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Democratic values in Balinese traditional society: Analysis of the making and the content of Desa Pakraman’s awig-awig

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Abstract

This article describes the existence of democracy at a traditional level in Desa Pakraman in Bali. In Balinese society, Desa Pakraman is the root of social life, where people make interaction in culture and religion. Desa Pakraman is an organization underlies the life of Balinese society. Desa Pakraman has traditional instrument, called awig-awig. Awig-awig is an instrument of customary law in the society where the people have to obey the norms of the traditional law institution. Democratic practices and norms are apparent when people at Desa Pakraman build the awig-awig. Freedom of opinion can be found when people deliver their opinion we can find the equality of the human being. The research held in Desa Pakraman Penyalin, Tabanan, Bali, with qualitative method research. This research used democratic theory and participant theory. The research found that democracy has been practised at traditional society in Bali especially when people build the instrument of customary law. In Bali, this is called awig-awig. The awig-awig contains democratic instruments like equality before the law, human right and regular election to vote Desa Pakraman’s officials.
Democratic values in Balinese traditional society: Analysis of the making
and the content of Desa Pakraman’s awig-awig
Unsur demokrasi pada masyarakat tradisional Bali: Tinjauan atas
pembuatan dan isi awig-awig Desa Pakraman
I Gst. Pt. Bagus Suka Arjawa & I Gst. Agung Mas Rwa Jayantiari
Faculty of Social and Political Science, Universitas Udayana
Jalan PB. Sudirman, Denpasar, Bali. Telepon: 08124630641
E-mail: suka_arjawa@yahoo.com
Abstract
This article describes the existence of democracy at a traditional level in Desa Pakraman in Bali. In Balinese
society, Desa Pakraman is the root of social life, where people make interaction in culture and religion. Desa
Pakraman is an organization underlies the life of Balinese society. Desa Pakraman has traditional instrument,
called awig-awig. Awig-awig is an instrument of customary law in the society where the people have to obey
the norms of the traditional law institution. Democratic practices and norms are apparent when people at Desa
Pakraman build the awig-awig. Freedom of opinion can be found when people deliver their opinion we can
nd the equality of the human being. The research held in Desa Pakraman Penyalin, Tabanan, Bali, with
qualitative method research. This research used democratic theory and participant theory. The research found
that democracy has been practised at traditional society in Bali especially when people build the instrument of
customary law. In Bali, this is called awig-awig. The awig-awig contains democratic instruments like equality
before the law, human right and regular election to vote Desa Pakramans ocials.
Keywords: awig-awig, Desa Pakraman, democracy
Abstrak
Tulisan ini memuat tentang keberadaan demokrasi pada lembaga tradisional, terutama di Desa Pakraman
di Bali. Pada masyarakat Bali, Desa Pakraman merupakan akar dari kehidupan sosial, dimana masyarakat
saling berinteraksi terutama pada bidang budaya dan keagamaan. Desa Pakraman merupakan organisasi
dan lembaga yang hidup pada masyarakat Bali. Lembaga ini mempunyai alat kelengkapan tradisional yang
disebut dengan awig-awig. Awig-awig merupakan instrumen hukum tradisional dimana masyarakat harus
tunduk dari aturan-aturan yang telah ditetapkan pada awig-awig tersebut. Namun demikian, norma-norma
dan praktik demokrasi, dapat dilihat ketika masyarakat di Desa Pakraman tersebut membuat awig-awig.
Seperti demokrasi pada umumnya, disana dapat dilihat kebebasan masyarakat untuk mengutarakan pendapat
dan persamaan derajat umat manusia. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Desa Pakraman Penyalin di Kabupaten
Tabanan, Bali, dengan menggunakan metode kualitatif. Teori yang dipakai adalah teori tentang demokrasi
serta teori partisipasi. Temuan penelitian adalah bahwa praktik demokrasi telah ditemukan pada masyarakat
tradisional Bali, terutama pada saat masyarakat membuat instrumen lokal, yaitu awig-awig. Instrumen ini
juga memuat berbagai norma tentang demokrasi seperti persamaan kedudukan di muka hukum, hak asasi
manusia serta pemilihan pimpinan lembaga yang teratur.
Kata kunci: awig-awig, Desa Pakraman, demokrasi
Introduction
Democracy is understood as a governance system that provides an opportunity to the public audience
to actively participate and develop the governance. The community involvement in the governance
could be analyzed through how citizen articulates their opinion. This opinion provides a measurement
standard about the quality and type of the development agenda. Antlov & Wetterberg (2010:34)
stated that democratic consolidation would be performed better with a higher level of sensitivity and
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interaction between citizen and states in the development plan. However, the traditional component
of Indonesia society also delivers strong ideas to the democratic process reected on local wisdom.
In Bali, components of democracy are visible in the most basic institution of Hindu Society, known
as Desa Pakraman (Suacana 2011). This institution unites Banjar-Banjar in Bali into a bond known
as Khayangan Tiga, a place for Hindus to worship three God’s mighty power; Brahma as the creator
God, Wisnu as a protector God, and Shiva as the Destroyer of the universe.
Desa Pakraman has a diverse amount of population. To meet the requirement to be titled as a Desa
Pakarman, a village should have a worship place called Khayangan Tiga. A big Desa Pakarman
has 400 to 500 households. Several villages only have 55 people in the population, like in Desa
Pakraman Penyalin, District of Tabanan (Wikertiditha 2016). Desa Pakraman has a rule called awig-
awig, a traditional rule that regulates the prevailing norms in the community related to worship
place with the surrounding community. The creation of awig-awig should be derived from society
aspiration expressed on the village gathering. The application of the voting system and discussion
shows democratic aspect in the creation of awig-awig. The content of awig-awig that also hold the
principles of democracy reected on appreciation to the status of the community. Understanding
awig-awig should be in accordance to customary law in order to create balance in the society (Artadi
2009: 82-84). In completing its activities, Desa Pakraman collected the villagers and asked for their
opinion regarding religious ritual in the worship rites known as Khayangan Tiga. The Hindus in Bali
are popular for their strict tradition in performing their religious ritual. To perform the ritual, Desa
Pakraman behavior is based on the majority vote from the community deliberated in Awig-awig.
Wilujeng (2014:145-156) in his work titled “Meningkatkan Kualitas Hidup Berbangsa Melalui
Budaya Demokrasi” (Improving Nation’s Life Quality through Democratic Cultures), stated that
democracy that has been formed since 2500 ago is still relevant for contemporary implementation. It
was also argued that democracy created several issues in the nation-making process. Thus, in order
to reduce the problems, there is a need to establish a civilized society based on the value of Pancasila.
Suacana (2011:88-136) in “Budaya Demokrasi dalam Kehidupan Masyarakat Desa di Bali”
(Democratic culture in Balinese people” stated that many villages in Bali practice democracy in
their daily life such as freedom of expression, regular election, and many more. Suacana frequently
highlighted Bali Aga Village (Tenganan Pagringsingan, District of Karangasem) with Bali Majapahit
(Desa Pakraman Mengwi, District of Badung).
Nugroho (2013: 247-262), in “Demokrasi dan Tata Pemerintahan dalam Konsep Desa dan
Pemerintahan”, argued that Indonesia had expressed its sovereignty on the hand of the citizen on its
constitution, whether in the constitution preamble or the content. The villagers applied the value in
Head of Village election always hold the principle of common interest instead of individual interest.
This article will contribute dierently to Wilujeng’s thinking that focuses on cultural-based democracy
or Nugroho’s writing that highlights the sovereignty of Head of Village election. The vocal point of
this article is the democratic aspect in the voting process and community opinion absorption in the
creation of awig-awig, consists of basic regulation of Desa Pakramana and the content of awig-awig.
Therefore, the ndings of their research also diverge from Suacana’s research about democratic
procedure in Desa Pakraman such as freedom of opinion and local head election.
Democracy is a ruling concept which expected to give a balance between right and responsibility of
a citizen in the governance system. State, as an institution for citizen, applies the system in order to
achieve justice in social life. The state is not only dominating the interest of the elites but also giving
space to civilian to determine the governance system through a legal mechanism. The development
of governance system inuenced by a Western value which further developed by technology and
communication lead to a substantial direct involvement by the citizen. A citizen could express their
opinion through line call or send a letter to mass media or parliamentary institution.
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Arjawa & Jayantiari: “Analysis of the making and the content of Desa Pakraman’s awig-awig”
As a system that gives power to the citizen to be involved in the governance system, democracy
could be traced back to the Greek Era. In the most ancient practice, about three up to six centuries
BC, democracy appeared in governance system in which citizen has the freedom to contribute to the
political decision, with our majority procedure (Budiarjo 1985: 53-54). The understanding has been
preserved until the recent time. Requirements of democracy have been developed, set human right
and freedom of speech as the main concern.
In Bangkok Conference 1965, International Commission of Jurists had decided the requirement
to establish a democratic governance under the rule of law; including constitutional protection.
Constitutional protection should not only guarantee an individual right, but also decide procedural
manner to gain protection of right, fair and neutral trial, fair and free election, freedom of speech,
freedom to be in an organization or to be an opposition, and civic education (Budiarjo 1985:60).
Huntington, quoting Schumpeter, acknowledged individual participation in the making of the political
decision. Schumpeter criticized several classic understanding which highlighted the importance of
common interest and the will of the public. He argued that democracy is an institutional procedure to
achieve a political decision in which individual has the power to inuence and make a decision in a
competitive manner in order to realize people voice. Furthermore, Huntington stated that democracy
also implies the civil and political freedom such as freedom of speech, freedom to assemble and make
the organization, which necessary in political debates and political campaign (Huntington 1997:5-6).
Mudjiani, Liddle and Ambardi (2012:76-77) expressed that the essence of democracy is participation.
Quoting Verba, Schlozman and Brady, civil participation is the heart of democracy. According to
Conway (2000), participation is trusted to determine the expected policy from the Government.
In the context of democracy that values equality, F.D. Hollemann stated that one characteristic of
indigenous people is their commonality. Every individual and community member is an integral
part of the whole society. Individual interest should be in accordance with communal interest since
no individual could be disassociated from the community (Soemadiningrat 2011:31). This condition
signies there are equality and understanding of aspects of the community. Community participates
in the national development process in order to implement democratic consolidation (Antlov &
Wettenberg 2010:34).
Therefore, civic involvement in the awig-awig making process is a demonstration of people
participation in order to inuence the decision-making process in Desa Pakraman, also an expression
of freedom of speech and appreciation toward human rights. It was perceived that traditional
institution in Indonesia, in this case, is Bali, had shown democratic behaviour as the democratic
process expressed on the Western political system.
Research Method
This research applied qualitative research method. In this method, researchers conducted direct
eld observation in order to be able to closely captured the issue and digging the reality of social
circumstances (Bryman 2004:267). Researchers had analyzed people custom, including their body
gesture in delivering their opinion about awig-awig. The meeting was held in public hall of Desa
Pakraman. Activities are being recorded and interpreted to reveal the value of speech during the
meeting, to be reported in a writing. In hermeneutics theory, understanding should be based on
interpretation (Gibbons, Noer Zaman, 2002: xiv).
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Result and Discussion
Desa Pakraman
Traditionally, the social structure in Bali is heavily inuenced by Hinduism. The value of Hindu is
reected in the housing and social life. Desa Pakraman is the basic conception of Hindu-Balinese
society which originated from Hindu prayer room, known as Khayangan Tiga. In the belief, God is
manifested into three powers, as the creator, as the caretaker, and as the destructor. The God who has
the power to create the universe and its content is Lord Brahma. God’s power to take care of the earth
and the content is Lord Wisnu, and Lord Shiva has the power to destruct the universe.
In the worship place, Lord of Brahma resides in a worship place called Pura Desa, Lord Wisnu
resides in Pura Puseh and Lord Shiva resides in Pura Dalem. All of the three prayer rooms are used
as the place to praise God or Hyang Widi. The Temple known as Khayangan Tiga, spread in the close
distance but all located in one area. Three of them originated from the mighty God, therefore, Hindu
people praise the three temples.
Khayangan Tiga temples are the origin of the existing Desa Pakraman. The village that protected
the Khayangan Tiga Temple and the congregation is known as Desa Pakraman. Desa Pakraman is
a community to praise God consists of many banjars from a dierent region. Banjar is a union of
households located in one area.
In the past, the creation of the three temples required high cost and it was not possible to build
Khayangan Tiga Temple in one Banjar. Thus, banjars were united and created one main Khayangan
Tiga temple as the origin of Desa Pakraman. It is possible that one Desa Pakraman consists of one
up to ten banjars, or more. In Tabanan Regency, Bali, Desa Pakraman Bede consists of 36 Pakraman
banjars (Gunadnya 2016).
The most recent development of Desa Pakraman members shows the capability of Banjars to
independently build their own Pura Khayangan Tiga. If a row is capable to build Khayangan Tiga
Temple, the row could have the title as Desa Pakaraman, for example, is Desa Pakraman of Eka
Cita in Banjar Penyalin, Tabanan. Another issue in the development of Desa Pakraman is no clear
boundaries. The essence of the village is common prayer in one Pura Khayangan Tiga Temple.
Thus, anyone who will to obey Pura Khayangan Tiga could be categorized as the member of Desa
Pakraman.
The function of Desa Pakraman
Balinese local regulation number 06 the year 1986 article 1 stated that traditional village as a dresta
village is a union of the society of custom law in the Bali province with one tradition and shared
norms of Hindunese people under the bond of Kahyangan Tiga (Kahyangan Desa) with their own
area and personal property. Article 5 of the regional rules stated that Desa Adat in is a union of
society with the prevailing customary law with socio-religious and society centric aspect.
However, in Bali province, local regulation number 3 the year 2011 about Desa Pakraman (as it is
changed into local regulation 3 the year 2003), the term of Desa Adat should not be used anymore.
Article 1 of this regulation said that Desa Pakraman is a group of society of customary law in
Bali with one tradition and shared norms of Hindunese people under the bond of Kahyangan Tiga
(Kahyangan Desa). They have their own area and personal property and have the right to take care
of their domestic household aairs. Given the change, the title of Desa Adat was changed into Desa
Pakraman.
The duties of Desa Pakraman, as mentioned in article 5, local regulation of Bali Province Section 3,
2011, is making a wig-awig, managing the village, managing village’s property, and together with the
government is completing development in various sectors particularly in religion, culture, society,
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Arjawa & Jayantiari: “Analysis of the making and the content of Desa Pakraman’s awig-awig”
developing Balinese cultures in order to enrich, preserve, and develop national culture in general and
local culture in particular based on discussion and consensus.
The right of Desa Pakraman as stated in article 6 in order to resolve custom and religion disputes
within the area by preserving tolerance between the group. Village, according to awig-awig and the
custom of the area should participate in decision making in development orientation in the area,
according to Tri Hita Karana value.
The function of Desa Pakraman is indeed broad, related to various issues such as law, social, and
the society. Given the board function, Desa Pakraman was once mentioned as a state within a state.
According to Cliord Geertz (2000), Desa Pakraman could be identied as a mini republic with
almost complete governing bodies. The identication of Desa Pakraman as a mini republic is due to
the area, people, elites, and legal apparatus called awig-awig with the main function is to maintain
order in the society.
Explaining Awig-awig
Section 1 article 3 of local regulation section 3 in 2001 stated that awig-awig is a regulation created by
Desa Pakraman or Krama Banjar Pakraman which was used as guidelines in the implementation of
Tri Hita Karana according to Desa Mawacara and religious value in Desa Pakraman/each Pakraman
Banjar. Geertz (2000: 92) describes it as a written constitution in Banjar.
Given the denition of awig-awig, the function of Desa Pakraman is very board, even beyond what
has performed by the village. Tri Hita Karana as a concept that should be taken into consideration
in the social life as a base for the creation of awig-awig has a very comprehensive denition. Tri
Hita Karana is a philosopical base of Hindunese people in Bali. The philosopy includes the relation
between human and human, human and the surrounding environment, and the relation between
human and God (Windia, Sudantra, 2016: 17-18). Given the context, the relation between human
and social relations is a very complex behaviour, particularly human relation to God. Even though in
the beginning, the denition of Desa Pakraman is only emphasizing the relation within Khayangan
Tiga. However, the denition of awig-awig as expressed above
In awig-awig, customary law shows the magic and religious dimension (Pide 2015:11-12). In the
context of Tri Hita Karana, a more complex social relations is apparent, involving people to people
relations in daily life and its economic, culture, social, and political context. Even though in many
cases Desa Pakraman engaged with the relation between human and God based on Khayangan Tiga,
it involves social aairs in the discussion as well.
Local regulation Section 3 in 2001 about Desa Pakraman, which was transformed into Balinese
local regulation Section 3 in 2003, is not clearly stating the equipment needed by Desa Pakraman.
However, it can be said that there is an instrument in awig-awig which became the base of the activity.
Awig-awig became the base of Desa Pakraman operation because awig-awig is the constitution of
the institution. Awig-awig could expand and became a perarem, a normative rules according to the
custom in the Desa Pakraman. Perarem could not be in opposition to the rules applied in awig-awig.
It should be designed and applied to follow the local custom, which in the local language is known
as dresta desa (Arnawa 2016). Perarem have the exibility to change at dierent times, according to
the social change in the moment. Several Desa Pakraman make a more specic regulation, known
as Paswaran. Paswaran is a non-written arrangement with social norm function, as long as there is
witness in the society.
Awig-awig is originated from the word “weg”, interpreted as torn or broke in Balinese language.
“Weg” having addition letter “a” in the beginning to negate the meaning of the word, in other word
is interpreted as wholeness. The word was further developed into “awig”, in which the repetition of
the word is aimed to stress a subject as a united entity. Awig-awig, thus, means to preserve unity.
The word is socially interpreted as a legal regulation to create a well-ordered society without the
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Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik Vol. 30, Number 4, 2017, page 428-436
occurrence of conict. Awig-awig contains prohibiton and obligation in the prayer room and talks
about the village safety.
Another complementary tool of Desa Pakraman which preserves the social order is Pecalang.
According to local regulation Section 3 in 2001, Pecalang has the function to maintain safety and
order in Desa Pakraman in the relation to local task and religion. In the social practice, as long as
the activity performed in the territory of Desa Pakraman, Pecalang can perform their duties such
as to monitor vehicles in a parking space in ceremonial moments as activities related to safety and
social order. Therefore, the job desk of Pecalang in the scope of safety is board. Moreover, there is
no explanation about the word of “religion” in the local regulation, pecalang could also guard non-
Hindu ceremony.
To run the institution, Desa Pakraman also has Prajuru, consists of elites who run the village. The
organizational structure with the right and obligation of the person was decided by awig-awig made
by the people in Desa Pakraman. In Balinese society, from the historical point of view, there are two
types of the inhabitant, Aga Balinese and Majapahit Balinese. Aga Balinese reside in the mountain
area and regarded as the native which has been living in Bali for six centuries before the arrival of
the Majapahit. The two groups stay in their own Desa Pakraman even in deciding the organizational
structure of the Desa Pakraman, there are dierences between the two of them.
As a group of people united with a common goal, Desa Pakraman occurred as a community who
worship God through symbolization of Khayangan Tiga. Thus, Desa Pakraman also has limitation
according to the number of community who obey the institution. The border of Desa Pakraman
could not be decided through natural sign or human-made sign, but more to a union called Banjar
Pakraman. Therefore, the border of Desa Pakraman could go beyond the institutional border or
regency border.
The element of democracy in the creation of awig-awig
Desa Pakraman Penyalin is a village with 55 households, relatively small compared to other nearby
villages. In 2002, this village decided to transform into a Desa Pakraman because it had established
Pura Khayangan Tiga. According to the local regulation about Desa Pakraman, having the ability
to build the worship space, Banjar Penyalin has the right to be titled as a Desa Pakraman. Aside
from building Pura Khayangan Tiga, another requirement needed is to make awig-awig, a base to
operate the institution. Desa Pakraman Penyalin started to develop awig-awig by stressing people
sovereignty to create the rules. The practice of people sovereignty provide chances to the community
to deliver their idea in the making of the basic regulation, thus, the value of democracy was shown
from the activity.
The rst aspect need to be taken into account is the presence of all members. In holding a meeting,
all member of Desa Pakraman is present in the meeting hall, known as Bale Banjar. Members in this
context are family members. The narrowest aspect of Desa Pakraman is family. For one people who
represent family is adequate to deliver their idea and to give advice at the meeting. The representation
should not always be men. Women are allowed to represent their family as well. In Desa Pakraman
with one Banjar as the member, the meeting will be attended by all family members who met the age
criteria. Husband, wife, and kids aged over than the minimum requirement are allowed to attend the
meeting. The indicator of adulthood is determined by awig-awig of the Desa Pakraman.
Inviting people to attend the meeting in the meeting hall is the most basic practice of the implementation
of democratic value. When Yunani rst implemented democracy, all people were welcomed to give
their opinion. For people of Desa Pakraman, the availability of meeting place makes the meeting
possible. All Desa Pakraman is equipped with a meeting hall known as Balai Banjar. Furthermore,
all worship prayer also has a meeting hall. In addition, the willingness to attend the meeting in the
meeting hall indicates an eort to contribute in the discussion about religion and social aairs in the
community. The conception of Tri Hita Karana enables Desa Pakraman to talk about social issues.
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Arjawa & Jayantiari: “Analysis of the making and the content of Desa Pakraman’s awig-awig”
The same thing applied to Desa Pakraman Penyalin. All adult family members were invited to attend
the meeting regardless their sex. The meeting is not only conducted for once, but for multiple times
until awig-awig had successfully created.
The next element of democracy is obedience to social norms. As a traditional institution, Desa
Pakraman has a particular dress code. The rule is a social norm that has been implemented in
Bali for centuries. The way someone dressed in Bali determines the rst impression of the people.
Traditionally, Balinese people wear destar and fabric as lower clothes. However, there is no obligation
to wear a same-colored uniform.
In the meeting, the seat position also shows the democratic value for it represents squality and social
position. The meeting attended by members of Desa Pakraman do not dierentiate people with high
or low social status. In Bali, the social status is divided into castes. Caste in Bali, in fact, refers colors
that represent traditional ethic to describe a profession, but caste is socially interpreted as social
vertical classication. Caste is apparent people manner when they sit, talk, or speak in daily life. In a
meeting in Desa Pakraman, all members have the equal position. There is no dierentiation between
one party and another.
There are three castes in Desa Pakraman Penyalin, Ksatira, Wesya, and Sudra. However, in the
seating position or in the manner of delivering their ideas, all people have an equal position without
one party is socially higher than the other. The same situation applied to the practice of freedom of
speech.
All members are allowed to propose opinion in Desa Pakraman regarding development and various
social issues and how people performed their religion rites in the area. In Desa Pakraman, both of
local languages or Bahasa Indonesia is allowed to use. Each opinion is further discussed to achieve
consensus in the meeting. Such agreement is achieved through deliberation and consensus. However,
deliberation and consensus could lead to suryak siu, an act of agreeing without considering the
reason behind the opinion. Furthermore, the meeting also attended by elders and stakeholders of the
Pura in order to avoid suryak siu.
All members are allowed to propose their opinion about awg-awig in the proper local language or
in Indonesian. For them who cannot propose well in public, they are allowed to write down their
opinion. This is to gather many opinions from the people so awig-awig could represent the people
aspiration in a whole. The base of this advice is the conception of satya wacana (Purwita 1993:37).
The concept stressed the importance of speaking the truth in line with the words that have been said.
The members of Desa Pakraman Penyalin could propose their opinion in two ways, by speaking
directly or by giving notes to be read by meeting secretary (penyarikan), to be discussed further.
The last step is making a decision. Balinese people have a basic conception in making a decision,
known as paros-paros. In paros-paros, tolerance is regarded highly for a society to be able to live
together orderly (Purwita 1993:37). The people of Desa Pakraman Penyalin expressed the phrase by
listening, accepting, and organizing advice from the people. All opinion is recorded and discussed.
The discussion was conducted by asking the opinion of the audience. In the end, agreement was
taken by paros paros by deliberating to achieve consensus and providing a sense of communality
towards opinions gathered.
The element of democracy in awig-awig
The creation of awig-awig shows high respect for democratic values such as appreciation to people.
All people residing in Desa Pakraman Penyalin is regarded as a part of the community which deserves
protection, whether they are native or migrant, even though particular rules are applied to non-native
residents. Desa Pakraman also gives just obligation to their people. The native residents are obliged
to do mutual cooperation (gotong royong) and the non-native like give a donation (section 4 and 5).
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In addition, people who are currently experiencing a bad situation or receiving governmental duties
are allowed to receive less gotong royong tasks (section 7). Furthermore, Awig-awig also put a high
respect on human rights. Appreciation on the human right has become a part of awig-awig in Desa
Pakraman Penyalin, as stated in section 2. It is stated in the awig-awig that residents are the person
who originally from the area, while migrant still deserves proper protection if they are exposed to any
dangerous situation. Appreciation to the human right also received by orphans. They were nurtured
by Desa Pakraman until they reach the age of 17. Orphans are free from any costs for living in Desa
Pakraman Penyalin.
Desa Pakraman also conducts an election every ve years to vote for village ocials directly by the
community. The presence of voters should be half plus one. The dismissal of ocials or village elites
requires citizen presence.
The third aspect is appreciation to the dierence between citizens. Every decision making should be
based on deliberation and consensus. If dierences occurred, the discussion will be repeated for three
times. If consensus still could not be achieved, the discussion will involve important gures in the
village. Failure to do so will require discussion with the government.
Conclusion
Desa Pakraman in Bali, especially Desa Pakraman Penyalin, has implemented basic principles of
democracy. The principle is to create stability and social order because Desa Pakraman is created to
avoid inter-sect conicts in Bali. Desa Pakraman also honors freedom of speech in a proper manner
in delivering an opinion. The creation of Desa Pakraman is mostly initiated by its member. So does
in rules making process which underlines the activity of the institution. The rules are known as awig-
awig and perarem. Democracy in Desa Pakraman could not be separated with the local wisdom in
the area as they deliver the message that the local concepts are in accordance with the prevailing
concepts applied in democracy. Awig-awig is the representation of how the institution absorbs
aspiration of the society which eventually created rules with democratic values, such as appreciation
for all elements in society before the law, appreciation towards people opinion and regular election
to elect institution ocials. Desa Pakraman does not dierentiate women and men to be a leader or
to have a position in the institution.
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Masyarakat sipil, akuntabilitas publik, dan masa depan Pemerintah Daerah
  • H Antlov
  • A Wetterberg
Antlov H & Wetterberg A (2010) Masyarakat sipil, akuntabilitas publik, dan masa depan Pemerintah Daerah. Prisma, 29.
  • Mei
Arnawa IN (2016) [Personal communication] Mei.
Hukum Adat Bali dengan Aneka Masalahnya
  • I Artadi
Artadi I K ( 2009) Hukum Adat Bali dengan Aneka Masalahnya. Denpasar: Pustaka Balipost.
Dasar-dasar Ilmu Politik
Budiardjo M (1985) Dasar-dasar Ilmu Politik. Jakarta: Gramedia.
Diterjemahkan: Hadikusumo & Hartono
  • C Geertz
Geertz C (2000) Negara Teater. Diterjemahkan: Hadikusumo & Hartono. Yogyakarta: Bentang.
Telaah Hermeneutis Wacana Sosial-Politik Kontemporer: Tafsir Politik
  • M T Gibbons
Gibbons MT (2002) Telaah Hermeneutis Wacana Sosial-Politik Kontemporer: Tafsir Politik. Translated by Noer Zaman A. Yogyakarta: Kalam.