Formwork
High initial investment cost.
More number of components.
High repair cost of Aluminium forms.
Probability of theft is more.
Segregation and stocking required more space.
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7.3. Design of Aluminium Formwork
Figure 8 Edge Frame
Figure 9 Stiffeners
R. Thiyagarajan, V.Panneerselvam and K. Nagamani
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8. COMPONENTS OF ALUMINIUM FORMWORK
The basic element of the formwork is the panel, which is an extruded aluminium rail section,
welded to an aluminium sheet and other components are extruded section. This produces a
lightweight component with an excellent stiffness to weight ratio, yielding minimal deflection
under concrete loading. Panels and extrusions are manufactured in the size and shape to suit
the requirements of specific projects. Following are the components that are regularly used in
the construction.
8.1. Slab Components
Slab Panel (SP)
Slab Prop Head (SPH)
Mid / End Beam (MB / EB)
Slab Corner (SC)
Beam Splice Bar (BSB)
Prop Length (PL)
8.2. Wall Components
Wall Panel (WP)
External Corner (EC)
Rocker (RK)
Internal Corner (IC)
Kicker (K)
Pin and Wedge
8.2. Beam Components
Beam Panel (BP)
Bulk Head Horizontal (BHH)
Beam Prop Head (BPH)
Soffit Corner Internal (SCI)
Beam Soffit Panel (BSP)
Soffit Corner External (SCE)
Aluminium Formwork System Using In Highrise Buildings Construction
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Figure 10 Drawing –Plan for Aluminium frame work
9. COST COMPARISON BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL AND
ALUMINIUM FORMWORK SYSTEM
In typical floor construction, around 20 percent of cost saving is possible in box type structure
over framed structure. Almost 40 percent savings in project duration in Box type structure over
framed structure. Construction cost escalation, Labor rates increases every year at the percent
of 2 to 5.Cement and steel price increases every year at the percent of 10 to 15.Around 5 to 8
percent Savings in project cost is possible on reducing over heads by early completion of
projects. High return on investment is possible.
R. Thiyagarajan, V.Panneerselvam and K. Nagamani
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Figure 11 Pie Chart for Framed Structure
Figure 12 Pie Chart for Box type Structure
Figure 13 Construction duration
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10. CONCLUSIONS
The task of housing due to the rising population of the country is becoming increasingly
monumental. In terms of technical capabilities to face this challenge, the potential is enormous;
it only needs to be judiciously exploited.
Traditionally, construction firms all over the world have been slow to adopt the innovation
and changes. Contractors are a conservative lot. It is the need of time to analyze the depth
of the problem and find effective solutions. Aluminium formwork serves as a cost effective
and efficient tool to solve the problems of the mass housing project all over the world.
Aluminium formwork aims to maximize the use of modern construction techniques and
equipment on its entire project.
From the results obtained we can come to a conclusion that when the Aluminium formwork
is used in the construction project, the total project cost and the duration of the project is
lesser than the Conventional formwork system.
The floor cycle will be 7 to 10 days when the Aluminium formwork used in typical floors,
and hence the structure duration will be reduced by 35 to 40 percent over the conventional
method of construction. At the same time, there will not be any additional activities such
as block work and plastering, which further reduces the overall project duration in the tune
of 3 to 4 months.
The Aluminium Formwork System can achieve not only faster rate of construction but can
also bring down the structural cost by 20 to 25 percent over the conventional method with
lesser labour inputs.
Not only the direct benefits, there are many indirect benefits of using aluminium formwork
system in the mass housing construction projects. For example Aluminium is the 100
percent recyclable materials, which saves our environments from the extraction of natural
resources such as mining of bauxite, reduces tree cutting.
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... Uma das tecnologias construtivas inovadoras que vêm sendo empregadas na construção civil brasileira (BONIN, AMORIM, 2006;ECKER, MARTINS, 2014;CBIC, 2016;ALMEIDA, 2018), com o intuito de enfrentar o déficit habitacional e promover racionalidade e produtividade é o sistema parede de concreto moldado in loco. O sistema parede de concreto é uma tecnologia de construção industrializada e racionalizada que visa a melhoria da produtividade, velocidade, baixo custo e qualidade, indicado para construções com alta repetitividade (CORSINI, 2011;THIYAGARAJAN;ANNERSELVAM;NAGAMANI, 2017). De acordo com a Associação Brasileira de Cimento Portland (ABCP, 2008), o uso do sistema parede de concreto no Brasil remonta experiências consagradas nas décadas de 70 e 80, com tipologias de construção industrializadas em concreto celular (sistema Gethal) e em concreto convencional (sistema Outinord), além do uso de fôrmas deslizantes e trepantes. ...
... Uma das tecnologias construtivas inovadoras que vêm sendo empregadas na construção civil brasileira (BONIN, AMORIM, 2006;ECKER, MARTINS, 2014;CBIC, 2016;ALMEIDA, 2018), com o intuito de enfrentar o déficit habitacional e promover racionalidade e produtividade é o sistema parede de concreto moldado in loco. O sistema parede de concreto é uma tecnologia de construção industrializada e racionalizada que visa a melhoria da produtividade, velocidade, baixo custo e qualidade, indicado para construções com alta repetitividade (CORSINI, 2011;THIYAGARAJAN;ANNERSELVAM;NAGAMANI, 2017). De acordo com a Associação Brasileira de Cimento Portland (ABCP, 2008), o uso do sistema parede de concreto no Brasil remonta experiências consagradas nas décadas de 70 e 80, com tipologias de construção industrializadas em concreto celular (sistema Gethal) e em concreto convencional (sistema Outinord), além do uso de fôrmas deslizantes e trepantes. ...
... Já no final de 2015, o percentual cresceu 52% (SANTOS, 2016). O sistema parede de concreto é uma tecnologia de construção industrializada e racionalizada que visa a melhoria da produtividade, velocidade, baixo custo e qualidade, indicado para construções com alta repetitividade (CORSINI, 2011;THIYAGARAJAN;ANNERSELVAM;NAGAMANI, 2017). O principal programa de habitação popular brasileiro Minha Casa Minha Vida (MCMV) entregou 54% das moradias com manifestações patológicas, segundo levantamento realizado pela Controladoria Geral da União (CGU) em parceria com o Ministério da Transparência em 77 empreendimentos e 1.472 unidades habitacionais em doze estados do país (BRASIL, 2017) ...
... Já no final de 2015, o percentual cresceu 52% (SANTOS, 2016). O sistema parede de concreto é uma tecnologia de construção industrializada e racionalizada que visa a melhoria da produtividade, velocidade, baixo custo e qualidade, indicado para construções com alta repetitividade (CORSINI, 2011;THIYAGARAJAN;ANNERSELVAM;NAGAMANI, 2017). O principal programa de habitação popular brasileiro Minha Casa Minha Vida (MCMV) entregou 54% das moradias com manifestações patológicas, segundo levantamento realizado pela Controladoria Geral da União (CGU) em parceria com o Ministério da Transparência em 77 empreendimentos e 1.472 unidades habitacionais em doze estados do país (BRASIL, 2017) ...
... Another study by Thiyagarajan et al. [27] compared the performance of AFCS with other formwork systems, such as prefabrication technology and tunnel formwork technology. The prefabrication technology eradicates the formwork by pre-casting all the building components, such as wall panels and roof/floor panels in off-site, which reduces the material cost. ...
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The selection of a suitable formwork system in high-rise building construction is a crucial factor to success the project on time. So the selecting a suitable formwork system to affects the entire construction cost, time and quality of construction. The objective of this study is to identify the different formworks used for the construction of high-rise building. And also analyzing the advantages, limitations and site-specific problems in usages of such formwork in tall building. For that, five ongoing projects are selected and data is collected to identify how each type will affect the project cost, project duration and project quality from selection of formwork. This will helpful for the contractor to choose appropriate formworks for construction project.
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Human resources are the live resources in the construction field, who have all the types of needs and risks. It is difficult and risky to manage them as they are live and they are not mostly permanent like other industries. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the Human Resource Management(HRM) in the construction industry. However, past research has been done on HRM are mostly qualitative and there is a lack of quantitative research. Due to this lack of quantitative research, there is no good-developed framework for factors affecting HRM in the construction industry. This paper deals with identification of factors affecting HRM and developing a framework for assessing the factors affecting HRM. In the end, a framework has been developed which can be used for the future research in this area.
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