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Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business Monthly Edition

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We present two studies that investigated women's motives to pursue a career in top management. The central hypothesis was that masculine culture preferences are important predictors for career motives. Women were expected to have less masculine preferences than men do, which is assumed to be a determinant of their relative absence in management positions. In Study 1 (N =327), we investigated gender differences in organizational culture preferences, both in a managerial sample and a sample of non-managerial professionals in private sector organizations. It was shown that gender differences only existed in the non-managerial groups, with women showing less masculine culture preferences than men did. In Study 2 (N =350), we examined the effects of organizational culture preferences on the ambitions of staff employees and middle-level managers to pursue a career at a top management level in one governmental organization. The results showed that organizational culture preferences were predictive for ambition of non-managerial employees, but not for that of middle management employees. Overall, women were less ambitious than men, and even ambitious women perceived work-home conflict as an important barrier to career advancement.
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General perceived self-efficacy pertains to optimistic beliefs about being able to cope with a large variety of stressors. It is measured with a ten-item scale that has proven useful in cross-cultural research. Previous findings suggest that the construct is universal and that it applies to the majority of cultures worldwide. The present investigation adds a new facet to it: can perceived self-efficacy be measured as part of an interactive computer session while surfing the Internet? A total of 1,437 computer users responded to a survey on the web, half of them young men and women below the age of 26. These data were compared to 290 Canadian university students, 274 teachers in Germany, and 3,077 high school students in Germany. It turned out that all psychometric characteristics were satisfactory. Some evidence for validity emerged. It is suggested that innovative methods of data collection be considered when developing a psychometric scale.
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Adolescents' beliefs in their personal control affects their psychological well-being and the direction their lives take. Self-Efficacy in Changing Societies analyzes the diverse ways in which beliefs of personal efficacy operate within a network of sociocultural influences to shape life paths. The chapters, by internationally known experts, cover such concepts as infancy and personal agency, competency through the life span, the role of family, and cross-cultural factors.
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Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.
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Although the number of women in middle management has grown quite rapidly in the last two decades, the number of female CEOs in large corporations remains extremely low. This article examines many explanations for why women have not risen to the top, including lack of line experience, inadequate career opportunities, gender differences in linguistic styles and socialization, gender-based stereotypes, the old boy network at the top, and tokenism. Alternative explanations are also presented and analyzed, such as differences between female leadership styles and the type of leadership style expected at the top of organizations, feminist explanations for the underrepresentation of women in top management positions, and the possibility that the most talented women in business often avoid corporate life in favor of entrepreneurial careers.
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This study investigated influences of gender and ethnic group through the perspective of four leader behaviors deemed important by top managers and exhibited by 658 middle managers and executives in a large professional services business organization. As rated by subordinates, female and male executives were similar in that they generally engaged in greater amounts of the leader behaviors valued by top management than did male and female middle manager. However, both female middle managers and female executives were rated higher than males counterparts not only interpersonal, but also goals and task leader behaviors. Results support socialization and gender norms explanations. Few ethnic group differences were found, but areas for future research are identified.
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Purpose – The purpose of this conceptual paper is to provide a theoretical explanation for the persistence of the glass ceiling keeping women from assuming leadership positions. Design/methodology/approach – The methodological approach of this paper is to compare and contrast social role theory and expectation states theory as theoretical underpinnings to explain the persistence of a glass ceiling for women leaders. Findings – Both social role theory and expectation states theory belong to the structural/cultural models describing differences between the genders. Social role theory and expectation states theory explicate diverse reasons for the emergence of these differences. However, both theories propose that gender differences will result in evaluation bias against women. Practical implications – As a result of evaluation bias against women, the glass ceiling phenomenon keeping women from assuming top leadership positions continues to occur. Originality/value – This paper is being written on the 20 year anniversary of the term glass ceiling being coined. It adds to the body of literature by closely examining two structural/cultural theories as possible causes to an invisible barrier which keeps women leaders from entering top level management positions.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate empirically the impacts of outsourcing, and to examine the relationship between the outsourcing process and organizational performance in hotels. Design/methodology/approach Data for the study were obtained from 80 hotels in the city of Antalya in Turkey through questionnaires. A paired‐sample t test, and correlation and regression analyses were used to analyse the data. Findings The analyses provide strong support for the impacts of outsourcing on organizational performance. Cooperation with a vendor has led to significant improvement in organizational effectiveness, productivity, profitability, quality, continuous improvement, quality of work life, and social responsibility levels. Hotel managers think that organizational performance has increased after outsourcing. Research limitations/implications The most significant limitation of this study is the impact of outsourcing on organizational performance relying on perceived results rather than direct measures for measurable dimensions. In future research, financial metrics must be used to provide more objective evaluations of a hotel's outsourcing impact on the dimensions of profitability and productivity. Practical implications The results indicate that outsourcing is very important for organizational performance. Also, the effectiveness of the outsourcing process significantly affects organizational performance. If the outsourcing process is planned and implemented effectively, the required results can be achieved in terms of organizational performance. Originality/value Little has been found in the literature on the impact of outsourcing in hotels. This paper presents new data and empirical insights into the relationship between outsourcing and organizational performance in hotels in Turkey.