Article

Assessment on the urbanization strategy in China: Achievements, challenges and reflections

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  • National Academy for Mayors of China
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Abstract

The “China Dream” is an “Urban Dream”. Urbanization is an inevitable requirement for promoting social progress. The Chinese government sees sustainable urbanization as an engine of modernization and economic growth. And the country's urbanization has followed a unique course and is perhaps the greatest human-resettlement experiment in the world history, unprecedentedly transforming the Chinese society in a very short period of time. Yet problems have arisen during the historical process, China's unique path to urbanization has avoided many of pitfalls existing in the developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America. This paper attempts to conclude the good jobs as well as problems in China's urbanizing process which might provide successful experience for the underdeveloped nations and regions to promote urbanization. The most brilliant achievement of urbanization in China is that thousands of years' agriculture-dominated country has ended and a new urbanized country has formed, which only consumed several decades. The country's urban infrastructure, living conditions and public service for urban residents have made great improvements. The fostering urban agglomerations are considered to lead the country's socio-economic transformation and possess the greatest potential for the urbanization and economic growth in the coming decades. In general, the traditional land-centered urbanization in China is a typical “incomplete urbanization” and “low-quality urbanization”, presenting impressive characteristics of “four highs and five lows”—high investment, consumption, emission and expansion, and low level, quality, harmony degree, inclusiveness and sustainability. Undoubtedly, the traditional urbanization of China is increasingly difficult to continue and the transformation process should be speeded up as soon as possible. The country should actively explore a people-oriented new-type urbanization way, i.e. an intensive, efficient, rural-urban integration, harmonious and sustainable urbanization model.

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... China's drastic urbanization process in the past four decades is an unprecedented event in human history (Guan, Wei, Lu, Dai, & Su, 2018). Over a relatively short period of forty years, the percentage of urban population in China increased from 18% (1978) to 58.5% (2018, NSB). ...
... Chinese governments have determined to shift the Chinese economy away from mainly driven by investment and export towards an economy with greater reliance on domestic consumption. This also calls for a closing of the economic gap between urban dwellers and rural residents (Guan et al., 2018). ...
... Many scholars have blamed the disadvantaged positions of migrant workers on China's unique hukou system. This system provides migrant workers with an 'outsider' status, which prevents them from benefiting from the improvement of urban welfare services (Guan at al., 2018). To correct for the undesired influences of the hukou system, the central government has launched a series of reforms in hukou policies aiming to facilitate hukou transfers from original to destination and to support migrant households settling down in small and medium size cities (Central Government, 2014;State Council, 2014). ...
Article
In China's past decades of marketization reforms, original urban dwellers and early settlers in the home ownership sector enjoyed a drastic improvement in living conditions and family wealth stored in properties. Despite their significant contribution to the urban economy, rural migrants benefited far less from the housing market growth. Institutional discrimination, such as duality in welfare state provisions due to hukou segregation is often seen as main the mechanism behind this urban-rural discrepancy. With three elaborated case studies of generational housing pathways from Chongqing, this paper contributes to the debate of urban-rural housing inequality from a longitudinal perspective, focusing on the role of intergenerational transfers of wealth. We find that the original hukou, the original place of living and the housing positions of the parents all have great influence on the younger generation's housing experiences. The gaps between the urban locals and the migrants in housing resulted from generational accumulations of unbalanced opportunities in accessing housing.
... China's drastic urbanization process in the past four decades is an unprecedented event in human history (Guan, Wei, Lu, Dai, & Su, 2018). Over a relatively short period of forty years, the percentage of urban population in China increased from 18% (1978) to 58.5% (2018, NSB). ...
... Chinese governments have determined to shift the Chinese economy away from mainly driven by investment and export towards an economy with greater reliance on domestic consumption. This also calls for a closing of the economic gap between urban dwellers and rural residents (Guan et al., 2018). ...
... Many scholars have blamed the disadvantaged positions of migrant workers on China's unique hukou system. This system provides migrant workers with an 'outsider' status, which prevents them from benefiting from the improvement of urban welfare services (Guan at al., 2018). To correct for the undesired influences of the hukou system, the central government has launched a series of reforms in hukou policies aiming to facilitate hukou transfers from original to destination and to support migrant households settling down in small and medium size cities (Central Government, 2014;State Council, 2014). ...
... However, the disorderly expansion of urban construction land and the massive loss of ecological land has restricted the sustainable development of the overall ecological environment [5][6][7]. Ensuring the structural stability and functional safety of natural ecosystems to achieve the sustainable development of the ecological environment is a global issue [8,9]. Especially in China's big cities, regional ecological security is faced with the problems of a deteriorating climate environment, serious soil erosion, and the soaring physical environment of buildings [8,10]. ...
... With the development of "3S" technology, many scholars have carried out a series of studies to evaluate the regional ecological status from different angles, combining the advantages of all three [11]. One is single-factor change analysis, such as the analysis of changes in factors closely related to the ecological environment including changes in land use, changes in the net primary productivity of the vegetation, and changes in vegetation coverage [8,9,[12][13][14]. However, for complex ecosystems, especially urban-rural composite ecosystems, the quality of the ecological environment is difficult to measure and quantify using a single ecological index/indicator that only reflects the characteristics of one aspect of the ecosystem [13]. ...
Article
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The ecological environment is important for the survival and development of human beings , and objective and accurate monitoring of changes in the ecological environment has received extensive attention. Based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), wetness (WET), normalized differential build-up and bare soil index (NDBSI), and land surface temperature (LST), the principal component analysis method is used to construct a comprehensive index to evaluate the ecological environment's quality. The R package "Relainpo" is used to estimate the relative importance and contribution rate of NDVI, WET, NDBSI, and LST to the remote sensing ecological index (RSEI). The optimal parameter geographic detector (OPGD) model is used to quantitatively analyze the influencing factors, degree of influence, and interaction of the RSEI. The results show that from 2001 to 2020, the area with a poor grade quality of the RSEI in Guangzhou decreased from 719.2413 km 2 to 660.4146 km 2 , while the area with an excellent quality grade of the RSEI increased from 1778.8311 km 2 to 1978.9390 km 2. The NDVI (40%) and WET (35%) contributed significantly to the RSEI, while LST and NDBSI contributed less to the RSEI. The results of single factor analysis revealed that soil type have the greatest impact on the RSEI with a coefficient (Q) of 0.1360, followed by a temperature with a coefficient (Q) of 0.1341. The interaction effect of two factors is greater than that of a single factor on the RSEI, and the interaction effect of different factors on the RSEI is significant , but the degree of influence is not consistent. This research may provide new clues for the stabilization and improvement of ecological environmental quality.
... China's urbanization is based on the top-level design under the growth model. Especially after entering the 1990s, due to the expectation of China's rapid development and the eagerness to achieve success in the actual command process, the decision-making level often excessively promoted urbanization, with a focus on the digital and physical dimensions of economic growth and spatial expansion [6,8,9]. The urban built-up area caused by the rapid expansion of urban space will become larger and larger, leading to incurable urban diseases, and some "empty cities" and "ghost towns" are likely to appear in the future. ...
... The urban built-up area caused by the rapid expansion of urban space will become larger and larger, leading to incurable urban diseases, and some "empty cities" and "ghost towns" are likely to appear in the future. Urban planning should gradually shift from expansionary planning to limiting urban development boundaries and optimize the planning of the space structure [8,9]. Land urbanization, as the concrete manifestation of urbanization in space, is mainly manifested in the transformation of agricultural land into urban construction land, which has become the focus of both scholars and the government [10][11][12]. ...
Article
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Land urbanization is a comprehensive mapping of the relationship between urban production, life and ecology in urban space and a spatial carrier for promoting the modernization of cities. Based on the remote sensing monitoring data of the land use status of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration collected in 2010 and 2020, the spatial differentiation characteristics and influencing factors of land urbanization in the area were analyzed comprehensively using hot spot analysis, kernel density estimation, the multi-scale geographically weighted regression (MGWR) model and other methods. The results indicated the following: (1) From 2010 to 2020, the average annual growth rate of land urbanization in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration was 0.50%, and nearly 64.28% of the counties had an average annual growth rate that lagged behind the overall growth rate. It exhibited dynamic convergence characteristics. (2) The differentiation pattern of land urbanization in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration was obvious from the southeast to the northwest. The hot spots of land urbanization were consistently concentrated in the southeastern coastal areas and showed a trend of spreading, while the cold spots were concentrated in the northwest of Anhui Province, showing a shrinking trend. (3) Compared with the GWR model and the OLS model, the MGWR model has a better fitting effect and is more suitable for studying the influencing factors of land urbanization. In addition, there were significant spatial differences in the scale and degree of influence of different influencing factors. Analyzing and revealing the spatiotemporal characteristics and driving mechanism of land urbanization in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration has important theoretical value and practical significance for the scientific understanding of new-type urbanization and the implementation of regional integration and rural revitalization strategies.
... In the nearly 30 years from 1949 (foundation of the state) to 1978 (reform and opening up), the tortuous pathway of the country's development meant that China's urbanization rate had only increased from 10.64% to 17.92%, with an average annual growth rate of 1.81%. Following the reform period and opening up, the speed and scale of China's urbanization have been unprecedented, reaching 57.35% in 2016 (Friedmann, 2006;Guan et al., 2018). However, along with the achievements, a series of problems have emerged, such as the blind expansion of urban space, the semiurbanization problem, a dual urban-rural structure, and ecological deterioration (Lu et al., 2014;Zhang and Xu, 2017;Li et al., 2018). ...
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Urbanization is both a global concept and a project that is connected with all aspects of the society. China’s new urbanization process has been attracting wide attention internationally due to its rapid development and rich content. This new urbanization has significant impacts on hundreds of millions of people’s lives, as well as global wellbeing. Although Western China has always been in a relatively weak state of development when compared to the other parts of China, it has a large area and a significant amount of people, which all require a reasonable urbanization method. To show the development level of new urbanization in western China, we constructed an evaluation system and used entropy and weighted summation methods to get the development scores. We then obtained the correlation coefficient with the partial correlation analysis method. The results indicate that: 1) economic, land, and social urbanization are significant influencing factors; 2) temporal and spatial differences were significant during the 15-year period in these 11 cities; 3) among the factor layers, the score of social urbanization fluctuated the most, ecological civilization and economic urbanization showed an upward trend, and population urbanization and land urbanization have been relatively stable in the last few years; 4) for the western capitals, although economic urbanization and ecological civilization have achieved coordinated development in recent years, the endogenous power of the economy still needs to be tapped, and ecological development is facing greater pressure. Meanwhile the expansion of urban land has been too fast to respond well to population growth, which also damages the urban ecosystem to a certain extent. We conclude that it is necessary to realize the coordinated development of different factors in new urbanization, promote new urbanization, while considering the actual needs of the city and also developing the rural areas. This study can provide decision support for the development of new urbanization in the western region.
... After an unprecedented urbanization process, the urban-rural migration has begun to slow down in China (Cai et al., 2019), which confirms our research finding that the urbanization of the YREB is gradually turning towards a steady development. However, the previous rapid urbanization in China is accompanied by high energy consumption and ecological environment deterioration (Guan et al., 2018;Dong et al., 2019;Yu et al., 2020;Pan and Dong, 2022a). It is imperative to accelerate the transition in the mode of urbanization. ...
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Rapid urbanization has altered landscape patterns and ecological functions, causing a decline in ecosystem service and generating many ecological and environmental issues. Studying the spatiotemporal interaction between urbanization and ecosystem service (ES) can provide effective supports for regional sustainability and policy formulation. This research utilizes the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) as a case to analyze the spatiotemporal interaction between multi-urbanization indicators and multi-ESs over a large-scale region. The results show that the urbanization process in the YREB evolves from a rapidly growing state to a steady state with a slower rise. The urbanization level of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration is relatively higher than the other regions. The distribution pattern of urbanization shows an overall characteristic of lower urbanization in the west and higher in the east. From 2009 to 2016, ecosystem service value (ESV) in the YREB decreased first and then increased, ESV in 2016 showed a reduction of 12.768 billion yuan compared with the 2009 level. ESV increases gradually from highly urbanized areas to those with lower levels of urbanization. Areas with high ESV levels are distributed at the middle reaches of YREB. There is a U-shaped curve relationship between urbanization and ESV, the ESV sharply increased when the urbanization index exceeded 0.6 in 2012. Land urbanization has the greatest impact on ESV among the four subtypes of urbanization indicators. Urbanization and ESV show the synergy relationship mostly in the eastern region, accounting for 18.18% of the total 110 cities. By contrast, they present the trade-off relationship in northern, southern and central regions, occupying 47.27% of the total observations. This study is helpful to provide scientific suggestions regarding the development of new urbanization, the protection of ESV, and the issue of how to achieve synergistic and sustainable development between them.
... This is usually accompanied by the process of "urbanization of people" and is similar to the urbanization format of developed countries. The relevant research mainly focuses on the reform of the household registration system (hukou) [13][14][15], the provision of equal public services [16][17][18][19], and the reform of rural land systems [20][21][22]. There are also some studies focusing on the subjective well-being of farmers after completing the rural-urban migration [23][24][25][26]. ...
Article
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Rapid economic growth and infrastructure development force in situ urbanization in locations where people from rural areas gain urban residency without experiencing long-distance geographical relocation. However, the impacts of in situ urbanization on farmers’ and other residents’ well-being remains unclear, and there are some arguments about the idea that “urbanization of people lags behind urbanization of land” in China. Therefore, this study firstly finds a reasonable way to measure in situ urbanization: the transfer of rural-urban division codes. On this basis, by applying the PSM-DID method, we use national census data to explore the impacts of in situ urbanization on farmers from the perspective of housing, mobility and employment. The research results show that after the in situ urbanization, the possibility of farmers moving into non-self-built high-rising buildings increases, while the possibility of farmers leaving the county for employment decreases. Besides, the employment structure in the county where in situ urbanization takes place has shifted from primary industry to secondary and tertiary industry. Moreover, this paper also discusses the spillover effects of in situ urbanization on other residents in the county. Our study shows that in situ urbanization can improve residents’ well-being and offers sustainable land-people integrated urbanization.
... In addition, previous studies are mainly conducted in developed countries, where participants have higher socioeconomic status and live in areas with more green space; very limited evidence can be available from low-and middle-income countries like China. In recent decades, China has experienced rapid economic development and urbanization (Guan et al., 2018), which could have a great challenge to access to green space for urban and rural dwellers . In this context, exploration of the relationship between greenness and diabetes in China may have important public health significance. ...
Article
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Exposure to residential greenness might affect population health through increasing physical activity and social engagement, improving mental health, and reducing harmful environmental exposure. However, evidence on the association of greenness with risk of diabetes is still controversial. In this study, we recruited a total of 22,535 participants aged ≥18 years from Yinzhou District, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China to investigate the associations between residential greenness and risk of diabetes incidence. Residential greenness was estimated using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), and Vegetation Continuous Field (VCF). We also calculated cumulative average NDVI, EVI and VCF values, and changes in NDVI, EVI and VCF during the follow-up period. We used Cox proportional hazards models controlling for demographic characteristics, lifestyles, individual socioeconomic status, history of diseases and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) to examine hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) and assessed physical activity, body mass index (BMI) or PM2.5 as potential mediators. During 84,992.64 person-years of follow-up, a total of 1,154 incident cases of diabetes occurred. In multivariable models, living in the highest quartile of cumulative average NDVI, EVI and VCF within 250-m buffer was associated with 57% (HR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.52), 62% (HR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.45), and 55% (HR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.54) reduction in diabetes risk compared with the lowest quartile, respectively. Results remained similar for NDVI, EVI, and VCF within 500-m and 1000-m buffers. Stratified analyses showed stronger association for residential greenness and diabetes among older people. The association between greenness and diabetes did not appear to be mediated by physical activity, PM2.5 or BMI. Our findings suggested that higher residential greenness was significantly associated with lower risk of diabetes.
... Since urbanization is an irreversible phenomenon, Refs. [1,2] argued that, in order to resolve problems of cities, we have to tackle the root causes which helps to improve the socio-economic situation of the urban poor because they have limited financial resources to cover their cost. Improvements to the country's infrastructure may not be able to meet the increasing growth of disasters [3]. ...
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There could be many empirical contexts which could be applied in urban resilience. The general objective of this research is to assess urban expansion and its implication on urban resilience in regio-metropolitan cities in the Amhara Region (Gondar and Bahir Dar). It used mixed research approaches and cross-sectional design. Data were collected from primary and secondary sources. Primary data were collected from a survey questionnaire, key informant interview and FGDs while secondary data were gathered from both published and unpublished sources. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to determine sample size, and a proportional sampling method was used. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean, percentage, SD), while qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The results indicate that major factors that influence building urban resilience are lacking proper urban planning, basic infrastructure and good governance in both cities, and both cities are extremely far behind in implementing urban resilience principles. Hence, the study improves the community participation in development policy formulation and implementation for urban resilience.
... This allows us to apply the results of our evaluation in a practical way. In 2018, the per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of those four regions all exceeded $10,000/person (Figure 2), and their economic strength ranked among the top five in China with the largest increase in 9 years [31,32]. The increase in Shandong Peninsula is much higher than other megalopolises. ...
Article
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The essence of sustainable urbanization is to take a holistic approach to the harmonious development of economic, social, cultural and environmental protection. This paper applies the urban sustainability assessment system to analyze the characteristics of indicators related to the quality of the built environment and environmental pressure of 91 cities in four major megalopolises in China from 2010 to 2018. It also combines statistical methods to summarize the general features of urban development through a comprehensive urban performance evaluation by comparative and classification analysis for the purpose of scientific guidance on sustainable urbanization. The comparative results showed that in terms of urban sustainability, the Yangtze River Delta performed best, followed by JingJinJi, Pearl River Delta and Shandong Peninsula. Of which, the quality of built environment in JingJinJi and the environment pressure in the Shandong Peninsula require particular attention to improve and decrease, respectively. Moreover, cities can be grouped into six development types through performance clustering including three positive and three negative types. The characteristics of all types are summarized, and the performance of the specific indicators are detailed compared to serve as a guiding basis for making generic recommendations of sustainable urbanization.
... However, with the continuous development of urbanization, land transformation outside the city is accelerated, and satellite towns with short urbanization processes are formed around the city center (Merrilees et al., 2013). Therefore, with the advancement of urbanization, the distribution of urban infrastructure design gets more complex, and the study of urban forest landscape patterns and their influencing factors will help to optimize the design of urban green infrastructure (Guan et al., 2018;Sorensen, 2018). ...
Article
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Advanced geographic technologies provide an opportunity to understand the urban forest landscape and guide the governance of the urban ecosystem. However, only few studies stressed the importance of data techniques in understanding urban sustainability, especially urban forest landscape. Therefore, this study makes an analysis of urban forest resources in a city of Yangtze River Delta with the help of multi-source data techniques and further data analysis of different forest landscape pattern indices in the study area with the help of SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solutions). The following conclusions are drawn: 1) According to the visual analysis, the spatial distribution of forest patches in the study area has a great difference. 2) All the seven landscape pattern indices are positively correlated with the distribution density of POI (Point of Interest), which represents the urban economic vitality. The correlation coefficients are NP (R2 = 0.3063), PD (R2 = 0.0079), ED (R2 = 0.3955), AREA (R2 = 0.5408), CONTIG (R2 = 0.0323), PAFRAC (R2 = 0.3662) and AI (R2 = 0.2014), respectively. This indicates that the higher the economic vitality is, the more fragmented and complex the urban forest patches are. 3) According to the geographically weighted regression model, the goodness of fit between the spatial distribution density of POI and NP, PD, ED, and AI reaches 0.804, 0.771, 0.634, and 0.619, respectively, and the explanatory power of the model is more than twice that of the corresponding linear regression model. The data illustrates that the correlation between economic vitality and urban forest landscape pattern indices has significant spatial heterogeneity.
... The influx of the rural surplus population into cities greatly increases the quantity demand for urban public services, forcing local governments to improve PSP efficiency to produce as many services as possible to satisfy the soaring demand. Meanwhile, the progress of urbanization would also entail a scale of agglomeration to cut the costs of public service delivery to improve PSP efficiency [37]. Nevertheless, urbanization would also incur urban diseases such as traffic congestion and environmental pollution, which would reduce public satisfaction on supplied public services and lower PSP effectiveness [3]. ...
Article
The measurement of public service provision (PSP) performance and identification of its influencing variables are of great importance for the government to efficiently utilize public resources and provide more effective public services. However, existing studies have mainly focused on the efficiency to provide public services and ignored the effectiveness to improve public subjective well-being. To fill this gap, this study constructs a two-stage PSP conceptual model from the perspective of service production and consumption and develops a corresponding PSP performance evaluation indicator system involving efficiency, effectiveness, and comprehensive performance. The PSP performances of 35 major cities in China during 2011–2018 are calculated using the super efficiency network slack-based measure model. Moreover, the influencing factors of these performances are identified through the truncated regression model. Results indicate that the comprehensive performance of these cities is relatively low and shows a trend of decrease that is predominantly caused by provision efficiency. Owing to the absolute advantage in effectiveness and the catch-up effect in efficiency, cities in the western region perform the best in comprehensive performance, followed by the eastern region and then the central region. In addition, only seven cities achieve a balance between efficiency and effectiveness. Factors from economy, society, government, and public aspects have different impacts on PSP performances. On the basis of these findings, several policy suggestions are proposed. This study proposes a relatively comprehensive and accurate measurement framework of PSP performance that considers both efficiency and effectiveness and can help policymakers implement appropriate strategies promoting PSP in an efficient, effective, and sustainable manner.
... (1) the suburbanization of urban residents due to rapid economic growth, and (2) the continued urbanization of rural migrants as a result of loosening migration control (Zhou and Ma 2000;Friedmann 2006;Guan et al. 2018). The urban growth pattern in China may have differed from that of the United States where suburban population growth is primarily a result of changing demographics and individual decisions in response to socioeconomic and market signals (Champion 2001;Myers 2016). ...
Article
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This paper examines population redistribution and urban growth in Nanjing-an ancient capital and a new Tier-1 city in China from 1990 to 2015, focusing on the dynamic processes of urbanization and suburbanization. We rely on China's census and survey microdata and the shift-share method to investigate population changes and spatial expansion in the city. The results show that Nanjing has been suburbanizing since the 1990s, accentuated by two distinct periods. In the 2000s, intracity migration led to urban spatial expansion, and the population of the inner suburbs grew much faster than that of the city center. Urban residents moved from the city center to the inner suburbs for better living conditions. In the early 2010s, urban growth was fueled by rural-urban migration for employment and city-living after the relaxation of migration rules. Population growth was concentrated in the newly developed outer suburbs. In both periods, the suburbs were the main area of population growth, consistent with the trend of China's traditional Tier-1 cities. Urban growth and population redistribution were led by two countervailing processes-the suburbanization of urban residents and the urbanization of rural-urban migrants. Unlike most US cities, Nanjing has kept its high population density in the city center despite the continued suburbanization. These findings illustrate the unique pattern of China's urban growth and provide important implications for urban planning.
... On the other hand, the spillover effect of knowledge and technology, accompanied by the accelerated urbanization process, improves the levels of agricultural technology and management; improves the quality of farmers, and provides the dynamic support to technology, management, and talent for the upgrading of the agricultural industrial structure [53]. At the same time, the rapid development of agricultural production equipment or agricultural elements of production in the process of urbanization, through market mechanisms and policies in order to guide the agglomeration and allocation of advanced production elements, such as talent, equipment, technology, and management, to agricultural or rural areas, can effectively improve the technical and management content of agriculture, increase the agricultural labor productivity and land output rate, and promote agricultural technological progress and technological efficiency improvements [54]. ...
Article
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In this paper, on the basis of a theoretical analysis, we quantitatively explore the impact of urbanization on agricultural technical efficiency after measuring the agricultural technical efficiency and the urbanization level, from the perspective of different dimensions in 34 prefecture-level cities in Northeast China, using the SE-DEA model, entropy-TOPSIS method, and the panel regression model. The results show that, except for some cities that achieved technical efficiency in individual years, such as Yichun in 2012 (1.003), and Benxi in 2015 and 2016 (1.011 and 1.254, respectively), the overall level of agricultural technical efficiency in the Northeast Region is still relatively low. The level of overall urbanization in Liaoning was significantly higher than that in Heilongjiang and Jilin. The population urbanization and land urbanization levels of most cities were relatively high, but an obvious improvement trend was not observed. Some cities even appeared to undergo the phenomenon of “anti-urbanization”, and the economic urbanization showed an obvious characteristic of “high begins and low ends” in the Northeast. Moreover, except for the population urbanization, the overall urbanization, land urbanization, and economic urbanization all had a significant positive effect on the agricultural technical efficiency; the effect in Heilongjiang province was higher than that in Liaoning province, and Heilongjiang province showed an obvious catch-up trend. While enriching the research on urbanization and efficiency, this study provided political implications on strengthening the flow of factors between the urban and rural, improving the investment in technology and labor training, and improving the compensation mechanism.
... Urbanization is the process of expansion in urban population and scale, and the corresponding series of economic and social changes [1]. After the reform and development in 1978, China's urbanization has been in a stage of rapid growth [2], and the rural areas and small towns of Guangdong Province have gradually become the main system of the new urbanization development direction. ...
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Regarding the rapid development of urban agglomeration (UA) in Guangdong Province in the past two decades, this study revealed the temporal and spatial evolution of the urban pattern of the province and the current urbanization process. This study determined the geographical spatial distribution and change in the UA lighting scale in Guangdong Province, analyzed the relationship between the lighting change and development and the dynamic evolution of the gross domestic product, and explored the expansion intensity and center of gravity migration direction of UA. The results showed that from 2000 to 2020, the lighting scale of the border areas of Guangdong Province was lower than that of the inland areas, whereas the lighting growth rate of the border areas was higher than that of the inland areas. The built-up area steadily expanded from the center to the outside within the time range of the study, and the center of gravity of the ellipse tended to shift northwest. The study provides visual and scientific data for the spatiotemporal evolution of the urban pattern in Guangdong Province and has important reference significance for analyzing urbanization development and planning urban construction.
... From coastal special economic zones to western development to the construction of free trade zones (ports), China has introduced a series of regional development strategies [1] that have become a major feature of the urbanization and industrialization process [2]. Regional development strategies are plans for overall development that encompass regional economic, social, political, cultural, and ecological aspects [3], and their implementation indicates the direction of and goals for regional development and provides necessary policy support, which is an important driving force for regional economic and social development. ...
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The strategy of building an international tourism island in Hainan is an important national strategic deployment, with tourism as the core, integrating a series of issues such as industry, tropical agriculture, and urban-rural relations. The implementation of this strategy profoundly affects the evolution of local land use patterns and ecosystems on Hainan Island. This paper utilizes a counterfactual analysis framework and Cellular Automata (CA)-Markov model based on the current land use data of Hainan Island for the three periods of 1999, 2008 and 2017. Accordingly, the spatial and temporal conditions of ecosystem service values (ESV) in 2017, under the assumed scenario of unimplemented international tourism island strategy, were simulated. The net spatial and temporal impacts of the international tourism island construction strategy on the value of ecosystem services on Hainan Island were finally assessed. The results are as follows. First, the total value of ESV in Hainan Island in 1999, 2008 and 2017 were 33.88 billion yuan, 56.045 billion yuan and 50.417 billion yuan respectively showing a trend of first increasing and then decreasing; spatially, the ESV were high in the central region and low in the surrounding areas. Second, in the simulated scenario without the implementation of the international tourism island construction strategy in 2017, the total ESV of Hainan Island was 54.19 billion yuan. Third, the implementation of the international tourism island policy reduced the ESV by 3773 million yuan, and the impact of this policy was high in coastal areas and low inland. There was an obvious divergence between the positive and negative effects.
... Urbanization brings an agglomeration effect, promotes economic efficiency, and optimizes resource allocation. With the advancement of urbanization, the employment and income levels of residents, public facilities in cities and towns, and the quality of public services will be continuously improved [70]. The city-rural binary system has been broken, helping to reduce the income gap between cities and rural areas, while the improvement of people's living conditions has improved welfare levels, bringing about improvements in EWP. ...
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In the "full world" where natural capital is scarce, within the limits of the ecological environment, the improvement of welfare is a fundamental requirement for sustainable development. The ecological wellbeing performance (EWP) of 284 cities in China from 2007 to 2020 was measured by the superefficient SBM-DEA model, considering undesirable output, and analyzing the evolutionary trends of overall comprehensive technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency, and scale efficiency. The Theil index was used to explore the source and distribution of the Chinese cities' EWP differences. Exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) and the spatial Durbin model (SDM) were applied to analyze the spatial distribution characteristics and driving factors of cities' EWP. The results showed the following: (1) Regarding spatial and temporal distribution, the EWP of Chinese cities showed a fluctuating upward trend, in which pure technical efficiency > scale efficiency. (2) Considering regional differences, the differences in cities' EWP were mainly intraregional rather than interregional. The contribution rates of distinct regions to the differences in EWP varied, i.e., western region > eastern region > central region > northeastern region. (3) In terms of spatial correlation, China's EWP showed positive spatial correlation, i.e., high-high agglomeration and low-low agglomeration. (4) Concerning influencing factors, the level of financial development, the structure of secondary industries, the level of opening-up, and the degree of urbanization significantly improved EWP. Decentralization of fiscal revenue significantly inhibited improvement of EWP. Decentralization of fiscal expenditure and technological progress had no significant impact on the EWP. In the future, to improve cities' EWP, China should focus on reducing differences in intraregional EWP, overcoming administrative regional limitations, encouraging regions with similar locations to formulate coordinated development plans, promoting economic growth, reducing levels of environmental pollution, and paying attention to the improvement of social welfare.
... On the other hand, the sustainable development measurement of land administration is a much more comprehensive issue. According to some of the literature pertaining to sustainable land use and its economic implications globally and in China [52][53][54][55][56], sustainable land use involves using land resources while maintaining an optimal equilibrium between economic growth and environmental protection. For the whole region, the ecological output is influenced by land use. ...
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Promoting market-oriented allocation of land has great significance in building a new pattern for high-quality development. As a market-oriented land allocation tool, land quota trading between urban and rural areas promotes spatial efficiency dynamically. In order to identify the contribution of land quota trading to economic efficiency, this paper uses a synthetic control method to evaluate the effect based on the practice of Chongqing, China. This study found that with the implementation of the land quota trading (LQT) program, the value of Chongqing’s economic output was 11.12% higher than the synthetic value, which indicates that the LQT program improved the spatial efficiency of land allocation, and eventually promoted economic growth. We suggest actively promoting land quota trading within and across provinces, and gradually deepening market-oriented reform in China’s construction land administration system.
... Once the imbalance of LU and PU arises, it will harm the sustainable development of a city [16]. Under China's rapid urbanization, the relationship between the rapid expansion of urban land and the rapid population growth has attracted extensive attention from scholars in China and abroad [17]. Existing studies show that the current LU in China is more than the PU [18]. ...
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Land urbanization (LU) and population urbanization (PU) maintain the nature of spatiotemporal heterogeneity in China. As a municipality directly administered by the central government in the mode of “large cities and large rural areas”, Chongqing’s urbanization process is the epitome of China’s urbanization process. This paper examines the spatiotemporal variability of LU and PU in Chongqing on the basis of nighttime light data, the elasticity coefficient of the coupling relationship, and GWR. The results show that (1) the urban land and urban population in Chongqing grew notably from 2008 to 2018, with average annual growth rates of 9.4% and 2.3%, respectively. (2) The coupling coordination coefficient of LU and PU in Chongqing was 0.24, and the total number of districts and counties with uncoordinated development increased, but the overall uncoordinated situation gradually improved over the period. (3) The influence of PU on LU in each district and county increased year by year, and it showed a decreasing trend from southwest to northeast in Chongqing, which indicates that LU was increasingly adapted to the construction needs of PU. The gap between LU and PU widened due to the household registration system, land fiscal policies and other policies. After the reform of the household registration system and the adjustment of new pilot policies targeting the construction of new-type urbanization, the coupling relationship between LU and PU was gradually improving to the coordinated mode. The findings indicate that Chinese urban areas should adhere to the principle of new-type urbanization construction and carry out scientific land planning strategies, strictly controlling land expansion to promote the reasonable development of population growth.
... Chinese villages are a typical society of acquaintances. The more complex the social relations the farmers have, the more opportunities they can seek help (Guan et al., 2018). Income per capita and liabilities are selected to characterize the financial capital of farm households. ...
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Hubei Province, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, is a complex area of fragile ecological environment and traditional agricultural production in China. With the further intensification of the impact of global warming, flood disasters have brought a more severe threat to the sustainable development of farmers’ livelihoods. This paper therefore examines the livelihood resilience of farmers with different livelihood strategies in the region by constructing a livelihood resilience evaluation system based on three target levels: buffering capacity, Adaptation and restoration, and using a contribution model to identify the main contributing factors affecting the livelihood resilience of fa rmers. The following three conclusions were found: (1). The overall level of livelihood resilience of farmers in flood-affected areas in Hubei Province is not high, and the difference in livelihood resilience indices between farmers with different livelihood strategies is large; (2). Farming-led farmers and part-time balanced farmers can better adapt to external shocks brought about by floods; (3). The main contributing factors affecting the livelihood resilience of various types of farmers have Convergence.
... In fact, intending to increase the urbanization rate, which is a key national priority, and under the pressure of constant urban immigration, the most competitive cities in China are increasing the existing Floor Area Ratio (FAR): on one side to make the investment in urban regeneration profitable, on the other side to use land more efficiently (Chhetri et al., 2013;LENG et al., 2010;Li et al., 2016;The State Council, 2021a). Different from the past, the social sustainability of each transformation is increasingly considered, because not only growth must be achieved, but sustainable growth according to the New Type of Urbanization launched in 2014 with fully consideration of residents' needs and satisfaction (Chu, 2020;Guan et al., 2018;Pellegrini & Chen, 2020). ...
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The urban residential regeneration strongly supported by the 14th five-year plan of China should achieve social sustainability. Assessing residents’ satisfaction with the housing quality and living environment is essential for social sustainability and, therefore, should be considered in any transformation process. This study investigates which factors affect residents’ satisfaction significantly in high-dense resettlement neighbourhoods, focusing on housing conditions and the community environment. The selected case study is Nanhuan Village, a large resettlement neighbourhood in Suzhou built in the early “80s with medium-density multi-storey buildings and partly transformed with high-density high-rises in 2010. The study analyses residents” satisfaction before and after the regeneration and adopts a mixed research method: in-depth interviews with community managers and designers, fieldwork, and a structured questionnaire survey with residents to determine the influencing factors of satisfaction analysed by a structural equation model. The study identifies 24 indicators and the results highlight what matters for the residents: “community environment”, “property management”, and “surrounding facilities” are the factors that most significantly impact the residents’ satisfaction, even though there are different opinions between the residents of the old part and the regenerated part. The results are surprising: it is not the residential unit that mostly impacts the assessment—once a decent dwelling is provided—but the urban environment. The results also reveal that the densification realized by the transformation is not perceived as a problem. The results of this study can contribute to the definition of the government’s urban regeneration policy.
... Researches show that traditional urbanization development with population expansion and land sprawl is propelled by the overconsumption and underutilization of energy (Guan et al. 2018;Wang et al. 2019a, b). For example, the area of urban construction land increased from 6,720 square kilometers in 1981 to 58,355.29 km 2 in 2020. ...
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Providing diversified jobs for workers and achieving green development are important goals of the new-type urbanization construction (NTUC) in China. We constructed a difference-in-difference model to investigate the effect of the NTUC on the shift-share of employment (SSE), using panel data of 272 Chinese prefecture-level cities from 2005 to 2019. The relationship between the SSE and CO2 emissions was explored. The results show that the NTUC effectively promotes the SSE and exhibits the significant regional and industry heterogeneity. In addition, the SSE under the NTUC pilot policy can effectively reduce CO2 emissions and presents the obvious regional and industrial differences. Promoting the industrial structure advancement and improving public services and digital levels can enhance the inhibitory effect of the SSE on CO2 emissions. Meanwhile, the SSE has an inhibitory effect on CO2 emissions in local regions but promotes the CO2 emissions in the neighboring regions. Finally, these findings provide an important decision-making reference for restructure employment and reduce CO2 emissions during the period of urban transformation and development.
... On the other hand, the development of digital technology can deepen inequities. Since the reform and opening up of China, urban areas have been favored by various policies [23,24], thereby accelerating their development rate significantly. The gap between urban and rural areas has always existed because of the poor economic and infrastructure development in rural areas, and the "Matthew effect" Land 2022, 11,1980 3 of 23 brought by the digital divide is also deepening this gap. ...
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Based on theoretical analysis, this study examines the relationship between the development of China’s digital economy and the urban–rural income gap by using an empirical model to test panel data for 30 provinces in China from 2009 to 2019. The results of the study reveal that (1) there is a “U-shaped” relationship between the digital economy and the urban–rural income gap, with the gap narrowing in the early stages of development and widening in the medium-to-long term. (2) The development of the digital economy in peripheral regions will have an impact on the urban–rural income gap in the region through spatial spillover. (3) The heterogeneity tests reveal that the digital economy has a stronger impact on the urban–rural income gap in western China and a weaker impact in the east. (4) A double difference test using “Broadband Rural” construction as a policy shock variable reveals that the pilot project helped reduce the urban–rural income gap. This study deepens our understanding of the digital economy for integrated urban–rural development. It provides a theoretical basis and practical experience for enhancing the living standard of rural residents and promoting the integrated development of urban and rural areas.
... over the last few decades and the urban population continues to increase, with an average annual growth rate of 0.16 billion (Guan et al., 2018). Resource-driven population growth in cities threatens the limited natural resources owing to the improper disposal of waste, resulting in soil and water pollution (Deus et al., 2020). ...
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Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) is a stable and persistent glycoprotein secreted by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi that plays an important role in sequestering soil organic carbon (SOC) and improving soil quality. Rapid urbanization disturbs and degrades the soil quality in the greenspace. However, few studies have investigated the effects of urbanization on GRSP and its influencing factors. This study selected impervious surface area as a measure of urbanization intensity. A total of 184 soil samples were collected from the 0-20 cm soil layer in the greenspace of Nanchang, China (505 km2). The GRSP content, soil properties, urban forest characteristics, and land-use configuration were determined. The total GRSP (TG) and easily extractable GRSP (EEG) contents were 2.38 and 0.57 mg g-1, respectively. TG and EEG decreased by 16.22% and 19.35%, respectively, from low to heavy urbanized areas. Moreover, SOC decreased from 39.9 to 1.4 mg g-1, while EEG/SOC and TG/SOC increased by approximately 17% and 34%, respectively, indicating the significant contribution of GRSP to the SOC pool. Pearson and redundancy analysis showed that GRSP was positively correlated with SOC, phosphorus, nitrogen, vegetation richness, and tree height, but negatively correlated with pH, bulk density, and impervious area. The partial least squares path model demonstrated that urbanization affected soil properties, forest characteristics, and land use factors, resulting in GRSP changes. This study clarifies the key factors of urbanization that affect GRSP and provides insight for urban greenspace soil improvement from the new perspective of enhancing the GRSP content.
... Studies have reported that vitality benefits the daily needs of residents, enables the equitable distribution of facilities, improves people's perceptions, and enhances human interaction and neighbourhood resilience (Lynch, 1984;Sharifi, 2019;Xu et al., 2017). Recently, the construction of public spaces in China has transitioned to an emphasis on quality (Guan et al., 2018). Stimulating urban vitality in the local environment is thus essential to the refinement of urban planning. ...
Article
There is a high correlation between the physical environment, human perception, and urban vitality. However, fine-scale variations in urban vitality are complex, and human perceptions of locale are difficult to measure. In this study, EasyGo data provided by Tencent, are used to distinguish differences in daytime and nighttime vitality in Shenzhen, China. Then, a series of subjective and objective variables is calculated to reflect human perceptions of locale based on street view images (SVIs). Finally, random forest and spatial lag regressions are adopted to analyse the driving forces of urban vitality. The results suggest that differences in urban vitality are manifestations of the unbalanced allocation of urban function, accessibility, building form, and human perceptions. The dominant variable category is urban function. There are obvious distinctions between daytime and nighttime vitality, particularly because the human perception category is increasingly important to nighttime vitality. This work sheds light on the relationships between human perceptions and urban vitality, providing suggestions for urban microrenewal and the construction of high-quality streets and liveable communities.
... Complex human activities based on urban expansion are constantly changing the planet, leading to deteriorated resources, frequent climate extremes, and severe perturbations of biochemical cycles [10][11][12][13] . China's rapid urbanization is characterized by extensive expansion based on a high rate of consumption of natural resources 14 . Impervious surfaces have replaced vast tracts of ecological areas, leading to drastic ecological degradation 15 . ...
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Urban waterbodies are one of the most pertinent issues involved in multiple aspects of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, waterbodies in large Chinese cities are highly vulnerable to urban-land expansion, which is mostly due to economic development, population growth, and rural–urban migration. In this work, we selected 159 Chinese cities of over one million in population to investigate the encroachment on waterbodies due to rapid urbanization from 1990 to 2018. Overall, 20.6% of natural waterbody area was lost during this period to urban expansion, and this fraction varied from city to city which was related to waterbody abundance. With the acceleration of urbanization, waterbody occupation is becoming more serious (P < 0.01). However, in all cities, this encroachment has eased since 2010, which justifies the effective implementation of national-scale policies to conserve urban waterbodies. Meanwhile, gains have occurred during urbanization, in addition to the loss of waterbodies. Especially, cities lacking waterbody placed a greater emphasis on ecological factors, whose urban waterbody areas showed an increasing trend. In the future, ecological resources, including waterbody, should be considered in urban planning to provide reasonable protection to waterbodies in the quest for urban sustainability.
... In the decades since the reform and opening up, China's rapid economic development, urbanization and population have caused severe damage to air quality [1]. Meanwhile, the major fossil energy consumption of transportation, industry, and residents' living needs is a direct source of PM 2.5 pollution, which has further exacerbated the problem of air pollution characterized by atmospheric particulate matter [2,3]. PM 2.5 refers to fine particulate matter with a dynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm, which is composed of a variety of complex chemical substances discharged from various natural and anthropogenic sources [4]. ...
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The serious pollution of PM2.5 caused by rapid urbanization has become an urgent problem to be solved in China in recent years. Annual and daily satellite-derived PM2.5 datasets from 2001 to 2020 were used to analyze the temporal and spatial patterns of PM2.5 in China. The regional and pop-ulation exposure risks of the nation and of urban agglomerations were evaluated by exceedance frequency and population weight. The results indicated that the PM2.5 concentrations of urban agglomerations decreased sharply from 2014 to 2020. The region with PM2.5 concentrations less than 35 μg·m-3 accounted for 80.27% in China, and the average PM2.5 concentrations in 8 urban agglomerations were less than 35μg·m-3 in 2020. The spatial distribution pattern of PM2.5 concen-trations in China revealed higher concentrations to the east of the Hu Line and lower concentra-tions to the west. The annual regional exposure risk (RER) in China was at a high level, with a national average of 0.75, while the average of 14 urban agglomerations was as high as 0.86. Among the 14 urban agglomerations, the average annual RER was the highest in Shandong Peninsula (0.99) and lowest in Northern Tianshan Mountains (0.76). The RER in China has obvious seasonality; the most serious was in winter, and the least serious was in summer. The population exposure risk (PER) east of the Hu Line was significantly higher than that west of the Hu Line. The average PER was the highest in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (4.09) and lowest in Northern Tianshan Mountains (0.71). The analysis of air pollution patterns and exposure risks in China and urban agglomerations in this study could provide scientific guidance for cities seeking to alleviate air pollution and prevent residents' exposure risks.
... China's New Urbanization strategy released in 2014 highlights the progressive development of UAs in China (NDRC 2014). Considering the data availability and the development status of UAs, a total of 12 typical UAs in China were chosen as study areas to be evaluated, as shown in Table 1.. Three UAs that include Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH-UA), Yangtze River Delta (YRD-UA), and Pearl River Delta (PRD-UA) are expected to grow into world-class UAs, representing the most developed areas of the country with a strong economic foundation, which have the most potential to attract growth Guan et al. 2018;Liu et al. 2020). Middle Reaches of Yangtze River (MRYR-UA), Chongqing-Chengdu (CC-UA), Shandong Peninsula (SP-UA), and West Coast of Taiwan Straits (WCTS-UA) are planned to become large nation-class UAs. ...
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Urban Agglomeration (UA) is regarded as an emerging complex urban system in China. The development of UA demands a reasonable scale structure, which can be investigated by Zipf's law. However, few studies have been conducted to quantify the optimal scale of UA and how its development deviates from the optimal scale. With the continuous urban expansion, the problem of UAs' scale structure has received increasing attention. In this study, we propose a method based on Zipf's law for estimating the theoretical optimal scale of UAs in China and assessing the deviation rate from their optimal scales. Twelve typical UAs in China are selected, and their development is assessed via urban impervious surface data from 2000 to 2018. The results show that the average deviation rate of the investigated UAs decreased from 3.40% in 2000 to 2.32% in 2018, demonstrating that these UAs are on a positive evolution trajectory. Furthermore, according to the development stage, we make recommendations on "large cities vs. medium/small-sized cities and promoting vs. restraining" to each UA based on its size. The conceptual and analytical knowledge, as well as the results from this study, are expected to offer valuable insights and new references for regulating and managing UAs' development in China.
... However, sustainable development involves more than just the environmental dimension; the Sustainable Development Goals system (SDGs) projected by the United Nations covers seventeen areas such as good health, quality education, and economic growth. As urbanization, land resources mismatch, and economic development bring more government revenue, China's sustainable development elements such as infrastructure, living standards, and public services have greatly improved [36][37][38][39][40]. erefore, the urbanization led by the government will affect the level of urban sustainable development, and the direction of urban sustainable development depends on government expenditure preferences and land development planning. ...
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Urbanization has accelerated China’s economic growth, but it has also brought many sustainability issues. This paper selected a random forest model to study the impact of local government-led urbanization on urban sustainable development. Urbanization affected urban sustainable development through government revenue expansion, land resources mismatch, and industrial structure adjustment. The results showed that the adjustment of industrial structure has the greatest impact on urban sustainable development, and the importance of the average output of industrial enterprises confirms it. Government revenue expansion and land resources mismatch are more important to the sustainable development of representative urban agglomerations. The goodness of fit of the random forest model is better than the multiple linear regression (MLR) model and the extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) model. The generalization ability of the model is improved with the optimization of variables. The main contribution of this paper is that we have established a complete information dynamic game model on government revenue expansion, land resource mismatch, industrial structure adjustment, and urban sustainable development. And the random forest model is used to study the relationship between the above variables.
... China has been experiencing unprecedented urbanization over the past four decades (Gong et al., 2020;Guan et al., 2018). As the capital city Beijing has achieved a high level of urbanization Zhou et al., 2021), leading to serious UHI (Miao et al., 2009;Yang et al., 2013). ...
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Unprecedented urbanization in China has led to serious urban heat island (UHI) issues, exerting intense heat stress on urban residents. Based on the observed temperature and PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing over 2016–2020, we find diverse influences of aerosol pollution on urban heat island intensity (UHII) under different circulations. When northerly winds are prevalent in urban Beijing, UHII tends to be much higher in both daytime and nighttime and it is less affected by aerosol concentrations. However, when southerly and westerly winds are dominant in rural Beijing, UHII is significantly reduced by aerosol pollution. Using coupled aerosol-radiation weather simulations, we demonstrate the underlying physical mechanism which is associated with local circulation and resulting spatial distribution of aerosols. Our results also highlight the role of black carbon in aggravating UHI, especially during nighttime. It could thus be targeted for cooperative management of heat islands and aerosol pollution.
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Land finance is one of the economic phenomena in the process of urbanization in China. Studying the impact of urbanization on land finance may help us to better formulate urbanization policies, especially for developing countries. We use the microdata of urban land transactions in China from 2005 to 2016 and adopt a differences-in-differences method based on the county-to-district policy to investigate the impact of urbanization on land finance. We find that the urbanization reform has significantly increased the local government’s reliance on land finance. We also find that the policy has a larger impact on land finance for undeveloped cities. Land finance provides a critical source of funds for the urbanization led by local governments, but with the further promotion of urbanization, the reliance on land finance by local governments will show a gradual downward trend. The mechanism test finds that urbanization promotes land finance dependence by increasing the transfer revenue and areas of existing construction land and infrastructure construction investment. The study of the impact of China’s urbanization on land finance can serve as a reference for other developing countries’ urbanization, and can further provide practical guidance for the promotion of China’s new-type urbanization.
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The development of urbanization accelerates the construction of urban buildings, infrastructure, and the production of artifacts to support the basic socioeconomic activities in cities. To prepare for future urban development and enhance urban resilience, it is necessary to understand the scale of existing buildings, infrastructure and artifacts in cities. Taking Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Wuhan, and Chengdu as an example, this study used material flow analysis to calculate the material stock of urban buildings, infrastructure, and artifacts from 1978 to 2018, explored the accumulation process and structural changes of urban material stock, and analyzed the driving factors of material stock changes. The results showed that urban material stock had accumulated rapidly, and its constituent structure was dominated by buildings (60-82%) and infrastructure (14-31%), while the artificial products were relatively low (3-7%), and its material structure was dominated by sand and gravel (66-70%). Economic development and urban population were the main drivers for material stock growth, while material intensity and urban-rural structure showed an inhibition effect. The results can provide a scientific basis for sustainable construction and management of material stock in urban buildings, infrastructure and artifacts.
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Urban society, infrastructures, and their energy and water systems are interconnected, whose performance can be measured by United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 6–13. However, few studies have systematically investigated sustainable development at the city level, especially in China. To fill this gap, we adopted the SDG framework to establish holistic urban metrics tailored to China's context. We empirically examined the city-level scaling effects and found that the urban metrics of China's prefectural cities basically fit into the scaling theory, that socioeconomic attributes are in super-linear relations with population while urban infrastructures show sub-linearity. Moreover, when the effects of per capita built-up area and GDP are controlled, the population still correlates to many metrics. This study provides a more nuanced understanding of urban scaling patterns, considering China's unique city governance regime and land-centered urbanization pathway when evaluating their sustainable development progress, which helps inform custom-fit planning strategies for a better future.
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Worsening environmental effects caused by the rapid large-scale urban expansion in most Chinese cities is a worrying trend. In response, China is advocating an economic transition from rapid (raw growth) to a high-quality development model that incorporates negative environmental consequences. Green total factor productivity (GTFP) is regarded as one of the important approaches for measuring high-quality development. Hence, the aim of this research is to quantify the impact of urban sprawl on GTFP using remote sensing data and spatial econometric models. The primary findings of this study are as follows. (1) The urban sprawl index presents a decreasing trend from 2005 to 2016, indicating that urbanization has slowed; (2) The GTFP scores of Chinese cities are not randomly distributed and thus present significant spatial spillovers; and (3) The results of spatial lag models reveal that spatial spillover of GTFP is significant and positive. In other words, increases in GTFP in neighboring cities promotes GTFP improvements in nearby cities. We also find that the impact of urban sprawl on GTFP is significant and negative, indicating that rapid urban expansion is a contributor to decreased GTFP growth in China. Moreover, urban sprawl has a negative effect on technical change and efficiency change. The main findings can provide policy makers in Chinese cities with scientific foundations to design and implement effective measures to improve GTFP.
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Rapid urbanization and exacerbated natural hazards, for example, floods, have been the big challenges for the sustainable development of many countries. Understanding the coupling coordination between urbanization and flood is important for promoting the sustainable development. However, there are few quantitative studies on the interaction between these two in China which is experiencing accelerated urbanization and climate change. In this paper, we developed an improved coupling coordination degree (CCD) model, applied Moran's I and projection pursuit model based on genetic algorithm to analyze the spatiotemporal distribution and spatial clustering effects of coupling coordination in urbanization–flood disasters system under the context of China's Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development. Our results showed an upward trend of the comprehensive level of urbanization subsystem and a decreasing first and rising later trend of flood disaster subsystem in China from 2001 to 2018. There was a U-shaped relationship between the two subsystems during the research period. From 2001 to 2018, provinces with the moderate and slight uncoordinated development decreased by 9.68% and 16.13%, respectively, while provinces with the barely coordinated development increased by 16.21%. Spatially, there was a remarkable spatial dependency on CCD. The CCD between two subsystems in Northwestern China was higher than that in Southeastern China. Due to the effects of geographic position, rainfall, human activities, and economic development, the low-low (L-L) clusters concentrated in Southeastern China, and the high-high (H–H) clusters appeared in Northwestern China. Our results show that the improved CCD model, along with Moran's I analysis, can provide theoretical basis for policy makers to formulate reasonable measures for promoting the coupling coordination between urbanization and flood disasters.
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In the process of urbanization, peri-urbanization is a unique phenomenon in China. For residents living in peri-urbanization areas, realizing the balance between workplace and living space is not only a crucial guarantee for them to secure livelihood but also an important criterion to measure the quality of China’s urbanization. Based on the questionnaire data distributed by the research group in Zoucheng County, China, in 2021, this study measures the degree of jobs-housing balance in county area by constructing the benefit index of jobs-housing balance and explores factors affecting the jobs-housing balance in county area by using logistic regression, random forest classification, and regression tree. Results: Firstly, with 57% of the residents have achieved the standard, the level of jobs-housing balance in Zoucheng County is relatively high. Secondly, individual, household and built environment dimensions jointly affect jobs-housing balance of residents. Furthermore, at the current stage of China’s county areas, household is not the core dimension influencing jobs-housing balance. Thirdly, factors that passed the significance test can be divided into three categories: key factors, important factors, and auxiliary factors. Occupation type, commuting way and residential location are the key factors affecting the jobs-housing balance, which deserve our attention. Therefore, according to the above conclusions, relevant suggestions for promoting jobs-housing balance of residents in county area were put forward. For instance, considering the diverse occupation of local residents, employments that match their skills should be offered, and as for peri-urbanization areas, the regulatory of jobs-housing balance should be placed in urban and rural areas.
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Although China’s construction machinery thrives to meet the needs of construction, a number of challenges still remain to be overcome, such as lack of thorough knowledge of regional disparities and several limitations in terms of carbon emissions and economic development. Meanwhile, a low-carbon economy was proposed and implemented in China. This research aims to investigate the differences in industrial agglomeration of construction machineries and further explore the relationship between industrial agglomeration and low-carbon economy. On this basis, spatiotemporal analysis was performed to evaluate the levels of industrial agglomeration in different regions based on the situations of China’s construction machinery industry. Furthermore, this study explored the interaction between industrial agglomeration and low-carbon economy utilizing the coupling coordination analysis method. Results showed that the coupling coordination of the two subsystems was extremely unbalanced in 2006, and it maintained an increasing trend, reaching a relatively high level in 2018. Finally, suggestions, such as establishing a policy guarantee system and implementing variable policies in different regions, were proposed to provide guidelines for the government decision-making and promote the sustainable development of China’s construction machinery industry.
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The fundamental goal of development is to continuously improve people's well-being. Studying the relationship between urbanization, green development and well-being can better promote people's happiness index. This paper matches the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS)2017 data with the urbanization data of 28 provinces and the inter-provincial green development index and employs the Ordered Probit model to examine the relationship between urbanization, green development and residents' happiness (RHAP). On this basis, the mediating effect of green development and the moderating effect of environmental regulation intensity are further studied. The research results indicate that the level of economic urbanization and social service urbanization significantly promote the RHAP, while the level of population urbanization has a significant negative impact. There are significant differences in the level of RHAP needs due to the heterogeneity of regions, urban and rural areas, and income levels. The social service level has a stronger role in promoting the RHAP in eastern regions and cities, and the level of economic development is more obvious for residents in central and western regions and rural areas. Moreover, green development plays a partial mediating role in the relationship between urbanization and RHAP, and environmental regulation positively regulates the relationship between urbanization and green development. This study provides new ideas for the government to effectively formulate policies and improve RHAP.
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Roadside noise barriers (RNBs) are important urban infrastructures to ensure that cities remain liveable. However, the absence of accurate and large-scale geospatial data on RNBs has impeded the increasing progress of rational urban planning, sustainable cities, and healthy environments. To address this problem, this study creates a vectorized RNB dataset in China using street view imagery and a geospatial artificial intelligence framework. First, intensive sampling is performed on the road network of each city based on OpenStreetMap, which is used as the georeference for downloading 6×106 Baidu Street View (BSV) images. Furthermore, considering the prior geographic knowledge contained in street view images, convolutional neural networks incorporating image context information (IC-CNNs) based on an ensemble learning strategy are developed to detect RNBs from the BSV images. The RNB dataset presented by polylines is generated based on the identified RNB locations, with a total length of 2667.02 km in 222 cities. Last, the quality of the RNB dataset is evaluated from two perspectives, i.e., the detection accuracy and the completeness and positional accuracy. Specifically, based on a set of randomly selected samples containing 10 000 BSV images, four quantitative metrics are calculated, with an overall accuracy of 98.61 %, recall of 87.14 %, precision of 76.44 %, and F1 score of 81.44 %. A total length of 254.45 km of roads in different cities are manually surveyed using BSV images to evaluate the mileage deviation and overlap level between the generated and surveyed RNBs. The root mean squared error for the mileage deviation is 0.08 km, and the intersection over union for overlay level is 88.08 % ± 2.95 %. The evaluation results suggest that the generated RNB dataset is of high quality and can be applied as an accurate and reliable dataset for a variety of large-scale urban studies, such as estimating the regional solar photovoltaic potential, developing 3D urban models, and designing rational urban layouts. Besides that, the benchmark dataset of the labeled BSV images can also support more work on RNB detection, such as developing more advanced deep learning algorithms, fine-tuning the existing computer vision models, and analyzing geospatial scenes in BSV. The generated vectorized RNB dataset and the benchmark dataset of labeled BSV imagery are publicly available at https://doi.org/10.11888/Others.tpdc.271914 (Chen, 2021).
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Because of the extensive attention of global scholars on the sustainable development in China, much research has been published over the past 30 years. Based on the 12,635 journal papers from the Web of Science database, we explore the trends in the evolution of China’s sustainable development research by a knowledge graph. The result indicates that the attention of China’s sustainable development research increased exponentially during 1991–2021, and it continues to shift from a macro perspective to the exploration of specific methods and implementation paths. During 2001–2005, China’s sustainable development research developed rapidly and formed a complete cluster structure. In addition, China’s sustainable development research has experienced three stages and two topic drifts. Staged development and topic drifts lead to a wide range of disciplinary drifts. In general, the trends in the evolution of China’s sustainable development research mainly focus on three aspects: research methods, research scope and theoretical innovation. China’s sustainable development provides a case or a path for other developing countries. Economic incentives and policy promotion remain important measures to promote sustainable development.
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The sustainable development of urbanization is a necessary condition for China to realize modernization. Considering the importance of urbanization to China’s future development and the advantages of development zones in promoting urbanization, it is necessary to quantify the impact of establishing development zones on urbanization development. Using the difference in difference (DID) model, this study takes the panel data of 235 cities in China from 1990 to 2017 to evaluate the policy effects of setting up development zones on urbanization from the perspectives of the population, land, and the economy. The results show that the development zone policy in the overall panel exerts a significant negative impact on land urbanization and a significant positive impact on economic urbanization but exerts no significant impact on population urbanization. The regression results of sub-regions show significant regional differences in the impact of development zones on urbanization. In the eastern region, the development zone policy has promoted the intensive use of urban construction land. For the central and western regions with weak development foundations, development zones play an important role in attracting the population and upgrading industries while reducing the intensive use of construction land. This study provides urban-level empirical evidence for evaluating the urbanization effects of development zone policies and puts forward policy recommendations for development zone construction to promote high-quality urbanization in China.
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The scientific evaluation and identification of the relationship between urban comprehensive carrying capacity (UCC) and urbanization in Northeast China under serious urban shrinkage is an important basis for realizing the all-around revitalization of the region. Using a panel data set of 34 prefecture-level cities with six nonshrinking cities and 28 shrinking cities in Northeast China from 2003 to 2019, this study constructs an ordinary panel data model and a static and dynamic spatial econometric model, the spatial Durbin model (SDM), to identify the relationship between the UCC and urbanization and to empirically investigate the impacts of the key control variables on UCC improvement. The results show a significant U-shaped curve relationship between the UCC and urbanization for the shrinking cities and a significant inverted U-shaped curve relationship for the nonshrinking cities, and the spillover effect of the urbanization is not significant. Moreover, social urbanization has a significant negative spatial effect on the local and neighborhood UCC of the nonshrinking cities, while demographic and spatial urbanization have significant positive spatial effects on the local and neighborhood UCC of the shrinking cities. In addition, fixed asset investment significantly promotes the UCC of the nonshrinking and shrinking cities and has significant positive spillover effects on the neighboring regions. R&D investment has a significant positive spatial effect on only the local and neighborhood UCC of the shrinking cities, while it has a significant positive effect on only the local UCC of the nonshrinking cities. New-type urbanization, industrial structure adjustment, new infrastructure construction and technological innovation are effective measures for improving and enhancing the comprehensive carrying capacity of cities in Northeast China.
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Urban polarization, characterized by differences in city-size distribution, is underway in China, wherein the government aims to promote coordinated development among cities of different sizes based on urban agglomerations. This study explored the spatial-temporal characteristics of urban area expansion of 23 urban agglomerations in China and assess the city-size change within the agglomerations by the urban primacy index and Pareto exponent. The urban area extent within these 23 UAs increased by 280.90% in the study period. Coastal urban agglomerations were larger in size and maintained a relatively high annual growth rate compared to inland agglomerations, indicating a more polarized pattern. Changes within the agglomerations resulted in less polarization given that the urban primacy and Pareto exponent inside most UAs decreased. Policies implemented to achieve enhanced urbanization coordination in China appear to be partially successful, but the polarization process remains hard to break due to the complexities of the process.
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Chapter
Chinese cities have been transforming at a stunning speed and pace over the last forty years, as a result of the transition from a centrally planned (1949–1978) to a market economy launched by Deng Xiaoping’s economic reforms in the late Seventies (the so-called open door policy). Given China’s highly centralized political system, a national urban agenda—embodied in specific Five-Year Socio-Economic Development Plans—has been officially set up by the Communist Party of China since 1953. Yet, following the economic transition, a number of significant changes have progressively affected such agenda. These changes—we argue—have greatly modified the role and function of cities in Chinese politics, society, culture and economy, reframing the meanings and the values attributed to urban areas. The chapter discusses the strategies that the Chinese government has pursued in its national urban agenda since 1949, recalling the most important documents, plans, policies and programmes launched at the central level. It firstly explores the policy changes that occurred during the transition from the Maoist to the post-reform period; then, it presents and discusses the new urban agenda and model of urbanization introduced in 2014 to achieve sustainable development for the whole Country.KeywordsChinaPolitical transitionEconomic reformUrbanization
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China has been experiencing rapid urbanisation since the economic reform starting in 1978. The number of cities increased from 191 in 1978 to 667 in 1999, while the urban share of the national population increased from 18 to 31 per cent. This paper examines China's urbanisation and the evolution of its city system. It uses city-level data from 1991 and 1998 to investigate China's city size distribution and its changes. It also discusses how economic and institutional factors affect the urban system and the patterns of urban growth.
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This paper aims to demonstrate the relationship between economic growth and the urban core area in order to help urban planners reach a better understanding of the pressures that are leading to changes in land use. Using a unique panel dataset with measures of China's land use, it is shown that, during the late 1980s and 1990s, China's urban land area rose significantly. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis are then used to identify the determinants of urban land use change. In addition to using more standard regression approaches such as ordinary least squares, the analysis is augmented with spatial statistical analysis. The analysis demonstrates the overwhelming importance of economic growth in the determination of urban land use. Overall, it is found that urban land expands by 3 per cent when the economy, measured by gross domestic product, grows by 10 per cent. It is also shown that the expansion of the urban core is associated with changes in China's economic structure. If urban planners have access to forecasts of economic growth, using these results they should be able to have a better basis for planning the expansion of the built-up area in the urban core
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The urban-rural equalized development is not only significant theoretically, but also a strategic challenge facing the coordinated development of urban and rural China. In this paper we put forward an innovative theory of URED against the background of China's urban-rural transformation. The spatio-temporal pattern, its change and driving factors of urban-rural equalized development during 1996-2009 were analyzed using principal component analysis, the Markov chain model and exploratory spatial data analysis model based on the data for 31 Chinese provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities). It is found that during the study period URED exhibited an obvious tendency of "club homogenization" in China. However, since 2003 the homogenization of the URED for entire China has weakened. Moreover, URED showed a significant geographic characteristic of "polarization" during 1996-2003. Namely, the spatial units of a high URED level were concentrated in eastern China near the coast, and the spatial units of a low URED level were located mainly in central and western China. However, this spatial polarized structure of URED was destroyed since 2003, and the spatial disparity at the provincial level has decreased. Finally, it is concluded that policies and institutional structure, economic growth and urbanization were the main driving factors of the identified URED spatio-temporal pattern and its change in China. This study may serve as a scientific reference regarding decision-making in coordinating urban and rural development and in constructing the new countryside of China.
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The urban–rural equalized development is not only significant theoretically, but also a strategic challenge facing the coordinated development of urban and rural China. In this paper we put forward an innovative theory of URED against the background of China's urban–rural transformation. The spatio-temporal pattern, its change and driving factors of urban–rural equalized development during 1996–2009 were analyzed using principal component analysis, the Markov chain model and exploratory spatial data analysis model based on the data for 31 Chinese provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities). It is found that during the study period URED exhibited an obvious tendency of “club homogenization” in China. However, since 2003 the homogenization of the URED for entire China has weakened. Moreover, URED showed a significant geographic characteristic of “polarization” during 1996–2003. Namely, the spatial units of a high URED level were concentrated in eastern China near the coast, and the spatial units of a low URED level were located mainly in central and western China. However, this spatial polarized structure of URED was destroyed since 2003, and the spatial disparity at the provincial level has decreased. Finally, it is concluded that policies and institutional structure, economic growth and urbanization were the main driving factors of the identified URED spatio-temporal pattern and its change in China. This study may serve as a scientific reference regarding decision-making in coordinating urban and rural development and in constructing the new countryside of China.
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China has been experiencing rapid urbanization since the reform and open policy launched in 1978, leading to the growth of urban water demands and aggravating water scarcity especially in the new millennium. Accordingly, water resources previously used for agriculture and environmental systems tend to be transferred to urban systems. Limited by the total quantity and frail environments, the patterns of water resources flows among different sectors and regions change obviously. Water related problems induced by rapid urbanization have become one of the key concerns for scientists and governments. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the new features of water resources flows related to urbanization in China, mainly with regard to bidirectional water resources flows between rural and urban areas, environmental and socio-economic systems, real and virtual water flows between the south and north. This paper also considers the socio-economic and environmental challenges which are resulted from water resources flows in such a case, and provides some countermeasures on how to promote water resources to flow healthily and swimmingly, so as to improve the urban development constrained by scarce water resources.
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This overview introduces the background of the study "Inclusive Growth toward a Harmonious Society in the People's Republic of China (PRC)", under which all the papers in this special volume were prepared. It summarizes key findings of these papers as grouped into three parts: (i) Inclusive Growth and Policy Options; (ii) Balancing Efficiency and Equity Objectives: International Experiences; and (iii) Empirical Analysis of Income Inequalities in the PRC. In concluding, this overview argues that building a harmonious society is the most important development challenge that the PRC faces, and that a development strategy anchored on inclusive growth provides an effective approach to addressing this issue.
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This paper examines the evolution of the size distribution of Chinese cities. Since the relaxation of restrictions on rural—urban migration in the 1980s, China has experienced rapid urban growth. However, cities of different sizes have experienced varying patterns of growth. First, the evolution of city size distribution in China is described by documenting the growth in city size and in the number of existing cities. Then, focusing on the period from 1990 to 2000, the urban evolutionary trend is analysed by means of the Pareto law estimation and the mobility of cities between different size groups is examined with the Markov transition matrix. The convergence hypothesis in the city population growth process is also tested. The results suggest that, contrary to the expected dominance of large city growth, the Chinese city size distribution evened out during the 1990s, with small cities growing more rapidly than large cities.
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This paper traces the new trends of urbanization in post-reform China that are incommensurate with those under the ex-socialist regime as well as those in other market and reformed socialist countries. Three paradoxical dynamics appear: a leap forward of urbanization concurrent with the under-urbanized feature, the massive and sustained flow of rural-to-urban migration concomitant with the bulk of migrants without urban citizenship, and the phenomenal reorganization of urban space and the proliferating addition of new cities with inclusion of ample rural attributes. These new developments present a challenging opportunity for theoretical construction. The paper elucidates extant studies, deciphering the ways that they interpret new features of China's urbanization under reforms. Integrating previous insightful but segmented perspectives on various aspects of China's urban transition, the paper argues that, to conceptualizing distinctive political economy of China's urbanization, one must incorporate the fundamentals of China's economic system that account for the historically contingent causes resulting in the dynamics observed.
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China's floating population is one of the most mobile populations in the world. Most of its members take the temporary form of migration, and maintain their double (rural and urban) residential status. In recent years, great efforts have been made to reform the household registration (Hukou) system, which has been regarded as the central mechanism underlying the unsettled nature of the floating population, in the hope that they will settle down in the cities and be fully integrated into China's urbanization process. However, the effect of such reform has been limited. Based on a theoretical framework and empirical evidence from a survey, this paper argues that the temporary nature of the floating population is a result of not only the Hukou system, but also the combined effects of the intrinsic demand of the industrial society for temporary migrants, the household strategy of migrants to diversify and maximize economic opportunities and spread economic risk, and certain conditions of the current stage of development. The paper draws policy implications from the analysis, calling for policies not only to facilitate permanent settlement of migrants in the cities but also catering for their needs arising from the temporary form of migration, and their potential roles in the development of their hometowns.
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A noted American authority on urbanization in China presents a retrospective anal- ysis of China's hukou (household registration) system on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of its promulgation, reviewing the history of that system from a broad socio-political perspec- tive. More specifically, the paper focuses on revealing trends in the development of the sys- tem over time and identifying many of its important ramifications for modern Chinese society, as well as on the impact of hukou on the country's industrialization, urbanization, and social and spatial stratification. The author argues that the hukou system now presents a major obstacle to China's quest to become a modern, first-world nation and global leader. Journal of Economic Literature, Classification Numbers: O180, O530, P200, R120. 2 figures, 3 tables, 111 references. Key words: China, hukou, floating population, urbanization, industrialization, Shenzhen, labor migration, migrant workers, social stratification, command economy, nongzhuanfei.
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This paper provides an answer to the following question: Why do empirical studies find low returns to schooling in rural China, and yet the schooling rates are high? I find that schooling played a significant role in raising the accessibility of urban formal employment to rural people in the late 1970s and early 1980s in the face of the government's restrictive policy on labor migration from rural to urban areas. The large urban-rural income difference provided a strong incentive for senior high school education. The theory also explains the drop in the senior high school attendance in the mid 1980s. Copyright 1997, Oxford University Press.
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The rural migrant worker population in China is attracting more and more attention because of its magnitude and potential economic and social impact on Chinese society. While literature abounds in describing the demographic trends and economic impacts of rural to urban migration, very few articles have been written about the psychosocial impacts of migration on the lives of rural migrant workers in urban China. Drawing on the concept of marginalisation, this article describes the nature and characteristics of marginalised living experienced by migrant workers. More importantly, it examines the underlying policy issues contributing to such marginalised living. It is argued that the Hukou system (household registration system), the process of decentralisation and the obscure role of trade unions have contributed to the experience of marginalisation of rural migrant workers in urban cities in China. Implications for policy changes are also discussed.
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This paper applies the panel unit root, heterogeneous panel cointegration and panel-based dynamic OLS to re-investigate the co-movement and relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for 30 provinces in mainland China from 1985 to 2007. The empirical results show that there is a positive long-run cointegrated relationship between real GDP per capita and energy consumption variables. Furthermore, we investigate two cross-regional groups, namely the east China and west China groups, and get more important results and implications. In the long-term, a 1% increase in real GDP per capita increases the consumption of energy by approximately 0.48-0.50% and accordingly increases the carbon dioxide emissions by about 0.41-0.43% in China. The economic growth in east China is energy-dependent to a great extent, and the income elasticity of energy consumption in east China is over 2 times that of the west China. At present, China is subject to tremendous pressures for mitigating climate change issues. It is possible that the GDP per capita elasticity of carbon dioxide emissions would be controlled in a range from 0.2 to 0.3 by the great effort.
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The paper develops a function of energy consumption, population growth, economic growth and urbanization process, and provides fresh empirical evidences for urbanization and energy consumption for China over the period 1978–2008 through the use of ARDL testing approach and factor decomposition model. The results of the bounds test show that there is a stable long run relationship amongst total energy consumption, population, GDP (Gross domestic product) and urbanization level when total energy consumption is the dependent variable in China. The results of the causality test with ECM (error correction model) specification, the short run and long run dynamics of the interested variables are tested, indicating that there exists only a unidirectional Granger causality running from urbanization to total energy consumption both in the long run and in the short run. At present, the contribution share which urbanization drags the energy consumption is smaller than that in the past, and the intensity holds a downward trend. Therefore, together with enhancing energy efficiency, accelerating the urbanization process that can cut reliance on resource and energy dependent industries is a fundamental strategy to solve the sustainable development dilemma between energy consumption and urbanization.
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This paper addresses rehabilitation and conservation of old inner-city areas and historic monuments in the cities of the developing world which have so far received very little attention in urban development policy. The need for urban rehabilitation and adaptive re-use is discussed with reference to a number of cases, i.e. Cairo, Tunis, Sana'a, Aleppo, Delhi, Bombay, Bhaktapur, Galle, Penang, Singapore, Shanghai, Beijing, Quito, Cartagena, Rio de Janeiro and Havana. A delineation of the concept is provided, and some key aspects of rehabilitation are discussed. The paper concludes with considerations on the need for area rehabilitation and revitalisation approaches which maintain the typical urban tissue and essential qualities of the historic areas and of the life of the communities residing there, but which can also adapt the physical structures and activities to some of the present day requirements. In terms of monuments, it is stressed that these need to be seen as part of conservation areas, and that their sustainability and revitalisation will be most feasible if they are integrated into new concepts of use.
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Since the introduction of the economic reforms in late 1978, the Chinese urban system has experienced spectacular growth, accompanied by a rapid rise of urbanization from about 20% to more than 36%. Although restricted by government policy, the development of large cities prevailed in the 1980s, as shown in a previous study (Zhao and Zhang, 1995). This process of predominantly large cities growth appeared to continue in the 1990s, as is shown with further analysis and update on the issue, within the framework of globalization and other economic theories. Based on newly published demographic and economic data, the paper depicts the growth and concentration of population, foreign direct investment and employment availability in the large cities in contemporary China. This paper argues that in this globalization process, in which the fundamental economic rationales of increasing returns, urbanization economies and urbanization agglomeration prevail, large cities will continue to outperform the small cities and so the dominance of large cities will continue.
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Since the early 1980s, a large number of rural migrants have moved into Chinese cities. Most rural migrants are not granted permanent household registration in the city and are only registered temporarily. The temporary population refers to such rural migrants. They have a low social and economic status and do not enjoy many social welfare and economic opportunities reserved for the permanent urban residents. Due to their low socio-economic status, housing conditions for the temporary population is poor. The current housing reform in urban China has entirely focused on the local urban residents while the needs of the temporary population have been overlooked. How do the rural migrants make a living in Chinese cities? How are cities accommodating this large temporary population? What kind of policies might be adopted to manage migrants in Chinese cities? This paper will examine the current employment and housing situations, and the causes of temporary population in China. Possible policy response to the problem is also discussed.
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We show how regional growth patterns in China depend on regional differences in physical, human, and infrastructure capital as well as on differences in foreign direct investment (FDI) flows. We also evaluate the impact of market reforms, especially the reforms that followed Deng Xiaoping's “South Trip” in 1992 those that resulted from serious hardening of budget constraints of state enterprises around 1997. We find that FDI had a much larger effect on TFP growth before 1994 than after, and we attribute this to the encouragement of and increasing success of private and quasi-private enterprises. We find that human capital positively affects output and productivity growth in our cross-provincial study. Moreover, we find both direct and indirect effects of human capital on TFP growth. These impacts of education are more consistent than those found in cross-national studies. The direct effect is hypothesized to come from domestic innovation activities, while the indirect impact is a spillover effect of human capital on TFP growth. We conduct cost-benefit analysis of hypothetical investments in human capital and infrastructure. We find that, while investment in infrastructure generates higher returns in the developed, eastern regions than in the interior, investing in human capital generates slightly higher or comparable returns in the interior regions. We conclude that human capital investment in less-developed areas is justified on efficiency grounds and because it contributes to a reduction in regional inequality.
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Urban agglomeration becomes increasingly important because of the globalization of world economies. This paper is a general equilibrium analysis of urban agglomeration economies due to product variety, and agglomeration diseconomies due to intra-city congestion in a two-city system framework. Special attention is paid to the impacts of transportation cost decrease on urban concentration and dispersion. Our main result is that dispersion necessarily takes place when the transportation cost is sufficiently low. We also conduct numerical calculations using specific parameter values, and depict a structural transition from dispersion to agglomeration, and then re-dispersion when the transportation costs decrease monotonically over time. Finally, we observe that dispersion is usually bad as compared to agglomeration, from a welfare point of view.
Article
Forecasting changes in urban ecological security could be important for the maintenance or improvement of the urban ecological environment. However, there are few references in this field and no landmark research work has been reported, particularly quantitative research. A forecasting model for ecological security based on cellular automata (CA) was developed using preliminary spatial data from an ecological security assessment of Guangzhou conducted previously (1990–2005). The model was constrained using transformation rules based upon proposed planning for 2010–2020. A simulation accuracy of 72.09% was acquired. Using a one-bit assessment grid for 2005 as the starting state for the simulation, the model was used to forecast ecological security for 2020. This revealed that although the ecological security status would be improved relative to current trends, there would still be an overall decline in ecological security over the next 15 years. Even if new urban plans were implemented, landscape pattern analysis suggested a more scattered and homogenous distribution in the urban landscape of Guangzhou and significant variation in landscape characteristics among districts. This suggests that further measures must be adopted to reverse the current trends in Guangzhou's ecological security. The model highlights the need to make ecological protection an integral part of urban planning. This study demonstrates the potential of CA models for forecasting ecological security. Such models could make an important contribution to decision-making for regional governors and to the development of urban planning incorporating assessment and prediction of ecological security.
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Recent theoretical attempts to understand the dynamics of urban change in North America have been made predominantly on the basis of either the “growth machine” model or urban regime analysis, both of which see the growth of cities as the result of the interplay among some internal urban-based actors for financial gains and fortune building. This study adopts an approach that moves beyond internalism and the growth deterministic interpretation of urban change, to analyzing the functional and spatial (re)positioning of cities as a system or systems in the broader context of regional growth and national development strategies. The city in China has functioned not simply as a body of assets and property but more as the center of economic and social transformation engineered by the state for both growth and non-growth considerations. Prior to the 1978 economic reforms, the system of cities created by the Maoist regime was dominated by large and extra-large cities because of the imperatives of optimum industrialization. For the strategic consideration of national defense, most of the new cities were developed in the central and western interior rather than the eastern coast. Market reforms and relaxation of state control over local development since the late 1970s have allowed a large number of small cities and towns to flourish on the basis of bottom-up rural transformative development. The intrusion of global market forces has helped re-consolidate the dominance of the eastern coast in China’s urban development. China’s urban development over the past five decades has been the direct outcome of national political strategizing, state articulation and reconfiguration, and shifts in global capital accumulation. A superimposed dual-track system of urban settlements integrating the Maoist legacy of large city dominance at the top with the rapidly expanding component of small cities and towns in the bottom is quickly taking shape to characterize China’s urban development and urbanization.
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To feed its 1.3 billion population with a per capita cultivated land far below the world average, China is already facing a great challenge of land scarcity. Accelerated urbanization along with explosive economic growth has further worsened the shortage of agricultural land over the last two decades. Increasing concern over land is expressed in terms of soil availability for grain production and soil quality degradation. Based on official statistics and data derived from satellite imagery, dynamics of China's cultivated land over the past two decades is outlined and the causes and destinations of cultivated land loss are analyzed in this paper. Particularly, urbanization-related land-use changes and their spatial variation across the country are demonstrated. Furthermore, impacts of urbanization and associated waste disposals, consequent shifts of soil utilization on areal soil quality are expatiated. It is initially concluded that China's cultivated land is shrinking at a rather shocking rate. Although conversion to urban and industrial uses took up a comparatively small share of total cultivated land loss, urbanization should still be considered as a great threat to future agricultural production for several reasons. Urbanization is increasing the risk of soil pollution through waste disposal and acid deposition derived from urban air pollution. Facing rapid urbanization, China is making positive policy responses to the challenge of decreasing availability of cultivated land and offering unremitting efforts towards the goal of national food security.
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China has significantly restructured its urban administrative/spatial system since the 1978 economic reforms to empower central cities to play a leading role in driving national and regional economic development. Through changes in the scale relations that are heavily conditioned by the administrative levels or ranks (dengji) of cities and counties, central cities have in fact been transformed into city-regions. In the reorganization of urban administrative space, many counties have acquired city status while others have been turned into city districts. Such changes have clearly benefited the central cities. Key to the understanding of the tensions among the spatial units constituting the urban administrative/spatial system is the administrative levels of the units in the system which can be seen as a special type of scale. Though restructured, China's space economy continues to be governed administratively.
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This paper advances the multi-scale and multi-mechanism framework of regional inequality in China by using the most recent statistical data. We analyze the multi-scalar patterns of China's regional inequality with GIS and statistical techniques, and demonstrate the significance of the municipality effect. The authors also apply multilevel modeling to identify the spatial structure and time dimension of the underlying forces driving regional development. This study illustrates that China's regional inequality is sensitive to the spatial-temporal hierarchy of multi-mechanisms, and reveals the relative influence of globalization, marketization, and decentralization.