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Collaborative Innovation Networks: Building Adaptive and Resilient Organizations

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Abstract

This unique book reveals how Collaborative Innovation Networks (COINs) can be used to achieve resilience to change and external shocks. COINs, which consist of 'cyberteams' of motivated individuals, are self-organizing emergent social systems for coping with external change. The book describes how COINs enable resilience in healthcare, e.g. through teams of patients, family members, doctors and researchers to support patients with chronic diseases, or by reducing infant mortality by forming groups of mothers, social workers, doctors, and policymakers. It also examines COINs within large corporations and how they build resilience by forming, spontaneously and without intervention on the part of the management, to creatively respond to new risks and external threats. The expert contributions also discuss how COINs can benefit startups, offering new self-organizing forms of leadership in which all stakeholders collaborate to develop new products.
... The need for and the opportunities for innovation provided by collaboration are addressed in 24 of the analysed academic sources. The references span from the importance of innovation to capturing new business opportunities, through the need to develop capacity and readiness to innovate, and the application of the Open Innovation paradigm arguing for the need to establish new models, where much of the knowledge comes from outside the boundaries of the company [42], to the call for establishing Collaborative Innovation Networks, or COINs-"self-organizing emergent social systems"-as "primary building blocks of innovation" [43]. ...
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The effective response to the proliferation and growing diversity and sophistication of cyber threats requires a broad spectrum of competencies, human, technological and financial resources that are in the powers of very few countries. The European Union is addressing this challenge through an initiative to establish one or more cybersecurity competence networks. A number of existing technologies can support collaboration in networked organisations; however, network governance remains a challenge. The study presented in this article aimed to identify and prioritise network governance issues. Towards that purpose, qualitative and quantitative methods were applied in the analysis of norms and regulations, statutory documents of existing networks, academic sources and interviews with representatives of funding organisations and potential major customers. The comprehensiveness and complementarity of these primary sources allowed to identify 33 categories of governance issues and group them in four tiers, indicative of the respective priority level. The results of the study are currently used to inform and orient the development of alternative models for governance of a cybersecurity network and a set of criteria for their evaluation. They will support informed decision-making on the most appropriate governance model of a future networked organisation, evolving from a project consortium.
Conference Paper
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Wearable Technologies continue to dramatically change healthcare system in various ways. The proliferation of these wearable technologies used in healthcare has made the emerging discipline confusing to understand. To better understand the rapid, fast-moving change, we propose a taxonomy to classify wearable technologies in terms of three major dimensions: application, form, and functionality. This taxonomy is evaluated by conducting both literate and market mapping. By doing so, we were able to classify a number of existing wearable technologies in light of the taxonomy dimensions. This DSR project concludes with some practical implications as design principles.
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Affective engagement to university lectures needs external stimulation. This paper presents an empirical study on student’s engagement change to live and virtual lectures with complex, picture, video and human body movement stimuli. Each experiment lasted 30 min and was divided into 5 periods (10-5-5-5-5 min each). At the end of each period different stimuli were exposed: human interrupted the lecture; instructor presented slides; video materials; and intensive body movements. Stimuli and study materials for the live and virtual avatar- based lectures were developed following the same experiment lecture model. Avatar was created and animated with CrazyTalk software. Experimenting group consisted of 10 students, age 20–24, 4 females and 6 males. Changes of attention to lecture materials were measured using triple indicators: affective regulation monitored during all the lecture period with Muse portable headband device; cognitive self-regulation was measured before the lecture using questionnaire technique; behavioral regulation was observed using video recording through the entire lecture period. The highest concentration, attentiveness and active engagement was observed during the avatar-based lecture and complex human stimuli, while in live lecture all the stimuli activated approximately the same response. Image stimuli activated different reactions: in a live lecture it slightly tweaked student attentiveness, while in avatar-based lecture attentiveness was lowered. Reactions to video stimuli in both experimental groups were opposite as for image stimuli. These research results can prompt instructors how to construct training materials and implement additional stimuli grabbing student’s attention. We recommend mixing video and live lectures and using stimuli evoking and strengthening active engagements.
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The book aims to give an insight into the multifacetedness of changes the Internet–referred to here as the digital world–triggers in both theory and practice of marketing and management. The book has been divided into 5 subject areas, ie management, strategy, communications, brand, and consumer, all of which act as the main themes of subsequent chapters.
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Previous studies that involve measuring EEG, or electroencephalograms, have mainly been experimentally-driven projects; for instance, EEG has long been used in research to help identify and elucidate our understanding of many neuroscientific, cognitive, and clinical issues (e.g., sleep, seizures, memory). However, advances in technology have made EEG more accessible to the population. This opens up lines for EEG to provide more information about brain activity in everyday life, rather than in a laboratory setting. To take advantage of the technological advances that have allowed for this, we introduce the Brain-EE system, a method for evaluating user engaged enjoyment that uses a commercially available EEG tool (Muse). During testing, fifteen participants engaged in two tasks (playing two different video games via tablet), and their EEG data were recorded. The Brain-EE system supported much of the previous literature on enjoyment; increases in frontal theta activity strongly and reliably predicted which game each individual participant preferred. We hope to develop the Brain-EE system further in order to contribute to a wide variety of applications (e.g., usability testing, clinical or experimental applications, evaluation methods, etc.).
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Open networks give actors non-redundant information that is diverse, while closed networks offer redundant information that is easier to interpret. Integrating arguments about network structure and the similarity of actors’ knowledge, we propose two types of network configurations that combine diversity and ease of interpretation. Closed-diverse networks offer diversity in actors’ knowledge domains and shared third-party ties to help in interpreting that knowledge. In open-specialized networks, structural holes offer diversity, while shared interpretive schema and overlap between received information and actors’ prior knowledge help in interpreting new information without the help of third parties. In contrast, actors in open-diverse networks suffer from information overload due to the lack of shared schema or overlapping prior knowledge for the interpretation of diverse information, and actors in closed-specialized networks suffer from overembeddedness because they cannot access diverse information. Using CrunchBase data on early-stage venture capital investments in the U.S. information technology sector, we test the effect of investors’ social capital on the success of their portfolio ventures. We find that ventures have the highest chances of success if their syndicating investors have either open-specialized or closed-diverse networks. These effects are manifested beyond the direct effects of ventures’ or investors’ quality and are robust to controlling for the possibility that certain investors could have chosen more promising ventures at the time of first funding.
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Graphical virtual worlds add two new layers to the old question what determines friendship formation. First, it is possible to distinguish between offline (player) and online (avatar) characteristics. Second, these environments offer new possibilities for studying friendship formation. By tracking friendship requests and their acceptance rate, researchers are able to distinguish between with whom player want to become friends and with whom they actually do become friends. This paper examined friendship formation in Timik, a graphical virtual world targeted at Polish teenagers. Homophily, preferential attachment and status were tested as possible underlying mechanisms. Results showed that preferential attachment and status drove invitations: Players wanted to become friends with high status players. However, high status players were also more likely to reject offers. Homophily only played a minor role. Players preferred players of the same avatar class and similar age, but of the opposite sex. Too similar avatars were even disliked. The results are discussed in the light of the generalizability of offline theories of friendship formation to online worlds and the meaning of “friendship” in the online context.
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Frequent and open interaction between venture capitalists (VCs) and entrepreneurs is necessary for venture capital investments to occur. Increasingly, these investments are made across jurisdictions. The vast majority of these cross-border investments are carried out in a syndicate of two or more VCs, indicating the effects of intra-industry networks needing further analysis. Using China as a model, we provide a novel multidimensional framework to explain cross-border investments in innovative ventures across developed and emerging economies. By analyzing a unique international dataset, we examine worldwide venture capital investment flows from 2000–2012 and consider the effects of geographical, cultural, and institutional proximity as well as institutional and relational trust. We find trust to mitigate the negative effects of geographical and cultural distance, where institutional trust is more relevant for investments in emerging economies, and relational trust is more relevant for investments in developed economies.
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Dual-process models of cognition suggest that there are two types of thought: autonomous Type 1 processes and working memory dependent Type 2 processes that support hypothetical thinking. Models of creative thinking also distinguish between two sets of thinking processes: those involved in the generation of ideas and those involved with their refinement, evaluation, and/or selection. Here we review dual-process models in both these literatures and delineate the similarities and differences. Both generative creative processing and evaluative creative processing involve elements that have been attributed to each of the dual processes of cognition. We explore the notion that creative thinking may rest upon the nature of a shifting process between Type 1 and Type 2 dual processes. We suggest that a synthesis of the evidence bases on dual-process models of cognition and of creative thinking, together with developing time-based approaches to explore the shifting process, could better inform the development of interventions to facilitate creativity.
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Among immediate-return societies, cooperative social relationships are maintained despite the lack of centralized authority, strong norms of ownership and the punishment of free-riders. The prosocial signaling theory of cooperation solves the puzzle of social cohesion in such societies by suggesting that costly forms of generosity can function as an honest signal of prosocial intent, and that the reputations for prosociality signalers build generate trust between individuals, supporting the formation of cooperative partnerships. However, not all forms of costly generosity are prosocial: we contrast two types of generosity, aggrandizing and prosocial, and suggest that only prosocial generosity provides benefits through cooperation. Prosocial generosity is accompanied by pecuniary distancing: the payment of a higher relative cost to share, and a manner of sharing that disengages the acquirer from ownership over the rights to benefit from his or her harvest. We test the prosocial sharing hypothesis among Martu hunters and find that there is a significant association between the propensity of an individual to share a higher proportion of her income and centrality in the cooperative hunting network. Those who consistently pay higher costs to share, not necessarily those who are better hunters, are preferred partners for cooperative hunting. While many have emphasized the direct, status enhancing, competitive aspects of generosity, we suggest here that prosocial generosity produces benefits indirectly, through the formation of trusting, cooperative partnerships.
Conference Paper
In this paper, we propose a pattern language for collaborative problem dissolution, which is called `Open Dialogue'. The Open Dialogue approach was originally developed as a psychiatric programme; however, we anticipate that it has applicability to educational and organisational situations, because it is based on the philosophy of dialogism, which is not limited to psychotherapy. In this context, we created a pattern language for supporting people who want to take the approach for psychotherapy, education and organization. This paper presents three core patterns of 30 patterns in the Open Dialogue Patterns: `Experienced World', `Various Voices' and `Co-Created Understanding'.
Book
“Everybody loves an innovation, an idea that sells.“ But how do we arrive at such ideas that sell? And is it possible to learn how to become an innovator? Over the years Design Thinking – a program originally developed in the engineering department of Stanford University and offered by the two D-schools at the Hasso Plattner Institutes in Stanford and in Potsdam – has proved to be really successful in educating innovators. It blends an end-user focus with multidisciplinary collaboration and iterative improvement to produce innovative products, systems, and services. Design Thinking creates a vibrant interactive environment that promotes learning through rapid conceptual prototyping. In 2008, the HPI-Stanford Design Thinking Research Program was initiated, a venture that encourages multidisciplinary teams to investigate various phenomena of innovation in its technical, business, and human aspects. The researchers are guided by two general questions: 1. What are people really thinking and doing when they are engaged in creative design innovation? How can new frameworks, tools, systems, and methods augment, capture, and reuse successful practices? 2. What is the impact on technology, business, and human performance when design thinking is practiced? How do the tools, systems, and methods really work to get the innovation you want when you want it? How do they fail? In this book, the researchers take a system’s view that begins with a demand for deep, evidence-based understanding of design thinking phenomena. They continue with an exploration of tools which can help improve the adaptive expertise needed for design thinking. The final part of the book concerns design thinking in information technology and its relevance for business process modeling and agile software development, i.e. real world creation and deployment of products, services, and enterprise systems.
Article
Following the 2016 US presidential election, many have expressed concern about the effects of false stories ("fake news"), circulated largely through social media. We discuss the economics of fake news and present new data on its consumption prior to the election. Drawing on web browsing data, archives of fact-checking websites, and results from a new online survey, we find: 1) social media was an important but not dominant source of election news, with 14 percent of Americans calling social media their "most important" source; 2) of the known false news stories that appeared in the three months before the election, those favoring Trump were shared a total of 30 million times on Facebook, while those favoring Clinton were shared 8 million times; 3) the average American adult saw on the order of one or perhaps several fake news stories in the months around the election, with just over half of those who recalled seeing them believing them; and 4) people are much more likely to believe stories that favor their preferred candidate, especially if they have ideologically segregated social media networks.
Chapter
Die methodologischen Bemühungen um den sozialwissenschaftlichen Funktionalismus scheinen gegenwärtig in einer Sackgasse zu stecken. Die Zahl der Veröffentlichungen nimmt zu (1)*; aber man tritt auf der Stelle. Ein hoher Grad begrifflicher Verfeinerung erlaubt es, allzu grob gestellte Fallen zu meiden; aber zugleich wird es dadurch schwierig, wissenschaftlichen Konsens zu bilden. Die Kritik muß sich ebenso kompliziert ausdrücken wie die These selbst. Doch in einigen ganz einfachen Grundfragen herrscht immer noch Unklarheit. Das gilt besonders für die Frage des Verhältnisses der funktionalen Methode zu den Kausalbegriffen Ursache und Wirkung. Dieses Verhältnis klärt sich, wie ich in dem eben zitierten Aufsatz zu zeigen versucht habe, wenn man zwischen kausalwissenschaftlicher und vergleichender Methode deutlich unterscheidet. Ein zweiter klärungsbedürftiger Punkt, der ebenso grundlegend wie einfach zu formulieren ist, hängt damit eng zusammen: Er betrifft das Verhältnis von funktionaler Methode und funktionaler Theorie.
Conference Paper
This paper studies the supervised classification of electroencephalogram (EEG) brain signals to identify persons and their activities. The brain signals are obtained from a commercially available and modestly priced wearable headband. Such wearable devices generate a large amount of data and due to their attractive pricing structure are becoming increasingly commonplace. As a result, the data generated from such wearables will increase exponentially leading to many interesting data mining opportunities. We propose a representation that reduces variable length signals to a more manageable and uniformly fixed length distributions. These fixed length distributions can then be used with a variety of data mining techniques. The experiments with a number of classification techniques, including decision trees, SVM, neural networks, and random forests show that it is possible to identify both the persons and the activities with a reasonable degree of precision.
Conference Paper
As the society shifts from a society of consumption, communication, and to creation, tools and roles that support creative activities are necessary. In this paper, we discuss the role of "generator," who leads the group through the inquiry process to create a new value. A Generator is a person who leads and iterates the process of a collaborative inquiry that is motivated by his or her own creative desires, and along the way involves the people around him or her into the process by enhancing their creative desires. This is not a role to replace any existing roles or jobs, but rather a set of characteristics that a person in any position can show to make the atmosphere and the surrounding people more creative. By unfolding "generator" through the "Generator Patterns," we present its importance as well as its patterns in detail. The paper will introduce 10 patterns in full format, along with the summary of rest of 31 patterns shown in appendix. The 10 patterns are: Generator, New Perspective, Inquiry Tale, Creating Together, Original Style, Equal Participant, Creative Disposition, Trustful Atmosphere, Generating Ideas, and Heartstrings of Curiosity.
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In this study we propose a method based on e-mail social network analysis to compare the communication behavior of managers who voluntarily quit their job and managers who decide to stay. Collecting 18 months of e-mail, we analyzed the communication behavior of 866 managers, out of which 111 left a large global service company. We compared differences in communication patterns by computing social network metrics, such as betweenness and closeness centrality, and content analysis indicators, such as emotionality and complexity of the language used. To study the emergence of managers’ disengagement, we made a distinction based on the period of e-mail data examined. We observed communications during months 5 and 4 before managers left, and found significant variations in both their network structure and use of language. Results indicate that on average managers who quit had lower closeness centrality and less engaged conversations. In addition, managers who chose to quit tended to shift their communication behavior starting from 5 months before leaving, by increasing their degree and closeness centrality, as well as their oscillations in betweenness centrality and the number of “nudges” they need to send to peers before getting an answer.
Article
Entrepreneurial intentions, entrepreneurs' states of mind that direct attention, experience, and action toward a business concept, set the form and direction of organizations at their inception. Subsequent organizational outcomes such as survival, development (including written plans), growth, and change are based on these intentions. The study of entrepreneurial intentions provides a way of advancing entrepreneurship research beyond descriptive studies and helps to distinguish entrepreneurial activity from strategic management.
Article
Syndicating with prior partners through relationally embedded ties may be widespread, but not always optimal when investing across borders especially if few prior partners operate in the focal market. However, the substitutes of relational embeddedness for trust creation in cross-border partner selection are poorly understood. We develop and test a model of how relational embeddedness interacts with structural embeddedness and legal and normative institutions and how relational embeddedness and these three substitutes jointly affect cross-border partner selection in venture capital syndicates. We test the hypotheses in the context of cross-border venture capital syndication in 12 European countries. Our findings based on a case-control analysis suggest that although relational embeddedness is a key driver of future partnering, structural embeddedness and trust generating institutions such as high quality legal frameworks and industry associations facilitate cross-border partnering and diminish the need to rely on relationally embedded ties in cross-border partner selection.
Conference Paper
The behavioral analysis of individuals is an important science, especially if it is conducted on the elderly population, aiming to prevent Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and frailty problems. A fundamental aspect in this context is to explore the use of innovative technologies enabling the Internet of Things (IoT), above all sensors, to unobtrusively capture personal data for automatically recognizing behavioral changes in elderly people. This is done with the aim to timely identify risks of MCI and frailty before they escalate into more serious conditions such as Alzheimer Disease. This paper aims to briefly describe the overall goal of the City4Age project, funded by the Horizon 2020 Programme of the European Commission, in particular focusing on the IoT-based personal data capturing system.
Article
Big data is often seen in terms of powerful institutions managing the actions of populations through data. This ethnography of the Quantified Self movement, where participants collect extensive data about their own bodies, identifies practices that go beyond simply internalizing predetermined frameworks. The QS movement attracts the most hungrily panoptical of the data aggregation businesses in addition to people who have developed their own notions of analytics that are separate from, and in relation to, dominant practices of firms and institutionalized scientific production. Their practices constitute an important modality of resistance to dominant modes of living with data, an approach that we call "soft resistance." Soft resistance happens when participants assume multiple roles as project designers, data collectors, and critical sense-makers who rapidly shift priorities. This constant shifting keeps data sets fragmented and thus creates material resistance to traditional modes of data aggregation. It also breaks the categories that make traditional aggregations appear authoritative. This enables participants to partially yet significantly escape the frames created by the biopolitics of the health technology industry.
Book
Today designers often focus on making technology easy to use, sexy, and consumable. In "Speculative Everything," Anthony Dunne and Fiona Raby propose a kind of design that is used as a tool to create not only things but ideas. For them, design is a means of speculating about how things could be -- to imagine possible futures. This is not the usual sort of predicting or forecasting, spotting trends and extrapolating; these kinds of predictions have been proven wrong, again and again. Instead, Dunne and Raby pose "what if" questions that are intended to open debate and discussion about the kind of future people want (and do not want). "Speculative Everything" offers a tour through an emerging cultural landscape of design ideas, ideals, and approaches. Dunne and Raby cite examples from their own design and teaching and from other projects from fine art, design, architecture, cinema, and photography. They also draw on futurology, political theory, the philosophy of technology, and literary fiction. They show us, for example, ideas for a solar kitchen restaurant; a flypaper robotic clock; a menstruation machine; a cloud-seeding truck; a phantom-limb sensation recorder; and devices for food foraging that use the tools of synthetic biology. Dunne and Raby contend that if we speculate more -- about everything -- reality will become more malleable. The ideas freed by speculative design increase the odds of achieving desirable futures. © 2013 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All rights reserved.
Article
Based on all 7151 investment events of venture capital (VC) on startups in China, the article built the Chinese VC network over the years. It examined the characteristics of the dynamic evolution of the Chinese VC industry from the viewpoint of social network structure and compared them with those of silicon valley. As a result, three conclusions are drawn. Firstly, despite the increasing VC network size in China, the network quality is declining. Secondly, the VC firms with different ownership have significant distinction in network position. Thirdly, in cooperative VC networks the Chinese VC firms are disadvantageous compared with foreign VC firms which positively capture the core position of the networks and with joint VC firms which gain more and more importance in network position with strong learning capability. Further analysis indicates that the rapid increase in Chinese VC firms without much emphasis on network building influences the quality of the Chinese VC networks. Hence, it is critical to give directions to the inexperienced Chinese VC firms. ©, 2014, Systems Engineering Society of China. All right reserved.
Article
Despite the proliferation of online communities that dominantly feature its high status and most accomplished users, no research has addressed conditions under which consumers may prefer a community of low status or more inexperienced members. This study investigates the effect of status structure (i.e., the proportion of high status to low status members) and consumption motivations (i.e., utilitarian vs. hedonic) on consumers’ willingness to participate in an online community. We find that a high status-dominant structure motivates participation when the community or product motive is utilitarian. By contrast, a low status-dominant structure motivates participation to a greater degree when the motive is hedonic. A need for legitimacy underlies increased participation intentions when the status structure is high status-dominant, and a need for connectedness plays a mediating role when the status structure is low status-dominant. The findings provide important implications for marketers in regard to the ways in which status is messaged in online communities. © 2015 Institute of Information Management, University of St. Gallen
Article
Ties between similar partners in economic and financial networks are often attributed to concerns about agency costs. In this paper, we distinguish the underlying motives for tie formation between sets of potential partners in the network, thus informing the relative importance of agency cost and resource accumulation in tie formation across firms. We develop a robust and generalizable methodology that allows for the inference of similarity and/or cumulative advantage motives in the potential presence of resource trading. We estimate the model using venture capital (VC) co-investment networks, employing factor analysis to characterize orthogonal, interpretable resources for VC firms. In the VC setting, value-added resources other than capital appear to be exchanged for capital, but not for one another. We find little evidence for similarity motives as the primary driver of matching, suggesting that concerns over agency conflicts in partnering are dominated by the desire to accumulate higher levels of certain resources.
Article
Analogical reasoning appears to play a key role in creative design. In briefly reviewing recent research on analogy-based creative design, this article first examines characterizations of creative design and then analyzes theories of analogical design in terms of four questions: why, what, how and when? After briefly describing recent AI theories of analogy-based creative design, the article focuses on three theories instantiated in operational computer programs: Syn, DSSUA (Design Support System Using Analogy) and Ideal. From this emerges a related set of research issues in analogy-based creative design. The main goal is to sketch the core issues, themes and directions in building such theories.
Chapter
This chapter develops a framework for predicting S2 intervention that is based on metacognitive experiences associated with S1 processes. In particular, it develops the argument that the outcome of a given reasoning attempt is determined not only by the content of the information which is retrieved by S1 and analysed by S2, but also by a second-order judgement. This metacognitive judgement is largely based on the experience associated with the execution of S1 and S2 processes, and it is this judgement that determines whether, and how, S2 processes are engaged.
Article
The sustainability of indigenous communities in the Arctic, and the vulnerable households within, is in large part dependent on their continuing food security. Using a methodology inspired from a community on the Taimyr Peninsula in northern Siberia, a network of post-procurement food distributions is explored to describe underlying patterns of stability. Four pathways for food sharing are identified, including kin and non-kin distributions that are both reciprocated and unreciprocated. These four pathways obtain even when considering differences in household hunting skill, differences in household hunting wealth, the sum costs of procurement, and documented reciprocation in non-food goods and services. The interplay between traditional ecological knowledge about sharing and access to resources and the observed sharing behavior is discussed. These findings illustrate the robustness of prosocial solutions to collective action problems surrounding food procurement and security in an indigenous Siberian community.
Article
This paper introduces Collaborative Innovation Networks as an engine for self-organizing disruptive innovation. It is illustrated by the metaphor of the bee swarm through four lessons from the beehive: “centralized leadership – rotating leaders – waggle dance – attraction pheromone” as key principles for managing self-organizing teams of creators. In combination with applying social network analysis through knowledge flow optimization, managers get a powerful new tool to radically increase creativity and performance of their organizations. Among many well-known examples (LEGO Mindstorms, Apple, Wikipedia), the paper also introduces an extensive case study in health are, the C3N project which creates Collaborative Care Networks for patients of chronic diseases.
Article
In this article I discuss the role of reciprocity in buffering fluctuations in resources, and consider why, and under what circumstances, people use one means of risk reduction rather than another. Drawing on the theory of risk and insurance, I suggest some factors that will affect this choice. The issue is then addressed more specifically through an analysis of reciprocity on the Nata River. Storage and reciprocity are the two primary methods used for buffering variation in food supply in this area, and the article documents and seeks to explain why the Basarwa (Bushmen) depend more on reciprocity, and less on storage, than do their Tswana and Kalanga neighbours.