Article

The Adoption of Open Innovation in Large Firms: Practices, Measures, and RisksA survey of large firms examines how firms approach open innovation strategically and manage knowledge flows at the project level.

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

We present a large-sample survey of open innovation adoption and management in large firms, a follow-up to a previous study. We repeat some of the survey measures from the first survey, finding that open innovation continues to be widely practiced in about 80 percent of responding firms. Outside-in open innovation is more often practiced than inside-out. In other words, large firms are net takers of free knowledge flows, in part because they are concerned about IP protection for outbound knowledge. When we added new measures to examine open innovation at the project level, we found that firms selectively manage knowledge flows into and out of projects and are formalizing processes as they move from problem definition to execution. We conclude with observations about the organizational challenges and risks of shifting to an open innovation approach.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... transfer is to improve the performance of R&D department [5,8]. Studies show that applying OI can increase the success rate of products to 50%; also, it can elevate firms' R&D productivity rate to 60% [9,22]. ...
... OI roots in "Exploration" and "Exploitation" [35], which are involved with searching and integrating external knowledge and new technologies [30] through creating a co-operation network with universities, suppliers, partners and customers for development [17]. Previous studies demonstrate three main processes for OI [8,16,22,29,42,44,49]. ...
... In terms of research methodology, given the novelty of OI in many research areas such as SMEs, many studies can be found that try to provide a clear definition of this concept by using qualitative methods such as theory building [12,16], content analysis [8,9,33,36], and etc. Moreover, it can be seen that other researches try to aggregate the results of previous studies using systematic review techniques [5,46,48] or investigate OI's dimensions by using path analysis [6,40,42]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Given the fluctuations in markets and the financial and resource constraints of SMEs, innovation is one of the solutions for improving performance, gaining competitive advantage and increasing survival probability for these companies. The paper aims to determine the best ranking of effective factors in open innovation success in manufacturing SMEs. At the first stage, the most important factors investigated using structural equation modelling based on the opinion of 275 experts. Subsequently, the impact level of each factor on the others calculated by fuzzy DEMATEL among 12 specialists’ viewpoints. In the end, optimized ranking of studied factors obtained by Ant Colony Optimization algorithm. As a result, economic factors, suppliers, competitors, partners, firm’s strategy, firm’s structure, reward system, employees, IT support, organizational learning, universities, research institutions, and ecological issues hold the first to the thirteenth rank with the highest cumulative impact on open innovation success. Developing relations with universities and research institutions for improving innovation process is recommended to manufacturing SMEs. In addition, these companies should coordinate firm’s strategy as one of the most important open innovation success factors with partners to gain competitive advantages against competitors.
... Incorporating external knowledge can enable firms to connect formerly disparate ideas and therefore unlock significant commercial potential (Baron 2006;Dahlander and Frederiksen 2011). To tap into the creative potential of external actors, a vast number of firms have implemented dedicated platforms and programs to search for knowledge outside the firm's boundaries (Brunswicker and Chesbrough 2018;Bogers et al. 2018a). P&G's "Connect + Develop" platform, Lego's "Ideas" platform, or NASA "Tournament Lab" platform are examples of how large corporations search for and engage with external knowledge (Ozkan 2015;Andersen and Gadde 2019;Devece et al. 2019). ...
... In a study of 121 large firms in the U.S. and Europe, Brunswicker and Chesbrough (2018) found that closed innovation projects still share higher success rates compared to OI projects. Additionally, the number of reports about failure cases and firms that turn back their OI activities seems to grow in recent years (von Briel and Recker 2017;Hewitt-Dundas and Roper 2017). ...
... OI models, in contrast, are grounded in the idea that external sources hold critical knowledge which may accelerate a firm's innovation activities (Enkel et al. 2009;West et al. 2014). This model of innovation has received great attention from research and practice in recent years and has become especially important for the innovation strategy among organizations of all sizes (Arora and Gambardella 2010;Brunswicker and Chesbrough 2018). On a broad level, OI is defined as the use of purposive inflows and outflows of knowledge, ideas, and technologies by firms to accelerate internal innovation and expand the markets for the external use of innovation (Chesbrough 2003(Chesbrough , 2006. ...
Article
Full-text available
While external knowledge has the potential to benefit a firm’s innovation activities, research shows that the positive effects of a more open model of innovation do not come naturally. This paper draws on the project level to explore the organizational factors that hamper or impede the integration of external knowledge sourced from an open innovation platform and to suggest interventions to overcome these barriers. While open innovation is mainly discussed as a concept that resides at the level of the organization, this paper draws on the project level to contribute to a multi-level understanding of open innovation and to offer a deeper understanding of the challenges project teams face, when integrating external knowledge. To investigate occurring barriers, four cases of external knowledge integration within a multinational corporation are analyzed. The results show that due to the external nature of the knowledge, an additional effort of project teams is required such as forming alliances with key individuals and changing negative attitudes towards external sources to overcome organizational resistance. Theoretical as well as practical implications are discussed.
... For instance, in their literature review, Obradovi c et al. (2021) recently observed that 70% of the studies investigating the manufacturing industry studied the impact of openness on performance. In comparison, the downsides, failures and costs of openness have been quite neglected (Appolloni et al., 2013;Bogers et al., 2017;Chesbrough and Bogers, 2014;Huizingh, 2011;Vos and Achterkamp, 2006), with relatively few exceptions (von Briel and Recker, 2017;Brunswicker and Chesbrough, 2018;Ciesielska, 2018;Dahlander and Gann, 2010;Faems et al., 2010;Greco et al., 2019;Lhuillery and Pfister, 2009;Lokshin et al., 2011). Yet, as Enkel et al. (2009) posed, too much openness can harm a firm in the long run, leading to a loss of control and core competencies. ...
... Such projects are our unit of analysis. This approach mimics what Brunswicker and Chesbrough (2018) did in their exploratory survey. ...
... This study also contributes to the recent stream of research targeting OI projects' micro-foundations (Bagherzadeh et al., 2021;Locatelli et al., 2021). Unlike recent studies' quantitative approaches to project-level analysis (Bagherzadeh et al., 2021;Brunswicker and Chesbrough, 2018), we favoured a qualitative methodology for understanding the underlying OI mechanisms that drive success and failure. ...
Article
Purpose Despite the multiple calls for research on the dark side of open innovation, very few studies have approached the topic so far. This study aims to analyse successful and unsuccessful open innovation projects. Design/methodology/approach This study uses thematic analysis to describe the factors determining their (un)success. The researchers interviewed 27 managers and owners in the manufacturing sector. Then, the respondents were asked to discuss one successful and one unsuccessful open innovation project to explore the differences in triggers and setbacks, focusing on the causes that determined the failures. Findings Findings show that many interviewees are reluctant to identify failure cases, which somewhat explains the paucity of studies on the topic, and others do so when the failure is recognised by a third party (such as a public institution not granting funds to the project). This study discussed how this phenomenon is linked with the paradoxical relation between innovation success and failure. It is also found that triggers and setbacks determining the project's (un)success are markedly differently based on the technological intensity of the firm. Implications for scholars and practitioners are also drawn. Originality/value This study provides a balanced view between open innovation successes and failures to offer informative recommendations to practitioners. Furthermore, it contributes to filling the scarcity of studies related to risks and failures of open innovation projects. This gap has been addressed by studying the factors that determine the success and unsuccess of an open innovation project.
... The adoption of the open innovation (OI) paradigm, defined as "a distributed innovation process that involves purposively managed knowledge flows across organizational boundaries" (Chesbrough and Bogers 2014 p. 17) has become a major trend (Brunswicker and Chesbrough, 2018;Martinez-Conesa et al., 2017). Although positive effects are widely acknowledged (Dahlin et al., 2020;Remneland-Wikhamn et al., 2011;Rohrbeck et al., 2009;Stanko et al., 2017), many firms still struggle to fully leverage its potential. ...
... Traditionally, the literature differentiates OI into inbound OI processes -the flow of knowledge from external partners into the companyand outbound OI processesthe flow of knowledge from the company to external partners (Chesbrough, 2003). While this conceptualization is often applied to describe OI from a firm-level perspective, it does not give credit to the complexity associated with the management of the multitude of different OI formats applied in individual projects (Brunswicker and Chesbrough, 2018). In this regard, research increasingly stresses the importance to examine OI from a project-level point of view (Barbosa et al., 2021;Guertler and Sick, 2021;West and Bogers, 2017) as in many firms innovation projects represent the locus in which innovation strategies are put into practice, and the same holds true for OI (Bonesso et al., 2014;Gemünden et al., 2013). ...
... In this regard, research increasingly stresses the importance to examine OI from a project-level point of view (Barbosa et al., 2021;Guertler and Sick, 2021;West and Bogers, 2017) as in many firms innovation projects represent the locus in which innovation strategies are put into practice, and the same holds true for OI (Bonesso et al., 2014;Gemünden et al., 2013). We follow this notion and distinguish OI practices in individual projects along two dimensions: (1) the collaborative intensitytransactional (formal acquisition of knowledge in return for a monetary or non-monetary compensation) or collaborative (joint development of a solution) -and (2) the number of involved partnersbilateral or multilateral (Brunswicker and Chesbrough, 2018). The diversity of involved stakeholders and their varying expectations in OI projects give rise to additional challenges necessitating the development of additional project capabilities (Keinz and Marhold, 2021;Vom Brocke and Lippe, 2015), which are enabled and embedded in and by structures, practices and routines driving an OI project through its lifecycle (Davies and Brady, 2016). ...
Article
A key challenge in open innovation (OI) projects relates to the tension of facilitating open knowledge exchange processes while ensuring sufficient protection to avoid knowledge leakage. Although prior research has discussed several solutions to balance sharing with protecting, these practices either tend to lay too much or not enough emphasis on knowledge protection. In this article, we complement current research by examining whether the formal control mechanisms, prespecified behaviors and prespecified outcomes, may serve as more efficacious project management solutions. We investigate their effect on OI project performance and knowledge leakage and compare their influence with that of contracts, using a data set of 106 new product OI projects in high-technology industries. We find that prespecified behaviors influence project performance in the form of an inverted U-shape, while prespecified outcome increases project performance in a linear fashion. Contracts decrease knowledge leakage while having no influence on project performance. Our study contributes to a more elevated understanding of the role of project management in coping better with the inherent sharing-protecting tension in OI.
... For von Hippel, the benefits of an open, distributed innovation eventually allows users, whether they are firms or individual consumers, to innovate by developing what they want and to benefit from innovations developed and freely shared by others [30] [31]. "Freely shared" in von Hippel open innovation is key and is something that still needs to get its way through companies [9][11] [4]. ...
... A follow-up study (121 usable responses, 73 were from European firms) aimed to get more insights from the open innovation project level which is where many of the critical decisions about open innovation are made [4]. This study revealed a 78% of the respondents practicing open innovation with more than 50% of those firms reporting that they adopted the strategy more than five years ago. ...
... This study revealed a 78% of the respondents practicing open innovation with more than 50% of those firms reporting that they adopted the strategy more than five years ago. The same study also revealed that universities and public research organizations were involved as partners in 58% of the projects at the problem definition stage and in 60% of the projects at the solution development phase [4]. ...
... Reducing formalization will provide a freedom margin making the knowledge transfer more efficient (Schmoch, 2003). However, some researchers support the formalization positivity on the knowledge passage and sharing (Brunswicker & Chesbrough, 2018) favoring open innovation. ...
... The transition from a traditional to a virtual environment necessarily implies very different entrepreneurial styles. Our research supports that entrepreneurial leadership affects open innovation through knowledge management (Brunswicker & Chesbrough, 2018). Entrepreneurial leadership is an entrepreneurial commitment to innovation based on the desire to go beyond the wisdom received, to combine ideas from unconnected sources, to embrace change as an opportunity, and to test one's limits (Kanter, 1983). ...
Chapter
Product development teams at ICT companies are using various innovation tools (e.g., Business Model Canvas, Lean Startup) and management methodologies (e.g., Lean Startup, Kaizen). The aim of this chapter is to align selection of innovation tools with company growth in subsequent stages of product development before and during commercialization stage. This chapter introduces a conceptual framework to be applied for creation of new ICT products by technology startups. This model describes the ICT product development path and availability of methods taking into account the product development stages. The choice of the tools and methods for development of innovative ICT products is found to be also correlated with the product IRL (innovation readiness level), choice of the growth financing (self-financing vs. venture money), and internal environment factors. The main findings of the research related to the validation of the proposed model for ICT product development by a number of emerging university spin-offs. The novelty of the research is related to introduction of relationship between currently available product development (innovation) tools and managerial processes, and the product development cycle.
... Keupp and Gassmann (2009) argue that practicing open innovation depends more on a firm's internal factors than on external industry trends. The internal characteristics that impact the practicing of open innovation are related to the capabilities and strategies of the firm (Brunswicker and Chesbrough 2018;Keupp and Gassmann 2009). Prior research indicates that opening up the innovation process might complement a firm's existing innovation activities (Cassiman and Veugelers 2006). ...
... Pavitt (2005) suggests that a high degree in competition within an industry necessitates the integration of external knowledge for gaining competitive advantage. However, the adoption of open innovation in firms is impacted by its internal characteristics related to the capabilities and strategies of the firm (Brunswicker and Chesbrough 2018;Keupp and Gassmann 2009). Research on the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm facilitates explaining how capabilities and strategies build competitive advantage for firms (West and Bogers 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
To manage the changing innovation landscape a key strategic decision for owner-managers of SMEs is the extent to which they adopt open innovation. Extant research however has tended to study open innovation processes in terms of a binary distinction- either open or closed. The purpose of this paper is to move beyond this dichotomous framing and identify the extent of openness in the innovation processes of SMEs in Europe. Furthermore, the study explores the association between internal firm-specific factors related to the capabilities and strategies of the firm and open innovation in SMEs. This study explores if (a) innovation objectives, (b) innovation activities, and (c) innovation expenditures, influence the extent of openness in the innovation process in SMEs. Drawing on data from the 6th Community Innovation Survey (CIS) of 9,949 SMEs from nine European countries, hypotheses are tested using hierarchical multiple regression analysis. The study contributes to the literature by showing that the extent of openness in the innovation process is low for European SMEs. SMEs are more likely to be characterised by higher levels of openness in their innovation if they prioritise product/process innovation objectives, conduct internal R&D, purchase/license external knowledge, and commitment more financial resources to innovation.
... The effectiveness of a company's open innovation (OI) strategy strongly depends on the performance of the innovation projects launched and driven by employees (Bogers et al., 2017;Brunswicker & Chesbrough, 2018). Companies have to redesign internal and boundary-spanning processes and activities to open up innovation processes and reap the full benefits of OI (Bianchi et al., 2016;Chiaroni et al., 2011). ...
... To capture employees' innovative behaviour as an outcome of OIHs' support, this study focuses on employees' knowledge exploration and creativity (Ardito & Messeni Petruzzelli, 2017;Brunswicker & Chesbrough, 2018;Du et al., 2014;Lewin et al., 2011;Locatelli et al., 2020). Both these variables have been proven to affect employees' innovativeness, thus sustaining their capability to develop OI projects (Lichtenthaler & Lichtenthaler, 2009). ...
Article
The effectiveness of a company's open innovation (OI) strategy strongly depends on the performance of the innovation projects it launches. However, OI research has dedicated only scant attention to the role played by the behaviour of individuals involved in these projects. This study focuses on the role played by an open innovation hub (OIH), an in‐house unit supporting and accelerating OI initiatives, and investigates how OIHs influence the innovative behaviour of employees involved in innovation projects. In particular, this study employs social cognitive theory as a theoretical lens and investigates the role of project members' collective efficacy. Specifically, we developed two hypotheses that were tested using empirical analysis, with survey data from 134 individuals involved in OI projects and operating in 16 Japanese companies. Our study contributes to the literature by illuminating how the perceived collective efficacy of the employees involved in an innovation project influences their behaviours. We find that the support offered by an OIH strengthens the project members' perceived collective efficacy and, in turn, supports their innovative behaviour.
... Third, we have found evidence that knowledge management capabilities have a positive effect on the relationship between knowledge spillovers and innovation capabilities. Like other authors, we also conclude the positive effect of this mediation relationship (Brunswicker and Chesbrough, 2018). We believe that management must be in line with the formalized Innovation capabilities of hospitality sector organizational processes that play important roles in knowledge spillovers and, consequently, in innovation capabilities (Brunswicker and Chesbrough, 2018). ...
... Like other authors, we also conclude the positive effect of this mediation relationship (Brunswicker and Chesbrough, 2018). We believe that management must be in line with the formalized Innovation capabilities of hospitality sector organizational processes that play important roles in knowledge spillovers and, consequently, in innovation capabilities (Brunswicker and Chesbrough, 2018). ...
Article
Purpose The aim of the study is to analyze how knowledge spillovers and knowledge management capabilities affect the innovation capabilities of hospitality sector companies in crisis environments. Design/methodology/approach A survey was completed by 63 hotel directors based in Portugal, gathering data on knowledge spillover, knowledge management capabilities and innovation capabilities. Two multiple linear regression models were used to estimate the impact of knowledge spillovers and knowledge management capabilities on innovative capability. Findings It has been concluded that knowledge spillovers work as external benefits of knowledge creation, increasing the innovation activities of companies in the hospitality sector, which reinforces that knowledge spillovers help to enhance innovation capabilities. The study's results show that it is essential for companies to manage knowledge. It also concludes that effective knowledge management facilitates the exchange of knowledge required in the innovation process. Knowledge spillovers improve the performance of innovation in companies through the development of new insights and innovation capabilities. Research limitations/implications This research was carried out in a period of crisis. As expected in a troubled period, the results are extremely volatile. This study's sample is composed of Portuguese hospitality companies. Originality/value This research provides valuable insights into the overflow of explicit and tacit knowledge in the hotel industry. Moreover, this study offers new insights into the mediating role of knowledge management capability in the relationship between a hotel's knowledge overflow and its innovation performance.
... In this perspective, previous studies have called for more research at the firm level on internal and external factors that can positively or negatively influence OI practices (Brunswicker and Chesbrough 2018;Chen, Chen, and Vanhaverbeke 2011;Ferreras-Méndez et al. 2015). In that view, Salter et al. (2015) addressed issues such as the role of openness and idea generation at the individual level in R&D activities, while Rangus and Černe (2019) investigated the association between authentic leadership, innovation performance, and employees openness. ...
... The opposite movement, outbound OI, involves finding external routes to market projects designed by the firm that would otherwise remain unvalued. Over the last 14 years, OI has been successfully embraced by both managers and academia (Brunswicker and Chesbrough 2018). On the other hand, SMEs are seen as the source of growth in economic development (March-Chordà 2004). ...
Article
Scholars have studied several factors that could explain the strengths and weaknesses of Open Innovation practices. Based on the resource-based view, we have designed a framework to describe how leadership interplays with the innovation culture and the firm’s absorptive capacity to enhance open innovation. A total of 252 manufacturing SMEs in Kenya participated in the survey. The collected data were statistically analysed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM) to verify the postulated hypothesis. The results show that transformational leadership positively impacts the outbound open innovation and enhances a firm’s innovation culture, which encourages the inbound open innovation. Furthermore, results indicated a moderating role of absorptive capacity in the relationship between innovation culture and inbound open innovation. This study's theoretical implications contribute to advancing the discussion on the antecedent of open innovation and the significance of innovation culture and absorptive capacity by demonstrating the role of transformational leadership and absorptive capacity in creating a culture that strengthens open innovation practices in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The results add new insights into how a company adjusts its open innovation strategies and internal capacity.
... Ammon Salter (360) stands out in this cluster [5,227,247]. Furthermore, to this cluster belongs authors, such as Marcel Bogers (278) and Sabine Brunswicker (185), who have conducted research together with Chesbrough on OI practices [2,248,249]. It also includes Linus Dahlander (169) [44,250] and Nadine Roijakkers (126), who delved into OI issues and their practices [31,251]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research on open innovation (OI) has increased in recent years, showing its potential in various areas of knowledge. Its relation to small and medium-sized enterprises has attracted the attention of academics. This article aims to evaluate the intellectual structure of the scientific study of OI, and its close relationship with various scientific fields, through a bibliometric analysis of this academic field using the Scopus database and the application of the VOSviewer software. The methodology comprises a rigorous systematic and transparent process divided into four phases: (i) the establishment of search criteria for the research field, through a literature review for its selection; (ii) the selection of the database, the establishment of the search equation and extraction of information; (iii) the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria for the selected documents and an explanation of the usefulness of the software; and (iv) the analysis of the results through the approaches of scientific output performance and bibliometric mapping. The results show an increasing trend of IO publications in SMEs, consolidated in 396 articles with contributions from 65 countries and 947 authors. The intellectual structure shows seven themes related to firm performance, R&D networks, business management, business models, capabilities and knowledge transfer. This study contributes to the field by providing an overview of IO in SME contexts. It also provides insightful information to policymakers for developing policies for firm economic growth.
... If the issue of external knowledge in relation to innovation has received particular attention in developed countries (Caloghirou, Kastelli, and Tsakanikas 2004;Cassiman and Veugelers 2006;Wang and Lin 2018;Brunswicker and Chesbrough 2018), this line of research has been literally neglected in developing countries (Wang and Lin 2018) particularly in Cameroon, where scarcity of studies analyzing innovation process and knowledge transfer is observed. This article therefore aims to fill this gap in the literature by analyzing the effects of different sources of external knowledge on the innovation capacity of Cameroonian SMEs. ...
Article
This paper aims to analyze the effects of different sources of external knowledge (market sources, institutional sources and business network affiliation) on firms’ capacity to innovate. Using cross-sectional data collected with the help of questionnaires on a sample of 514 SMEs in 2014, we employ the maximum likelihood method to estimate logistic regression models from which follow three main results: firstly, market sources significantly reduce innovative capacity; secondly, institutional sources of knowledge significantly increase innovative capacity; and thirdly, the net effect of business network affiliation, taking into account the other two sources of knowledge, is quite small. Thus, these results show that the institutional and operating environment of SMEs needs to be improved in order to discourage opportunistic behaviours and reduce information asymmetries in the hope that, in the long run, market sources can be transformed into an advantage for innovation, on the one hand. On the other hand, there is a need for a broad national coordination policy that encourages collaboration between universities and industry, as well as the commercialization of university research results. Hence, these results enrich the current understanding of the link between collaborative networks and the innovation performance of firms.
... It is dynamic and interactive and, more importantly, requires multifaceted information processing (Akbar and Tzokas, 2013;de Brentani and Reid, 2012;Townsend et al., 2018). Thus, successfully navigating the path from new product ideas to corroborated product definitions is highly challenging for firms (Brunswicker and Chesbrough, 2018). ...
Article
Based on the results of a multiple case study of seven manufacturing firms, a contingency framework for harnessing fuzziness in the front end of innovation is proposed by delineating two discrete capability paths through which new product ideas are developed into corroborated product definitions. The study illustrates that ideas characterized by high levels of fuzziness benefit from following an exploratory path, where the creative potential of fuzziness is embraced by deploying problem-formulation and problem-solving capabilities. In contrast, ideas at low levels of fuzziness benefit from following an exploitative path, where fuzziness is tolerated by drawing upon idea-refinement and process-management capabilities. When the fuzziness level of the idea and the set of capabilities to develop the idea are poorly aligned, the idea-development process is either inefficient or runs the risk of stalling. These findings have theoretical and practical implications for the front end of innovation and new product idea development.
... Industry and global market trends have been major factors favoring the adoption of open innovation among large multinational companies, and increasingly in other types of firms, especially in globally engaged enterprises. These trends include (Brunswicker and Chesbrough, 2018;Reed, Storrud-Barnes, and Jessup, 2012): ...
Book
Full-text available
The unprecedented speed of technological change--impacting all sectors of the economy--is changing how research is done, how companies work and do business, and how governments operate and relate to citizens. Innovation may be open, but it is not free. Innovation procurement does not end with the establishment of a supportive legal framework. To cope with the speed of these changes, systematic and mission-driven investments in science and technology capabilities are critical. At the same time, investments must enhance the capabilities of the public and private sectors to work collaboratively, with a supply and demand focus and a shared vision of the risks and returns on investments. This publication emphasizes the increasingly multidimensional and interconnected knowledge flows to accelerate innovation and endogenous capacities between institutions. It is the second in a series of three IDB documents on innovation procurement and open innovation in Brazil. Through this series, the Bank shows its commitment to investing in science, technology, and innovation and strengthening digital transformation.
... While narrowly bounded innovation contests with huge prizes garner much of the academic attention, recent surveys have shown that organizations prefer utilizing contests in coordination with other long term efforts because one off contests have more unpredictable participation, offer lower returns on investment, and are harder for organizations to guide in terms of community outputs (Brunswicker & Chesbrough, 2018). Instead, innovation contests are often viewed not as an end unto itself, but as a strategy for continuous innovation and community building. ...
Article
As organizations recognize the importance of open innovation, understanding emerging mechanisms for soliciting outside participation is a growing area of academic interest. Strategies can be as diverse as hosting innovation contests, sponsoring open source software (OSS) communities , or engaging in bilateral partnerships. While these have been studied as distinct strategies, more recent work has identified the possibility for combining these approaches, or deploying different methods at different times. Because each of these open innovation strategies are characterized by different incentive systems as well as different work and social practices, the combination of these can reveal unexpected participant responses (e.g., collaboration in innovation contests, competitive behavior in OSS communities). This study examines an explicit attempt to combine these strategies, to host an open source innovation contest. Through the case of Google's Android Developer Challenge, a series of multi-million dollar innovation contests used to launch an OSS community over several years, this study utilized a process approach to understanding open source innovation contests to understand how participants responded and also how the contest conditions changed over time. We found several practices of competition and collaboration that worked around the short term and long term incentives and constraints posed by the contest. We also followed the contest through various transition phases and found that participants reacted strongly to changes in structure, execution, and shifting conditions over time. Through this case, we extend our understanding of innovation contests as a process and specifically the promises and pitfalls of open source innovation contests.
... The aspects characterising the original definition of OI have been subsequently extended by the wide scientific literature available (reviewed for example in the works of Gao et al. (2020) and Conrado et al. (2017)), as described by Chesbrough and Bogers (2014): "A distributed innovation process based on purposively managed knowledge flows across organisational boundaries, using pecuniary and non-pecuniary mechanisms in line with the organisation's business model". OI favours a company in accessing available innovations by integrating them into its business model, reducing the economic impact of research and development activities and lowering business risks (Leckel et al., 2020) and expanding the concept of outsourcing, with new models of collaboration and engagement (Brunswicker and Chesbrough, 2018;Chesbrough and Brunswicker, 2014;Enkel et al., 2011;Guertler and Sick, 2020). ...
... The mutual exchange of information with rivals is a win-win relationship for both sides. As Brunswicker and Chesbrough (2018) believe, OI is rarely a one-way relationship. Moreover, as the profitability of the subsidiary companies of steel holding is part of the profitability of the company, this exchange of information is a win-win relationship for both sides. ...
Article
Purpose In this study, an open innovation (OI) model was designed in which the organization’s human resource systems comprise the main core. To identify the various dimensions of the model, this study aims to investigate how and under what conditions the organizations update and upgrade their knowledge and experiences in the human capital (HC) systems domain within the OI framework and in line with sharing them with other organizations. Design/methodology/approach In this qualitative study, the data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews and analyzed through grounded theory, which led to the extraction of the final model. Findings The implementation of the HC-based OI helps upgrade knowledge in the organization and industry knowledge, create win-win relationships and increase the interaction capital, power and credit of the organization. Originality/value In this study, HC systems have been regarded as the core of the OI model (rather than an intervening factor in OI). This is the main innovative aspect of the current study. In addition, the special attention paid to the inside-out approach to OI and the examination of the human and social aspects of inter-organizational knowledge sharing – particularly in the light of the fact that the study was carried out in a developing country – are the other innovative aspects of this study.
... They distinguished between two types of OI partnerships -science-based partnerships (universities and knowledge institutions) and marketbased partnerships (customers and suppliers). Further quantitative studies examined the relationship between OI and performance at the R&D project level (Cassiman et al., 2009(Cassiman et al., , 2010Salge et al., 2013) and the adoption of OI at the project level (Brunswicker & Chesbrough, 2018). All these quantitative studies are mainly focusing on the inputs and outcome measures at the R&D project level as well as the overarching formats of OI, but not at the operational management of these projects. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This paper-based dissertation aims to contribute to the open innovation (OI) and technology management (TM) research fields by investigating their mechanisms, and potentials at the operational level. The dissertation connects the well-known concept of technology management with OI formats and applies these on specific manufacturing technologies within a clearly defined setting. Technological breakthroughs force firms to continuously adapt and reinvent themselves. The pace of technological innovation and their impact on firms is constantly increasing due to more connected infrastructure and accessible resources (i.e. data, knowledge). Especially in the manufacturing sector it is one key element to leverage new technologies to stay competitive. These technological shifts call for new management practices. TM supports firms with various tools to manage these shifts at different levels in the firm. It is a multifunctional and multidisciplinary field as it deals with all aspects of integrating technological issues into business decision-making and is directly relevant to a number of core business processes. Thus, it makes sense to utilize this theory and their practices as a foundation of this dissertation. However, considering the increasing complexity and number of technologies it is not sufficient anymore for firms to only rely on previous internal R&D and managerial practices. OI can expanse these practices by involving distributed innovation processes and accessing further external knowledge sources. This expansion can lead to an increasing innovation performance and thereby accelerate the time-to-market of technologies. Research in this dissertation was based on the expectations that OI formats will support the R&D activities of manufacturing technologies on the operational level by providing access to resources, knowledge, and leading-edge technology. The dissertation represents uniqueness regarding the rich practical data sets (observations, internal documents, project reviews) drawn from a very large German high-tech firm. The researcher was embedded in an R&D unit within the operational TM department for manufacturing technologies. The analyses include 1.) an exploratory in-depth analysis of a crowdsourcing initiative to elaborate the impact on specific manufacturing technologies, 2.) a deductive approach for developing a technology evaluation score model to create a common understanding of the value of selected manufacturing technologies at the operational level, and 3.) an abductive reasoning approach in form of a longitudinal case study to derive important indicator for the in-process activities of science-based partnership university-industry collaboration format. Thereby, the dissertation contributed to research and practice 1.) linkages of TM and OI practices to assimilate technologies at the operational level, 2.) insights about the impact of CS on manufacturing technologies and a related guideline to execute CS initiatives in this specific environment 3.) introduction of manufacturing readiness levels and further criteria into the TM and OI research field to support decision-makers in the firm in gaining a common understanding of the maturity of manufacturing technologies and, 4.) context-specific important indicators for science based university-industry collaboration projects and a holistic framework to connect TM with the university-industry collaboration approach The findings of this dissertation illustrate that OI formats can support the acceleration of time-to-market of manufacturing technologies and further improve the technical requirements of the product by leveraging external capabilities. The conclusions and implications made are intended to foster further research and improve managerial practices to evolve TM into an open collaborative context with interconnectivities between all internal and external involved technologies, individuals and organizational levels.
... Recent large-sample surveys on the adoption of open innovation in large firms indicate that outside-in open innovation hereby is being practiced more often than inside-out innovation (Brunswicker and Chesbrough, 2018). However, it "has had a limited impact upon the broader disciplines of management and economics" (West et al., 2014, pp. ...
... A common debate in Open Innovation literature is that partnering efforts for innovation projects in established companies tend to start with inbound ideas and resources from external partners but then evolve to more complex networks and forms to profit from innovation-related activities as a company matures its open approach, one that combines inbound and outbound shares with single and multiple partners (Bagno et al., 2017b;Brunswicker and Chesbrough, 2018;Huizingh, 2011). In this regard, it is also arguable that COVID-19 crisis catalyzed such a process in MIL case once, after the first incursions seeking partners to complement the firm's capabilities to move forward its project portfolio, the company began to be unexpectedly invited by other partners from the innovation ecosystem for joining innovation projects outside its market domains. ...
Article
Full-text available
Organizations have been long seeking for building innovation capabilities to become game-changers in the market or being flexible against the changes that threaten them. An increasingly adopted approach is the establishment of an internal Innovation Function (IF) to coordinate the diverse and complementary innovation efforts within and around the organization. Although companies typically engage with initiatives for innovation capability building in good times and tend to quickly turn the focus back on short term issues in periods of crisis, this paper discusses a somewhat contra-intuitive case of a niche-focused Health Insurance Company in which the unprecedented power of the COVID-19 fueled the efforts towards establishing an IF despite the risks it first represented to the business. Based on a 4-month participative observation, we present the case of the Medicine Innovation Lab implementation (MIL), showing how the raising of the pandemic crisis affected the dynamics of MIL implementation, identifying and discussing the associated deployments of COVID-19 distinct dimensions, such as legal, funding availability and internal projects nurturing. Lastly, we propose paths for further investigation, including the post-crisis effect.
... The current transition from the information society to a super smart society in the framework of the fifth phase of the industrial revolution [30,31] is based on technological development, which enables and provides a very powerful collection of data and information stored in physical space of classical databases as well as advanced directives for analyzing collected data and information [32]. However, at the same time, modern society still does not have technological solutions that would allow a high degree of convergence between cyberspace (virtual space) and physical space (real space); comprehensive connections between people, things, and systems and cyberspace; and the use of artificial intelligence for comprehensive treatment of collected data and appropriate solutions for the linking of artificial intelligence with humans [33,34]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the importance of technologies in advancing modern organizations’ corporate social responsibility (CSR). Drawing upon environmentalist and technological theories, we analyzed the shift from the traditional development of technology to the development of sustainable technologies for the further sustainable advancement of organizations. Technology has decisively influenced the development of humankind, but its research has traditionally excluded sustainable development issues. Newer technological visions have addressed the incorporation of technologies in all industries more comprehensively to solve social issues related to environmental protection and sustainable economic development. Such an orientation is followed by several conceptual solutions, such as the sustainable use of traditional technologies, development of sustainable technologies, and interdisciplinary treatment of sustainable technology to extend the CSR model. The results of our study have theoretical implications, highlighting the effects of technological development and new technologies on the course of further societal sustainable development. Practical implications include extending CSR’s Triple Bottom model with a technological dimension to improve organizations’ further sustainable operating and behavior.
... The innovation mechanism provided by "Data for Good" initiatives to face social challenges relies on the less common outbound (or "inside-out") OI as the actors canalize the innovation into external markets or organizations that better suit its diffusion and exploitation [11,88,89]. Our analysis has highlighted some of the benefits that might arise from the adoption of this approach by exhibiting the role of mobility data in order to highlight the effects of lockdown on connectivity and on changes in human behaviours. ...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, countries around the world are facing one of the most severe health and economic crises of recent history and human society is called to figure out effective responses. However, as current measures have not produced valuable solutions, a multidisciplinary and open approach, enabling collaborations across private and public organizations, is crucial to unleash successful contributions against the disease. Indeed, the COVID-19 represents a Grand Challenge to which joint forces and extension of disciplinary boundaries have been recognized as main imperatives. As a consequence, Open Innovation represents a promising solution to provide a fast recovery. In this paper we present a practical application of this approach, showing how knowledge sharing constitutes one of the main drivers to tackle pressing social needs. To demonstrate this, we propose a case study regarding a data sharing initiative promoted by Facebook, the Data For Good program. We leverage a large-scale dataset provided by Facebook to the research community to offer a representation of the evolution of the Italian mobility during the lockdown. We show that this repository allows to capture different patterns of movements on the territory with increasing levels of detail. We integrate this information with Open Data provided by the Lombardy region to illustrate how data sharing can also provide insights for private businesses and local authorities. Finally, we show how to interpret Data For Good initiatives in light of the Open Innovation Framework and discuss the barriers to adoption faced by public administrations regarding these practices.
... Nonetheless, IPSs received very limited attention (e.g., Alexy et al., 2009;Fisher & Oberholzer-Gee, 2013;Grzegorczyk, 2020;Hurmelinna-Laukkanen & Yang, 2022). In addition, several other authors mentioned IPSs in their studies but rather focused on IPPMs (e.g., Brem et al., 2017;Lee et al., 2018;Teixeira & Ferreira, 2019). 1 Yet, strategy is fundamental to determining whether and how certain innovations should be revealed to partners (Brunswicker & Chesbrough, 2018). Indeed, Manzini and Lazzarotti (2016) Grzegorczyk (2020) emphasized that patent-owners could go beyond the typical defensive and offensive patent strategies and consider leveraging strategies, which often entail interaction with other organizations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Many articles in the open innovation literature studied the link between intellectual property protection mechanisms and openness, obtaining contrasting results. This paper bridges the literature on protection mechanisms and the one on intellectual property strategy. It leverages three high‐level intellectual property strategies—defensive, collaborative and impromptu—recently defined in the literature to identify how they entail different intellectual property protection mechanisms and approaches to outbound open innovation. The article advances that defensive, collaborative and impromptu are characterizing factors of intellectual property strategies. An exploratory analysis of 73 manufacturing firms allowed identifying five intellectual property strategies: defensive, purposely defensive, collaborative, developing impromptu and impromptu. The article describes their differences in intellectual property protection mechanisms and outbound open innovation. Furthermore, a fuzzy‐set qualitative comparative analysis identifies the optimal combination of formal, semiformal and informal intellectual property protection mechanisms to nurture outbound open innovation. The results are discussed in view of the extant literature, and implications for scholars and practitioners are presented.
... As a result, collaboration with stakeholders can be slow and complex because decision-making takes time. These findings align with earlier studies on large organisations' adoption of open innovation (Brunswicker & Chesbrough, 2018). Research findings demonstrate that although the private sector does not need to consider the regulations of policymakers in the innovation process (Boyne, 2002;Cankar & Petkovšek, 2013), structural issues especially in large organisations may cause innovation development to be time-consuming. ...
Thesis
Organisations can use innovation to exploit new opportunities and respond to threats. Open innovation is an approach that has been shown to help organisations in managing innovation, particularly due to its emphasis on stakeholder collaboration. While the body of knowledge on the management of open innovation has developed substantially in recent years, much of this has been driven by the observation of practice in large, private sector, product-based organisations. Fewer studies have been conducted on open innovation in service-based organisations, despite the fact that economic activity in many nations is dominated by service design and delivery. In addition, much less research has investigated whether open approaches to service innovation differ between private and public sector organisations. In this dissertation, a review of the literature and an exploratory review of practice demonstrate three specific knowledge gaps. Firstly, there is a lack of a strong conceptualisation of what open innovation means for service innovation and if and how this differs from open innovation for physical products. Secondly, these reviews confirmed that the vast majority of research on innovation management focuses on private sector organisations, as is also apparent in the literature on open innovation. This is a significant point to emphasise as approaches designed for the management of innovation in the private sector cannot be assumed to be transferable to the public sector given the fundamentally different nature of these two types of organisations. Thirdly, exploratory interviews with managers in large service-focused organisations in the private and public sectors identified a strong interest in open service innovation but also revealed that they found the design of processes for developing and implementing open innovation for new services extremely challenging. To address these gaps, this study implemented a three-step methodology. First, the literature was drawn upon to develop an initial framework for conceptualising open service innovation. This framework was then used to structure the analysis of data captured from three in-depth, longitudinal qualitative case studies of the development and use of open service innovation processes in one private and two public sector organisations. Finally, the open service innovation framework was modified to reflect additional issues emerging from the case studies, which were in turn linked back to the relevant literature. This exploratory research provides insights that both build upon and, in some cases, contradict current literature on open service innovation. Specifically, the research reveals that openness in organisational culture is a particularly fundamental issue underpinning open service innovation process design. However, the results also show that co-creation does not seem to be such a dominating concept in open service innovation as previously suggested by service innovation literature, and a systematic and transparent process is a key enabler in open service innovation in the organisations analysed for this research. This study makes two main contributions. Firstly, it delivers an open service innovation framework that identifies the key elements and interdependencies for implementing open service innovation. Since the framework is an initial conceptualisation of open service innovation, it provides a platform for further research and may support practitioners in structuring the design of their open service innovation processes. Secondly, the cases reveal many commonalities between the approaches to design and use of open service innovation processes in the public and private sector organisations, but also specific features of open service innovation management in the public sector that warrant further investigation.
... In the study of open innovation, large companies have been well researched in the topics such as the dynamics of open innovation (Brunswicker & Chesbrough, 2018;Brunswicker & Vanhaverbeke, 2015;Huang, Rice, & Martin, 2015), the role of technology played in open innovation (Yun, Won, & Park, 2016) and business models importance (Robaczewska, Vanhaverbeke, & Lorenz, 2019). Although company size has not been conclusive in determining the success of open innovation practices (Greco, 2015), startup companies have the potential as builders of future innovation ecosystems (Valkokari, Seppänen, Mäntylä, & Jylhä-Ollila, 2017). ...
Chapter
Entrepreneurial leadership is universally recognized and there are divergences in its effectiveness, which suggests several promising areas of inquiry. The success of this leadership style depends on interrelations between leaders, followers, and the knowledge context. This study offers an interpretative reading of entrepreneurship and leadership theories to describe an innovative approach. It investigates the link between entrepreneurial leadership and open innovation considering the knowledge management importance. A new conceptual model is proposed through a thorough review of the literature. A qualitative research method was used. Five in-depth case studies were conducted. Data was collected from small and medium-sized enterprises belonging to the Tunisian industrial sector. The findings of this study show that entrepreneurial leadership affects open innovation through knowledge management. Moreover, the results show that entrepreneurial leaders encounter difficulties in the use of knowledge into open innovation. In addition, the results reveal the contextual specificities of the Tunisian entrepreneurial leadership. This work would be an opportunity for practitioners allowing them to discover the mechanisms and processes ensuring the maintenance of entrepreneurial intensity in an innovative company but also, opening the door to action when this intensity presents deficiencies. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
Article
Purpose Previous research focused on open innovation (OI) suggests that enterprises benefit from adopting the journey; however, the relationship among OI, marketing journey and knowledge-intensive innovation marketing activities (KIIMA) remains unclear. The present study proposes a conceptual model of the marketing journey linking heterogeneous modes of marketing collaboration to knowledge-intensive activities. Design/methodology/approach The conceptual model was tested via ordinary least squares (OLS) linear regression based on a sample of data drawn from the Eurostat database. Findings The results indicate that strategies are a robust proxy for evaluating KIIMA, and partnerships, heterogeneous sources of knowledge and different marketing modes for collaboration among European knowledge-intensive firms are core antecedents of KIIMA, such as new-product development and marketing innovation, as well as firms' sustainable competitive advantage. Originality/value This study fills the gap by tracking the role of the journey within marketing collaborations on KIIMA, and it intervenes in the debate about interactive marketing innovation mechanisms. The study contributes to OI, knowledge management and the marketing literature by identifying the heterogeneous modes for marketing collaborations under which the marketing journey enhances knowledge-intensive activities such as those for marketing innovation.
Article
Using the meta-analysis technique, this research comprehensively reviews the existing open innovation (OI) literature, systematically aggregates empirical findings on the impact of OI on performance to identify key moderators and statistically tests the significance of these moderators in influencing the OI–performance relationship. Based on a comprehensive dataset of 2,377,123 firms and sub-firm units in 171 studies published from 2003 to 2018, this research demonstrates that the OI–performance relationship is significantly moderated by three key factors: performance measure, OI approach, and level of analysis. This research helps explain the conflicting findings regarding the OI–performance relationship in the existing literature, and contributes to the understanding of the effectiveness of OI practice.
Chapter
This chapter introduces the fundamental pillars of innovation to frame product development. Fintech innovative financial products, services, and business models have been enabled not only by recent technologies and innovation methodologies. Innovation is a broad term to refer to new products and this chapter discusses taxonomy as an aid to managers to conceptualize and map products in the market, given that each type of innovation calls for a different business model. Concepts of incremental and radical innovations and contemporary frameworks of open innovation are discussed. Entrepreneurial innovation is a source of innovation in fintech traditional players in the financial industry to streamline the entrepreneurial stages of exploration and exploitation of opportunities. Finally, a valuation model to frame a fintech start-up as a financial option is presented.
Chapter
Continuous Improvement Processes (CIP) in companies and organizations alike have been part of a widespread metamorphosis to a more strategic internal crowdsourcing process with professional campaigns as well as sophisticated ideation platforms to gather knowledge and experiences from the organizations’ employees and stakeholders. While its counterpart, namely external crowdsourcing with users, customers, or external stakeholders is a matter of myriad research, the use, process, metamorphosis, and environments of internal crowds are lacking a deeper understanding through in-depth analysis. In this paper, we will answer 1) why most organizations use either internal or external crowdsourcing, and 2) what key success factors exist for effective internal campaigns. In order to answer these questions, we accompanied 10 organizations using an active research approach based on a variety of data, including interviews. We sum up by consolidating all findings in managerial implications for practical execution.
Article
Purpose. In times of open and distributed innovation, many innovation activities that are important for firms’ products and services take place beyond the boundaries of the firm and thus beyond firms’ direct control. A prime example for this phenomenon is open source software development, where multiple actors contribute to a public good, which is also integrated into company-owned software products. Despite the importance of aligning community work on the public good with own in-house development efforts, firms have limited options to directly control the OSS project or its outcome. This research reflects on resource deployment control, a control mode in which firms assign own developers to work for an OSS project to influence it, and tests hypotheses on individual developer levels. Design/methodology/approach. This research tests the effect of perceived resource deployment control on opinion leadership by analyzing employed Linux kernel developers. Findings. The findings show that developers who perceive being assigned to an OSS project to enact control also exhibit opinion leadership. This research also investigates boundary conditions such as the OSS business model a firm operates, and the reputation developers assign to their employer. Originality. This research is the first that is devoted to resource deployment control, and it closes with a discussion of implications for control theory and the management of innovation beyond firm boundaries.
Article
Resumo Neste estudo investiga-se os resultados alcançados pela inovação aberta, especificamente sobre os ganhos financeiros, gerados em uma cooperativa de trabalho médico, denominada Unimed Cascavel, nos últimos três anos. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, utilizando técnicas de análise documental com foco em registros e relatórios da cooperativa pertencentes aos projetos realizados em parceria com start-ups. Como principais resultados e ganhos financeiros encontrados no estudo, pode-se citar: desenvolvimento de 6 soluções em parceria com start-ups no período analisado, ganhos qualitativos aplicados aos processos e gestão da cooperativa com destaque a automatização de atividades, melhoria da experiência de clientes e colaboradores em serviços da empresa, facilidade e autonomia nos processos, otimização de fluxos operacionais. Além disso, destaca-se ganhos alcançados por meio dessas soluções em aproximadamente R$ 521.953,21, se considerado todas as receitas e custos evitados adquiridos por essas ferramentas desenvolvidas dentro dos fluxos de inovação aberta realizados pela cooperativa. Palavras-chave: Inovação Aberta. Resultados da inovação aberta. Parcerias com start-ups. Ganhos qualitativos. Ganhos quantitativos. Automatização de processos
Article
The central tenet of open innovation (OI) is that useful knowledge is widely distributed. By purposively engaging in knowledge sourcing and sharing (KSS) activities, organisations can create and capture value through collaborative exchange with others. Organising for OI relies on the assumption that individual managers tasked to bring it to fruition will enact behavioural responses conducive to external KSS. However, understanding what characterises and informs managers’ disengagement in OI remains an unresolved challenge. The interactions between managers’ in‐role demands in OI and their self‐concept, which guide behavioural responses, are under‐investigated. Drawing on cognitive dissonance theory (CDT), this article conceptualises the sources of managerial dissonance and situates discussions on underlying influencing mechanisms, culminating towards a cognitive model of disengagement in OI. Bridging OI, psychology and management literature, hypotheses are developed to stimulate investigations into what characterises and influences managers’ disengagement in OI. Managerial implications are discussed to curate approaches that can help manage managerial dissonance in order to attain the desired organisational OI goals.
Thesis
Full-text available
ملخص أظهرت العديد من الدراسات فعالية استراتيجيات الابتكار المفتوح حيث ركزت بشكل كبير على آثار الاستعانة بمصادر خارجية في الحصول على المعرفة الابتكارية، التعاون مع مؤسسات الطرف الثالث والتسويق الخارجي للتكنولوجيا؛ كما ركّز العديد من الكتاب على نموذج الاعمال كأداة تحليل لقياس مدى تحقيق الممارسات والآثار المختلفة لفلسفة الابتكار المفتوح في المؤسسات، وتتناول العديد من الادبيات الأنظمة البيئية والقدرات الديناميكية في إطار مناقشة تبني الابتكار المفتوح. من هذا المنطلق تحاول هذه الاطروحة أن تدرس العلاقة بين استراتيجيات الابتكار المفتوح وتحسين الأداء التنافسي، يتم ذلك بتحديد القضايا الإدارية الرئيسية النابعة من ممارسات وتطبيقات الابتكار المفتوح التي تساهم في تحسين الأداء التنافسي، تم الاعتماد على منهج دراسة حالة متعددة، وضحت النتائج وجود تأثير إيجابي لأنشطة الابتكار المفتوح على الأداء التنافسي، كما أظهرت تأثيرات إيجابية لاستراتيجية حجر الزاوية وللأنماط الابتكار المفتوح البيئية على نموذج الاعمال المفتوح، ودور معدّل للقدرات الديناميكية في هذه العلاقة. ABSTRACT Various studies have shown the effectiveness of Open Innovation strategies; basically they focused on the impact of outsourcing innovation knowledge, collaborations with third parties and external commercialization of technology. Other scholars emphasize on Business Model as an analyze tool to achieve different open innovation practices and implications, literature discusses ecosystems and dynamic capabilities in the context of adopting Open Innovation strategies. This study tries to assess the relationship between Open Innovation strategies and the competitive performance. We do that by identifying the managerial issues stemming from Open Innovation and positively enhance competitive performance; Multiple case study methodology is adopted; the results indicates a positive relation between different Open Innovation strategies, and the competitive performance, and also by the open Business Model, The keystone strategy and the open innovation ecosystem modes appear to have a positive impact on the open business model, dynamic capabilities positively moderates the relation.
Chapter
Open Innovation (OI) is significant in progressed and improving conditions from coronavirus consequences. The COVID pandemic has brought many alterations in innovation and surroundings with OI. It is difficult to determine the long-term influence of COVID-19. It has a direct impact on large, small and medium enterprises (SMEs). This research aims to show how the association of university and research can help both organizations and SMEs. COVID-19 helps in the business association between well-settled organizations and start-ups in difficult business surroundings. This research also shows joint insights and helps in fulfilling the needs of academicians, professionals and decision-makers as an important procedure during the pandemic.
Article
Collaboration between research and industry is fundamental for technology innovation. Most existing research in this domain has focused on the drivers or enabling factors that lead to the success of such collaboration. On the contrary, the lack of information about collaboration failures in research-industry settings still represents one of the main obstacles to studying this topic. In this paper, we argue that management scholars should deepen inquiry on unsuccessful research-industry collaborations, as these occurrences may also have major repercussions in terms of business failures. Accordingly, we take stock of research on unsuccessful collaborations in the Big Science context, a special open innovation environment characterised by unexplored cases of research-industry collaboration failures. To address the need to investigate the drivers of failure in this context, we leverage a multiple case study analysis with a retrospective approach of a polar sample type of six case studies of collaborations between CERN – the biggest fundamental research organisation in the world – and supplier companies: three collaborations that have been recognised as successful, and three that have been recognised as failures. By doing so, we aim to provide a framework highlighting the main drivers that lead to failures of collaborations in this peculiar open innovation context and to shed light on the reasons why research-industry collaborations may fail in the Big Science context.
Article
Firms in high-technology industries face a complex set of challenges to innovate successfully and continuously to gain a sustainable competitive advantage. Innovative new R&D project sourcing choices top this list of difficult and nuanced choices that firms must make in pursuit of innovation. Our research makes a significant and novel contribution to this interesting discourse and critically examines the sourcing decision (i.e., open vs. closed innovation) in the context of new product development in the biopharmaceutical sector. Specifically, we apply a project-level typology along the dimensions of new R&D project source and project familiarity. Drawing from transaction cost economics (TCE) and the knowledge-based view (KBV) theories, we empirically test our theoretically developed hypotheses on a dataset of 2,971 biopharmaceutical R&D projects spanning from 1985 to 2016. Results from our robust analysis show that both new R&D project source and project familiarity have significant direct effects on focal project performance outcomes (defined in this paper as likelihood of termination). We also determine that focal project familiarity has a significant moderating effect on the relationship between project source and performance outcome.
Article
Purpose In recent years, the penetration of digital technologies in the financial industry determined the arising of Fintech, which generated a dynamic and rapid change that business operators and supervisory authorities in the banking industry are struggling to follow it. This is especially due to issues affecting financial intermediaries and customers, and potential risks of stability of the financial system. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of Fintech in the banking industry thus to update the knowledge about technology innovation in the banking sector, identify the major trends in the domain and delineate future research directions. Design/methodology/approach The study reviews 377 articles indexed on Scopus from 2014 to 2021 that focus on Fintech and the banking industry. The methodology adopted is structured in two steps: the keywords selection and the analysis of the documents extracted. The first step identified “Fintech” and “bank” as keywords to be searched within the title, abstract or keywords of documents indexed on Scopus; whereas the second step combined R and VOSviewer to provide a descriptive analysis of the dataset and the analysis of keywords and occurrences, respectively. Findings Results achieved in the study allow providing a systemic view of the Fintech in the banking industry, including the emergent phenomenon of digital banking. In particular, it is provided with a general overview and descriptive information on the entire sample of documents analyzed, their authors, the keywords used and the most cited works. Besides, a deepening on the model of digital banking is provided, by delineating the six dimensions of the key effects generated by the digital bank model. Originality/value Two main elements of originality characterize this study. The first one is related to the fact that few review studies have been published on Fintech in the banking industry, and the second one concerns the multiple dimensions of the impact of Fintech in the banking sector, which includes customer, company, bank, regulation authority and society.
Chapter
This chapter is presenting the relationship between trust and the attitudes toward knowledge sharing among students from Polish universities. The self-reported survey was used to gather data from 434 students from three universities in Poland. The obtained results confirmed that trust is an antecedent of the students’ knowledge-sharing attitudes. The trust dimensions that are adopted from the ABI model (such as ability, benevolence, and integrity) affect the attitude differently. The strongest predictor of attitudes toward knowledge sharing among students is integrity-based trust. This study contributes to both the knowledge-management research and the knowledge sharing in the student-to-student context. This chapter has practical implications for individual performance and provides recommendations for employers on important aspects of trust and knowledge sharing (such as a newcomer’s experiences and expectations toward an employer and the cultural differences in knowledge-sharing behavior).
Article
With the increasing need for firms to implement innovation in their pursuit of competitive advantage, open innovation has attracted the growing attention of academics and practitioners. However, the current literature has been lopsided, focussing predominantly on the myriad benefits of open innovation. We argue that eulogising only the positive aspects of open innovation is insufficient to help firms and motivate future research. Therefore, we recommend increased attention to the dark side of open innovation, which includes failures that can occur at various stages of the open innovation process. A review of the existing literature reveals that although researchers have, time and again, attempted to document failure in open innovation, this literature is comparatively sparse and fragmented. The extant literature also exhibits an apparent lack of effort to encourage future research, as evidenced by the absence of a comprehensive literature review. We aim to address this research gap by reviewing 76 studies identified by applying a stringent search protocol consistent with the systematic literature review (SLR) methodology. The contributions of this SLR include (a) development of a research profile of the relevant literature, (b) identification of five thematic areas, (c) elucidation of research gaps and suggestion of potential research questions as an agenda for future research on failures in open innovation, (d) formulation of a conceptual framework comprising the antecedents and outcomes of open innovation failure and (e) presentation of the various theoretical and managerial implications for scholars and practitioners.
Book
This book sheds light on the emerging research trends in intelligent systems and their applications. It mainly focuses on four different themes, including Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing, Information Security and Networking, Medical Informatics, and Advances in Information Systems. Each chapter contributes to the aforementioned themes by discussing the recent design, developments, and modifications of intelligent systems and their applications.
Article
Purpose This study aims to explore the interaction of strategic knowledge management (SKM) and innovation on the performance of large manufacturing firms (LMFs) in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach This study used a quantitative approach in investigating this interaction. Smart partial least-squares analysis was performed to test the hypotheses. Findings It was observed that administrative innovation, process innovation and product innovation were effective drivers of LMF performance. It was also ascertained that SKM has no moderating effect on the product innovation relationship with performance, although it does moderate the relationships between LMF performance and administrative innovation and process innovation, respectively. Research limitations/implications The main limitation of this study is its focus on Malaysian LMFs. It nevertheless contributes to the literature by extending understanding of SKM and innovation dimensions from multi-faceted perspectives. As this is largely ignored in the literature, the study paves the way for additional research. Practical implications The findings may be used as guidelines for chief executive officers, particularly on the way SKM and innovation can be developed for enhanced LMF performance, in the context of South Asian countries. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first empirical work to confirm the main drivers of SKM, including in the analysis the effect of administrative innovation, process innovation and product innovation and performance, in the context of the manufacturing sector. In support of an original conceptual model, the insights contribute to the literature on innovation, LMFs, SKM and emerging economies.
Article
Full-text available
Technological development of the last several decades has driven open innovation towards organizational, business, social, and economic change. Open innovation has emerged as the main driver of change in a business sector that needs to be flexible and resilient, rapidly adapting to change through innovation. In this context, the present study aimed to explore the limits of open innovation by extracting evidence from user-generated content (UGC) on Twitter using social media mining. To this end, in terms of the methodology, we first applied machine learning Sentiment Analysis algorithm texted using Support Vector Classifier, Multinomial Naïve Bayes, Logistic Regression, and Random Forest Classifier to divide the sample of n = 586.348 tweets into three groups expressing the following three sentiments: positive, negative, and neutral. Then, we used a mathematical topic modeling algorithm known as Latent Dirichlet allocation to analyze the tweet databases. Finally, Python was used to develop textual analysis techniques under the theoretical framework of Computer-Aided Text Analysis and Natural Language Processing. The results revealed that, in the tweets dataset, there were eight topics. Of these topics, two contained tweets expressing negative sentiments (Culture and Business Models/Management), three topics contained tweets expressing positive sentiments (Communities, Creative projects and Ideas), and three topics contained tweets expressing neutral sentiments (Entrepreneurship, Teams and Technology). These topics are discussed in the context of limitations, risks, and characteristics of open innovation according to the UGC on Twitter. The paper concludes with the formulation of 20 limits of open innovation and 27 research questions for further research on open innovation, as well as a discussion of theoretical and practical implications of the study.
Chapter
With projects becoming more complex and multifaceted than before, there arises a need for agile efficient project management. This chapter seeks to define project management efficiency. The chapter explores the five variables that influence project management efficiency. It also delves into the importance of project management efficiency. Finally, the chapter breaks down the challenges to project management efficiency and gives solutions to counter the challenges. The variables explained in this chapter are project scope, cost, time, resources, and quality. As evidenced here, each variable has a role in enhancing efficiency in managing projects. The benefits of efficiently managed projects examined are quality control, customer satisfaction, risk identification and evaluation, consistent communication, and on-schedule project delivery. The challenges expounded in the chapter are inadequate skillset, undefined goals, impossible deadlines, scope creep, resource deprivation, and poor communication.
Article
Open innovation (OI) has drawn significant attention over the years, and there is considerable evidence documenting the benefits of technology firms opening the R&D process to external stakeholders. Less appreciated, however, are the intra-organizational risks of misaligned managerial motives and asymmetries across different stakeholders that are also invariably associated with OI. In this conceptual paper, we draw on stakeholder theory and use examples from the high-tech industry to underscore the corporate governance practices (rewards and control mechanisms) that incumbent technology firms can implement to minimize these OI risks. We develop a tripartite scheme of OI governance to clarify how senior leaders (primary agents) can be incentivized to generate OI from the top, how project leaders (secondary agents) can be motivated to absorb OI at the backend, and how external stakeholders (tertiary agents) can be engaged to disseminate the benefits of OI to society. We contribute to the discussion on the paradox of OI by demonstrating that despite senior leaders’ enthusiasm to generate OI, their current emphasis on appeasing myopic shareholders unwittingly sabotages the absorption and dissemination of OI at the backend, preventing incumbent companies from institutionalizing OI to benefit society. We highlight the value of holistic stakeholder centric OI governance as a superior alternative to the shareholder primacy model currently adopted by mature technology companies. To institutionalize OI fully, we stress the value of using non-pecuniary rewards and informal controls to ensure OI creates stakeholder value. Several implications follow for managers and scholars to mitigate OI risks and to advance our understanding of OI stakeholder governance to create shared value.
Article
Despite the popularity of open innovation in recent years, studies examining the impact of open innovation upon firm performance have shown mixed results. Previous empirical work on this topic is often based on surveys or archival sources, usually done either in isolation or in aggregate through employing proxy measures. In contrast, we employ an unsupervised learning technique (i.e., topic modelling) utilizing natural language processing to extract information on companies’ open innovation practices, creating an initial keyword basket for future development. We then revisit the relationship between open innovation practices and financial performance of firms. The results show that a firm’s overall openness level is associated with improved financial performance. More granular practices developed from our approach, however, show variations. The inverted U-shaped relationships are observed in specific open innovation practices but not in all, partly supporting the existence of the openness paradox from prior literature. The complementarity between internal R&D and individual open innovation practices also varies by practice. Further, the influence of these open innovation practices also varies by sector. Our findings prompt us to conclude that open innovation’s impact on financial performance is nuanced, and that there is no uniform set of best practices to practice open innovation effectively.
Chapter
Beyond the boundaries of the organizations, they act fearlessly to adopt open innovation tactics and models in order to gain access to the necessary resources. In open innovation, “open” refers the sharing of organizational tacit knowledge. Knowledge management is essential in organizations because it promotes the development of a successful organizational business model and makes a difference in completing various organizational tasks and forms that may lead to the discovery of new knowledge. This journey starts from the flow of information and takes organizations toward innovation that has no boundaries. For this reason, the research question involves the kind of relationship that exists between knowledge flow and open innovation. This chapter aims to illustrate the importance of knowledge flow through unbounded innovation, particularly the correspondence between aspects of knowledge management and open innovation.
Chapter
In the current dynamic markets, characterized by competitive economies, innovation is deemed to be the peak of success in most business projects. However, studies dedicated to the relationship between innovation adoption and project performance, particularly the former’s impact on the latter, still remains lacking. Thus, this paper’s main objective is to shed light on the impact of innovation adoption on project performance through a thorough systematic review of literature dedicated to the subject. The literature review findings provide insight into the significance of innovation adoption in the context of project management. The study findings also contribute to the promotion of awareness concerning the innovation adoption role in enhancing project performance. Managers can use the findings to enhance project innovation capability through the acknowledgement of the different aspects of innovation.
Chapter
Full-text available
Traditional 1-D discrete chaotic systems are not suitable to use directly in PRBG design for their cryptographic usage as their structures are simple and have predictability. Pseudo-random sequences have wide applications in image and video encryption, hash functions, spread spectrum communications, etc. In chaos-based cryptography, chaotic systems have been regarded as an important pseudorandom source in the design of pseudo-random bit generators due to its inherent properties of sensitive dependence on initial conditions and parameters. In order to improve the dynamism and features of standard logistic map, a 1-D discrete combination chaos model is proposed in this paper. The chaos model enables to construct new chaotic systems with combination of logistic map and Trigonometric functions. The performance analysis shows that the new systems are more complex and better than the original Logistic map. Further, we also propose to present a new pseudo-random bit generator based on new log-tan chaotic system and log-cot chaotic system. The randomness and other statistic analysis show that our pseudo-random bit generator has good randomness features, satisfy the linear complexity and balancedness requirements well.
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides an overview of the main perspectives and themes emerging in research on open innovation (OI). The paper is the result of a collaborative process among several OI scholars – having a common basis in the recurrent Professional Development Workshop on ‘Researching Open Innovation’ at the Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management. In this paper, we present opportunities for future research on OI, organised at different levels of analysis. We discuss some of the contingencies at these different levels, and argue that future research needs to study OI – originally an organisational-level phenomenon – across multiple levels of analysis. While our integrative framework allows comparing, contrasting and integrating various perspectives at different levels of analysis, further theorising will be needed to advance OI research. On this basis, we propose some new research categories as well as questions for future research – particularly those that span across research domains that have so far developed in isolation.
Article
Full-text available
The explicit goal of the inaugural World Open Innovation Conference (WOIC) was to attract both leading academic researchers in open innovation and leading industry practitioners of open innovation, seeking to get these two groups to engage with one another. This introductory article sets the intellectual context of the WOIC, summarizes the “top” four articles resulting from the conference, and provides a research agenda based on a high-level view of all the submissions and sessions.
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Garwood Center for Corporate Innovation at the University of California, Berkeley, in the US and the Fraunhofer Society in Germany have teamed up to conduct the first large sample survey of open innovation adoption among large firms that we know of. Surveying large firms in both Europe and the US with annual sales in excess of US$ 250 million, we learned many important facts that show the extent to which large firms are now practicing open innovation. Here are some of the highlight results from our survey, along with the section of this report where these results are reported: ƒƒ78 % of firms in our sample report practicing open innovation (3.1). ƒƒNo firms in our sample report abandoning their practice of open innovation (3.2). ƒƒ71 % report that top management support for open innovation is increasing in their firm (3.2). ƒƒ82 % report that, compared to three years ago, open innovation is practiced more intensively today (3.2). ƒƒInbound open innovation practices are more commonly practiced than outbound practices. The share of projects with an inbound component is 35 % on average. Only about 8 % of projects result in outbound activities (4.2). ƒƒCustomer co-creation, informal networking, and university grants are the three leading inbound practices in 2011. Crowdsourcing and open innovation intermediary services are rated lowest in importance (4.3). ƒƒJoint ventures, selling market-ready products and standardization are the three leading outbound practices. Donations to commons and spin-offs play a minor role (4.3). ƒƒCustomers, universities and suppliers are the three leading open innovation partners reported by survey respondents (4.3). ƒƒFirms are much more likely to receive “freely revealed” information than they are to provide such information (4.4). ƒƒEstablishing new partnerships, exploring new technological trends and identifying new business opportunities are the leading strategic reasons to engage in open innovation (4.5). ƒƒCorporate R&D and product & process development units report more autonomy in budgeting for innovation activities (5.1). ƒƒThe typical large firm in our sample spends US$ 2 million annually on open innovation, and employees 20 full time equivalent people to do the work (5.2). ƒƒOpen innovation is not much formalized yet, and cultural norms are as important for open innovation as formal practices (5.3). ƒƒThe biggest challenges in managing open innovation are within the firm. The change process from closed to open innovation is rated as the most difficult task (5.4). ƒƒFirms are not satisfied with their current open innovation metrics (6.1), though they are more satisfied with their overall open innovation performance to date (6.2). We discuss these findings and additional analyses in more depth in the pages that follow. Overall, our survey results paint a picture in which open innovation is on the rise. While firms are somewhat satisfied overall with their open innovation experience (and their satisfaction increases with more experience), there is plenty of room for improvement. For example, inbound practices are more commonly utilized than outbound practices. Individual practices are not rated all that highly in their effectiveness and individual metrics are not rated very highly either. We surmise that firms are still early in their use and understanding of open innovation.
Article
Full-text available
To innovate, firms often need to draw from, and collaborate with, a large number of actors from outside their organization. At the same time, firms need also to be focused on capturing the returns from their innovative ideas. This gives rise to a paradox of openness—the creation of innovations often requires openness, but the commercialization of innovations requires protection. Based on econometric analysis of data from a UK innovation survey, we find a concave relationship between firms’ breadth of external search and formal collaboration for innovation, and the strength of the firms’ appropriability strategies. We show that this concave relationship is stronger for breadth of formal collaboration than for external search. There is also partial evidence suggesting that the relationship is less pronounced for both external search and formal collaboration if firms do not draw ideas from or collaborate with competitors. We explore the implications of these findings for the literature on open innovation and innovation strategy.
Article
Full-text available
Scholars have recently highlighted the promise of open innovation. In this paper, we treat open innovation—in it's different forms and manifestations—as well as internal or closed innovation, as unique governance forms with different benefits and costs. We discuss how each governance form, whether open or closed, is composed of a set of instruments that access (a) different types of communication channels for knowledge sharing, (b) different types of incentives, and (c) different types of property rights for appropriating value from innovation. We focus on the innovation “problem” as the central unit of analysis, arguing for a match between problem types and governance forms, which vary from open to closed and which support alternative forms of solution search. In all, the goal of this paper is to provide a comparative framework for managing innovation, where we delineate and discuss four categories of open innovation governance forms (markets, partnerships, contests and tournaments and user or community innovation) and compare them with each other and with two internal or closed forms of innovation governance (authority and consensus-based hierarchy).
Article
Full-text available
From Apple to Merck to Wikipedia, more and more organizations are turning to crowds for help in solving their most vexing innovation and research questions, but managers remain understandably cautious. It seems risky and even unnatural to push problems out to vast groups of strangers distributed around the world, particularly for companies built on a history of internal innovation. How can intellectual property be protected? How can a crowd-sourced solution be integrated into corporate operations? What about the costs? These concerns are all reasonable, the authors write, but excluding crowdsourcing from the corporate innovation tool kit means losing an opportunity. After a decade of study, they have identified when crowds tend to outperform internal organizations (or not). They outline four ways to tap into crowd-powered problem solving--contests, collaborative communities, complementors, and labor markets--and offer a system for picking the best one in a given situation. Contests, for example, are suited to highly challenging technical, analytical, and scientific problems; design problems; and creative or aesthetic projects. They are akin to running a series of independent experiments that generate multiple solutions--and if those solutions cluster at some extreme, a company can gain insight into where a problem's "technical frontier" lies. (Internal R&D may generate far less information.)
Article
Full-text available
By combining internal and external competencies and knowledge, both in R&D and marketing, the multinational life sciences and performance materials company DSM is opening up its innovation process. DSM recognizes that successful, profitable innovation depends upon teamwork and an entrepreneurial culture. The presence of a business group dedicated to business development and venturing testifies to the increased importance of speeding up innovation at DSM, using both internal and external leads at all stages of new business development. During this process, different management styles are required, ranging from a scientific approach in the early stages, to an entrepreneurial attitude in the early phase of commercialization, to a more risk-adverse mindset once the business has matured. As DSM understands it, innovation is a culture, not a process.
Article
Full-text available
A central part of the innovation process concerns the way firms go about organizing search for new ideas that have commercial potential. New models of innovation have suggested that many innovative firms have changed the way they search for new ideas, adopting open search strategies that involve the use of a wide range of external actors and sources to help them achieve and sustain innovation. Using a large-scale sample of industrial firms, this paper links search strategy to innovative performance, finding that searching widely and deeply is curvilinearly (taking an inverted U-shape) related to performance. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Full-text available
This paper is motivated by a desire to clarify the definition of ‘openness’ as currently used in the literature on open innovation, and to re-conceptualize the idea for future research on the topic. We combine bibliographic analysis of all papers on the topic published in Thomson's ISI Web of Knowledge (ISI) with a systematic content analysis of the field to develop a deeper understanding of earlier work. Our review indicates two inbound processes: sourcing and acquiring, and two outbound processes, revealing and selling. We analyze the advantages and disadvantages of these different forms of openness. The paper concludes with implications for theory and practice, charting several promising areas for future research.
Article
Theorizing about the sharing-protecting tension has been mostly at the organizational level.We draw on advances in self-regulation theory and hot cognition microfoundations of organizational capabilities to articulate three capabilities that dyads of interacting individuals in interorganizational collaborations must possess to regulate the sharingprotecting tension. Besides the recursive influences within dyads, the three capabilities involve recursive multilevel influences between individuals and their home organizations. The interactive self-regulatory theory helps explain how interacting individuals are able to dynamically adjust their sharing and protecting behaviors to the complexity, emergence, and adaptation required in interorganizational collaborations.
Article
We argue that under certain circumstances crowdsourcing transforms distant search into local search, improving the efficiency and effectiveness of problem solving. Under such circumstances a firm may choose to crowdsource problem solving rather than solve the problem internally or contract it to a designated supplier. These circumstances depend on the characteristics of the problem, the knowledge required for the solution, the crowd, and the solutions to be evaluated.
Article
OVERVIEW: We surveyed 125 large firms in Europe and the United States with annual sales in excess of $250 million to examine the extent to which large firms are now practicing open innovation. Our results showed that open innovation is not a passing fad: 78 percent of the firms report practicing open innovation, none have abandoned it, and 82 percent of those practicing open innovation report that it is practiced more intensively today than three years ago. We also asked about specific practices for “outside-in” and “inside-out” open innovation. We found that customer co-creation, informal networking, and university grants were the three leading inbound practices in 2011; crowdsourcing and open innovation intermediary services were rated lowest in importance. Joint ventures, selling market-ready products, and standardization were the three leading outbound practices; donations to commons and spinoffs were least frequently used. We also found that large firms are more likely to receive freely revealed information than they are to provide such information.
Article
Control theory attempts to explain how one person or group in an organization can ensure that another person or group works toward and attains a set of organizational goals. Prior empirical work investigating control theory has shown that characteristics of the task and of the organizational environment predict the use of various types of control. However, this paper argues that when control theory is applied to a complex, nonroutine task such as the management of information systems development, the theory of control is incomplete. In particular, it proposes that knowledge of the task is a key determinant of type of control. Four modes of control (behavior, outcome, clan, and self) are identified from the organizational literature; each highlights different aspects of control in organizations. Building on prior empirical work, this paper integrates the different theoretical perspectives and predicts the circumstances under which each type of control will be implemented. Survey responses from 96 participants of 32 systems development efforts suggest that the extent to which behaviors are monitored interacts with the project sponsor's level of systems development knowledge to determine the amount of behavior control; that outcome control is a function of the extent to which behaviors are monitored and outcomes are measurable; and that self-control is dependent on the extent to which outcomes are measurable and the level of the project sponsor's knowledge about systems development activities. No relationship between clan control and the independent variables was found.
Book
Annotationnewline newline Annotation.newline newline Annotation
Article
In the increasingly competitive landscape, there is a growing demand for companies to be innovative. However, the concept of innovation is confounded by the central question of what makes a product innovative. If innovation is defined as the commercialization of an enabling technology that provides the customer with new capability, then there are two key requisites for innovation: customer insight to identify unmet need, and technology awareness to identify the respective enabling technology. Drivers for innovation can be thought of as any force that links customer need uniquely with an enabling technology solution; this region of overlap is described as the innovation space. Roche Diagnostics manages the challenges of sourcing external technologies by leveraging these drivers through comprehensive technology evaluation.
Article
A central tenant of open innovation is free revealing of the detailed workings of novel products and services, so that others may use them, learn from them, and perhaps improve them as well. We explain that innovators frequently do freely reveal proprietary information and knowledge regarding both information-based products and physical products they have developed. We explain why free revealing can make good economic sense for innovators and for society as well. The article develops the case for free revealing in terms of a ‘private collective’ model of innovation incentives.
Article
What are the origins of entrepreneurial beliefs about new opportunities and the value of resources? In this article, we outline a theory and model of the emergence of entrepreneurial beliefs and novel strategies. We first summarize extant literature by highlighting both the experiential and perceptual (or observational) origins of entrepreneurial beliefs and strategies. Thereafter we carefully explicate the role that entrepreneurial theorizing plays in the emergence of novel beliefs about new opportunities and make links with experiential and perceptual arguments. We specifically discuss three key mechanisms of entrepreneurial theorizing, namely: (1) the triggering role of experiential and observational fragments; (2) the imagination of possibilities; and (3) reasoning and justification. Importantly, we also explicate the social mechanisms of entrepreneurial theorizing and the emergence of entrepreneurial beliefs and novel strategies, specifically by discussing the role of social interaction and self-selection in entrepreneurial activity. Copyright © 2009 Strategic Management Society
Open innovation case study: Pfizer’s Centers for Therapeutic Innovation
  • M Allarakhia
Mix and match: Open innovation project attributes and optimal governance modes. Conference paper presented at World Open Innovation Conference
  • M Bagherzadeh
  • S Brunswicker
Open innovation at Bosch. Accenture Research. https://www.accenture.com/t20170411T174009Z__w__/us-en/_acnmedia/PDF-43
  • R Narsalay
  • S Brunswicker
  • M Bagherzadeh
  • M Kapur