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Failure of Access: Rethinking Open Education - Keynote Address

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The use of open re-use licenses and Internet technologies have long promised to reduce barriers to education by making it more distributed, equitable, and open. Indeed, the promise of open education can trace its roots to the the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations 1948, which states ”everyone has a right to education.” However, there is little formal evidence that open education has an impact on increasing access to learning or making education more equitable. As a collaboration between Simon Fraser University (SFU), University of British Columbia (UBC), BCcampus, British Columbia Research Libraries Group (BCRLG) and the Public Knowledge Project (PKP), this event explored the goals, failures, and successes of open education. The event explored such questions as: is open education succeeding in being a transformative movement that makes learning more accessible? What are the criteria and successes that should be used to measure if the open education movement is a success? What more needs to be done?
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Content may be subject to copyright.
Ishan Abeywardena, PhD
Adviser: Open Educational Resources
SFU, Harbour Centre, Vancouver
March 28, 2017
Failure of Access:
Rethinking Open Education
Unless otherwise specified, this presentation is available under CC BY-SA 4.0 International
Open Education
Open as to people,
Open as to places,
Open as to methods, and,
finally,
Open as to ideas
Lord Crowther
Philosophy of
‘Open-ness’
Attribution: Kanwar, Mishra & Cheng. (2016). Open Education in Asia: Changing Perspectives. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/2444
Open Education
Education for All
Open access to courses or
programmes
OER
Open textbooks
Open research
Open data
Bates, 2015
Education
Openness
Education
without
Barriers
i.e
No entry qualifications
Credit banking
Cafeteria approach to
courses
Anytime, anywhere
‘Open-ness’ in Practice
Attribution: Kanwar, Mishra & Cheng. (2016). Open Education in Asia: Changing Perspectives. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/2444; Thom Cochrane https://flic.kr/p/8zpYEJ
MOOCs in
2010s
Technology
Open
availability
of content
and
resources
since
2000s
Content
Open
means
open entry,
easier
access to
study,
increased
enrollment
since
1960s.
Access
“Open-ness”: an evolving concept
Attribution: Kanwar, Mishra & Cheng. (2016). Open Education in Asia: Changing Perspectives. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/2444
The Demand
Attribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737
By 2025
4new universities to cater to 30,000
needed each week to accommodate
children who will reach enrolment age by
2025
Everitt in Liyanagunawardena et al, 2013
Attribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737
2007 - 150.6 million tertiary students
globally
2012 - 165 million
2025 - 263 million
Are OUs helping?
3,499,999
1,974,343
1,326,948
800,000 650,000 646,467
450,000 355,240 260,079 210,978 173,915 120,000 120,000 101,218
0
500,000
1,000,000
1,500,000
2,000,000
2,500,000
3,000,000
3,500,000
4,000,000
Indira
Gandhi
National
Open
University
Anadolu
University Allama
Iqbal Open
University
Payame
Noor
University
Bangladesh
Open
University
Universitas
Terbuka Dr. B R
Ambedkar
Open
University
University
of South
Africa
National
University
of Distance
Education
Korea
National
Open
University
Open
University National
Centre for
Distance
Education
National
Open
University
of Nigeria
Shanghai
Open
University
Enrollment
Open Education Institution
Data source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_universities_by_enrollment (Mar 25, 2017)
10.5 million learners
Need in 2025 will be 263 million
OER
Paris OER Declaration
Attribution: Oer logo EN 1 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Oer_logo_EN_1.png
reduce barriers and widening
access to education at all levels
improve cost efficiency in teaching
and learning
encourage teachers to produce and
share high quality educational
resources, and
enhance quality of teaching and
learning.
Source: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/CI/pdf/Events/English_Paris_OER_Declaration.pdf
Foster awareness and use of
OER;
Support capacity building for
the sustainable development of
quality learning materials;
Promote the understanding and
use of open licensing
Frameworks;
Facilitate the finding,
retrieving and sharing of OER.
Current Status of
Recommendations from 2012
Source: http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/2441
1. To what extent are teachers trained in reusing, revising, remixing and
redistributing OER?
2. What are the perceptions of the quality and cost-efficiency of OER,
and what are the various quality assurance mechanisms used?
3. What is the level of facilitation in the reuse, revision, remixing and
redistribution of educational materials across the Commonwealth
through open licensing?
4. What are the opportunities and challenges faced when developing,
using, evaluating and recontextualising OER?
5. How have institutions taken advantage of evolving technology to create
opportunities for sharing materials which have been released under an
open licence in diverse media?
6. What are the tools used to locate and retrieve OER that are specific
and relevant to particular needs?
Research Questions
More training is required for teachers
OER need to build more credibility through
rigorous QA
Teachers need to be strongly encouraged to
share teaching material openly
Allocate more time and resources towards
OER development
Make OER easier to find and download
(especially open textbooks, courses and videos)
Mainstreaming OER
Kuala Lumpur Declaration
Mainstream the use of OER by
developing strategies and
policies at governmental and
institutional levels to enhance
quality while potentially
reducing the cost of education
Source: https://www.col.org/events/pan-commonwealth-forum/2016-kuala-lumpur-declaration
Implementation of OER
Source: http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/233
The Cape Town Declaration
Open education is not limited to just open
educational resources. It also draws upon open
technologies that facilitate collaborative, flexible
learning and the open sharing of teaching practices
that empower educators to benefit from the best ideas
of their colleagues. It may also grow to include new
approaches to assessment, accreditation and
collaborative learning.
Source: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Cape_Town_Open_Education_Declaration
MOOC
MOOCs: Opening up Education
Present Future
National or
provincial
jurisdiction
Limited interaction
at study centres
Print+ (audio, video,
online)
Global classroom
Increased use of
Peer2Peer learning
and social media
Online+ (increased
use of learning
analytics)
Attribution: Kanwar, Mishra & Cheng. (2016). Open Education in Asia: Changing Perspectives. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/2444
Coursera - 23 million learners
edX - 10 million learners
XuetangX - 6 million learners
FutureLearn - 5.3 million learners
Udacity - 4 million learners
MOOCs are Growing
Source: https://www.edsurge.com/news/2016-12-29-monetization-over-massiveness-breaking-down-moocs-by-the-numbers-in-2016
6,850 MOOCs from over 700 universities (2016)
Attribution: Mathieu Plourde {(Mathplourde on Flickr) - http://www.flickr.com/photos/mathplourde/8620174342/sizes/l/in/photostream/
The proportion of higher education students taking at least
one online course now stands at 33.5 percent for a total of
7.1 million
Online learning: Increasing Access
Attribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737
Inhibitors
However, MOOCs
Most MOOC
learners are
having a first
degree
(about 70%) Gender
participation
rate is a
function of
the subject
matter of the
MOOC
MOOC
learners are
serial
MOOC takers
Source: Mcleaod et al, TechTrends, 59 (1), Jan/Feb 2015
Attribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737
Cost of MOOCs
Source: Hollands, F. M., & Tirthali, D. (2014). MOOCs: expectations and reality.
Attribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737
Do they need OER?
Sri Lankan government
prints 30 million copies of
textbooks a year at a cost
of Rs.3,000 million
(CAD26.5mil) to provide
free textbooks under the
free education policy”.
Source: MoE, Sri Lanka School Census Preliminary Reports 2016, in Sri Lanka
Attribution: RIBI Image Library https://flic.kr/p/dCUMPS; Sri Lanka Regions Map.png https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sri_Lanka_Regions_Map.png
Why OER when Textbooks are “Free”?
Many governments in
developing countries largely
subsidize textbooks
the learners and teachers get
the textbooks for free (the tax
money is hidden from view)
the government owns the
copyright, so no royalties are
paid
the cost of the textbooks is
directly proportionate to the
printing, distribution and
logistics costs
How to make
the case for
OER?
A question for all of us
Attribution: Alberto Vaccaro https://flic.kr/p/6vC9my
Percentage of households with Internet
access, by level of development, 2005-2014
Source: ITU, MIS Reports, 2014. http://www.itu.int/en/newsroom/Pages/wtis14-mis-images.aspx
Attribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737; spentrails https://flic.kr/p/5WNnod
Internet without Electricity?
Region
Population
withoutelectricity
millions
Developingcountries 1,185
Africa 634
NorthAfrica 1
SubSaharanAfrica 632
DevelopingAsia 512
China 0
India 244
LatinAmerica 22
MiddleEast 18
Transitioneconomies&OECD 1
WORLD 1,186
Source: IEA, World Energy Outlook 2016 http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/resources/energydevelopment/energyaccessdatabase/
Attribution: Spring Dew https://flic.kr/p/6qFLJ
The Incheon Declaration
We recognize that the success of the 2030 education
agenda requires sound policies and planning as well
as efficient implementation arrangements. It is also
clear that the aspirations encompassed in the proposed
SDG 4 cannot be realized without a significant and
well-targeted increase in financing, particularly in
those countries furthest from achieving quality
education for all at all levels.
Source: http://en.unesco.org/world-education-forum-2015/incheon-declaration
Thank You
www.col.org
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