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Assessing ICT global emissions footprint: Trends to 2040 & recommendations

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Abstract

In light of the concerted efforts to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) per the so-called Paris Agreement, the Information and Communication Industry (ICT) has received little attention as a significant contributor to GHGE and if anything is often highly praised for enabling efficiencies that help reduce other industry sectors footprint. In this paper, we aim at assessing the global carbon footprint of the overall ICT industry, including the contribution from the main consumer devices, the data centers and communication networks, and compare it with the to the total worldwide GHGE. We conduct a detailed and rigorous analysis of the ICT global carbon footprint, including both the production and the operational energy of ICT devices, as well as the operational energy for the supporting ICT infrastructure. We then compare this contribution to the global 2016-level GHGE. We have found that, if unchecked, ICT GHGE relative contribution could grow from roughly 1–1.6% in 2007 to exceed 14% of the 2016-level worldwide GHGE by 2040, accounting for more than half of the current relative contribution of the whole transportation sector. Our study also highlights the contribution of smart phones and shows that by 2020, the footprint of smart phones alone would surpass the individual contribution of desktops, laptops and displays. Finally, we offer some actionable recommendations on how to mitigate and curb the ICT explosive GHGE footprint, through a combination of renewable energy use, tax policies, managerial actions and alternative business models.

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... Yet, the growth of this industry is increasingly raising environmental concerns. Indeed, ICT needs significant quantities of resources and energy to produce and power all of the infrastructure that is related to the use of digital data and the users' electronic devices (Belkhir and Elmeligi, 2018;Hischier et al., 2015;Malmodin and Lundén, 2018). Given this high energy consumption, the ICT industry was responsible for emissions of 1.2-2.2 ...
... For example, smartphones are replaced, on average, after 2.75 years of use (Statista, 2021). Several studies have also shown that the manufacture of electronic devices dominates the carbon footprint of the digital industry and that of its users (Belkhir and Elmeligi, 2018;Hischier et al., 2015;Keller et al., 2018), which confirms the trends observed here. The high impact of electronic products is incurred especially from the production of power and control electronic boards and components, together with the production of screens for the products concerned (ADEME, 2017; Teehan and Kandlikar, 2013). ...
... Knowing that the manufacturing of electronic products substantially contributes to the total impact of the ICT sector (Belkhir and Elmeligi, 2018), the incentive for continuous replacement of videooriented electronic products is not without consequences for the environment. Capping the resolution of streaming videos, in the medium term, may reduce the rate of replacement of users' electronic devices. ...
Article
Information and communication technologies (ICT) needs significant quantities of resources and energy to produce and power all of the infrastructure that is related to the use of digital data and the users' electronic devices. To inform Internet users of the impacts of ICT on the environment and the benefits of changing their behavior, we propose a simple, multi-criteria and flexible approach to quantify three environmental impacts caused by the use of digital services in Canada. Our approach consists of quantifying the electricity consumption that is related to the use of digital services and electronic devices. We also consider the carbon footprint of the main electronic devices that are needed to use digital services. The proposed approach was tested through a hypothetical case study including three digital service user profiles, three levels of data transmission and storage performance and three electricity mix. Overall, the main sources of impacts are, in order of importance, the manufacture of electronic devices, the use of electronic devices, and viewing of video streaming. Some iconic digital activities, such as sending emails, contribute very little to a user's annual impact. The results also highlighted the importance of the methodological choices and the data sources used to quantify the impacts of digital services, such as sources of electricity production, energy performance of digital data transmission and storage, and users' behavior. The relevance and limitations of the proposed approach are discussed extensively in the article. Finally, it is essential to establish a shared action plan between citizens, states and companies to build a digital industry that is compatible with planetary boundaries.
... As a matter of fact, ICT has a non-negligible impact on our plant's ecosystem, accounting for a fraction that is estimated in the range between 1.8% and 3.9% of the global Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, according to [19]. As reported in [6], if the Paris agreement is followed (rather optimistic due to current trends), the total worldwide energy footprint in 2040 would remain at the level of 2015. The ICT carbon footprint would amount to 14% of the total worldwide footprint in 2016, which is half of the current total footprint of the industrial sector in the United States. ...
... But what are the elements that most affect the ICT's environmental footprint? Still, in [6], the authors studied the GHG emissions of different parts of ICT networks from 2010 to 2020, revealing that communication networks and computing facilities are the main contributors to the environmental footprint of the entire ICT sector, as better explained below. ...
... According to [6], communication networks (including Customer Premises Access Equipment, backbone links, office networks, telecom operators, and their cooling devices) are responsible for the second-largest contribution to the total footprint of ICT, going from the 28% of the ICT-originated total GHG emissions in 2010 to the 24% of 2020. Operators forecast that, by moving toward fifth-generation (5G) networks, the total energy consumption of the mobile networks will increase by a factor of 150% − 170% until 2026 [61]. ...
Preprint
Mobile networks are becoming energy hungry, and this trend is expected to continue due to a surge in communication and computation demand. Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC), will entail energy-consuming services and applications, with non-negligible impact in terms of ecological sustainability. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of existing approaches to make edge computing networks greener, including but not limited to the exploitation of renewable energy resources, and context-awareness. We hence provide an updated account of recent developments on MEC from an energetic sustainability perspective, addressing the initial deployment of computing resources, their dynamic (re)allocation, as well as distributed and federated learning designs. In doing so, we highlight the energy aspects of these algorithms, advocating the need for energy-sustainable edge computing systems that are aligned with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris agreement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work providing a systematic literature review on the efficient deployment and management of energy harvesting MEC, with special focus on the deployment, provisioning, and scheduling of computing tasks, including federated learning for distributed edge intelligence, toward making edge networks greener and more sustainable. At the end of the paper, open research avenues and challenges are identified for all the surveyed topics.
... Digitalization provides new revenue and value-producing opportunities while changing business models and moving to more digital business trends (Merimi and Taghipour, 2021). One form of digitalization is information and communication technologies (ICTs), potentially controlling environmental degradation by avoiding unnecessary transportation costs, creating awareness about environmental concerns, and using green technologies (Belkhir and Elmeligi, 2018). The potential benefits of ICTs are well-known in front of the world; however, few studies have discussed their role in air pollution, whereas the ecological aspect is yet to be explored in different regional contexts. ...
... These coefficients are significant at 1% and 5%, confirming that digital technologies are environmentally beneficial in the ASEAN region. Because more advancement in the form of digitalization would help in mitigating environmental pollution by reducing transportation cost, efficient utilization of both natural and human resources, growing awareness about ecological concerns and creating more dependency on those technologies which are environmentally friendly (Belkhir and Elmeligi, 2018). However, the ecological aspect of digital technologies is yet to explore in various regions for which only a limited literature justification has been observed. ...
Article
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ASEAN countries are emerging economies facing substantial, sustainable energy production and consumption challenges. Power sources’ availability, sustainability, and efficiency are imperative to ensure ecological sustainability. Therefore, these countries must explore the factors that promote sustainable energy supply. The current study investigates the interlinkages between energy infrastructure, financial inclusion, and digitalization on the ecological sustainability of ASEAN region from 1980 to 2018. The study applied the continuously updated fully modified (CUP-FM) and continuously updated bias-corrected (CUP-BC) estimators to address cross-sectional dependency and slope heterogeneity issues. The study’s findings show that energy infrastructure, financial inclusion, and digitalization help to reduce ecological footprints in the long run. Moreover, digitalization complements the impact of energy-efficient infrastructure on ecological footprints. These findings recommend that ASEAN countries should improve energy infrastructure by integrating digitalization into energy supply production, management, and distribution.
... The estimated carbon footprint and electricity usage of the wireless communications sector continues to rise [1]. As such, in the race to reduce carbon emissions and energy consumption by 2030 as stated by Europe's Green Deal [2] and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) [3], the wireless communications sector is falling behind. ...
... where θ are the learned parameters of the NN. 1 For simplicity, the power constraint is taken before the PA, which neglects the non-linearly amplified power, which is small compared to the full transmit power. ...
Preprint
Massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems are typically designed under the assumption of linear power amplifiers (PAs). However, PAs are typically most energy-efficient when operating close to their saturation point, where they cause non-linear distortion. Moreover, when using conventional precoders, this distortion coherently combines at the user locations, limiting performance. As such, when designing an energy-efficient massive MIMO system, this distortion has to be managed. In this work, we propose the use of a neural network (NN) to learn the mapping between the channel matrix and the precoding matrix, which maximizes the sum rate in the presence of this non-linear distortion. This is done for a third-order polynomial PA model for both the single and multi-user case. By learning this mapping a significant increase in energy efficiency is achieved as compared to conventional precoders and even as compared to perfect digital pre-distortion (DPD), in the saturation regime.
... In recent years there has been a growing worldwide concern over climate change and its potentially devastating effects (Belkhir and Elmeligi, 2018). Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), one of the main greenhouse gases, contributes to global warming and poses a great threat to human society. ...
... In today's digital era of globalization, ICT plays an essential role in digitalized production, trading, and transportation, which not only greatly boosts economic development but also exerts substantial impacts on the environment. Belkhir and Elmeligi (2018) conducted a detailed analysis of the ICT global carbon footprint and found that ICT-related Green House Gas emissions (GHGE) contribution would increase from 1 to 1.6% of the 2007-level to more than 14% of the 2016-level worldwide GHGE. In recent years, empirical research on ICT's environmental impacts developed rapidly and achieved fruitful results. ...
Article
Full-text available
Information and communication technology (ICT) has exerted a great impact on the socio-economic development; however, this development has come with some potential influence on climate change. The academics are divided over this issue; some argue that ICT has contributed to carbon reduction, while others consider that ICT has increased carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Undoubtedly, the existing literature abounds in the relationship between ICT and CO2 emissions, but little attention has been paid to the spillover effect of ICT and CO2 emissions, especially in developing countries. Hence, with the panel data of 285 China’s prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2018, this study innovatively discusses the spatial and mechanism effects of ICT on CO2 emissions, further exploring the heterogeneous impact of ICT on CO2 emissions from multiple perspectives. The empirical results confirm the positive relationship between ICT and CO2 emissions and identify the spatial spillover effect in the relationship. Furthermore, notably, the intermediary effect of energy consumption on the impact of ICT on CO2 emissions is identified. Finally, due to the differences in the geographical position, population size, and urban agglomeration of prefecture-level cities in China, the impact of ICT on CO2 emissions varies in different cities. The findings not only contribute to advancing the existing literature but also have a significant and targeted policy guiding significance for the cities to maximize the favorable influences of ICT and promote the low-carbon transformation of the whole society.
... Researchers concur that emissions and energy use from digital gadgets would likely rise in the near future. The ICT emissions share footprint will quadruple from the value of 2007 to 3-3.6% by 2020 and to 14% of the 2016 level by 2040, according to Belkhir et al. [29]. Additionally, Andrae et al. [30] mention predictions that CO2 emissions in the digital industry will increase between 2020 and 2030. ...
... According to Ruiz et al. research [31], end-user device emissions account for the majority of the carbon footprint of wireless ICT networks. In addition, Belkhir et al. [29] predicted that by 2020, smartphones would account for 11% of all ICT use, outpacing the contributions of desktops, laptops, and displays taken individually. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Energy is today the most critical environmental challenge. The amount of carbon emissions contributing to climate change is significantly influenced by both the production and consumption of energy. Measuring and reducing the energy consumption of services is a crucial step toward reducing adverse environmental effects caused by carbon emissions. Millions of websites rely on online advertisements to generate revenue, with most websites earning most or all of their revenues from ads. As a result, hundreds of billions of online ads are delivered daily to internet users to be rendered in their browsers. Both the delivery and rendering of each ad consume energy. This study investigates how much energy online ads use and offers a way for predicting it as part of rendering the ad. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to calculate the energy usage of single advertisements. Our research further introduces different levels of consumption by which online ads can be classified based on energy efficiency. This classification will allow advertisers to add energy efficiency metrics and optimize campaigns towards consuming less possible.
... blockchain [16,17]), and cloud computing (CC) among others [18]. But digitalizing the electricity sector also brings risks, such as increasing electricity consumption [19,20] and resource use [21,22], cyber security issues [23,24], and data privacy concerns [25]. ...
... First, the surge in generated data translates into higher needs for computing power and data storage capacities. Consequently, the increased number of data centers (DC) is causing higher energy demands [22], while also having the potential of negatively disrupting the energy grids. Other digital technology driven applications, e.g., DL-based bitcoin mining further aggravate electricity demand growth [134]. ...
Article
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Digitalization is a megatrend that affects and transforms societal, economic, and environmental processes on a global scale. Driven by a combination of technological advances as well as shifting societal demands, digitalization also affects the operation and planning of the electricity sector. This paper uses megatrend analysis framework to analyze digitalization phenomena, its regional differences, technologies, use cases and challenges. It highlights potential system-level benefits (e.g., increased efficiency, transparency, consumer participation) and challenges (e.g., electricity demand growth, autonomy loss, increasing cyber risks) currently reported in the literature. Eventually, building on the thorough analysis, we present a menu of policy options to exploit its full potential of digitalized electricity systems while mitigating adverse effects on decarbonization goals and consumers.
... On the contrary, the digital divide is continuing to increase rapidly (Mubarak, 2015). Furthermore, the production of digital technologies requires a significant amount of metals and depletable natural resources (Chancerel et al., 2015), generating a vast amount of electronic waste (e-waste) (Krishnamoorthy, 2018), and the usage of digital technologies requires substantial volumes of energy (Belkhir & Elmeligi, 2018). The impact of the production, e-waste, and usage of digital technologies create many adverse side effects such as increased climate change, pollution, environmental hazards, and environmental degradation. ...
... The usage of digital technology amounts to upwards of 8 percent of the total worldwide energy consumption, not including smartphones or the manufacturing process of digital technologies. The largest contributor to the vast energy consumption are data centers, representing approximately 45 percent, and communication networks, representing approximately 24 percent of energy consumed (Belkhir & Elmeligi, 2018). Even though modern technology can bring many sustainable and environmentally friendly solutions which are desperately needed (Hilty & Ruddy, 2010), the current usage of digital technology to this day has mainly caused an increasing amount of emissions and environmental degradation, which are increasing the rate of climate change (Patrignani & Whitehouse, 2014). ...
Article
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The usage of digital technology is increasing rapidly among all countries around the world. Access and knowledge in how to use digital technology is however not equal, which create numerous problems in societies. Firstly, this paper will focus on how digital technology impacts the distribution of wealth and resources; secondly, how digital technology affects climate change; and thirdly, how the inequality created by the digital divide leads to further environmental degradation, while climate change leads to further inequality. The focus of this paper is how the usage of digital technology effects the distribution of wealth and resources and climate change within countries. A differentiation between developing and developed countries is made throughout the paper, and a comparison is made on how digital technology affect within country situations depending on whether the country considered to be developing or developed. Findings include that the current usage of digital technology increase unequal distribution of wealth and resources due to the digital divide, and further exacerbated climate change through increased natural resource extraction, increased energy usage, and electronic waste. In addition, findings include that inequality further exacerbate climate change, while climate change increase already existing inequalities. A literature review of the existing academic literature on the diverse topics covered in this paper is used as a methodology, with an analysis which draw these seemingly different subjects together.
... Additionally, the practice of developing and training AI systems has a drastic first-hand climate impact, due to the large amounts of energy needed to run the hardware system on which the AI is running [80], as well as possible secondary effects through, for example, applications to the exploration and extraction of oil and natural gas [48]. It has been estimated that the technology industry as a whole contributed between 3% and 3.6% of global greenhouse gas emissions in 2020 [8]. Furthermore, it has been reported that training a single natural language processing (NLP) AI model produces 300,000 kilograms of carbon dioxide emissions [80]. ...
... Thus we do not foresee AI to have any significant magnifying impact on such risks aside from the general impacts discussed above. 8 ...
Preprint
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There is a substantial and ever-growing corpus of evidence and literature exploring the impacts of Artificial intelligence (AI) technologies on society, politics, and humanity as a whole. A separate, parallel body of work has explored existential risks to humanity, including but not limited to that stemming from unaligned Artificial General Intelligence (AGI). In this paper, we problematise the notion that current and near-term artificial intelligence technologies have the potential to contribute to existential risk by acting as intermediate risk factors, and that this potential is not limited to the unaligned AGI scenario. We propose the hypothesis that certain already-documented effects of AI can act as existential risk factors, magnifying the likelihood of previously identified sources of existential risk. Moreover, future developments in the coming decade hold the potential to significantly exacerbate these risk factors, even in the absence of artificial general intelligence. Our main contribution is a (non-exhaustive) exposition of potential AI risk factors and the causal relationships between them, focusing on how AI can affect power dynamics and information security. This exposition demonstrates that there exist causal pathways from AI systems to existential risks that do not presuppose hypothetical future AI capabilities.
... The electricity consumption and operational carbon emissions of ICT technology and mobile networks have been growing with the digitalization of industries and the increasing number and use of mobile devices among people working remotely from home, in addition to private usage (Belkhir & Elmeligi, 2018). This trend has also grown during the COVID-19 pandemic and is likely to continue in the future due to more complex uses of ICT technology, for example in AI applications (Abadi & Pecht, 2020) and bitcoin mining (Badea & Mungiu-Pupӑzan, 2021). ...
... The consequence from this is that energy consumption is estimated to increase as current energy-reducing effects have the tendency to result in increases in energy consumption (Lange et al., 2020). In addition, with the rapid increase in digital mobile communication devices and ICT equipment being produced and used, the harmful direct effects of the digitalization trend are actualizing due to the emissions caused by the increased production, use, and disposal of the devices (Andrae & Edler, 2015;Belkhir & Elmeligi, 2018;Malmodin & Lundén, 2018). For digitalization to contribute to significant decarbonization, the consumption and use of renewable energy need to be the focus of the development in order to offset the harmful effects caused by the full life cycle of the devices, including their production, use, and disposal (Lange et al., 2020). ...
Preprint
The transition to 5G technology is disrupting the markets for wireless services and creating a higher need for energy to accommodate all the required changes to deploy the 5G technology. This study analyzes how patents of energy-efficient and power-saving features in mobile technologies have evolved and how these are significantly impacted by the transition to 5G networks. The paper presents an overview of companies’ patent profiles related to energy efficiency and power saving in the mobile communication sector. We analyze patents in the mobile communication sector that refer to energy-efficient or power-saving aspects. Topic modelling is used to detect technological change. The machine learning analysis resulted in a network representation, showing the size and relevance of the topic categories and their relationships with the rest of the topic categories. The results show that the highest number of patent applications dealing with energy efficiency and power saving are associated with the topic of network interfaces. These represent unique opportunities and challenges as 5G networks offer the possibility of more resource sharing with increased flexibility and services, but still need to respond to requirements for green next-generation cellular networks.
... The large quantity of heavy metals in leached water could result in severe harm to the human blood, kidneys, and apprehensive structures (Badr et al., 2020;Dotaniya et al., 2022). It is predicted that by 2040, the carbon emissions from the manufacturing and use of electronics will attain 14% of overall emissions (Belkhir and Elmeligi, 2018). ...
... Also, in most cases, even the applications deployed on end-user devices (smartphone, laptop, desktop, etc.) usually have a backend component deployed on DC. Due to this sheer volume of compute happening on these DC, they generate almost double the emissions (45% of ICT in 2020), in comparison to the end-user devices (24% of ICT in 2020) [2]. Hence, in order to have a bigger impact on the overall sustainability of our environment, optimizing software systems that reside on these DC, is the primary focus of this research. ...
Preprint
Sustainable software engineering has received a lot of attention in recent times, as we witness an ever-growing slice of energy use, for example, at data centers, as software systems utilize the underlying infrastructure. Characterizing servers for their energy use accurately without being intrusive, is therefore important to make sustainable software deployment choices. In this paper, we introduce ESAVE which is a machine learning-based approach that leverages a small set of hardware attributes to characterize a server or virtual machine's energy usage across different levels of utilization. This is based upon an extensive exploration of multiple ML approaches, with a focus on a minimal set of required attributes, while showcasing good accuracy. Early validations show that ESAVE has only around 12% average prediction error, despite being non-intrusive.
... They also contain a broad range of valuable and critical metals [Bookhagen et al., 2020;Söderman and André 2019]. Although the individual impact per device is comparably low, they account for the largest GHG emissions for ICT end-user products due to the high sales [Belkhir and Elmeligi 2018]. ...
Article
Obsolescence of products is generating much debate with a view to many relevant aspects, such as the amount of electronic waste generated, the environmental impact of producing new products, or the costs of difficult repairs and replacement. In this context, obsolescence is also a relevant LCA issue and possible trade-offs in context of repair or upgrades need special consideration. A case study is presented to evaluate anti-obsolescence strategies for smartphones (as an example for a product with its greatest environmental impact in the manufacturing phase) using different scenarios. Two different approaches (stock-based and individual) are applied to calculate the use-time of the smartphone with and without anti-obsolescence measures, leading to differences in the reference flow of the smartphone itself as well as the need for consumables, spare, and upgrade parts. The results show that most anti-obsolescence measures such as battery replacements, repairability, or upgrades of cameras are environmentally favorable and that the remaining use-time to reach the break-even point for the environmental amortization of spare parts is quite short, e.g. battery replacements pay-off environmentally even for older devices after less than half a year. However, LCAs with an individual perspective on a single product tend to overestimate the potential benefits of such measures. The stock-based approach on the other hand shows the effects of specific design decisions on a complete market and assesses possible design conflicts. From the analyzed scenarios, it could be shown that even 3% increased manufacturing impact pays off when it allows for more repair. The stock-based approach also helps to assess which anti-obsolescence measures have the greatest potential from an environmental perspective in a given market and can thus support eco-design decisions. This paper contributes to the understanding of how the product perspective and the definition of use-time impacts the possible interpretations of an LCA study and argues for the necessity to apply a stock-based approach to better reflect the effects of design conflicts.
... Good IT development lays the foundation for the spread of environmental concepts, but the increase in information and communications technology (ICT) devices increases carbon emissions from production to use. From the production to the energy consumption of ICT devices, the contribution of ICT devices to the greenhouse effect ranged from 1 to 1.6% in 2007 to 3 to 3.6% in 2020 (Belkhir and Elmeligi 2018). In terms of industrial organization, the secondary industry represents China's manufacturing sector, and the increased share of manufacturing contributes significantly to carbon emissions and pollution (Xiao et al. 2019;Yu et al. 2021). ...
Article
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With the extensive and in-depth exploration of the relationship between municipal infrastructure and carbon emissions in prefecture-level cities, the implicit internal relationship with traffic has become increasingly profound. Based on the Spatial Dubin Model (SDM) and mediation effect theory, the affiliation mechanism of transportation infrastructure affecting carbon emissions was investigated using a panel dataset of 286 cities in China during a 15-year period from 2002 to 2017. The findings revealed that carbon emissions may cluster in space, especially in developed regions in China, which exhibit high-high aggregation, and transportation infrastructure, industrial structure, energy consumption, and the improvement in Internet of things information technology promote communication and flow between prefecture-level cities, but the nexus between traffic system and carbon emissions is nonlinear and endogenous, especially road infrastructure exacerbating peripheral urban carbon emissions through industrial agglomeration effects and tourism mobility effects as mediating factors. In terms of nationalized industrial distribution, the strategy for large-scale development of western China and the shift in economic and industrial focus to less developed prefecture-level cities fit with the empirical results of this study. Moreover, optimizing the industrial structure and developing clean energy could effectively mitigate carbon emissions. Policy-makers could also change residents’ cultural consumption perceptions by promoting green tourism and government subsidies to achieve China’s carbon neutrality policy goals.
... Since the world is becoming more and more digitalized in the last few decades, its negative impact on the environment has become more visible due to the increased production, use, and dumping of ICT-related products (Belkhir and Elmeligi 2018;Malmodin and Lundén 2018). The positive impact of ICTs on the environment can only be seen if the beneficial effects attached to digitalization, such as improved energy efficiency and transformation toward clean energy, outweigh the adverse effects. ...
Article
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This study aims to examine the asymmetric impact of financial institutions and information and communication technologies (ICT) trade on renewable energy demand in BRICS economies by using the cross-sectionally augmented nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag model. The asymmetric estimates of the financial institutions index confirm that a positive shock increases renewable energy consumption, and a negative shock reduces renewable energy consumption in BRICS economies. Similarly, the long-run asymmetric estimates attached to ICT trade are positively significant, confirming that a positive shock increases renewable energy consumption and a negative shock hurts renewable energy consumption. As far as country-wise estimates are concerned, the long-run asymmetric estimates of financial institutions are significant in Brazil, Russia, China, and South Africa. Similarly, the asymmetric estimates attached to ICT trade are significant in Russia, China, India, and South Africa. The results are asymmetric in nature, implying that negative and positive shocks have different effects on renewable energy consumption. Therefore, policymakers should consider both negative and positive shocks in financial institutions and ICT trade while devising policies regarding environmental sustainability and renewable energy consumption.
... There is no question nowadays that software has a major impact on sustainability [1]. As Calero et al. in [2] state, software can be considered as part of the problem, but also has a lot to do with the solution. ...
Preprint
This article provides a rich discussion on how the sustainability of agile development processes can be enhanced. In particular, we focus on a recently developed framework, named GLUX, that integrates Lean UX into Scrum. GLUX's main goal is to facilitate a seamless integration between agile and user experience (UX) by using gamification to motivate agile teams to adopt a user-centered mindset and carry out UX activities collaboratively throughout the development process. Our role as software researchers is to contribute towards improving software sustainability and provide the software engineering community with the tools and techniques that will improve the human, economic, and environmental sustainability of software development. We found that GLUX addresses human sustainability by empowering self-sufficient, problem-focused teams, building a motivating and engaging environment, and developing team cooperation. Economic sustainability is addressed by minimizing UX debt and using gamification techniques to direct the focus of the behavior and mindset of agile teams towards value creation. Finally, environmental sustainability is promoted by encouraging agile teams to build a minimum viable product (MVP).
... For example, video conferencing, e-commerce, and teleworking have lowered the global travel of people and goods, lowering petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions. Also, the wireless detectors and monitoring technology have promoted the evolution of "smart grids" and "smart buildings" to optimize energy control by monitoring the parameters such as humidity, sunlight, and temperature (Gharavi and Ghafurian 2011;Paetz et al. 2012;Belkhir and Elmeligi 2018). Recent milestones like the observation of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and consequent development of the spin-valve read heads have fueled intensive research into the devices based on magnetism and spin. ...
Article
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Polycrystalline Zn1−xCuxO (x = 0.0, 0.02, and 0.05) samples have been prepared using the solid-state reaction procedure. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the samples confirm that Cu ions are successfully included in the ZnO hexagonal wurtzite structure. Rietveld analysis of the XRD patterns confirms the phase purity of the synthesized samples and a slight variation in their lattice parameter upon Cu doping. The morphology study by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) depicts transfiguration with Cu doping. The existence of oxygen vacancies (Vo) in the Cu-doped samples is indicated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The magnetization measurements reveal the diamagnetic nature of pure ZnO while the Cu-doped samples depict a room-temperature ferromagnetic (RTFM) behavior. The 2% Cu-doped sample shows higher values of both the saturation magnetization and the Vo as compared to the 5% Cu-doped sample. The observed magnetization seems to show a direct relationship with the Vo. The photoluminescence (PL) and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopic measurements were performed for their optical analysis. The presence of Vo in the Cu-doped samples is revealed by the PL findings also that is in agreement with the XPS results. The UV analysis shows that Cu doping in the ZnO influences the band gap. The observed RTFM induced by Cu doping in ZnO renders it a potential system for spintronic devices useful for energy-efficient data storage devices and energy harvesting eco-friendly applications.
... Abbildung 26 -Unternehmens-Befragung: Welche der folgenden Maßnahmen für eine nachhaltige (Belkhir & Elmeligi, 2018;Bieser et al., 2020;Pehlken et al., 2020;Schödwell, Zarnekow, Gröger, Liu, & Wilkens, 2018 ...
Technical Report
Der Rechenzentrumsmarkt in Deutschland entwickelt sich dynamisch. Die zunehmende Digitalisierung aller Lebens- und Wirtschaftsbereiche erfordert immer mehr Rechenleistung in Rechenzentren. Rechenzentren sind gemeinsam mit den Telekommunikationsnetzen das Rückgrat der Digitalisierung. Nur mit leistungsfähigen Rechenzentren in Deutschland werden sich die politischen Ziele zur Digitalisierung von Wirtschaft, Bildungswesen und öffentlicher Verwaltung realisieren lassen. Wie die vorliegende Studie zeigt, sind die Kapazitäten der Rechenzentren in Deutschland in den vergangenen fünf Jahren kontinuierlich und erheblich angestiegen. Gemessen an der maximalen Stromaufnahme der installierten Hardware sind die Kapazitäten zwischen 2016 und 2021 um 30 % gewachsen. Aktuell gibt es etwas mehr als 3.000 Rechenzentren mit mehr als 40 kW IT-Anschlussleistung in Deutschland. Insgesamt gibt es etwa 50.000 kleinere IT-Installationen und Rechenzentren in Deutschland. Begründet ist das Wachstum im Rechenzentrumsmarkt insbesondere durch den zunehmenden Ausbau von Cloud Computing Angeboten in Deutschland. Während sich die Kapazitäten in Cloud-Rechenzentren zwischen 2016 und 2021 um 150 % erhöht haben, stagnierten die traditionellen Rechenzentren auf konstantem Niveau. Das führt dazu, dass der Anteil der Cloud-Rechenzentren an den Rechenzentrumskapazitäten in Deutschland zwischen 2016 und 2021 von 20 % auf 33 % angestiegen ist.
... Worldwide development: High share of crypto-mining in the increasing energy demand of data centers If one analyses the available studies and publications on the worldwide energy consumption of data centers, no uniform picture emerges. Some researchers assume a significant increase in energy consumption worldwide (Andrae, 2019; Belkhir & Elmeligi, 2018;Petit, Carlini & Avelar, 2021;The Shift Project, 2019). In other studies, on the other hand, the energy consumption of data centers has remained almost constant in recent years. ...
Technical Report
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The energy consumption of data centers continues to increase. At 17 billion kWh, data centers consumed 6.5 % more electricity in 2021 than in 2020. The main reason for the growth in energy consumption is the expansion of cloud data centers in Germany and the associated increase in the number of large data centers. However, traditional data centers operated by companies themselves also continue to have a high share of data center capacities in Germany.
... In [12] green ICT principles are summarized and some key principles that talk about bandwidth and data exchange for reducing the ICT emissions are a) Sending data that is only needed which can save the energy consumption b) Minimizing the length of data path can help to be energy efficient c) Trade off processing for communications by combining data from multiple sources before transmitting and effective compressive sensing will enhance the energy efficiency. It is estimated that global greenhouse gas emissions for communication networks will be 24% by 2020 and the study in [13] also indicated that the footprint of smart phones would exceed the contribution of laptops and desktops.There were lot of compression methods that were explored in previous studies. In [14] a method for lossy image compression based on convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks are proposed which outperformed JPEG2000, WebP and BPG. ...
Article
Today digital transformation is playing a key role in many intelligent enterprises. Due to this there is a tremendous data exchange between internet of things which results in higher demand of bandwidth over communication network. Hence there is a need to utilize the bandwidth effectively which aids in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions in internet of things. Reducing the data size is one aspect that can be considered, to wisely utilize the network bandwidth. In this paper, a novel GWOICT (Grey Wolf Optimizer for Information and Communication Technology) algorithm is developed using jpeg baseline compression algorithm and grey wolf optimizer to reduce the size of images that enables to reduce the CO2 emissions while transferring data over a network of objects. The proposed technique has shown better results in terms of compressing the images and reducing CO2 emissions over the network for driving towards green internet of things in an enterprise.
... The units of the CUE metric are kilograms of carbon dioxide (kgCO2eq) per kWh. Since the majority of carbon emissions stem from DC operation instead of in DC materials [15], CUE can be estimated as: ...
Conference Paper
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Modern data centers, which consume roughly 3% of global electricity, continue to experience increased demand. Therefore, green data centers that consume less energy and have minimal environmental impact are desirable. This study examines the potential energy savings and environmental benefits of applying airside economization with evaporative cooling in air-cooled data centers in the continental U.S. A generic data center that employs a Computer Room Air Conditioning (CRAC)-based cooling system with a total IT load of 400 kW is modeled at 925 locations using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) TMY3 database. The energy savings and environmental benefits are evaluated in terms of key data center performance metrics: Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE), Carbon Usage Effectiveness (CUE), and the recently proposed Water Scarcity Usage Effectiveness (WSUE) metric, which quantifies the holistic impact of water consumption on regional water availability. Results are aggregated and analyzed at the U.S. State level. It is found that airside economization implementation in the continental U.S. is feasible 6.57% and 21.5% of the year on average based on ASHRAE recommended and allowable envelopes, respectively. Furthermore, results indicate that carbon footprint and water scarcity footprint can be reduced by up to 16% when economization is implemented based on the ASHRAE allowable envelope.
... Typically, it is taken into account that routers are running continuously with approximately constant power consumption, whereas displaying devices only consume power during video streaming [1]. Typical energy and power consumption values for these devices can be found in device manuals and were analyzed in detail in different studies [1], [10], [16], [41], [42]. ...
Preprint
In recent years, the global use of online video services has increased rapidly. Today, a manifold of applications, such as video streaming, video conferencing, live broadcasting, and social networks, make use of this technology. A recent study found that the development and the success of these services had as a consequence that, nowadays, more than 1% of the global greenhouse-gas emissions are related to online video, with growth rates close to 10% per year. This article reviews the latest findings concerning energy consumption of online video from the system engineer's perspective, where the system engineer is the designer and operator of a typical online video service. We discuss all relevant energy sinks, highlight dependencies with quality-of-service variables as well as video properties, review energy consumption models for different devices from the literature, and aggregate these existing models into a global model for the overall energy consumption of a generic online video service. Analyzing this model and its implications, we find that end-user devices and video encoding have the largest potential for energy savings. Finally, we provide an overview of recent advances in energy efficiency improvement for video streaming and propose future research directions for energy-efficient video streaming services.
... (Moyer and Hughes 2012;Al-Mulali et al. 2015a;Salahuddin and Gow 2016;Ozcan andApergis 2017 &Avom et al. 2020). On the contrary, the other strands of studies opinioned that heavy usage of ICTs in various channels such as increasing industrial production, energy consumption, globalization, and a wealthier financial system will lead to higher pollution levels or higher CO 2 emissions (Sadorsky 2012;Lee and Brahmasrene 2014;Belkhir and Elmeligi 2018). ...
Article
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ICTs (information and communication technologies) have emerged as a potent new force. Digitalization, modernization, and automation of the manufacturing process are expected to facilitate ICT adoption, resulting in increased genuine environmental concerns. This research aims to examine the impact of ICTs on environmental quality and the relationship between ICTs, environmental quality, and economic growth. Dynamic panel threshold regression was employed, and the sample countries comprised 69 developing countries from 2010 to 2019. The threshold technique will identify the precise threshold value of ICTs and highlights the impacts of ICTs on the environmental quality nexus when above and below the threshold value in developing countries. Empirical evidence suggests that ICTs positively impact environmental quality (CO2) when above the ICTs threshold value. However, ICTs provide a positive but insignificant impact on environmental quality when below the ICTs threshold value of 4.699. Additionally, ICTs affect the economic growth and environmental quality nexus, with increasing economic growth resulting in a decrease in CO2 emissions in developing countries when ICTs are below the threshold value. Thus, the ICTs threshold value should be used to ensure that ICTs adoption promotes sustainable economic growth and resolves environmental degradation issues in developing nations.
... It's not exactly the same metals; more plastic, more cameras, the controllers, the energy mix will change… It's not considering 3D files and AI for optimization would require even more computing/storage, metadata, and general data… Belkhir & Elmeligi, 2018 Based on numbers ...
Presentation
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My childish thought experiment (a headset to access the metaverse = 2 x a smartphone) gives the following result. By 2040, a metaverse would represent 778 Megatons of CO2 equivalent per year from resource extraction to waste. The Headsets would account for 250, the infrastructure for 528 megatons of CO2 equivalent a year. This is more than Iran's (the 6th biggest emitter in the world with 745 Mt) 2020 annual emissions.
... Large installations of digital ICTs for the implementation of energy Smart Grids and e-services will further increase emissions. Belkhir and Elmeligi (2018) suggest that, without immediate action, digital ICT emissions could well increase from about 1% to 1.6% in 2007 to surpass 14% of the 2016-level global greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2040. This would account for more than half of the current comparative emissions from the transportation sector. ...
Article
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The unprecedented development, growth, and widespread pervasiveness of digital Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) have coincided with ever-increasing levels of consumption and the climate emergency. Digital ICTs, once lauded for their potential to dematerialize society, are now imposing additional burdens on the planet. The widespread consumption of personal electronics continues to grow at an enormous rate, while recycling of the scarce rare-earth minerals that are crucial to their development is negligible. As digital technologies become ubiquitous, the need for additional energy to power our ever-increasing number of digital devices and services must also keep pace. Moreover, despite their public veneer as progressives, digital tech companies are collaborating with fossil fuel companies to render oil and gas extraction more profitable and with greater speed, fuelling climate breakdown. Online social platforms are also being misused as podiums for dis/misinformation and falsehoods counter to the scientific consensus of anthropogenic climate change, allowing the digital tech sector to abdicate any social responsibility and denying the dire consequences of inaction. This review article explores the growing consumption demands and the ecological threat from digitalization and the digital tech sector: demands that will only intensify with our insatiable appetite for digital tech services and products. Such a review aims to draw closer attention to some ways such technology can be used to assist ecological research and conservation, but also to expand upon our understanding of the negative environmental aspects of a relentless push toward a Digital Society. In uncritically accepting Big Tech's virtuous credentials, we are choosing to ignore the immense power and influence they have over our lives, and the ways they may be propelling our environment toward collapse.
... While the size of the gap between scenarios has been criticized (e.g. Belkhir & Elmeligi, 2018), this nonetheless shows the importance of clear, justified assumptions, including life cycle analysis, about devices, datacentres, other infrastructure, and shifts of energy use between them, as well as a clear narrative about the evolution of the 'internet of things'. ...
Article
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The world is currently facing two socio-technical transitions: shifting to a low-carbon society, and a digital revolution. Despite some claims to the contrary, evidence suggests that spread and adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) does not automatically lead to reduction in energy demand, if this stimulates new energy-using practices or wider economic growth. Despite this policy challenge, the two transitions are often considered separately. This study examines potential drivers of reductions or increases in energy demand due to digitalization identified in recent leading global and UK net-zero transitions scenarios. We analyse the scenarios in terms of effects of digitalization on energy demand by identifying specific direct effects of ICT; indirect and rebound effects in transport and home energy use; and wider effects via economic growth. This analysis implies that the future pathways adopted for digitalization will have a significant impact on future energy demand and hence on the feasibility and acceptability of achieving net-zero goals. We find there are different assumptions and development pathways between scenarios. We also identify a need for better inclusion of behavioural effects and other social science understanding in scenarios on the one hand, and recognition that policy can affect digitalization pathways on the other. Overall, our work suggests opportunities for further research and potential for improving policy interactions between these two transitions, and stimulating greater public debate on the different framings for an ICT-driven low-carbon transition. Key policy insights • Modelling and scenario development of low-carbon pathways need to pay more attention to drivers of energy demand, including direct and indirect effects of digitalization. • Social science understanding of the behavioural change effects of digitalization needs to be considered in assessing energy demand changes. • Different pathways of digitalization result from individual and collective choices, including technology development, business models and data protection. • Policy makers should seek to promote pathways that deliver social wellbeing and local environmental benefits, not just economic gains.
... Similarly, the means of achieving sustainability are also numerous. In the current 'era of digital transformation', an ever-growing number of companies realize that they need to become both more digitalized and more sustainable [6], and they see the adoption of information technologies (IT) and information systems (IS) as a potential way to achieve digitally enabled sustainability [7]. This realization has consequently led to a similarly increasing demand for technologies and solutions that bridge both needs [8]. ...
Article
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The negative effects of the global climate disruption are becoming increasingly severe, and they are putting pressure on companies to behave in a more environmentally friendly manner. Although some have started to (ecologically) innovate and acquire sustainable resources and capabilities, some seem to be only reluctantly adopting sustainability. In this paper, we report on two consecutive qualitative studies in which we investigated this divergence. In the first—which involved 25 interviewed sustainability managers from a diverse set of German companies—we found that: (i) sustainability was perceived as unattractive and not innovative; (ii) the benefits of sustainable technologies only seemed to be beneficial in the long term, and in non-traditional dimensions; (iii) Green IT/IS usage often only focuses on end-of-the-pipe measures. In the second study, we discussed these findings with four representatives from two very large German companies, and we concluded that—to become sustainable and make meaningful use f sustainable (IT/IS) technologies—they require external incentives from core interest groups, such as legislators and investors. This study contributes to the current body of knowledge regarding corporate environmental responsibility, and it may be of assistance to practitioners, as it highlights the drivers and potential hindrances of sustainable innovation adoption.
... ICT can increase environmental quality by reducing transportation costs, increasing ecological awareness (Zhang and Liu, 2015), improving energy efficiency, and developing smart applications (Ramzan et al., 2022). The ICT industry can positively change working and communication conditions through e-commerce, videoconferencing, and various communication means, thus reducing humans' negative impact on nature (Belkhir and Elmeligi, 2018). ICT can help reduce environmental pressure by enabling the construction of smart cities, green transportation systems, and power grids (Higon et al., 2017). ...
Article
Intense anthropogenic air, water, and soil pollution motivates researchers and this study to analyze the determinants of pollution and propose solutions to ensure environmental sustainability. By using the load capacity factor to examine the factors that determine environmental quality and by proposing the load capability curve (LCC) hypothesis, this study adds to the existing environmental literature. The load capacity factor allows for comprehensive environmental quality monitoring of environmental quality by comparing ecological footprint and biocapacity. This study evaluates the load capacity factor in relation to information and communication technology (ICT), research and development (R&D), renewable energy consumption, and income. In doing so, the study applies the cross-sectionally augmented autoregressive distributed lag estimator and the Durbin-Haussman cointegration test from 1986 to 2017 for the G7 countries. The empirical results show that renewable energy, R&D spending, and ICT positively affect environmental quality. Moreover, since there is a U-shaped relationship between environmental quality and income, this study confirms the LCC hypothesis, implying that income initially deteriorates ecological conditions but helps improve environmental quality after crossing a certain threshold. The bottom turning point is around US$ 46660–47909, where G7 countries such as Canada, Germany, Japan, and the United States have reached income levels that improve load capacity factor. Based on the overall results, G7 governments should promote economic development, disseminate renewable energy, direct R&D spending to areas of greatest benefit, and support the deployment of green ICT infrastructure as part of their environmental policies.
... • However, we must consider the broader context of the reliance on underlying payments infrastructure, with the associated network and other technology services required for data processing (Belkhir & Elmeligi, 2018) such as data centres and their associated electricity costs, the environmental impact of smartphone production (Flherty & Smith, 2019). ...
Chapter
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In recent years, the Indian Government has adopted potent measures to expedite the transition from the cash-dependent to the cashless economy. The introduction of ATMs enhanced the banking operations’ efficiency and allowed the customers more convenient access to their money. Similarly, funds transfer systems such as NEFT, RTGS and IMPS have enabled more reliable and faster transfers. However, the next revolution has been unleashed by applying transaction systems such as UPI (Unified Payment Interface). India has been scaled by the 4G network, which has ensured the availability of internet services in every part of the country. Hence the UPI applications can be easily accessed and used by people. The sudden announcement of demonetization has also provided an impetus to adopting e-money as the mode of payment. The government has rightly sensed this as an excellent opportunity to propagate Fintech tools among the citizens to decrease the dependence on cash. This paper explores the need for reducing the reliance on cash for the day-to-day transactions, prospects and the challenges associated with initiatives adopted for India’s drive in the direction of a Cashless economy
Article
As the transmission rate of data center (DC) related short-reach optical transmissions quickly increases to keep up with internet services’ data demand pace, advanced FEC technology starts to establish its key role in short reach optical transmission systems. Coding strategy using Quasi-Cyclic LDPC (QC-LDPC) codes with hard-decision (HD) decoders stands out due to its excellent error correction ability and simple hardware implementation. Meanwhile, with the introduction of green communication concept and increasingly extensive applications of DC, energy consumption of short-reach links has become an urgent problem to be studied. Based on tanner-graph, energy consumption models of regular LDPC codes’ HD decoding circuits over AWGN channel have been proposed. In this work, for the first time, we introduce energy consumption of optical transmitters and characteristics of short reach optical channels into energy consumption modeling. Besides, probability distributions of flipping operation as well as bit errors during irregular QC-LDPC codes’ HD decoding iterations are analytically derived using density evolution algorithm. Based on our proposed model and post-layout circuit simulation, systems’ total power when using four QC-LDPC codes in IEEE and 3GPP with Gallager A/B decoders together with the case of using no FEC are analyzed in two typical scenarios. Numerical results show that, in short range scenario with slight bandwidth limit, uncoded strategy is much more energy-saving than all adopted LDPC-coded strategies in 50Gbaud OOK and 25Gbaud PAM4 transmissions. While in severely band-limited case when FEC is necessary, a tradeoff between energy consumption of transmitters and decoders occurs in 70Gbaud OOK and 35Gbaud PAM4 transmissions. Besides, LDPC codes with longer length at similar rate are proved to consume less power for their better error correction ability. And in long range scenario, power differences among coding strategies grow significantly when pre-bit error rate (BER) approaches their error correction threshold, reflecting the great influence of error correction threshold on the energy consumption of LDPC decoders. Among all adopted coding strategies, a (19200, 15872) LDPC code with Gallager B decoder consumes minimum power in both two scenarios. However, it is also found that decoding algorithm minimizing the total power differs at different pre-BER if we concentrate on decoding algorithm, justifying the significance of our modeling in minimizing system energy consumption.
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Driven by the information technology revolution, using artificial intelligence to promote intelligent manufacturing while achieving carbon emissions reduction is increasingly the focus of international attention. Given this, based on the fact that China’s industrial manufacturing is more intelligent, this paper uses industrial sector data and robot data from 2000 to 2017 to examine the impact of intelligent manufacturing on industrial carbon dioxide emissions and to discuss its internal mechanism. The research found that intelligent manufacturing significantly inhibits carbon dioxide emissions in the industrial sectors. The emission reduction effect is more obvious in industries with higher carbon emissions and intelligence. The mechanism test shows that intelligent manufacturing mainly achieves industrial emission reduction by reducing fossil energy consumption in the production process and improving energy use efficiency. The research findings of this paper provide favorable evidence for using new technologies, such as artificial intelligence, to achieve carbon emissions reduction, and validate the importance of intelligent manufacturing in tackling climate change in the future. It provides an essential reference for developing countries to use artificial intelligence for their carbon emissions reduction goals.
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Global CO2 emissions from different industries have been increasing at an alarming rate. This growth is outpacing the efforts, nations are putting in place to reduce their carbon footprints. In this topical review, we critically analyze the level of CO2 emissions on a global scale and across various industries and activities within them and the dominant anthropogenic forcing instability. The global CO2 emission from various economic sectors such as industries, transportation and variety of waste sources were traced globally and regionally. To contextualize our review, the sector wise CO2 emission trends data for a period more than a decade is reviewed which highlighted the main sources of emissions. The data shows the overall reduction of carbon footprints and its progress across various sectors is very limited. The governing factors for this continued global pattern can be ascribed to two main factors: high consumer demands, and poor efforts towards shifting low and zero carbon services across all sectors. Some efforts have been witnessed to shift towards clean fuels and renewables, particularly in Europe and North America. However, rapid growth in industrialization limits the shifting of fossil-based energy systems towards less harmful systems. In Asia, particularly in eastern, southern, and south-eastern regions, the carbon footprints were found to increased owing to a huge demand for materials production, travelling and energy services. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to identify, understand and tackle the most persistent and climate-harmful factors across all industries and drive such policies to substitute the fossil fuels with renewables.
Technical Report
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Este informe ofrece una panorámica global y actualizada de iniciativas y luchas por los derechos humanos en relación con las tecnologías digitales, que recoge 225 casos de 64 países y abarca los últimos 20 años. A fin de situar esas iniciativas y luchas, primero se analizan brevemente los tres modelos de desarrollo tecnológico hegemónicos (definidos en la actualidad por EE.UU., China y la Unión Europea), atendiendo a los factores geopolíticos, económicos y técnicos que, desde una perspectiva histórica, dan cuenta de muchas de las particularidades de cada modelo. Posteriormente, se ofrece un análisis de las implicaciones y tensiones originadas por el despliegue de estos modelos en territorios y sujetos del Sur Global, así como algunas respuestas históricas a dichos despliegues. Más tarde, en la sección central del informe, se ofrece una relación de casos y alternativas actuales al capitalismo y el colonialismo digitales procedentes de la sociedad civil, las comunidades de base y los movimientos sociales. Estas iniciativas constituyen hoy un sustrato fértil para la defensa colectiva y desde abajo tanto de los derechos humanos clásicos, traducidos o afectados hoy por la digitalización (p.ej.: no discriminación, libertad de expresión, derecho a la participación política…), como de derechos digitales emergentes en la sociedad de la información (p.ej.: derecho a una internet neutral, al control de los datos...). Finalmente, el informe presenta algunas incertidumbres y horizontes de futuro en los planos político, económico y ecológico. Sin ser una recopilación de casos y derechos exhaustiva (no agota, ni mucho menos, las experiencias activas en todo el mundo ni los listados de derechos humanos), este documento facilita una recopilación amplia y original que contribuye a la urgente tarea de delinear horizontes emancipatorios ante las múltiples crisis a las que se enfrentan las sociedades digitalizadas.
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Energy consumption of mobile cellular communications is mainly due to base stations (BSs) that constitute radio access networks (RANs). 5G technologies are expected to improve the RAN energy efficiency while supporting the forecasted growth in data traffic. However, the evolution of the absolute RAN energy consumption with 5G deployment is not clear. Moreover, existing BS power models are mostly derived from legacy equipment. Therefore, this work presents a method to evaluate and to project the total energy consumption of broadband RANs. We use on-site up-to-date measurements to determine power models of 4G BSs, showing a linear relationship between power consumption and data traffic with a static traffic-independent power component. We then build a prospective power model of 5G BSs by scaling 4G models with respect to bandwidth, number of data streams, and expected technological improvements. We apply this method to the RANs in Belgium over the 2020–2025 period for six scenarios of 5G deployment. Results show that the static energy consumption accounts for a major part of the total RAN energy consumption, which implies that concurrently operating 4G and 5G RANs consumes more energy than using only one generation. The sleep mode feature of 5G technology can reduce its RAN static energy consumption, improving energy efficiency by 10 times compared to 4G. Finally, we estimate the absolute carbon footprint of 4G and 5G RANs by considering embodied and operating greenhouse gas emissions. They follow a clear upward trend for scenarios with extensive 5G deployment.
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An era of rapid changes in the technological and economic aspects of developing and developed countries can have detrimental extortions on the environment around the world. From the perspective of globalization, the rapid development and growth can reroute to enhance the interaction between people, organizations, and countries across the globe including China through the usage of information and communication technology which in turn contributes to the economic growth of one side, whereas on the other side, it affects the environmental quality. Referring to this aspect, this study is focused to inspect the link between information and communication technology, and globalization with the facets of degradation in the environment that as CO2 emission and ecological footprint by keeping the view of economic growth prospects as well via using the EKC hypothesis. In our study, time-series data was employed from 1987 to 2020 for China using the Dynamic ARDL approach. Grounded on the findings of the study, economic growth from the sight of GDP fallouts in rising the emission of CO2 and EFP in the short and long run whereas GDP sqr cause decrease in the CO2 emission and EFP. Thus, this authorizes the presence of inverted U-shaped existence among GDP sqr, CO2 emission, and EFP. Therefore, this provides provision for the EKC hypothesis in China. Furthermore, ICT and globalization cause a decline in the emission of CO2 and EFP in the short and long run respectively. In combatting challenges linked to the environment, globalization, as well as ICT, is seen as a crucial factor based on the pieces of evidence in our study while the policy implications are also proposed in the paper.
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El aumento considerable de la capacidad de la inteligencia artificial (IA) implica un alto consumo de recursos energéticos. La situación ambiental actual, caracterizada por la acuciante degradación de ecosistemas y la ruptura del equilibrio, exige tomar medidas en diversos ámbitos. La IA no puede quedar al margen, y aunque es empleada para objetivos de sostenibilidad, debe plantearse como sostenible en términos integrales. La propuesta de una inteligencia artificial sostenible se argumenta a partir de una evaluación ética constructiva, donde la inclusión y la participación de los grupos de interés representan dos elementos fundamentales.
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The purpose of the paper is to analyse the relationship between digitalisation of public services (e-government) and ESG factors (environmental, social and economic factors). As public administration is a major stakeholder influencing sustainable development and state governments are aiming to digitise their services, there is a need to better understand the effect of the digital revolution on ESG. This article aims to study the relationship between the E-Government Development Index (EGDI) and ESG factors in 26 European countries. The linear ordering method TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) was used for the study, followed by the Perkal index and the method of optimal predictors’ selection—the Hellwig method. The study is based on the Eurostat data (in the period 2003–2020), and the analysis includes ten variables: Share of environmental taxes in GDP; Exposure to dust air pollution; Greenhouse gas emissions by source sector—carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, etc. (energy, industry, agriculture, forestry, waste management) (thousands of tonnes); Passenger transport volume in relation to GDP; At risk of poverty or social exclusion; Percentage of people satisfied with their financial situation among people aged 16+; Share of the ICT sector in GDP; Unemployment rate of people aged 20–64; Research and development expenditure in all sectors; GDP per capita. The in-depth analysis offers a matrix that represents the relationships between environmental taxes and the development of e-government. The main finding reveals statistically significant relationships between the EGDI and aggregate variables representing the environmental, social and economic spheres. It indicates a genuine, positive impact of digitalised administrative processes on sustainable development. It also seems to confirm that investments in digital infrastructure and government e-services bring multiple long-term benefits and contribute directly to all three domains relevant to the sustainability of modern development. The results of the analysis can be found useful by governments and governmental institutions as informing digitalisation strategies aimed at balancing the development of e-services and their support infrastructure. Nowadays, when planning strategic actions, one should take into account the social, economic and environmental impact of the digitalisation processes.
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to identify the association between environmental leadership (EL) and pro-environmental behaviour among the middle-level employees in iron and steel manufacturing companies. The study further emphasizes on mediation of the relationship by green rewards and green self-efficacy in EL and pro-environmental behaviour relationship, moderated by green training. Design/methodology/approach To find the reliability and validity of the model, confirmatory factor analysis was used. Pearson correlation was used to explore the relationship between variables. PROCESS macro of Hayes (2013) Model 14 was used to test mediation and moderated mediation. Findings EL influenced pro-environmental behaviour in middle-level employees. Green rewards and green self-efficacy mediated the relationship. Green training moderated the mediated relationship of green rewards and green self-efficacy between EL and pro-environmental behaviour. Originality/value This is a fresh contribution around EL and pro-environmental behaviour in iron and steel companies; however, there are studies available on this relationship, but the unique contribution of the study is studying EL in iron and steel companies and mediated moderated relationship by green rewards, self-efficacy and training. It is necessary for the organizations to develop environmental leaders to promote pro-environmental behaviour in employees across sectors.
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Understanding the role of information communication and technology (ICT) in envi�ronmental issues stemming from extensive energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission in the process of economic development is worthwhile both from policy and scholarly fronts. Motivated on this premise, the study contributes to the rising studies associated with the roles of economic growth, institutional quality and information and communication technology (ICT) have on CO2 emission in the framework of the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) on climate convention in Paris. Obtaining data from the emerging industrialized seven (E7) economies (China, India, Indonesia, Russia, Mexico, Brazil and Turkey) covering annual frequency from 1995 to 2016 for our analysis achieved signifcant outcome. From the empirical analysis, economic globalization and renewable energy consumption both reduce CO2 emissions while ICT, institutional quality and fossil fuel contribute to the degradation of the environment. This study afrms the presence of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) phenomenon which shows an invented U-shaped curve within the E7 economies. On the causality front, both income and its square have a feedback causal relationship with carbon emis�sions while economic globalization, institutional quality, ICT and clean energy all have a one-way directional causal relationship with CO2 emissions. Conclusively, the need to reduce environmental degradation activities should be pursued by the blocs such as tree planting activities to mitigate the efect of deforestation. Furthermore, the bloc should shift from the use of fossil-fuel and leverage on ICT to enhance the use of clean energy which is environmentally friendly. Keywords: ICT, Environmental sustainability, Institutional quality, Renewable energy transition, Carbon reduction, Economic globalization, Panel econometrics, E7 economies
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The management of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is a hot issue for both the scientific community and practitioners. Among the strategies that lead a system to circularity, that of reconditioning (or refurbishing) appears to be very suitable and profitable for WEEE management. According to it, this paper aims to contribute to the existing literature on consumer behavior and Circular Economy by studying what determines the green purchase intention of a refurbished smartphone. By applying a Discriminant Analysis it was found that psychological factors, such as green perceived value and environmental knowledge, are the most powerful predictors of green purchase intention of refurbished smartphones, while social and emotional ones, i.e. collectivism, subjective norms and environmental concern, do not influence it. Our results can be useful to both remanufacturers and retailers of refurbished products to identify more effective marketing strategies, as well as to policymakers to define specific measures and policies able to improve the environmental concern of the end consumers.
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Data centers have attracted increasing attention worldwide over the last decades due to their high energy consumption. Cooling accounts for about 30–40% of the total energy consumption of data centers. High-temperature data centers could save large amounts of cooling energy by changing their cooling mechanism. More effective use of “free cooling” is the basic and effective means for high-temperature data centers to reduce cooling energy consumption. It is possible to build chiller-less or even chiller-free data centers. They require less capital investment for cooling and allow more hours of “free cooling”. However, a few essential concerns need to be addressed before the wide application of high-temperature data centers, particularly the technical bottlenecks and the reliability and performance of servers and IT equipment. Though many reviews on data centers exist in the existing research, a systematic review of high-temperature data centers, particularly on the above essential concerns, is still unavailable. This paper is intended to fill in these gaps and provide a comprehensive review of these critical aspects. The main benefits and the major bottlenecks for implementing high-temperature data centers as well as the existing efforts and latest technologies to tackle the bottlenecks are categorized and analyzed systematically. In addition, a through review of the main temperature-sensitive IT components (e.g., hard disk drives and CPU) is done, and their current states and potential solutions are analyzed. Finally, the paper elaborates on future perspectives for the development and applications of the high-temperature data center.
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The benefits of consumer electronic products have transformed every societal sector worldwide. However, the adverse impacts of electronic waste (e-waste) disproportionately affect low-income communities and marginalized ecosystems in nations with economies in transition. The embodied carbon footprint of new electronic products, especially information communication and technology (ICT) devices, is an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, accounting for 67%±15% of total lifetime emissions, instigated by mineral mining, manufacturing, and supply chain transportation. We estimate that between 2014 and 2020, embodied GHG emissions from selected e-waste generated from ICT devices increased by 53%, with 580 million metric tons (MMT) of CO2e emitted in 2020. Without specific interventions, emissions from this source will increase to ∼852 MMT of CO2e annually by 2030. Increasing the useful lifespan expectancy of electronic devices by 50% to 100% can mitigate up to half of the total GHG emissions. Such outcomes will require coordination of eco-design and source reduction, repair, refurbishment, and reuse. These strategies can be a key to efforts towards climate neutrality for the electronics industry, which is currently among the top eight sectors accounting for more than 50% of the global carbon footprint.
Chapter
This work presents a comprehensive review of e-health and d-health systems and the individual components used in each. It presents information and communication technologies to detect, control, and manage NTDs, highlighting their features and functionalities. The chapter highlights some biosensors explicitly developed to diagnose NTDs, paving the way for an internet of things-inclusive e-health system for NTDs. This chapter proposes an internet of things-inclusive e-health model for NTDs offering special services to NTD-affected people besides other fundamental e-health services for a smarter medical environment for patients. The model shall be useful to implement an internet of things-inclusive e-health system including applications and mobile Apps. The e-health system, including app and the application, shall be useful to NTD-affected people, volunteers, attendants, doctors, and researchers. It shall also benefit governments, policymakers, social activists, and other stakeholders to build an e-health vision, action plan, and monitoring framework.
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