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Multifarious Uses of Castor (Ricinus communis L.)



Castor (Ricinus communis L.) bean plant has diversified uses as various parts of it can be used in agriculture, industry, medical, and ornamental fields. It is an ideal candidate for production of high value, industrial and oil feed stocks, which was due to high oil (48−52%) and recinoleic acid (85-90%) contents. Its’ unique fatty acid composition allows oil to provide economically competitive feed stocks needed for production of premium quality biodiesel, short chain aviation fuels, fuel lubrication additives and high value biopolymers. Further, various parts of castor plant and oil are used against eye infection, liver disorders and sexually transmitted diseases. Castor cake finds application in Agricultural fields as a nutrient source. Its’ leaf can be used for feeding eri silk worms in ericulture. An attempt was made to document innumerable uses of castor across various sectors as it was not done earlier. The articles discusses future of this crop in the light of increasing demand for ricin free castor besides expanding area and need for enhancing productivity.
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Mulfarious Uses of Castor (Ricinus communis L.)
A. V. Ramanjaneyulu1*, G. Anudradha1, M. Venkata Ramana1, A. Vishnu Vardhan Reddy2 and N. Madana Gopal3
1Regional Agricultural Research Staon, (Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University), Palem, Nagarkurnool
district, Telangana state (509 215), India
2Director, ICAR-Indian Instute of Oilseeds Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana state (500 030), India
3Santhiram College of Pharmay, Nandyal, Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh (518 501), India
Castor (Ricinus communis L.) bean plant has diversied uses as various parts of it can be used in agriculture, industry, medical, and ornamental
elds. It is an ideal candidate for producon of high value, industrial and oil feed stocks, which was due to high oil (48−52%) and recinoleic
acid (85-90%) contents. Its’ unique fay acid composion allows oil to provide economically compeve feed stocks needed for producon
of premium quality biodiesel, short chain aviaon fuels, fuel lubricaon addives and high value biopolymers. Further, various parts of castor
plant and oil are used against eye infecon, liver disorders and sexually transmied diseases. Castor cake nds applicaon in Agricultural
elds as a nutrient source. Its’ leaf can be used for feeding eri silk worms in ericulture. An aempt was made to document innumerable
uses of castor across various sectors as it was not done earlier. The arcles discusses future of this crop in the light of increasing demand
for ricin free castor besides expanding area and need for enhancing producvity.
1. Introduction
Castor (Ricinus communis L.) belongs to the Euphorbiaceae
family. It is the sole species in the monotypic genus, Ricinus,
and subtribe, Ricininae. Both Ricinus and communis are Lan
words. It is commonly known as castor oil plant and is a so
wooden small tree developed throughout tropics and warm
temperature regions. It is believed to have originated from
Ethiopia (Africa) and India. At present, castor is culvated
across 30 dierent countries, of which India, China, Brazil,
Mozambique, Ethiopia and Thailand are the major ones
accounng for about 90% of the worlds’ producon. India
accounts for nearly 66.5 and 82.9% of world’s castor area
and producon, respecvely. Compleon of Dra genome
sequence of castor bean plant has been a successful story at
the end of last decade. Unravelling the genec informaon
of this mulfaceted crop is a boon for us to further exploit
its economic value (Ramprasad and Bandopadhyay, 2010).
Castor plant parts have immense medicinal value, while castor
oil has wide industrial applicaons. As all parts of the plant in
one or other way can be used for producve purposes, it is
called as Kalpvriksh (means tree of gold and precious stones)
(Ramanjaneyulu et al., 2013). The mulfarious uses of castor
and oil are enumerated below.
2. Agricultural Uses
2.1. Organic nutrient source
Castor cake is a by-product of milling industry and account
for 60% of crushed seed. Despite containing 30-40% protein
which contains ideal amino acid profile with cysteine,
methionine and isoleucine, however, it is not safe as animal
feed due to presence of toxic compounds such as ricin, allergin
and ricinine (Prasad, 2010). It is considered as rich source
of concentrated organic manure as it contains 6.6%N, 2.6%
P2O5 and 1.2% K2O (cake from decorcated seed) and 4.5%
N, 0.7% P2O5 and 1.9% K2O (cake from undecorcated seed)
and can be applied to Agricultural elds. It is mostly used for
sugarcane elds as this cake is not aacked by white ants
(Ramanjaneyulu et al., 2013). About 100 kg of castor cake
will supply nitrogen equivalent to that of 1800 kg of cow dung
thus potenal source for organic farming. Further, it can be
applied to any type of soil. It encourages soil microbial acvity,
promotes root development and winter cold hardiness.
Castor cake should be applied at least three weeks before
sowing of the crop and field has to be kept moist for
degradaon of the toxicants. Applicaon of castor cake can
also be helpful in reducing the cost of phosphac ferlizer
(Gupta et al., 2006). Kolay (2007) observed yield response up
Biofuel, castor, diversied usesKeywords:
Article History
Arcle ID: IJEP199
Received in 24th September, 2017
Received in revised form 18th October, 2017
Accepted in nal form 2nd November, 2017
A. V. Ramanjaneyulu
e-mail: avr_agron@redi
Corresponding Author
International Journal of Economic Plants 2017, 04(04):170-176 Review Article
© 2017 PP House
Ramanjaneyulu et al., 2017
to 6.57 t ha-1 when castor cake was applied to sugarcane crop
@ 90 kg ha-1 in Bihar. In pot experiment on melons, Azim et
al. (2011) reported 100% suppression of root knot nematode
and soil larvae population due to application of argan/
castor cake and both these cakes were eecve than neem
cake. However, melon biomass declined due to castor cake
applicaon as a result of phytotoxicity. As the toxicity makes
it unsuitable for use as animal feed, it results in a lower price
for the meal while compared with prices of compeng oilseed-
meals such as soya meal. This combinaon of high ferlizer
value and low price has resulted in an ever increasing demand
for castor meal from the organic ferlizer market worldwide
(Prasad, 2010). Castor stubbles and shelled capsules can be
incorporated in to the soil, which on decomposion can add
organic maer to the soil. Otherwise, they can also be ulized
in the preparaon of compost or vermicompost which in turn
can be applied to agricultural elds to improve the soil ferlity.
The leaf fall of this plant contributes both as surface mulch
and as a source of nutrion (Sudhakar Babu, 2010)
2.2. Biogas generaon
Biogas is produced by anaerobic digeson through anaerobic
bacteria or fermentaon of biodegradable materials such
as manure, sewage, municipal waste, green waste, plant
material, and crops by the breakdown of organic maer. It is a
renewable source of energy and can be produced from locally
available raw materials. Further, it is socially acceptable and
environmentally friendly gas. It mainly contains methane (50-
75%), carbon dioxide (2550%) and small amount of nitrogen
(0−10%), hydrogen (0−1%), hydrogen sulphide (0−3%),
moisture and siloxanes with no oxygen (Richards et al., 1994).
It can be used as a fuel for cooking at domesc level or running
small scale industries. Besides, it can also be used to convert
the energy in the gas of a gas engine into electricity. In some
countries, like UK, biogas is esmated to have the potenal
to replace around 17% of vehicle fuel.
The use of castor cake in biogas generation resulted in
maximum digester microbiological acvity and gas output
(Lingaiah and Rajasekaran, 1986). It has been found that
methane content of biogas generated from non-edible oil
cakes is 70% and is higher than that produced from cowdung
(55-60%). Further, they have esmated and reported that
biogas produced from non-edible castor oil cake is much
superior in terms of gas yield (0.4−0.5 m3 kg dry maer-1),
volumetric eciency (2.0−2.5 lit day-1), methane content
(70%) to animal manure based biogas (0.18; 0.5−0.7; 55−60%).
2.3. Ericulture
The term ‘Ericulture’ is derived from the word ‘eri’ meaning
castor and culture meaning culvaon. So, rearing of eri
silkworms on castor leaves for obtaining ‘eri silk’ is called
as poor man silk. Ericulture has been proved to be an ideal
subsidiary occupation providing gainful supplementary
income to a large number of rural and tribal populaons. It
provides ample scope for employment and income for the
survival of those people without much capital and other
scope. Being a labor intensive acvity, it acts as a soluon to
the problem of unemployment and reducon in poverty (De
and Das, 2007). Benchamin and Jolly (1987) also idened
ericulture as an occupaon of “low investment and high
output”. This enterprise provides ample opportunity for
sustainable dry land based farming system for higher income
generaon. The most important fact is that ericulture goes
well with dry land farmers, especially in tribal region. On
an average, three crops can be taken up against the single
harvest in other dry land crops, which would be sucient
to maintain a family through addional income. Considering
the advantages of ericulture, many state governments in the
north east and south India has iniated steps to popularize
eri culture (Rama Lakshmi, 2012).
Tradionally ericulture has been pracced in north eastern
states in India on uncultivated or wild plants of castor
(Ricinus communis), kesseru (Heteropanax fragrans) and
barkesseru (Ailenthus sp.), payam (Evodia axinifolia) and
tapioca (Mainhot esculentum). However, castor is the most
important food plant for eri silk worm due to its’ good
palatability, good quality of cocoon, easy availability of castor
leaf because of its’ commercial culvaon for non-edible
oil. But it is less preferred in summer because of increase in
leaf phenolic content. Castor leaves can be used for feeding
eri silk worms in ericulture. Research results revealed that
30% defoliaon is permissible and the same can be used in
ericulture without foregoing economic yield. Besides, the
farmers can be beneed with an addional income upto
Rs. 6000 to 7500 ha-1 through ericulture which is a boon
for rainfed castor growers. Further, eri pupae is very much
relished by tribal people and is considered at par with muon
or chicken (Saratchandra, 2010). The neutral lipid of silkworm
pupae (Bombax mori L.) is a good source of alpha linolenic
acid (ALA), an essenal fay acid. Such poly unsaturated
fay acid (PUFA) is known to have posive eects on several
risk factors associated with coronary heart diseases. Due to
presence of linolenic acid to the tune of 43% in eri pupal oil, it
is considered as a good source of omega 3 fay acid (Prasad,
2010; Shankar et al., 2006).
2.4. Pest control
Castor plants can be used as a trap crop for pest control in
groundnut. This helps in reducing the cost of spraying as
pescides and will be sprayed only on castor plants when
they are aected by Spodoptera sp. The diversity in waxy
bloom on leaf, stem and capsule and variaon in capsules
spines attributed to certain pest and disease tolerance.
E.g. triple bloom castor types are tolerant to leaf hoppers
but suscepble to whiteies, while, single bloom castor is
resistant to whiteies but suscepble to leaf hoppers. On the
other hand, double bloom castor types are placed in between
the single and double bloom types with regard to whitey
and leaf hopper incidence. Extract of Ricinus communis
exhibited acaricidal and insecticidal properties against
the adult of Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann (Acarina:
Ixodidae) and hematophagous y Hippobosca maculata Leach
(Diptera: Hippoboscidae) (Zahir et al., 2010). Coee beans are
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treated with a mixture of castor and groundnut oils by the
malayali tribes of shervaroys to control storage pest in coee
(Mohapatra et al., 2009). Castor cake when applied to the soil,
protect the plants from soil nematodes, insects, and parasites
by acng as a natural repellant. The oil is oen used in the USA
to repel moles and voles in lawns. The populaon of plant-
parasic nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita, Rotylenchulus
reniformis, Tylenchorhynchus brassicae, Helicotylenchus
indicus, etc., and the frequency of the pathogenic fungi
Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Phylloscta
phaseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f. ciceri, etc., signicantly
reduced in chickpea and wheat elds due to applicaon of
castor cake (Tiyagi and Mashkoor, 1995).
2.5. Storage
In India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh, food grains
are preserved by applying castor oil. It helps to avoid rong
of grains of rice, wheat, and pulses thus extends longevity of
stored grain. In the food industry, castor oil (food grade) is
used in food addives, avorings, candy (e.g., Polyglycerol
polyricinoleate in chocolate) (Wilson et al., 1998) as a mold
inhibitor and in packaging.
3. Industrial Uses
Seed is the most important economic product of castor crop.
The castor seed contains 48-52% oil and has tremendous
industrial value. The oil is a colorless to very pale yellow
liquid with mild or no odor or taste. It is a renewable resource
and biodegradable. It is highly stable oil as it boils only at
313°C (595 °F) and doesn’t freeze even at low temperature.
Its density is 961 kg m-3 (Aldrich, 2003). It has high acetyl
or hydroxyl value, high specific gravity (0.958 to 0.969),
high refracve index at 25oC (1.477 to 1.487), strong dextra
rotatory nature (+7.6 to 9.7) but low saponicaon (179 to
187) and iodine value (82-90). This oil is unique in its chemical
composion and is a triglyceride in which approximately
90% of fatty acid chains are hydroxyl (ricinoleic acid) in
nature. Castor oil is the only source of ricinoleic acid. It is a
mono unsaturated, 18-carbon fay acid. It is an unusual fay
acid as it has hydroxyl funconal group on the 12th carbon.
This funconal group causes ricinoleic acid (and castor oil) to
be more polar than most fats. Industry uses 600-800 million
pounds of castor oil per annum.
3.1. General uses
Use of castor oil and its’ derivaves has been in vogue in many
industrial applicaons especially in lubricants, fuel addives,
hydraulic and brake fluids, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics,
paints, dyes, coangs, inks, cold resistant plascs, waxes and
polishes, pharmaceucals and perfumes. Further, it can be
used for producon of hydraulic uid, arcial leather, prinng
ink, rubber, recinol, soaps and greases (Ogunniyi, 2006).
Other uses include paints, varnishes and polymers, nylon
11 plascsrecinol, lubricang and heavy duty automove
greases, telecom engineering plasc, prinng ink, recinol,
lubricang and heavy duty automove greases (Azambuja et
al., 2006; Ogunniyi, 2006), refrigeraon lubricants, rubbers,
sealants, texles, washing powders, and waxes. Since it has
relavely high dielectric constant (4.7), highly rened and
dried castor oil is somemes used as a dielectric uid within
high performance high voltage capacitors. Castor oil due to
its high viscosity can be used for conversion into biodiesel
too. Its’ biomass can also be used to generate energy through
gasiers (Sudhakar Babu et al., 2013).
3.2. Lubricaon
Most of the vegetable oils can be considered as aracve
alternaves to petroleum derived lubricants mainly owing
to their good lubricity and biodegradability nature, but,
oxidave stability and low temperature performance limit their
widespread use. Castor oil maintains higher viscosity even at
high temperatures and liquid at low temperatures. Due to its’
non-drying nature, it is regarded as one of the best lubricants.
Hence, it is extensively used in the manufacture of lubricants.
The producon of lithium grease consumes a signicant
amount of castor oil. Hydrogenaon and saponicaon of
castor oil yields 12-hydroxystearic acid which is then reacted
with lithium hydroxide or lithium carbonate to give high
performance lubricant grease. In fact, railways used castor
oil for lubricaon before 1914-1918. Now, castor oil is widely
used as a lubricant in jet, diesel and race car engines (Mc Guire
and Nancy, 2004). The viscosity of castor oil at 10°C is 2,420
cenpoise (Brady et al., 1997). However, castor oil tends to
form gums in a short me and its use is therefore restricted
to engines that are regularly rebuilt (eg. race engines). Infact,
castor oil was the preferred lubricant for rotary engines aer
engine’s widespread adopon for aviaon in Europe in 1909.
The methanol-fuelled two-cycle glow plug engines used for
aero-modelling have used varying percentages of castor oil
as a dependable lubricant.
3.3. Derivaves
Castor oil is the raw material for the producon of a number of
chemicals, notably sebacic acid, undecylenic acid and nylon-11.
Castor oil is used in the preparaon of sulphonated castor oil,
known as Turkey oil by adding sulfuric acid to vegetable oils
like castor oil. It is inturn used in coon dyeing, prinng and
leather industries. It was the rst synthec detergent aer
ordinary soap. Castor oil can be used in the manufacture of
soaps as it gives a certain degree of transparency to soaps
and shining and silky appearance to jute fabrics.
The following are the important derivaves which are being
exploited for variety of applicaons.
• Nylon 11, engineering plasc (the largest single use of the
Hydrogenated castor oil (lubricants, greases and addive
in variety of formulaons)
• Dehydrated castor oil and its acids (coangs, inks, sealants
and related products)
Sebacic acid (component of Nylon 6,10; esters as aircra
lubricants and plascizers for vinyl lms including food wrap)
Ethoxylated castor oil (industrial uses in surfactants,
International Journal of Economic Plants 2017, 04(04):170-176
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emulsiers, lubricants in texle, coangs and cosmecs)
• Sulfonated (sulfated) castor oil (as surfactants, lubricants)
Polyurethane encapsulants (electronics and
telecommunicaons, coangs)
• Alkyl Esters (cosmecs, plascizers, lubricants)
• Oxidized or polymerized castor oil (coangs, inks sealants)
Castor oil without modification in polymers, rubbers,
cosmecs, inks, coangs and a wide variety of industrial
C11: It is obtained by pyrolysis of castor oil or its methyl
ester. It is converted to PA-11 through a series of processes.
Derivaves of C11 acid (Undecylenic acid) are used primarily
for anfungal properes.
C7: Jasmine is the aroma related C7 aldehyde. It is used in
washing powders, soaps, candies and other perfumes
C7 acid: It is used as lubricant, to improve the weedicide
Dehydrated castor oil is used for conversion to Sebacic
acid, an important ingredient for the synthesis of Nylon bre.
Sebacic acid is obtained by alkali fusion of castor oil producing
2-octanol as the co-product.
3.4. Biodiesel
Biodiesel, an alternave diesel fuel from vegetable oils and
animal fats is biodegradable, non-toxic with low emission
profiles thus proven to be an environmentally friendly
fuel compared to petroleum diesel (Meher et al., 2006).
Demand for biodiesel has been increasing due to rise in the
petroleum prices during the last few years. Support policies
by governments in dierent countries like Europe, Brazil,
Namibia and India gave a llip to the use of biodiesel fuels
for transport like the EU Direcve 2003/30/EC in Europe
(Vicente et al., 2007). The Naonal Mission on Biofuels in
India targeted to achieve 20% blending of biodiesel (B20) by
2012 with an aim of bringing 4,00,000 ha of marginal land
under culvaon of non-edible oilseed crops mainly Jatropha
(Lavanya et al., 2012). However, castor is a viable alternave
to Jatropha due to its shorter growing period, availability of
standard agronomic pracces for assuring good yields, good
yield potenal of 1500 to 1800 kg ha-1 in rainfed condions and
2500 to 3000 kg ha-1 under irrigated dry condions and 3500
to 4000 kg ha-1 under drip irrigaon and early maturity within
150 to 210 days aer sowing (Hanumantha Rao et al., 2003;
Lavanya et al., 2006; Lavanya and Mukta, 2008; Pathak, 2009).
Further, aer the reproducve phase begins, the castor plant
is able to connually iniate new racemes and produce seeds
(Severino and Auld, 2013). The non-edible seed and hardiness
of the crop with high oil yield potenal make it suitable for
biofuel programmes in waste lands (Sudhakar Babu, 2010).
4. Medicinal Uses
India has a history of using dierent plants in its indigenous
systems of medicine (Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha) that
dates back to 5000 years. Ayurveda records over 8000 herbal
remedies. About 6000 plants were used in tradional, folk
and herbal medicines in India (Huxley, 1984). Dierent parts
of the plant or oil from castor can be used as a base material
in most of the medicinal treatments. E.g., the leaf can be
used in the treatments related to anviral, biliousness, burns,
ear/head ache, malaria and night blindness while stem is
used for treatment of cancer and hypoglycemia. The owers
can be ulized against glandular and vaginal pain. Fruits
are used for curing tumors, treang piles, liver and spleen
diseases. Root bark is used as purgave, in aboron, ascites,
asthma, bronchis, carinaon (expulsion of gas from stomach
and intesnes), hypoglycemia, leprosy, pains, rectum and
rheumasm diseases (Borthakar, 1981).
4.1. Eye infecon
Conjuncva is a thin and delicate membrane that covers
the eyeball. Conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the
conjuncva, characterized by redness and oen accompanied
by a discharge. It is a common eye problem when eyes are
exposed frequently or connuously to microorganisms and
environmental condions that can cause infecons or allergic
reacons. It can be acute or chronic depending on severity
of symptoms and the type of organism or agent involved. It
can be very easily transmied to others during close physical
contact, parcularly among children (Prewi, 2004). Leaf
decocon of Achyranthes aspire mixed with castor oil can be
applied on the head and body an hour before head bath to
overcome the problem of conjuncvis.
4.2. Skin diseases
Eczema or atopic dermas is a form of chronic inammaon
of the skin characterized by redness, itching and oozing
vesicular lesions (Armstrong and Johnson, 2011; Bershad,
2011). Other symptoms include skin edema (swelling), itching
and dryness, crusng, aking, blistering, cracking, oozing or
bleeding (Johannes et al., 2006). Powder of Indian birthwort
(Aristolochia indica) along with the oil prepared from boiling
Datura stramonium leaf juice is mixed with castor oil and is
applied on the skin against eczema.
Filariasis is a parasic and infecous tropical disease caused
by larial nematode worms and is transmied by mosquito
bites. The most spectacular symptom is elephantiasis -
edema with thickening of the skin and underlying ssues.
It affects mainly the lower extremities, while the ears,
mucus membranes and amputaon stumps are aected less
frequently. Castor seed paste is applied on eected part (feet)
against lariasis.
Castor oil is mixed with copper sulphate and is used to treat
various skin ailments. Pounded leaves of Alangium salvifolium
are mixed in castor oil and bandaged on the aected part of
inammaon. Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized
by dry red patches covered with scales and it occurs especially
on the scalp, ears and genitalia and the skin. The leaf of
Aristalochia bracteata along with the rhizome of Curcuma
domesca and seed of Piper nigrum are mixed with cow urine
Ramanjaneyulu et al., 2017
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and made into a paste and boiled in castor oil. Such mixture
is to be applied on the aected part of psoriasis regularly.
4.3. Liver disease
Jaundice is yellowing of the skin and eyes and occurs due to
presence of too much bilirubin in the human body. Bilirubin is
a yellow pigment which is formed due to breakdown of
dead red blood cells in the liver. Jaundice is an indicaon of
malfunconing of liver, gallbladder, or pancreas. Tender castor
leaf paste along with coconut water is orally administered to
the paents suering from jaundice.
4.4. Sexually transmied diseases (STDs)
STDs are also known as sexually transmied infecons (STI) and
are transmied between humans by means of sexual behavior.
Some are transmied due to reuse of drug needles aer their
use by an infected person, through childbirth or breaseeding.
Castor oil packs will improve White and red blood cell (WBC
and RBC) count within two weeks thus improves the immune
system in human body. Castor oil with arsenics and copper
sulphate are used in the treatment of syphilis and gonorrhea.
Though no. of drugs exist that can improve lymphac ow,
this task can easily be performed by topical applicaon of
castor oil. When castor oil is absorbed through the skin, the
lymphocyte count of the blood increases. This is a result of
a posive inuence on the thymus gland and/or lymphac
ssue. The ow of lymph increases throughout the body which
inturn speed up the removal of toxins and reduces the size
of swollen lymph nodes resulng in overall improvement in
organ funcon.
4.5. Miscellaneous
Castor oil is a well-known general laxave useful in treang
painful defecaon called conspaon. In rural areas, small
quanty of castor oil is given to children’s suering from
conspaon which facilitates bowel movement.
Warm leaf paste of castor plant is applied on the forehead to
cure head ache. Leaf juice of Eclipta prostrata is mixed with
castor oil and applied on the head to reduce the problem of
dandru. Leaf extract of Abrus precatorius boiled in equal
quanty of castor oil and is applied to hair regularly for proper
hair growth. Mixture of fruit juice of Gmelina asiaca and
castor oil is boiled and used as hair tonic for beer hair growth.
Paralysis is the sensory loss of muscle function. A table
spoon of ash obtained by burning the castor leaves is mixed
with honey and given as diet to the aected paents (Kavita
et al., 2010). Castor oil ground with niger seed is applied
externally to cure piles and stula. Rheumasm or rheumac
disorder is a non-specific term for medical problems
aecng the joints and connecve ssue. Crushed leaves of
Cardiospermum halicacabum/Calotropis gigantea/Delonix
alata along with castor oil are bandaged on the tumours and
rheumac swellings.
Ricinoleic acid has been shown to be eecve in prevenng
the growth of numerous species of viruses, bacteria, yeasts
and molds. This will explain high degree of success in the
topical use of the oil for treang ailments such as ringworm,
keratoses (non-cancerous, wart-like skin growths), skin
inammaon, abrasions, fungal-infected nger and toe nails,
acne and chronic pruritus (itching). The concerned area has to
be simply wrapped with castor oil soaked cloth or band-aid.
Therapeucally, modern drugs are rarely given in a pure
chemical state. Most of the acve ingredients are combined
with additives. Castor oil or a castor oil derivative such
as Cremophor EL (polyethoxylated castor oil, a non-
ionic surfactant), is added to many modern drugs including
• Miconazole, an anfungal agent (Fromtling, 1988)
Paclitaxel, a mitoc inhibitor used in cancer chemotherapy
(Micha et al., 2006)
• Sandimmune (cyclosporine injection, USP), an
immunosuppressant drug widely used in connecon with
organ transplant to reduce the activity of the patient’s
immune system (Zhang et al., 2001)
Saperconazole, a triazole antifungal agent (contains
Emulphor EL-719P, a castor oil derivave) (Sugar et al., 1994)
Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressive drug (contains HCO-60,
polyoxyl 60 hydrogenated castor oil)
• Xenaderm ointment, a topical treatment for skin ulcers (a
combinaon of Peru balsam, castor oil and trypsin) (Beitz,
5. Ornamental Uses
Castor plant is used extensively as a decorative plant in
parks and other public areas, parcularly as a “dot plant” in
tradional bedding schemes. Some of the Ricinus communis
variees are used for ornamental purposes and they include
Gibsonii (red nged leaves with reddish veins and pinkish
green seed pods), Carmencita Pink (with pinkish red stems),
Carmencita Bright Red (red stems, dark purplish leaves and
red seed pods (Phillips and Martyn, 1999), ‘Impala’ (compact,
only 3.9 feet tall with reddish foliage and stems, brightest on
the young shoots, Red Spire’ (6.6-9.8 feet tall) with red stems
and bronze foliage, ‘Zanzibarensis’ (6.6-9.8 feet tall with
large, mid-green leaves) that have white midribs (Christopher,
1996). The aracve castor seeds are used in jewellery, mainly
necklaces and bracelets.
6. Summary and Future Perspectives
The castor plant has been proved to be a versale and unique
non-edible oil plant with diversified uses in Agriculture,
industry and medicine. There is a huge demand for castor
oil for its use in biofuel programmes across the world due
to implementaon of Kyoto Protocol norms of the UNO in
reducing global emissions of GHGs. However, upcoming of
alternate remunerave crops like Bt coon and maize across
the castor growing zones in India have pushed the castor to
the backstage. However, keeping in view wide array of uses
of castor plant, there is s a need to conserve germplasm and
promote the crop on a large scale. There is a need to improve
International Journal of Economic Plants 2017, 04(04):170-176
© 2017 PP House
area, producon and producvity of castor by expanding the
crop to new niches like non-tradional areas, rice fallows, post
monsoon season and also to the areas with irrigaon water
shortage and persistence of wild boar problem. Besides,
site specic land conguraon and management strategies
for eecve soil and moisture conservaon in dry lands and
adoption of micro-irrigation methods will certainly help
improve the producvity.
Reducon of ricin or producon of ricin free castor besides
increasing recinoleic acid should be the agship programme
for near future. Transgenics should be employed to nd out
ways and means for controlling Botryonia gray rot (Botrys
ricini) which is responsible for poor yield and oil quality.
Augmentaon of trait specic germplasm, prebreeding and
genec enhancement, allele mining, funconal genomics,
proteomics, metabolomics, marker assisted selecon (MAS)
and gene pyramiding area to be deployed to solve bioc
and abioc stresses with a view to improve producvity and
oil quality. With the disnct possibilies of use of castor oil
as biojet-fuel and biolubricants through biotechnological
intervenons, the opportunies for castor producon and
use are unlimited. Indian must strengthen research and
development eorts on all aspects of castor including value
addion on priority to exploit and sustain the benets of
revoluon in castor producon.
Inter instuonal linkages must be established among Indian
Instute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Indian Council of
Agricultural Research (ICAR), Solvent Extracon Associaon
of India (SEAI) and private industries to work in tandem
with each other to strengthen value addion sector through
innovave acon plan. Central government in India should
facilitate value addion on a large scale through favourable
policy framework. So that India can maintain monopoly status
not only in producon and producvity but also in the export
of value added products.
7. Conclusion
The seeds, other parts of castor bean plant and by products of
its’ oil are widely used for dierent purposes in various elds
as discussed. However, the technology required to produce
innumerable no. of derivaves from castor oil is lacking in India
due to which the country is relying on other countries inspite
of being a global leader in area, producon and producvity.
Further, market rate for castor seed has to be enhanced in
tune with the other crops keeping in view the ever increasing
global demand for seed and oil.
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... Castor is one of the ancient and important non-edible oilseeds grown in 30 countries across the globe in tropical and subtropical regions. Castor oil and its' by products have multifarious uses -[63 in agricultural, industrial, medicinal and ornamental fields (Ramanjaneyulu et al., 2017) [18] . Globally castor is cultivated in an area of 12.5 lakh ha with a production of 17.7 lakh tonnes and a productivity of 1414 kg ha -1 ( ...
... Castor is one of the ancient and important non-edible oilseeds grown in 30 countries across the globe in tropical and subtropical regions. Castor oil and its' by products have multifarious uses -[63 in agricultural, industrial, medicinal and ornamental fields (Ramanjaneyulu et al., 2017) [18] . Globally castor is cultivated in an area of 12.5 lakh ha with a production of 17.7 lakh tonnes and a productivity of 1414 kg ha -1 ( ...
A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2016-17 to test the impact of hydrogel application on growth, yield and economics of rainfed castor at Zonal Agricultural and Horticultural Research Station, Babbur Farm, Hiriyur, Karnataka. The superabsorbent polymer as pusa Hydrogel at 50% RDH, 100% RDH and 150% RDH and control were set as treatments. The results of study indicated that soil application of pusa hydrogel @ 100% RDH resulted in significant improvement on plant height and number of capsules/spike which reflected in higher seed yield (1776 kg/ha) followed by 50% RDH (1652 kg/ha) as compared to Control (1242 kg/ha). However, application of 50% and 100% RDH recorded similar B:C ratio (2.0). Hydrogel application beyond 100% RDH reduced the seed yield of castor by 11% and brought down the B:C ratio drastically (1.6). Next best treatment is found to be soil application of pusa hydrogel @ 50% RDH. From the above results, it can be inferred that soil application of hydrogel may be a significant practice to increase the yield of castor under rainfed conditions.
... "Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is an important non edible oilseed crop of dry land area with huge industrial importance" [1]. "It is widely distributed and adapted throughout the tropics, subtropics and temperate areas due to its low demand on soil fertility, requirement of moderate rainfall, less competition with other food crops and food grade oils. ...
The experiment on population dynamics against leafhopper and thrips of castor,a field experiment was conducted during 2021 & 2022 on castor (Ricinus communis) at Regional Agricultural Research Station Palem, PJTSAU. The studies on population dynamics of leafhopper (Empoasca flavescens) revealed thatthe activity of leafhoppers was moderate to heavy with maximum of 120.8 leafhoppers/3 leaves/plant was recorded during the second fortnight of December (52 SMW, 24th-31st Dec). Leafhopper population had non-significant and negative correlation with maximum temperature (r = -0.24 and r = -0.29, respectively), whereas it had significant assocation and negative correlation with minimum temperature, morning relative humidity, evening relative humidity as well as rainfall (r = - 0.64 - 0.50, r=-0.61 and - 0.52, respectively). Thrips infestationwas observed from October first fortnight (40 SMW 1st Oct -7th Oct) to December second fortnight (52 SMW, 24th-31st Dec) with peak infestation 31.1 thrips/spike.Thrips population had non-significant and negative correlation with maximum temperature ( r = -0.29), whereas it had significant assocation and negative correlation with minimum temperature, morning relative humidity, evening relative humidity as well as rainfall (r = - 0.68, r= -0.55, r=-0.63 and, r=- 0.49 respectively). Leafhopper and thrips has significant association and positive correlation with sunshine hours (r=0.55 & r=0.51).
... Castor (Ricinus communis L.), a predominant nonedible oilseed crop that is native to Ethiopia and North Africa, is a member of the Euphorbiaceae family (Ramanjaneyulu et al., 2017). Castor seed, primarily grown in tropical and subtropical climates contains 50-55 per cent oil and plays a significant role in the Indian oil economy. ...
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The present study was aimed to screen castor germplasm lines varying in wax content against gray mold disease for the identification of resistance source under in vitro conditions using detached spike and detached capsule technique. Out of thirty-three lines screened against gray mold under in vitro conditions six lines with low wax content viz., RG-1754 (0.24 µg/mg), RG-1875 (0.12 µg/mg), RG-1915 (0.21 µg/mg), RG-1919 (0.24 µg/mg), RG-1972 (0.08 µg/mg) and RG-1926 (0.08 µg/mg) recorded significantly low levels of infection ranging from 10 to 20 per cent 7 days after inoculation. Whereas the susceptible cultivar DCH -519 has recorded disease severity of more than 90 %. The pearman's rank correlation analysis showed a strong positive relation between disease severity and capsule wax content, with p < 0.01 and r = 0.884.
... Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is the industrially important oilseed crop belonging to family Euphorbiaceae and plays a considerable role in the Indian economy [1]. The castor seed contained 45-50% non-edible oil and was utilized for manufacturing lubricants, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, hydraulic fluids, etc. [2]. ...
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The resistant and susceptible genotypes of castor were utilized for leaf proteomic study during Fusarium wilt infection. The histopathological study was observed under SEM and it confirmed that the infection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ricini was higher in the root of susceptible JI-35, while incompatible interaction is observed in resistant SKI-215 genotype. The acidic and neutral proteins were maximally up-expressed with 2 to 171 kDa in treated resistant and 2 to 150 kDa in treated susceptible interactions. In resistant genotype, the leaf proteins were recognized with 3.0- and 5.8-fold higher at infection stage and post-infection stage, respectively, as compared to susceptible genotype. The highly up expressions of leaf acidic (4.76 pI) and basic (8.77 pI) proteins were found with 224.94- and 61.68-fold change, respectively during the post-infection stage in treated resistance compared to its control. The protein spots at 4.76 pI and 8.77 pI were characterized with nanoLC–MS Triple TOF and were recognized as signalling molecules small GTP binding protein (23 kDa) and actin (8 kDa), respectively, on the basis of mass spectrometry and peptide sequences. However, basic and neutral proteins were up regulated as 30.11- and 20.30-fold changes in treated susceptible compared to its control. These proteins were identified as HSP90 (10 kDa) and LEA (27 kDa) proteins. The 148 kDa protein is recognized as histidine kinase in incompatible resistant interaction compared to compatible susceptible (serine threonine protein kinase, 65 kDa) as common acidic protein at 3.80 pI during infection stage. Some acidic proteins were maximally up-regulated in the leaf of resistant castor genotype and played a significant role in defense response.
... Ricinus communis L. is an annual or perennial evergreen shrub herb, and is an emerging special cash crop and bioenergy oil plant (Saadaoui et al. 2017, Song et al. 2021. R. communis is widely planted in tropical, subtropical and temperate countries due to its specially developed and large roots, strong resistance to drought, barren resistance, strong self-control of growth, extensive management, less labor, low investment and higher income (Ramanjaneyulu et al. 2017). A large number of previous studies have reported that the application of R. communis in the fields of industry, medicine, agriculture and textile has reflected its huge economic benefits (Bauddh et al. 2015). ...
... Castor oil is a valuable output and has many industrial uses due to the presence of high ricinoleic acid (Cheema et al., 2013). Furthermore, various parts of this plant are widely used in Agriculture, medical and ornamental fields (Ramanjaneyulu et al., 2017). In the recent times, it is attracting the attention of policy makers and scientists for production of biodiesel to minimize the consumption of fossil fuels (Nahar, 2015) as castor oil has less ash (0.02%) and sulfur (<0.04%) (Kareem et al., 2012). ...
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A field study was executed to understand the impact of phosphate solubilizing micro-organisms on the performance of castor crop. The pooled data results showed that application of 20 kg P2 O5 ha-1+ seed treatment with phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) (T5 ) and 20 kg P2 O5 ha-1+bean treatment with bio-phos (T1 ) have produced 35.7 and 26.0% higher bean yield over control (T2 ). The application of PSB showed positive effect on improving the soil phosphatase enzyme activity and castor bean yield. Efficacy of PSB was found higher at lower P than at medium or high P fertilizer dose. The higher water use efficiency and P use indices like phosphorus use efficiency, agronomic efficiency and apparent recovery efficiency of applied P and net returns (Rs. 32,120 ha-1) and B:C ratio (2.13) were also associated with the application of 20 kg P2 O5 ha-1+bean treatment with PSB (T5 ).
... An eye drop containing the oil of Ricinus Communis is generally used to cure dry eyes, inflammation, redness, swelling, and watery eyes. Various allopathic drugs such as carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium hyaluronate, polyethylene glycol 400 are some common eye lubricants that can treat eye ailments and dryness 45,46 . ...
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The medicinal plant Ricinus communis is one of the effective plants which offer a solution to several kinds of diseases. Owing to this, the present research aims to review the medicinal properties of one of such common herbal plants, Ricinus communis, its possible role as herbal medicine, and assessment for pharma-covigilance. Related research articles were collected from Google Scholar, Pub Med, Science direct, Scientific information Database, and Scopus. For the present study purpose, using the term Ricinus communis, the castor bean, and castor oil plant in the title of all articles published to 2021 were observed. Phytochemical constituents of R. communis like saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, and glucosides. Leaves of the plant have shown the presence of major phenolic compounds. Whereas roots test has presented the Indole-3-acetic. The findings reflect that the plant contains high medicinal benefits, which offer a solution for several kinds of diseases like cancer, diabetes, ulcer and anthelmintic, etc. Also, the plant is anti-inflammatory property of the plant facilitates therapeutic use. Therefore, all parts of the medicinal plant R. communis are considered highly beneficial in the medicinal field.
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Due to limited conventional energy sources, there is a need to find substitute, non-conventional sources of energy to meet the societal demands on a sustainable basis. Crude oil and edible oil remain major import items in Pakistan, the deficit of which can be compensated by using biomass, preferably inedible oilseeds. Therefore, the current study evaluated the role of sulphur (S) fertilization for improving yield (seed and oil), and biodiesel value of castor bean that is a potential inedible crop with minimum input requirements. For this purpose, a combined approach of field experimentation and lab analysis was conducted to explore the potential of two castor bean cultivars (DS-30 and NIAB Gold) against four S supply rates viz. 0, 20, 40, and 60 kg S ha−1 in terms of growth, phenology, and yield parameters. Subsequently, the obtained seed samples were analyzed for biodiesel related parameters in the Bio-analytical Chemistry lab, Punjab Bio-energy Institute, Faisalabad. The incremental S rates increased seed yield for both cultivars and the highest yield was recorded at 60 kg S ha−1 for NIAB Gold. For NIAB Gold, the oil content increased by 7% with S fertilization at 60 kg ha−1, and for DS-30, the oil content increased by 6% at 60 kg ha−1. As with incremental S fertilization, the oil yield increased on hectare basis, the quantity of produced biodiesel also increased. Importantly, the tested quality parameters of biodiesel except biodiesel viscosity were in ASTM standard range. Overall, it has been concluded that castor bean is a promising and sustainable option for producing biodiesel as it is non-competitive to food crops and requires little inputs.
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Diminishing supply and environmental pollution of fossil fuels are the vital factors leading to the search of alternative sources of energy like biodiesel. Biodiesel is one of the eco-friendly substitutes of energy which is mainly utilized in diesel engines. Ricinus communis (castor plant), which belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae yields an oil rich beans and plays important role in the production of biodiesel. Recently, the demand of castor oil and its products has been raised in the world market due to its versatility to use and simplicity to produce. Therefore, this study investigates the extraction of castor oil and its conversion in to biodiesel via alkali catalyzed transesterification. The seed oil of the plant was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus and the quality of the biodiesel was examined using the standard procedures of American standards for testing methods. Furthermore, the chemical composition of the extracted oil was examined using GC-MS. The seed oil was liquid at room temperature (25 °C), golden yellow in color with a nutty odor. The extraction processes yielded 324 g (9.25% w/w) and 78% of oil and biodiesel respectively. The density (0.86 g/mL), viscosity (5.42 mm2s-1), flash point (87 °C), acid value (0.35 mg KOH/g), water content (0.80%), iodine value (108.60), and cetane number (58.00) were reported in this study and showed a good agreement with the standards of biodiesel. GC-MS analysis of the seed oil also showed the presence of 10 different fatty acids (9-Octadecenoic acid, 12-hydroxy-, methyl ester, [R-(Z)] took the highest composition) which plays significant role for the production of methyl esters. So, the study can assure that castor oil can be used for commercial production of biodiesel at cost effective scales.
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The aim of this work is to evaluate the impact of oil cakes amendments (argan, neem, castor cake and ground castor) on control of Meloidogyne spp., affecting cucumber and melon; on soil fertility; on the growth and yield of cucumber under greenhouse in south-western Morocco. In cucumber growing-greenhouse, experimental results showed a reduction of gall formation, soil nematodes density, root rot infestation, and improvement of plant height and yield as compared to the control. Argan cake improved yield 112% more than the control. Generally, argan cake gave better results compared to the other treatments. In pots experiment on melon, maximum suppression (100%) of root knots and soil larvae population were found with argan; castor cake and ground argan shoot; while neem cake was less effective. Argan cake resulted in 24% increase in fresh weight compared to the infested control, while ground argan shoot enormously decreased both height and weight.
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The search for suitable non-edible oilseed crops for production of biodiesel has led to exploration of the potential of castor, hitherto an export oriented commercial oilseed crop in India. In this context, a study was conducted to identify high yielding castor genotypes ideal for biodiesel production. The material evaluated included seed of 15 castor genotypes grown in rainfed conditions of Alfisols at Hyderabad, India. Variability for palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic fatty acids was recorded. Ricinoleic acid, the predominant mono unsaturated fatty acid varied among castor genotypes from 86.7 to 92.1%. Correlation coeffecients between fatty acid profile and biodiesel traits were computed. Genotypes 48-1 and DCH-200 exhibited high O/L ratio, low Iodine value (IV) and high cetane number (CN) which indicates higher stability, longer shelf life, quick ignition and greater combustion quality. Genotype DPC-9 exhibited potential as a female parent for development of biodiesel suitable hybrid.
Atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis, neurodermitis diffusa, endogenous eczema) is one of the most common skin diseases of our time and is still increasing in prevalence dramatically all over the world. The reasons for this increase are not known. It occurs at any age, not only in childhood, approximately 2/3 of children affected will suffer from this disease when they are grown-up. Written by leading experts of their field, this second edition comprises the state of the art in pathophysiology, clinical medicine and therapeutic management. It demonstrates that there is no simple "miracle" cream, pill or diet for this disease, but that a disturbed barrier function can only be repaired by adequate and individualized skin care and it shows how unspecific anti-inflammatory treatment has to be individually tailored according to body area affected, patient age and acuity of skin lesions. All physicians will find this book most helpful in the painstaking search for the individual causal or eliciting factors.
In an attempt to revalidate indigenous pest control practices enliving in certain hillocks of Tamil Nadu, more than 125 practices covering crops like rice, vegetables, etc. store produce and domestic habitations have been documented. From the collection, based on popular usage, certain pest control practices were selected and subjected them for their efficacy in the laboratory and field conditions. All of them showed their potency against various pests.
With the availability of castor and tapioca, the food plants for eri culture in abundance, in the dry lands of Andhra Pradesh, and adequate additional returns it fetches along with main crops, eri culture has been receiving due thrust for promotion by the government. A study undertaken to ascertain the cocoon yield, comparative economics and potentials to enhance the income of the farmers supports the scope for further augmentation of the efforts. Presented here is an insight into the present scenario and the strategies to develop eri culture in dry land areas of the state.
The most comprehensive, up-to-date, and lavish guide to garden plants available today, this extensive encyclopedia includes over 8,000 plants, 4,000 of which are featured in exquisite full-color photographs. Written by a team of plant experts, this superb book is designed to be the gardener's bible, a standard work of reference for every gardening bookshelf. It is oganized into the following sections:
A deeper understanding of the growth and development of castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) will be required for the transition from the low input/low yield present scenario to the desired condition of mechanically harvested with high seed yield. The objective of this review was to discuss important aspects of castor growth and development in order to propose a framework for the study of aspects that can potentially impact castor breeding and crop management. Gaps in the knowledge were emphasized. Castor has a slow and cold-sensitive germination that negatively impact crop establishment. The importance of cotyledonary leaves has been poorly studied. Leaf area is very responsive to growing conditions, and factors that influence leaf size and leaf number were discussed. Leaves play a role beyond photosynthesis, particularly on the storage of nutrients and assimilates. Remobilization of stored compounds during leaf senescence is pivotal for seed filling, and this process can impact seed yield in early maturing varieties. Studies on castor root are scarce, despite its importance for plant growth. Some physiological processes of seed development such as seed filling duration and seed growth rate play an important role in the adaptation to different environments and for increasing earliness. Seed abortion is an important mechanism of sink adjustment to environmental conditions which can be explored for increased plasticity. Harvest index is a simple approach that historically has been very useful for increasing seed yield of many crops, and that should be used more often in castor research. Finally, modeling would be an obvious consequence of progresses in the understanding of physiological processes controlling castor plant growth and development.