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p>The globalization era requires employees to have good performance and results. Therefore, many companies implement compensation system. Effective compensation is expected to add value to employee’s satisfaction to stimulate employees to always work better. This research aim is to determine the effect of compensation on employee satisfaction and employee performance and employee satisfaction to mediate the effect of compensation on employee performance. The research objects are employees of PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia. The data is collected by questionnaires and analyzed by SmartPLS version 2.0M3 software. The results show that compensation effects on employee satisfaction and employee performance at PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia. Employee satisfaction can mediate the effect of compensation on employee performance. It can be concluded that compensation at PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia has been classified as good and can improve employee satisfaction and employee performance. Keywords : Compensation, Satisfaction, Employee Performance</p
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Management and Economics Journal (MEC-J)
Vol 1 (1) December 2017
Management and Economics Journal
E-ISSN: 2598-9537 P-ISSN: 2599-3402
Journal Home Page: http://ejournal.uin-malang.ac.id/index.php/mec
Volume1, Issue 1, December 2017
THE EFFECT OF COMPENSATION ON SATISFACTION AND EMPLOYEE
PERFORMANCE
Prayoga Setia Darma
Faculty of Economics, UIN Maulana Malik Ibrahim
Malang, East Java, Indonesia
E-mail: yogadevidaro@gmail.com
Achmad Sani Supriyanto
Faculty of Economics, UIN Maulana Malik Ibrahim
Malang, East Java, Indonesia
E-mail: achmad_sani72@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
The globalization era requires employees to have good
performance and results. Therefore, many companies implement
compensation system. Effective compensation is expected to add
value to employee’s satisfaction to stimulate employees to always
work better. This research aim is to determine the effect of
compensation on employee satisfaction and employee
performance and employee satisfaction to mediate the effect of
compensation on employee performance. The research objects are
employees of PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia. The data is collected
by questionnaires and analyzed by SmartPLS version 2.0M3
software. The results show that compensation affects on
employee satisfaction and employee performance at PT.
Telekomunikasi Indonesia. Employee satisfaction can mediate the
effect of compensation on employee performance. It can be
concluded that compensation at PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia, has
been classified as good and can improve employee satisfaction and
employee performance.
Keywords: Compensation, Satisfaction, Employee Performance.
| Received November 2017 | Accepted December 2017 | Available online December 2017 |
| DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18860/mec-j.v1i1.4524
INTRODUCTION
Globalization requires a person to always keep up with times, starting from thoughts
and knowledge to generate some useful new inventions to facilitate human to do some
work, especially in a company. Increased business competition due to rapid technological
and environmental changes makes a company must have strength competitiveness. The old
paradigm of human resources places employees as an asset to company, but now there has
been a growing new paradigm that employees are partners for a company. Human
resource management has a very strategic position for company sustainability. This is
because inadequate basic materials such as performance, motivation, and job satisfaction
and productivity will cause disruption to company's life sustainability.
The main driving factor for company good development is qualified human resources
to encourage the company better. Compensation is one factor to affect job satisfaction of
an employee. Sirait (2006) defines compensation as something received by an employee,
either financial or non money reward for employee's contribution to organization.
Compensation management is a very important activity to make employees quite satisfied
in their work.
Compensation is defined as the ability and responsibility of a company to contribute to
its employees for their achievement of task and to appreciate their performance. Each
The Effect of Compensation on Satisfaction and Employees Performance
70 |
organization should strive to improve employee satisfaction by providing a fair and
competitive compensation program. High job satisfaction is expected to make employees
become more loyal to organization; more motivated in work, feel happy in work, and
ultimately will increase productivity.
Employee satisfaction to do a job is very influential. Rivai (2006) described satisfaction
as an evaluation to describe a person for feeling happy or unhappy, satisfied or dissatisfied
in work. This has a profound effect on employee performance. The employees are required
to have a good performance and have the skills in doing the work. Sani and Maharani (2013)
explains there are five indicators in determination job satisfaction, among others are
Payments, Employment, Promotional Opportunities, Supervisors and Colleagues.
Performance reflects how well employees meet the requirements of a job. Basically
every individual has a different portion of work. It can be seen from individual’s skills and
potential that directly affect on their performance. Mangkunegara (2005) explained
performance as the work of quality and quantity achieved by an employee in performing
their duties in accordance with responsibilities given. The work alone can be divided into
two, namely hard work and smart work. Hard work includes people who always exert all
their strength to work but the results are less satisfactory, while intelligent work is a work
that uses a strategy to minimize the energy to do a job to get better outcome than hard
work.
Lai (2011) shows a positive correlation between employee and job satisfaction based on
payment, skill-based payments and performance-based payments. In addition, some
demographic variables reveal a moderate effect on this relationship. The goal is to study
the correlation between compensation system design and overall employee satisfaction.
Nawab (2011) expains that employee compensation influenced organizational commitment
and job satisfaction. Njoroge et al. (2015) shows a positive correlation between
compensation and performance.
Yaseen (2013) explains that physician satisfaction can be improved by providing a good
compensation system such as payment, recognition, promotional opportunities and
meaningful employment. These factors have a positive relationship with physician's job
satisfaction. The results show that salary, recognition, promotion opportunities, and
meaningful employment are factors of compensation management to affect directly on job
satisfaction of physician. But the main reason of not satisfied physician is they do not get
the proper service structure and no meaningful work. The government should increase
physician satisfaction by providing indirect types of compensation. Governments should
implement appropriate performance management systems to address issues related to
physician feedback, performance and promotion.
PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia (Telkom) is one State-Owned Enterprises in
telecommunication and network services in Indonesia. Telkom's business originally only
operates telegraph, then telephone service and then multimedia business and now
operates TIMES portfolio (Telecommunication, Informative, Media, Edutainment and
Services). As the largest telecommunication and network service provider in Indonesia, PT.
Telekomunikasi should also pay attention to employee satisfaction and performance. It also
should be done in Telecommunication Region (WITEL) Kediri. Therefore, one factor that
that should be concerned is employees performance among through compensation given
by company to its employees.
Based on some above opinions, there is still some controversy, which refers to positive
compensation of a company and there is also from other studies show that compensation is
less influential positively to employees performance, but there are certain factors from
Darma and Sani
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other variables, and not known how much affect and contribution of compensation to
provide satisfaction in stimulating employee performance of company. This is very
interesting to examine especially in era of globalization where many companies are less
concern to compensation, employee satisfaction and performance. It will provide benefits
for organization or other organizations in order to grow better.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Compensation
Sirait (2006) explains that Compensation is something accepted to employees,
whether in form financial or non financial a reward for employee's contribution to
organization. Management of compensation is a very important activity to make employees
quite satisfied in their work. Compensation can acquire or create and maintain productivity.
Without adequate compensation, existing employees tend to leave the organization and
organizations will have difficulty in replacement, especially in recruiting.
Ardana (2012) said that compensation is everything received by employees as a reward
for its contribution to company or organization. Compensation is everything that
employees receive as a reward for their work. Panggabean (2004) also explained
compensation as rewards and can be defined as any form of reward given to employees for
contributions they provide to organization
Generally, purpose of compensation management is to assist companies to achieve the
strategic objectives of corporate success and ensuring internal justice and external justice
(Davis and Werther in Mangkuprawira, 2004). External justice ensures that jobs are fairly
compensated based on compatible work in labor market. The internal justice ensures that
demand for higher positions and more qualified persons within company will be given
higher payouts.
The compensation according to Simamora (in Sinambela, 2016) consist of two kinds,
namely (1) Financial Compensation and (1) Nonfinancial Compensation. Financial
compensation can be divided by direct compensation, as (a) base pay, b) merit pay,
incentive pay, bonuses, commissions, profit sharing, profit sharing, and share distribution
and (c) differed pay, ie savings and stock purchase annuity programs. Then indirect
compensation consists of (a) the benefit program, ie health insurance, life insurance,
pensions and labor insurance, (b) payments outside working hours as holiday programs,
annual leave and maternity leave, (c) vehicles, office space and parking lots. Nonfinancial
Compensation can be divided into (a) occupations with interesting tasks, challenges,
responsibilities, recognition and sense of accomplishment and (b) the working
environment, as sound policies, competent supervisors, happy working atmosphere and a
comfortable working environment.
Satisfaction
Brayfield et al. (in Panggabean, 2004) provide a definition job satisfaction. They assume
that job satisfaction can be expected from one's attitude toward his work. Moorse (in
Panggabean, 2004) argues that basically, job satisfaction depends on what one desire from
their work and what they earn. The least satisfied are those who have the most desire, but
get the least. While the most satisfied are people who want a lot and get it.
Rivai (2006) defined satisfaction as an evaluation to describe a person feeling for
happy or unhappy, satisfied or dissatisfied in work. Meanwhile, according to Hariandja (in
Salam, 2014), the factors affecting job satisfaction are: (1) salary, (2) the job itself, (3)
colleagues, (4) boss and (5) promotion and work environment.
The Effect of Compensation on Satisfaction and Employees Performance
72 |
Smith, et al. (in Sani and Maharani, 2013) mentions the indicators of satisfaction among
others are: (1) Payments, a sum received and perceived circumstances of payment; (2) Job,
to what extent work assignments are considered attractive and provide an opportunity to
learn to accept responsibility; (3) Promotion Opportunity, the opportunity to move
forward; (4) Supervisor: supervisors ability to show interest and concern to employees; and
(5) Co-workers, to what extent co-workers are friendly, competent and supportive
The factors affecting job satisfaction can be divided into two groups, namely Intrinsic
and extrinsic factors. The intrinsic factors are comes from within employee and carried by
every employee since starting work in his workplace. Extrinsic factors are come from
outside employees, including the physical condition of work environment, interaction with
other employees, payroll systems and so forth.
Job satisfaction can refer to compensation provided by employers, including salaries or
benefits and other work facilities for their welfare. The welfare should not be neglected by
managers. Personnel income is one factor to determine the productivity of employees
(Salam, 2014). Related to determinants of job satisfaction, some researchers (Glison and
Durick, Rousseau in Panggabean, 2004) suggested that these can be grouped into three
groups: job characteristics, organizational characteristics and individual characteristics.
Performance
Mangkunegara (2005) defined Performance as a work quality and quantity achieved by
an employee in performing their duties in accordance with their responsibilities. Rivai
(2006) said that performance is a function of motivation and ability to complete the task or
work of a person with a certain degree of willingness and level of ability. Performance is a
real behavior displayed by every person because a work performance is generated by
employees in accordance with the role in company.
Sani and Maharani (2013) explained the performance measurement to see how far
activity has been done by comparing the output or the results achieved. Some experts have
some difference to measure performance. Dharma (in Sani and Maharani, 2013) provides a
benchmark for performance, namely: Quantity, ie the amount to be completed; Quality, ie
the quality produced; Accuracy of Time, ie conformity with time set.
Employee's performance improvement requires a performance appraisal. Performance
appraisal generally covers both qualitative and quantitative aspects of job performance.
Performance appraisal is one fundamental function of personnel, sometimes referred to as
performance reviews, employee appraisals, performance evaluations, employee
evaluations, or personnel rankings. All of these terms pertain to same process.
Hypothesis
Based on results of previous research and theories, alternative hypothesis proposed in
this study are below.
H1: Compensation (X) directly affect on Employee Performance (Y2) at PT.
Telekomunikasi Indonesia
H2: Compensation (X) directly affect on Employee Satisfaction (Y1) at PT.
Telekomunikasi Indonesia
H3: Satisfaction (Y1) mediates the effect of Compensation (X) on Employee
Performance (Y2) at PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia.
Darma and Sani
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METHODS
Research Design
This is an explanatory research type. The purpose of explanatory research is to answer
or explain problems faced (Sani and Maharani, 2013). This research was conducted at PT.
Telekomunikasi Indonesia, Tbk Witel (Telecommunication Area) Kediri, located at Jalan
Hayam Wuruk number 45-47 Kediri, right side of GraPari Telkomsel Kediri. The location is
very strategic because it is located in city center and easy to reach by community. The
selection of this location is based on consideration that this SOE (State Owned Company)
has a compensation that affects on the satisfaction and performance of its employees.
Population and Sample
This research population is employees of PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia, Tbk Witel
Kediri which amounted to 70 people. This study uses saturation sampling technique, where
all members of population are taken as sample. This is often done if the population is
relatively small (Sani and Maharani, 2013)
Data analysis
The data is analyzed by SmartPLS software version 2.0 M3. The PLS analyzes two
things. First is to assess the outer model or measurement model to know the reliability and
validity of research variables. There are three criteria to assess the outer model, namely
convergent validity, discriminant validity and composite reliability. Second is to assess the
inner model or structural model. Inner model or structural model testing is done to see the
relationship between construct, significance value and R-square of research model
Mediation hypothesis is tested by procedure developed by Sobel (in Hayes et al., 2008)
and known as the Sobel Test. Sobel test is done by testing the strength of significant effect
of independent variable to depend variable through mediator variable. It is a mediator
relationship.
RESULTS
Validity Test
The validity test results for reflective and formative construct can be seen in figure 1
below.
Figure 1. Validity Test
The Effect of Compensation on Satisfaction and Employees Performance
74 |
The second indicators of satisfaction variable (job promotion indicator (Y1.2) and co-
workers' attitude indicator (Y1.4)) are negative AND discarded. PLS analysis discards the
formative variables with a negative indicator. The complete indicators are shown in figure 2
below.
Figure 2 shows that Convergent validity can be seen through the loading factor and the
Average Variance Extracted (AVE) and Communality roots. The results meet the
convergence validity test if the Average Variance Extracted (AVE) root and Communality
are above 0.5. Convergent validity test results are presented in table below.
Table 1. Average Variance Extracted (AVE) and Communality
Variable
AVE
Communality
Description
Compensation
0.599
0.774
0.599
Valid
Employee
performance
0.674
0.821
0.674
Valid
Table 1. Shows that Average Variance Extracted (AVE) and Communality produce
Average Variance Extracted (AVE) and Communality values greater than 0.5. Thus the
indicator is declared valid to measure the variable.
Table 2. Composite Reliability and Cronbach Alpha
Variables
Composite Reliability
Cronbachs Alpha
Compensation
0.899
0.865
Employee performance
0.861
0.759
Table 2 shows that Composite Reliability and Cronbach Alpha results for compensation
variable is 0.899 and employee performance variable is 0.846. These results show that
composite value reliability is greater than 0.7. Therefore, based on composite reliability
calculation, all indicators are reliable to measure latent variables.
Hypothesis Test
Significance tests are used to know the effect of exogenous variables on endogenous
variables. The value of t-statistics ≥ t-table (1.96) means that exogenous variable has
significant effect on endogenous variables. The significance test results can be seen in table
3 below.
Darma and Sani
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Table 3. Hypothesis test
Exogenous Variables
Endogenous Variables
Direct Coefficient
Standard Error
t Statistics
Compensation
Employee Satisfaction
0.576
0.052
11.047
Compensation
Employee Performance
0.548
0.057
3.289
Employee Satisfaction
Employee Performance
0.564
0.063
8.948
The effect of compensation on employee satisfaction has statistical t value of 11.047.
The test results show that t value of statistic > 1.96. This means compensation has
significant effect on employee satisfaction.
The effect of compensation on employee performance has t-statistic of 3,289. The test
results show that t value of statistic > 1.96. This means that compensation has significant
effect on employee performance.
The effect of employee satisfaction on employee performance has a statistical t value
of 8.948. The test results show that value of t statistics > 1.96. This means employee
satisfaction has significant effect on employee performance. The indirect effect test is
shown in table 4 below.
Table 4. Indirect Effect Test (Sobel Test)
Exogenous
Variables
Endogenous
Variables
Intervening
Variables
Indirect
Coefficient
Standard Error
(STERR)
T Statistics
(|O/STERR|)
Compensation
Employee
Performance
Employee
Satisfaction
0.325
0.047
6.953
Table 4 shows the indirect effect (Test Sobel) of compensation on employee
performance through employee satisfaction has t statistics of 6.953. The test results show
that value of t statistics > 1.96. It means compensation has a significant effect on employee
performance mediated by employee satisfaction. Therefore, employees satisfaction can
mediate the effect of compensation on employee performance.
DISCUSSION
Direct effect of Compensation on Employee Performance at PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia
Tests results show that compensation has direct and significant effect on employee
performance at PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia. The compensation in form of salary, wages,
bonuses, facilities, travel programs and holiday allowance directly have a positive effect on
employee performance. This can be seen from salary indicator loading (0.872). In other
words, contribution of salary indicator to measure the compensation variable is 87.2%.
Salary indicator is the highest loading value among the other indicators. While the
relationship between compensation on employee performance is 9.635 It indicates that
value of t statistics > 1.96. The result proves that exogenous variable (Compensation)
directly has direct and significant effect on endogen variable (Employee Performance). It
means the higher the compensation given by company to its employees will increase the
employee performance.
Direct effect of Compensation on Employee Satisfaction at PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia
Test results show that compensation has direct and significant effect on employee
satisfaction at PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia. This shows that compensation in form of
salary, wages, bonuses, facilities, travel programs, holiday allowance directly have direct
and significant effect on employee satisfaction. It can be seen from significance test
The Effect of Compensation on Satisfaction and Employees Performance
76 |
between the compensation variable and employee satisfaction variable to get statistical t
value of 11.047. The test results show that t value of statistic> 1.96. This proves that
exogenous variable (Compensation) have direct and significant effect on endogenous
variable (Employee Satisfaction). It means the higher compensation given by company to
its employees will increase employee satisfaction.
Employee Satisfaction mediates the effect of Compensation on Employee Performance at
PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia
Statistic test results show that employee satisfaction mediate the effect of
compensation on employee performance at PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia. This can be
known from Sobel test of 6.953. The test results show that t value of statistic > 1.96. This
indicates that compensation has direct and significant effect on employee performance
mediated by employee satisfaction. Therefore, employees satisfaction can mediate the
effect of compensation on employee performance.
This is consistent with Equity theory of Rivai (2006) that person's satisfaction or
dissatisfaction depends on presence or absence of equity in a situation, especially the work
situation. According to this theory, the main components in equity theory are input,
outcome, justice and injustice. The inputs are valuable factors for employees who are
considered to support their work, such as education, experience, skills, number of tasks and
equipment used to carry out their work. The result is something that an employee might
earn from his job, such as wages or salaries, side benefits, symbols, status, rewards and
opportunities for success or self-actualization.
Research Limitation
This study only examine general compensation, regardless the type of compensation;
so it has not been able to map which types of compensation are able to improve employee
satisfaction and performance. Future researcher should see compensation from financial
and non-financial compensation; or from direct compensation and indirect compensation.
CONCLUSION
Compensation variable directly affects on Employee Performance variable. This shows
that compensation in form of salary, wages, bonuses, facilities, travel programs and holiday
allowance directly have a positive effect on employee performance. Compensation variable
directly affects on Employee Satisfaction variable. The higher the compensation given the
by company to its employees will increase employee satisfaction. Job satisfaction mediates
the effect of compensation on employee performance. When someone is satisfied with
compensation provided by company, it will improve the employee's performance.
Compensation and job satisfaction are components to improve employee
performance. Leaders need to maintain job satisfaction maintained to create organizational
efficiency. Future researcher should develop a research model by adding OCB variable, to
make research become wider.
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... Thus, a compensation system is an important mechanism that influences employees' behaviours and attitudes, which in turn, reflect on the organisational performance (Larkin, Pierce, & Gino, 2012;Torre, Pelagatti, & Solari, 2015). In Darma and Supriyanto (2017) study, compensation was described as rewards received by an individual Ohunakin and O.A. Olugbade Tourism Management Perspectives 42 (2022) 100970 employee from the employer in the form of monetary or non-monetary for his/her contribution to the organisation's achievements. Therefore, compensation system is likely to attract and retain high-quality employees to organisations, which in turn, will foster employer-employee relationships and organisational productivity (Adeoye & Fields, 2014;Chiu, Wai-Mei Luk, & Li-Ping Tang, 2002). ...
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Drawing on social exchange theory (SET), the study examined the influence of customer-contact hotel employees' perceived compensation system on turnover intentions and job performance. Also, the study explored the potential moderating role of communication satisfaction in the aforementioned connections. Data obtained from 372 customer-contact employees in 5-star hotels in Nigeria was used to assess the hypothesized relationships. Using hierarchical multiple regression, the findings demonstrated that while customer-contact hotel employees' perceived compensation system reduces turnover intentions, it enhances job performance. More importantly, communication satisfaction moderates the relationships between customer-contact hotel employees' perceived compensation system, turnover intentions, and job performance. Theoretical contributions of the study, managerial implications, and suggestions for further studies are discussed.
... Incentive-based compensation has an impact on firm performance (Milkovich et al., 1996). Compensation can help in maintaining the productivity of the employees or else they tend to leave the organization searching for better opportunities where they are rewarded better (Darma and Supriyanto, 2017). ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of work-from-home (WFH) human resource (HR) practices on the performance of faculty under the drastic circumstances of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The population of the study included faculty members of the higher education institutions in Sialkot, Pakistan. The study filled the gap of scarce literature on the impact of various HR practices by HR officials while working from home during lockdown observed to reduce the spread of COVID-19. Based on reinforcement theory, this article proves that there is a significant relationship between HR practices (including training, performance appraisal, career planning, employee participation, job definition, compensation, and selection) and faculty performance. It also proves that there is a strong positive relationship between the two variables. The findings of this study provide a blueprint to improve HR practices for high performance by faculty in the higher education sector during WFH settings.
... Furthermore, there are direct financial compensation and indirect financial compensation, while non-financial compensation can be in the form of work environment. According to [24], financial compensation is a compensation given to employees in return for work done for the company [25], states that financial compensation is compensation that is directly submitted by the company to its employees in the form of wages or bonuses [26]. Suggests that financial compensation consists of salaries, allowances and incentives. ...
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Human resource in the organization is one of the functions in the application of management in order to realize the vision, mission, and goals of the organization. One of parts of human resource is the employees including the non-civil servant of Public Health Center in Tambrauw Regency. The performance of non-civil servant can be known through the performance of the Public Health Center that will have an impact on the performance of the health office. Thus, work motivation, compensation, and job satisfaction are several factors that support the implementation of non-civil servant employee performance in order to provide good service quality. This study aims to determine the effect of work motivation towards non-civil servant’s employee performance and job satisfaction, compensation towards employee performance and job satisfaction, and job satisfaction on employee performance. This study uses a quantitative approach. Respondents in this study were 109 Public Health Center employees in Tambrauw Regency, West Papua Province. The data used in this study are primary data obtained from the questionnaire filling results. The data from the filling results were then analyzed using SEM-AMOS. The results show that (1) work motivation positively and significantly affects non-civil servants’ employee performance, (2) compensation positively and significantly affects non-civil servants’ employee performance, (3) work motivation positively and significantly affects job satisfaction, (4) compensation positively and significantly affects job satisfaction, (5) job satisfaction positively and significantly affects non-civil servants’ employee performance, (6) work motivation positively and significantly affects performance mediated by job satisfaction, and (7) compensation positively and significantly affects performance mediated by job satisfaction. The conclusion is that the higher the work motivation of the non-civil servant employee of Public Health Center, the higher the performance and the job satisfaction; the higher the compensation of the non-civil servant employee of Public Health Center, the higher their performance and job satisfaction; and the higher the job satisfaction, the higher their performance.
... On the other hand, the minimum wage will formalize labor and affect the absorption of a large number of workers in Indonesia (Comola and De Mello 2011;Magruder 2013). The study of industrial relations and the Jokowi' Presidency wage policy is dominated by Human Resources Management (HRM) and jurisdiction perspectives as Darma et al. (2018) and Yamauchi (2016). The consequence of this is that studies related to industrial relations are unable to explain how the differences in interests between actors have resulted in conflicting political interest that have historically always existed in the production system (Ingelson 2014;Juliawan 2014;Suryomenggolo 2014Suryomenggolo , 2015. ...
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Indonesia's new wage policy mechanism made a new history since Joko Widodo (Jokowi) became President. The first minimum wages policy in Indonesia was implemented in 1969 in which the determination comes from society's monthly necessities through a discussion involving labor, employer, and state, it is known that the determination is no longer using aforementioned variables but it is rather based on a market-standard formula. This paper exploring the logic political-economic of wage policies implementation based on neoliberalism in the first presidency of Jokowi, which has implications for affirming cheap wages policies. This research uses a qualitative method by comparing two regions with different economic bases, namely Bekasi as the largest industrial area in Southeast Asia and Yogyakarta as the province with the highest national economy inequality and the cheapest national minimum wage representation. The findings of this research show that this new wage formulation is emerged from the ideology of corporatism that takes place in every power transfer process and has the implication of reinforcing wage inequality that occurs in the local context in Indonesia. Politically, this regulation eliminates the democratic mechanism in the form of tripartite through a survey of monthly necessities which is carried out by labor, government and employer every year and has divided the strength of trade unions in fighting for the determination of decent wages.
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The journal publishes conference proceedings. The journal publishes original research by domestic and foreign authors in the field of science and innovation, as well as articles reflecting the application of these original research in the field of education. The management of the journal gives preference to articles on original and relevant topics. Articles on art, philology and humanities are not accepted. However, in 2019 and 2020, the number of articles on the pandemic (COVID 19) was low. There is no special edition. The publishing policy is not mass, but innovative. Our motto: success cannot be accidental. The journal is published entirely in English so that foreign authors can read it.
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Purpose: It is impossible to meet the guest's needs when employees come and go, and it is costly to find new employees to recruit. The study aims to find ways of retaining employees while also investigating why they leave their jobs. Design/Method/Approach: A descriptive-correlational method of research in a quantitative design was used to determine correlation between variables. The study was highly accepted in terms of a Cronbach α = .988 which indicates an excellent index of reliability. Survey questionnaires served as a tool to draw facts about employees’ satisfaction and employees’ level of job performance in the accommodation sector. Findings: The study revealed the existing relationship between employee satisfaction and job performance in the accommodation sector. Based on the research findings, employee satisfaction is an important aspect that affects job performance and organizational success. Hence, the accommodation sector may leap at a chance of increasing employee satisfaction since it is the best predictor of job performance in the accommodation sector. Theoretical Implications: This paper expanded the body of research on employee satisfaction in relation to Herzberg’s Theory: (1) hygiene factors such as work environment, wages and benefits, and job security if they are not present at work will lead to dissatisfaction; (2) motivator factors such as career and personal work will increase employee satisfaction; (3) employee satisfaction mediates relationship with job performance. Originality/Value: This research can act efficiently through an enhanced human resource plan providing an optimal balance of human capital leading to increased productivity and retained quality employees. Research Limitations/Future Research: This research opens avenues for future research on dynamic capabilities in the hotel sector. Paper type: Theoretical
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Introduction- Doctors job satisfaction can be increase by providing good compensation system like valid pay, recognition, promotional opportunity and meaningful work. These factors have positive relationship with job satisfaction of doctors. Objectives/Purpose- The aim of this research is to find out various issues of compensation management for the doctors in civil hospitals and to explore that compensation has direct effect on doctor’s satisfaction level. Research design/research methodology- This is a tentative research where survey has been conducted in well known civil hospitals of Punjab’s main cities like Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Multan and Bahawalpur. Primary data has been assembled through questionnaire. And secondary data collected through research papers. Findings- Findings have shown that pay, recognition, promotion opportunities, and meaningful work are factors of compensation management which have direct effect on job satisfaction on doctors. But the main reason of doctor’s dissatisfaction is, because they are not getting proper service structure and not finding their work meaningful. Government should increase satisfaction of doctors by providing this type of non financial compensation. Recommendation/suggestion- The most important thing is that government should revise and make amendment in the service structure of doctors. Because the main reason of doctors dissatisfaction in Punjab is actually the service structure. Government should implement proper performance management system to tackle the issues related to feedback, performance and promotions of doctors. Contribution- This study plays a vital role in persuading the policy makers to think over the factors which effect on doctor’s satisfaction in civil hospitals. The findings of this research are valuable, which can be useful for the worldwide in order to tackle such issues again. Key words: Doctors, Compensation, Salary, Promotion opportunity, Satisfaction
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For years, small and medium enterprises have been the bases of economic development in Taiwan. However, with restricted domestic economic development, increasing manpower cost and severe pressure from the international operational environment, small and medium enterprises are now facing many obstacles due to inferior capacities. Many owners of small and medium enterprises have expressed the opinion that without the development of human resources, the economic sustainability of their companies will be jeopardized. Past studies on managerial models mostly treat large enterprises as subjects. However, can compensation systems of small and medium enterprises follow the same success model? Currently, there is a lack of related case data and studies in Taiwan. Therefore, this study treats small and medium enterprises as subjects, and intends to develop a successful compensation system design for human resource management and development in these subjects to enhance employee satisfaction. An empirical analysis demonstrates a positive correlation between employee satisfaction and job-based pay, skill-based pay and performance-based pay. In addition, some demographic variables reveal a moderating effect on this relationship.
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