Book

The law and governance of water resources: The challenge of sustainability

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Abstract

This path-breaking book focuses on the law and legal doctrine within the wider policy context of water resources and analyses the concept of sustainability.
... No caso dos recursos hídricos, a governança requer a integração de um conjunto de conhecimentos e práticas em diversos níveis (Engle et al. 2011) e deve ser compreendida como um sistema adaptativo complexo (Folke et al. 2005). Segundo Fisher (2010), sistemas de governança hídrico possuem ao menos duas funções: i) alinhamento do regime com o ciclo hidrológico; ii) identificação de quem possui o controle sobre a água (direitos de propriedade e de uso) e quem é responsável pela maneira como os recursos podem ser usados em cada ponto do ciclo hidrológico (regras de alocação e distribuição). Tal estrutura normativa afeta pelo menos três níveis diferentes (estratégico, regulatório e operacional). ...
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Article
A governança dos recursos hídricos é um desafio multidimensional e de grande complexidade uma vez que envolve diversas escalas, atores e interesses, e que experimentou profundas mudanças nas últimas décadas. No Brasil, o novo arcabouço institucional, regido pela Política Nacional de Recursos Hídricos, promoveu uma descentralização dos princípios da gestão integrada, objetivando uma gestão participativa e em múltiplas escalas e setores. Após duas décadas, este processo demonstra que ainda não está totalmente finalizado, com resultados mistos. Tal desafio tem sido amplificado, uma vez que as mudanças climáticas e a intensificação da ocorrência de eventos climáticos extremos afetarão de forma decisiva a forma como os recursos hídricos precisam ser gerenciados. Este artigo tem por objetivo realizar uma análise crítica da governança dos recursos hídricos da bacia do Rio Jundiaí (Brasil), tendo como ponto focal os desafios de coordenação e escala em sistemas multinível. A partir de um prisma institucional, a análise busca refletir sobre os gargalos e lacunas de governança que ainda persistem nos sistemas de governança dos recursos hídricos e de que forma os atores locais devem enfrentá-los.
... To date, this vision has not been fully realized because of interstate restrictions on trade of water entitlements. Nevertheless, there is substantial trade of water entitlements within states and of seasonal allocations both within and across states that increased the gross domestic product of Australia by about $220 million in 2008-2009[NWC, 2010. ...
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Article
In Australia's Murray-Darling Basin the Australian and state governments are attempting to introduce a system of water management that will halt ongoing decline in environmental conditions and resource security and provide a robust foundation for managing climate change. This parallels similar efforts being undertaken in regions such as southern Africa, the southern United States, and Spain. Central to the project is the Australian government's Water Act 2007, which requires the preparation of a comprehensive basin plan expected to be finalized in 2011. This paper places recent and expected developments occurring as part of this process in their historical context and examines factors that could affect implementation. Significant challenges to the success of the basin plan include human resource constraints, legislative tensions within the Australian federal system, difficulties in coordinating the network of water-related agencies in the six jurisdictions with responsibilities in the Murray-Darling Basin, and social, economic, and environmental limitations that restrict policy implementation.
... Sustainable coastal management has been the subject of recent Commonwealth Government reports 12 and Council of Australian Governments (COAG) agreement. 13 Each state has enacted coastal management legislation and strategies aimed at protecting and ensuring sustainable use of coastal areas. ...
Article
This report offers proposals in the hope they may inform development of a more systematic and integrated approach to the creation, definition and recording of statutory rights, restrictions and obligations (‘RRR’) affecting land parcels. While much progress has been made by Australia’s land information management community over many years, we believe the task has been unduly complicated by over-extension of property rights and concepts into an area which is essentially administrative and regulatory. We propose better definition and specification of the RRR in the statutes which authorize their creation, and a more systematic approach to their recording.
Chapter
Chapter 2 has illustrated the challenges to Chinese water managers because of ill-designed legislation and fragmented institutional settings. These challenges are further aggravated because of uncertain and complicated climate change impacts. After analyzing and assessing the effectiveness of related adaptation-related legal and institutional framework, Chap. 3 concludes that this framework is not adequate to deliver proactive and resilient decision-making. To manage these dual challenges, this book proposes that mainstreaming climate change adaptation by improving IWRM regime and related legal framework to include adaptation factors will be a promising approach to deal with the challenges from water crises and climate change impacts in China. To rationalize this proposal, two crucial questions must be answered: (1) why should the legal and institutional framework of IWRM mainstream climate change adaptation? Alternatively, why should climate change adaptation be mainstreamed in IWRM framework? (2) Is IWRM able to mainstream climate change adaptation? In other words, can adaptation be mainstreamed in IWRM?
Article
'Sustainable forest management is an attractive concept used in this book to frame the interdisciplinary and contextualised study of the role of a range of actors, institutions and regimes which contribute to regulating the use of forests around the world. This book effectively provides an important, broad and legal critique and assessment of transnational trends, structures and innovations currently in use for managing forests. Its conclusions provide wide ranging insights that not only clarify and critique the potential of existing strategies and trends for legally managing forests but for governance of ecosystems more generally as humanity gradually acknowledges its role in the anthropocene.'
Article
To regard customary law as an impediment to modern, rational water management suggests a distinction between less-developed and more-developed systems of law. The tension between customary and modern systems arises from their different notions of the private and public domains; their different ideas of ownership and its attributes. The insights of the Bruntland Commission require more developed legal systems urgently to limit and re-define the attributes of property. Notions of communal title, inalienability, trusteeship, the unity of human kind and nature, of communal not individual authority, and of a balance between personal desires and community obligations, underlie many customary systems. More developed legal systems and economic theorists are often uncomforable with such notions. -from Author