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How Can Consumer Science Be Used for Gaining Information About Consumers and the Market?

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This chapter provides an in-depth analysis and explanation of psychophysiological/neuromarketing research tools such as the eye tracker, fMRI, EEG, HR, and GSR for gaining an insight into consumer behavior in the traditional food and wine market. The chapter particularly investigates the need for the new psychophysiological/neuromarketing research tools compared with traditional methods, a review of the research carried out with modern consumer science tools, and how data could be collected and analyzed in a traditional food and wine market through the use of these tools. The chapter concludes with a case example showing the application of psychophysiological/neuromarketing research tools.

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... New technological capabilities, including those revealed through patents [1], can now complement these techniques by tracking customer interests more closely, to provide realistic, unbiased, and precise data on perceptions, attitudes, and responses to destination stimuli [40][41][42][43]. Some of these are covert, using digital device cameras, microphones, and location indicators. ...
... The combination of EEG and eye tracking is also valuable in understanding tourists' perceptions, attitudes, and responses to service atmospherics [47]. Pupil dilation has long been used to measure emotional reactions, both positive and negative [43,48], and eye-tracking heatmaps and scan paths show distribution and sequences in visual attention [43]. Facial recognition devices measure facial muscle movements to identify basic emotions such as disgust, happiness, anger, sadness, pain, or indifference [49,50]. ...
... The combination of EEG and eye tracking is also valuable in understanding tourists' perceptions, attitudes, and responses to service atmospherics [47]. Pupil dilation has long been used to measure emotional reactions, both positive and negative [43,48], and eye-tracking heatmaps and scan paths show distribution and sequences in visual attention [43]. Facial recognition devices measure facial muscle movements to identify basic emotions such as disgust, happiness, anger, sadness, pain, or indifference [49,50]. ...
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Over the past three years, travel agents, enterprises and destinations have switched almost entirely from traditional to digital marketing methods, relying strongly on search engines and social media. They consider these methods as faster, more flexible, financially more efficient, and with wider reach. Most importantly, they provide customer data and feedback, with precise targeting of different messages to different market sectors, with rapid measures of success. This, however, leads to fragmentation of information reaching tourists, which itself affects destination image. This seems unavoidable with continuing competition between platforms; hence, the agents, enterprises and destinations need multichannel marketing. In addition, since most search engines and social media are international, cultural context is a critical component of communications, in style and content as well as language. This may now include multiple sensory detectors and sources, including visual, sound, and haptic. As tourists increasingly garner information independently, travel agents have greater incentives to seek exclusive control over sales of specific products.
... In this regard, the physical evidence dimension is significant to gain superiority in competition. 5 The element of physical evidence is of vital importance in creating service experience, satisfying the customer, and increasing the customer's perception of quality [6][7][8][9] and improving customer loyalty. 10 Service quality, defined as the ability of a business to meet customer's expectations, can also be expressed as the level of fulfilling customer satisfaction. ...
... When there is confusion in the sensory elements, people tend to trust what is visual. 5 According to Lindstrom, while tasting has 31%, smelling 45%, sound 41%, touch 25% of the effect on the purchasing decision, sight has the highest effect of 58%. Eyes are our most commonly used sensory organs. ...
Article
The physical evidence is influential on the consumer's attitude, quality perception, and purchasing behavior. The service atmosphere within the physical evidence scope is an element that requires huge investments. Together with low‐cost small changes, the physical environment could be rendered much more attractive to the consumer. Color and light are among the elements that are suitable for these changes. This research aims to determine whether the color of light in the service atmosphere affects the customer's quality perceptions and customer satisfaction and whether this effect differs according to the color of light. To this end, the restaurant business, which has an essential place in the tourism industry, was chosen as the research experiment ambient. A total of five experiments were conducted in five ambient lighted in different colors with participants. Data were collected with 204 the form of the experiment question According to the analysis results, the perception of service quality and the level of satisfaction were higher in red and yellow‐lighted ambient than those in blue and green‐lighted ambient. In line with the results, recommendations were made to reduce the physical environment costs in the service production process in restaurants and to achieve a cleaner service production, sustainable production, and consumption through more efficient use of resources. Highlights • The light color in the service atmosphere affects the perceived quality and customer satisfaction. • Perceived service quality and customer satisfaction differ according to the light color in the service atmosphere. • By changing the light color in the service atmosphere, it is possible to increase the level of quality perception and customer satisfaction in a positive way. • By changing the color of the light in the service environment, efficient and sustainable cleaner production can be realized with low costs.
... Using of above tools and techniques of neuromarketing can contribute to launch a new product successfully, design the store ambience, effective practice of integrated marketing communication, and anticipate demand and marketing return on investment through suitable prediction of customer preferences and choices. Vivian Roth (2013) has exposed some influences of neuromarketing on consumer purchase decision and choice (Koc and Boz, 2018)., advertising and promotion (Daugherty et al., 2018), pricing and choice on discounted items (Alvino, L. et al., 20018) , distribution and channelling (Lewandowska, A et al., 2018), branding (Singh and Jain, 2018)., new product innovation and product design (Suomala, 2018). Rafiq and Masum (2006) have highlighted the prospects of neuromarketing as closing the sales and marketing gap, building brand images, new product development, marketing communication and risk-taking behaviour. ...
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For improving marketing effectiveness, the producers and entrepreneurs today want to understand how human psychology and emotions influencing on decision making. In this instance, the concept of neuromarketing offers a chance to get accurate, factual data about the buying habits of target markets. This study has been intended to explore the challenges, prospects, limitation and potentiality of practising neuromarketing in the context of Bangladesh as a cutting-edge marketing issue with the purpose of providing corresponding recommendations. The status and future prediction of neuromarketing have been exposed through qualitative and quantitative analysis. The finding of the study has been supported by collecting data from 55 customers and 65 marketers as the respondents. The key findings of this study are quite impressive and prospective regarding the level of awareness, interest, acknowledgement and conviction towards practising neuromarketing in the context in Bangladesh. The contribution of this study can be breakthrough and pave the way for neuromarketing in Bangladesh. The findings of this study will be helpful for the marketing policy makers and govt agencies to introduce this new method of marketing tools in Bangladesh. Finally, some policy guidelines were provided based on findings and analysis. In that way, marketers have to promote initiatives to familiarize the devices of the neuromarketing, have to engage the educated customers to share their experiences while designing the marketing strategies and plans. The important conclusion that the education is one of the most important factors affecting the adoption of the neuromarketing practice. On the other hand, marketers should take initiatives to overcome some misconceptions regarding the harmful for the brain activity devices of the neurology.
... to investigate the effects of colour, a study grouped eight basic colours as cool and warm colours and results revealed that warm colours (red, orange, yellow, pink, brown) are preferred over cool colours (blue, green, purple) regardless of restaurant types (Suker, 2009, p. 49). the tone and degree of colours are determined by its wavelength. the short wavelengths refer to cold colours, whereas the long wavelengths are related to warm colours (Babin et al., 2003;koc, 2016). it found that cool and warm colours affect user perception in retail spaces in different ways (Babin et al., 2003;Bellizzi, Crowley, & hasty, 1983;Countryman & Jang, 2006;Crowley, 1993;Yıldırım, akalın-Başkaya, & hidayetoğlu, 2007). ...
... This method takes away the dependence of the results on a consumer's answer to questions and has been shown to provide valuable insights into consumers' decision making. The primary tools used for Neuromarketing include Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI), eye-tracking, galvanic skin response, heart rate monitors, skin conductance, and facial-expression coding [3] [4]. ...
... Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI), eye-tracking, galvanic skin response, heart rate monitors, skin conductance, and facialexpression coding are commonly used for conducting neuromarketing research. [1] Numerous neuromarketing studies, including our previous research, use noninvasive BCI headsets to measure EEG signals. EEG measures brain activation based on electric signals sent across neurons. ...
... Reactions to subtle stimuli may be impossible to quantify using traditional methods. An alternative is to evaluate autonomic responses concentrating on emotional reactions that are not distorted by higher cognitive processes [14]. Other techniques have been developed using cognitive neuroscience to observe the processing and making of decisions in real time in which aspects of perception, attention, emotion, and memory come into play [15,16]. ...
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Audiovisual educational material has been used effectively as a knowledge translation strategy in patient education. Given the need to impact maternal mortality rates, 12 video clips related to maternal and neonatal health information were designed based on the results of a previous systematic review (SR). The content was formulated based on clinical practice guideline recommendations and validated following a formal consensus methodology. This study evaluated the effectiveness of knowledge transfer from the 12 video clips in terms of attention, emotional response, and recall by using neuroscience tools. In a randomized cross-over trial, 155 subjects (pregnant women, non-pregnant women, and men) received random sequences of 13 video clips, including a control video clip. Participants' attention levels were evaluated through eye tracking, their emotional reactions were monitored by electrodermal activity and pupillary diameter, and their recall was tested via a questionnaire. An analysis was performed to evaluate differences in the groups and between the video clips and the control clip using variance analysis models that considered period, sequence, and carry-over effects. Results revealed that fixation length was greater in women than in men, while the greatest emotional effects occurred in men. All three groups had good recall results, without any significant differences between them. Although the sequencing did influence attentional processes, no carry-over effect was demonstrated. However, a differential effect was noted among video clips in all three outcomes, that is, when adjusted for group, level of education, and having had children. The control clip generated less attention, emotional reaction, and recall than the experimental video clips. The video clips about maternal and neonatal health were shown to be effective in the transference and comprehension of information. Therefore, cognitive neuroscience techniques are useful in evaluating knowledge translation strategies through audiovisual formats.
... Because he/she can have as much as he/she wants, uncertainty on the portion amount will be eliminated (koç & Boz, 2017). it can be recommended to use psychophysiological tools for measuring emotions better as risk perception and desire to control are deep, internal feelings (koc & Boz, 2014a(koc & Boz, , 2014b(koc & Boz, , 2018. tools/devices are electroencephalography (eeg), galvanic skin response, heart rate, and eye tracker. ...
... A number of researchers have worked and achieved significant success in the neuromarketing field (Sebastian, 2014;Lee, 2016;Vargo and Lusch, 2017;Boz et al., 2017;Koc and Boz, 2018;Lim, 2018;Golnar-Nik et al., 2019;Muñoz Leiva et al., 2019;Kaklauskas et al., 2019a,b,c;Zavadskas et al., 2019). Neuromarketing, also known as consumer neuroscience, is an interdisciplinary marketing research field (Lee, 2016). ...
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Chapter
This study tries to decipher the role of neuromarketing in the myriad fields of business employing in-depth review of literature. This work thus proposes abundant acumens into important facets of neuromarketing in the business world employing a bibliometric investigation. The chapter presents an assessment of important neuromarketing enablers and their function in several business disciplines aimed superior business performance. The existing literature was classified based on a variety of bibliometric factors such as year, location, author, institution, and source related data. The literature is further classified based on keyword co-occurrence. The observed clusters indicate neuromarketing applications and execution problems in business. The complete overview, which spans the years 2000 to 2021, can help managers keep current on the uses of neuromarketing in many sectors. The chapter also identifies potential topics for neuromarketing research in several industry sectors to support neuromarketing adoption.
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Pazarlama, tüketicilerin istek ihtiyaç ve beklentilerinin tahmin edilerek tatmin edilmesine yönelik bir dinamik bir faaliyetler döngüsü olarak tanımlanmaktadır (Koç, 2019). Pazarlama gerek bilimsel çalışmalarda gerekse de sektörel uygulamalarda sürekli değişim gösteren bir özelliğe sahiptir. Değişen çevresel şartlara hızla uyum sağlayabilmesi pazarlama faaliyetlerinin (bilimsel veya sektörel faaliyetler) en önemli özelliklerinden biridir. Pazarlama alanında yaşanan dönüşüm sonucunda ortaya çıkan yenilikçi yaklaşımlardan biri de mobil pazarlamadır. Özellikle iletişim teknolojilerindeki gelişim ve internetin yaygınlaşması mobil pazarlama gibi yenilikçi yaklaşımların ve faaliyetlerin artmasına katkıda bulunmaktadır (Kotler, Bowen ve Makens, 2003; Kotler ve Keller, 2012; Cop ve Sezer, 2015).
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TO CITE: Taskin, Ç., Koç, E., ve Boz H., (2017), Perceptual Image of Conflict-Ridden Destinations: An EEG and Eye Tracker Analysis, Business and Economic Research Journal, 8(3), 533-553.
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Product emotion research is a burgeoning area of research within academia and industry. The explosion in the number of methods for measuring emotions and the rapidly growing range of applications for emotion research have created a situation filled with both important measurement and methodological issues. In this chapter we describe the measurement techniques that are currently available to capture emotional responses to products using self-report questionnaires. In addition, we address the fundamental issues related to the application of these measurement techniques, including scale issues, reliability of methods, temporal capture of self-reports, and issues related to stimulus formats, presenting the most relevant research that addresses these issues. In this way, it is our hope to provide actionable guidance and direction to new investigators coming into this area of research, as well as to stimulate thought and ideas for new avenues of research related to the self-report of emotions using questionnaires.
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Reflecting the growing interest from both consumers and policymakers, and building on recent developments in Willingness to Pay (WTP) methodologies, we evaluate consumer preferences for an archetypal traditional food product. Specifically we draw on stated preference data from a discrete choice experiment, considering the traditional Hungarian mangalitza salami. A WTP space specification of the generalized multinomial logit model is employed, which accounts for not only heterogeneity in preferences but also differences in the scale of the idiosyncratic error term. Results indicate that traditional food products can command a substantial premium, albeit contingent on effective quality certification, authentic product composition and effective choice of retail outlet. Promising consumer segments and policy implications are identified.
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This book presents an integrative look at the sense that Aristotle missed. The vestibular system plays a vital role in everyday life, contributing to a surprising range of functions from reflexes to the highest levels of perception and consciousness. This text not only offers a review of the basics sensory transduction, the neurophysiology of peripheral and central pathways, and how vestibular signals are processed in the control of gaze and posture; it moves the discussion forward with its attention to the current research and the field's revolutionary advances, such as the understanding of neural correlates of self-motion and the basis of clinical disorders. In addition, the objective presentation of existing controversies is exciting reading and an extremely important contribution to the text's completeness.
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This article surveyed the main neuromarketing techniques used in the world and the practical results obtained. Specifically, the objectives are (1) to identify the main existing definitions of neuromarketing; (2) to identify the importance and the potential contributions of neuromarketing; (3) to demonstrate the advantages of neuromarketing as a marketing research tool compared to traditional research methods; (4) to identify the ethical issues involved with neuromarketing research; (5) to present the main neuromarketing techniques that are being used in the development of marketing research; (6) to present studies in which neuromarketing research techniques were used; and (7) to identify the main limitations of neuromarketing. The results obtained allow an understanding of the ways to develop, store, retrieve and use information about consumers, as well as ways to develop the field of neuromarketing. In addition to offering theoretical support for neuromarketing, this article discusses business cases, implementation and achievements.
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In Europe the proportion of male pigs that are left 'entire' has been high for many years in the British Isles and Iberian Peninsula, and has recently increased in The Netherlands and to a lesser extent in Germany and France. Various European Union partners agreed in 2010 on a road map to abandon piglet castration by 1 January 2018. Despite significant commercial in-confidence research on instrumental methods for detecting boar-tainted carcasses at slaughter plants, nothing is currently being adopted at an industrial scale. A few abattoirs sort out the most heavily tainted carcasses, using human nose methods. However, there are major concerns with their accuracy, which is currently not documented in any publicly available technical report. The importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint is still debated but a recent study (CAMPIG; G Backus, H Snoek, MA Oliver, M Font i Furnols, M Aluwé, F Tuyttens, M Bonneau, P Chevillon, MD Aaslyng, D Moerlein, L Meier-Dinkel, J Trautmann, J-E Haugen, unpubl. data) has established preliminary equations relating consumer dissatisfaction to androstenone and skatole levels. These equations still need further consolidation to integrate the impact of very high and very low androstenone levels on consumer acceptability. Reducing the incidence of boar taint at a production level and at the same time overcoming possible greater aggressive behaviour of entire male pigs are also critical for abandoning castration. Genetic selection is the most efficient way to reduce androstenone, but the selection of boar-taint-free genetic lines without any adverse consequence on the reproductive and growth performance will take time. Skatole levels can be efficiently reduced via feeding specific feedstuffs and good control of the animals' environment. Provided that the incidence of boar taint can be reduced to an acceptable level and the residual tainted carcasses can be sorted out at a reasonable price by mutually recognised methods, the abandonment of castration will result in high benefits, up to one-billion euros for both the pork industry, via a drastic reduction of production costs, and society at large, through improved animal welfare and reduced impact on the environment.
Book
Small Firms as Innovators: From Innovation to Sustainable Growth provides a rich empirical analysis of innovation in the context of small business. The book first introduces the general innovation patterns present in small firms. It then progresses to demonstrate how these firms create and strengthen their innovation capacity, how they transform this capacity into real-world innovations and how these innovations are exploited for creating superior competitiveness that can be transformed into sustainable growth. To conclude, this book offers both theoretical and empirical insights for measuring and managing innovation performance in small firms.
Article
This article uses actual word-of-mouth (WOM) information to examine the dynamic patterns of WOM and how it helps explain box office revenue. The WOM data were collected from the Yahoo Movies Web site. The results show that WOM activities are the most active during a movie's prerelease and opening week and that movie audiences tend to hold relatively high expectations before release but become more critical in the opening week. More important, WOM information offers significant explanatory power for both aggregate and weekly box office revenue, especially in the early weeks after a movie opens. However, most of this explanatory power comes from the volume of WOM and not from its valence, as measured by the percentages of positive and negative messages.
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Applying a strategic management perspective, particularly the BCG tool, this chapter demonstrates that the agricultural products exported by Turkey are distributed unevenly on the four cells of the global agricultural markets matrix: almost of its products (236 products or 85.20% of its portfolio) are Question Marks, two products are a Star, one product is a Cash cow, and 38 products are Dogs. Such a situation creates important strategic choices for the leaders of the country and for its businesses. None of Turkey top ten exports were among the top ten growers in the world. Turkey is world export leader in ten products, but these products are not the world most growing markets, and the country should increase its relative market share in some of its ten top exports, and also consider developing organic product segments, and eliminate tobacco products in its portfolio.
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Voice analysis has received attention recently both in the marketing/advertising literature and among marketing research practitioners. The authors summarize the concept behind the technique and identify major concerns with its use. They draw upon research from other disciplines, particularly psycholinguistics, psychosomatic medicine, polygraphy, and acoustics for their discussion.
Article
This paper aims to improve our understanding of food choices that are more sustainable in terms of moral and health aspects of eating. The aim of sustainability may require that people in Western countries choose to eat smaller quantities of meat as well as types of meat that are produced in a more responsible way. Focusing on mediators of the relationship between broad universalistic values and meat choices, we examined how involvement in food can be separated into promotion-oriented and prevention-oriented motivational goals. In a survey among 1530 Dutch consumers we found that that most of the basic human values were to a certain extent related to the direction of the food choice motives. However, giving priority to universalism appeared to be unique in its impact on food choices favouring less meat or free-range meat. This impact was weak but robust and it was mediated by prevention-oriented food choice motives together with a high level of involvement in food and motive-congruent animal friendly attitudes.
Article
The author presents a conceptual model of brand equity from the perspective of the individual consumer. Customer-based brand equity is defined as the differential effect of brand knowledge on consumer response to the marketing of the brand. A brand is said to have positive (negative) customer-based brand equity when consumers react more (less) favorably to an element of the marketing mix for the brand than they do to the same marketing mix element when it is attributed to a fictitiously named or unnamed version of the product or service. Brand knowledge is conceptualized according to an associative network memory model in terms of two components, brand awareness and brand image (i.e., a set of brand associations). Customer-based brand equity occurs when the consumer is familiar with the brand and holds some favorable, strong, and unique brand associations in memory. Issues in building, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity are discussed, as well as areas for future research.
Article
Food innovation and entrepreneurship are important topics in graduate food studies. Students should be challenged to promote an innovative attitude towards their future career in the food industry sector, as professionals working in a small and medium-sized enterprise, or in a large multinational company, or even as entrepreneurs with their own working projects. The present case study shows a curricular unit of a master course that intends to integrate the knowledge on new and sustainable technologies and products, based on seminars of experts on hot topics, on visits to food industry enterprises and market expositions and on the development of a state-of-the-art report about an emergent or novel food technology or product with oral presentation. Hot topic seminars included edible coatings, bioprocessing, allying tradition and innovation in food products, new convenience foods, challenging tests, and new clean and sustainable processes. Entrepreneur alumni lectures were also promoted allowing exchange of experiences. Visits included a high pressure technology unit of a food industry, an innovation and development department of a food industry, an entrepreneurship centre and a food exhibition. A satisfaction survey was made, through the response of a questionnaire by the students, proving the effectiveness and success of this unit course framework. A SWOT analysis was carried out to gain a better understanding of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats involved in the curricular unit objectives.
Article
To enrich the limited and recent work in existence on relational phenomena in the consumer-brand domain, the authors focus on the concept of brand trust. The non-existence of a wider accepted measure of this concept is surprising given that: (1) trust is viewed as the cornerstone and one of the most desired qualities in a relationship; and (2) it is the most important attribute a brand can own. In this context, this research reports the results of a multi-step study to develop and validate a multidimensional brand trust scale drawn from the conceptualisation of trust in other academic fields. Multi-step psychometric tests demonstrate that the new brand trust scale is reliable and valid. Both theoretical and managerial implications are presented.
Article
The increasing concern of some market segments for animal welfare has led some companies in the pork supply chain to consider immunocastration as an alternative to surgical castration, which is used to prevent boar taint. The first aim of this analysis was to contribute to the systemisation of the literature about the economic and management aspects as well as consumer perception of immunocastration, and the second aim was to provide recommendations for future research to support policy decision making. Some of the observations from the present study include that on the supply chain side, farmers are very cautious about immunocastration despite the scientific evidence of its efficacy, so they require training in vaccine administration and management support to optimise performance as well as completely transparent information on the economic impact of the technique. Further research into the management and economics of alternative techniques would be useful to help farmers and other supply chain stakeholders make better-informed choices. However, the main concern among farmers is consumer perception, and the information collected to date on consumer perception of immunocastration shows important differences between countries that reflect cross-cultural aspects. Overall, there is low awareness of the issue, and few consumers have heard of the vaccine method. Additionally, information campaigns are likely to be more effective if supplementary audio–visual information is used to show surgical castration of live animals and alternative practices. Current research indicates that three main factors influence consumer WTP in terms of different castration techniques: sensitivity to animal welfare, food quality (taste) and food safety. Research has also yielded somewhat controversial findings suggesting that consumers feel the need to trade off attributes that they believe are incompatible (e.g., taste and animal welfare), so publicity and information campaigns are needed to reduce “conflicts” between product attributes that are important to consumer perception. It is necessary to clearly communicate the impact of immunocastration on price, food safety and taste to consumers, particularly in light of the disproportionally large impact of negative publicity related to food safety issues, but sharing information between different stakeholders is also problematic. While there has already been significant research into this topic, the findings need to be adequately disseminated for all stakeholders to be able to make decisions with full awareness.
Book
Small and medium-sized firms are a prevalent organizational form in Germany. Their importance for the German economy is indisputable. Most of them are global market leaders in their niches and are considered to be a force for innovation in the German economy. The ability to be innovative in niche markets has been identified as the antecedent of their strong, or even dominant, competitive positions in their industries. The driver of this innovation success may well be the family, which distinguishes family firms from non-family firms. Nils Kraiczy analyzes if a family influences innovation in a family firm and if this influence has only positive effects. The dissertation focuses on the impact of top management teams on innovations interacting with family firm-specific characteristics. The author shows the complexity of family influence by presenting different effects of each investigated family firm-specific characteristic on the relationship between top management team behavior and innovation.
Article
Food labels, and more particularly geographical indication labels, such as PDO 2 or PGI 3 have become increasingly frequent in response to recent food crises and technological developments such as GMO’s. They are expected to offer food safety guarantees due to their traceability and authentication as well as high organoleptic qualities linked to their origin. They are likely to affect the consumer within the same manner than sensory brands do. The purpose of this paper is to examine to what extent a food product with a region of origin label, considered as a specific sensory brand, affects consumer preferences in comparison with an official quality label such as PDO or PGI labels. From qualitative and quantitative data analyses we conclude that food products with regional reference could affect consumer preferences with a larger extent than food products protected by official labels. Emotional experience has been found to affect the group involving those who prefer regional food products more considerably than the other factors.
Chapter
Food consumer science is a relatively young science, and research in this field in the Western Balkans is rare. It aims at investigating the complex interactions between the consumers, the marketplace and the industry. These three pillars are explored through several different disciplines and most commonly through the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. This book, which addresses scientists and students, explores the main methods, models and approaches of food consumer science applied to six countries of the Western Balkans. It aims at explaining these methods by illustrating each of them with concrete case studies. In the Western Balkans, the proportion of household expenses spent on food is higher than in other European countries, and the changes on the domestic markets present the risk to marginalise many farmers, producers and processors. Therefore, the FOCUS BALKANS project was initiated, and the research conducted between 2008 and 2011 has provided an excellent database for exploring recent changes and trends in food consumption. This opening chapter presents the theoretical economic background for food consumer science, gives a short overview of food consumption in the Balkans and outlines the general conception of the book.
Book
Place branding is happening. A new field of practice and study is in existence and whatever we choose to call it there can no longer be any doubt that it is with us. This collection of intuitive and well-reserached articles examines how places and regions see themselves, and how they reflect this in their branding.
Article
Sensory evaluation has traditionally been divided into two clearly defined areas: analytical tests, aimed at objectively evaluating the sensory characteristics of products, and hedonic tests, in which consumers evaluate their acceptance/preference. One of the central dogmas of the field has been matching these two types of tests to different types of assessors respectively: selected and trained assessors and regular consumers of the target products. Consumers have been for years regarded as not capable of performing analytical tasks. However, the development of various alternative methods for sensory characterization in the last couple of decades, has agitated the debate about the use of untrained assessors for analytical tasks in sensory science. Lately, the line between trained and consumer panels for analytical tests has blurred and is expected to continue to do so. The present opinion paper discusses some of the most relevant issues around the debate of whether consumer or trained assessor panels are appropriate for analytical testing in specific application and to provide recommendations for practitioners on this respect.
Article
This article proposes that social scientists should explicitly recognize the existence of consumers who engage in ‘craft consumption’ and, hence, of an additional image of the consumer to set alongside those of ‘the dupe’,‘the rational hero’ and the ‘postmodern identity-seeker’. The term ‘craft’ is used to refer to consumption activity in which the ‘product’ concerned is essentially both ‘made and designed by the same person’ and to which the consumer typically brings skill, knowledge, judgement and passion while being motivated by a desire for self-expression. Such genuine craft consumption is then distinguished from such closely associated practices as ‘personalization’ and ‘customization’ and identified as typically encountered in such fields as interior decorating, gardening, cooking and the selection of clothing ‘outfits’. Finally, after noting that craft consumers are more likely to be people with both wealth and cultural capital, Kopytoff’s suggestion that progressive commodification might prompt a ‘decommodifying reaction’ is taken as a starting point for some speculations concerning the reasons for the recent rise of craft consumption.
Book
Bringing together a range of case studies from Ireland, Scotland, Sweden, Germany, Norway, Poland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and Greece, this book compares and contrasts different models of food re-localization. The richness and complexity of the international case studies provide a broad understanding of the characteristics of the re-localization movement, while the analysis of knowledge forms and dynamics provides an innovative new theoretical approach. Each of the national teams work on the basis of an agreed common framework, resulting in a strongly coherent and comprehensive continental overview. This shows how the actors involved are pursuing their objectives in different regional and national contexts, re-embedding, socially and ecologically, the relation between food production, consumption and places. © Maria Fonte and Apostolos G. Papadopoulos 2010. All rights reserved.
Article
The article gives an evaluation for the market for agricultural products, and the main directions of development of entrepreneurship in the agricultural sector on the example of the Stavropol region of the Russian Federation on the basis of data analysis of the balance resources and their use in the context of product groups. It allowed to determine that the Stavropol region is self-sufficient in grain, meat and milk, and the most dependant on the export of fruit, but the share of imported food supply decreases annually. The application of the BCG Matrix of the investment strategic positions of commodity groups of agricultural products of the Stavropol Territory has allowed to establish the priority sub-sectors for the development of entrepreneurship in agriculture.
Article
This contribution explores the field of food consumer science. It includes a discussion of the main aspects of food consumer science, relevant theory and appropriate research methods. The application to a particular project is discussed, specifically Focus Balkans, a project on consumer food sciences in the Western Balkan countries.
Article
Sustainable food consumption is a core policy objective of the new millennium in the national and international agenda, as a consequence, the attention towards sustainable consumption has signifi cantly increased in the last decade. However, the consumer attitudes and buying behaviours of sustainable food are still not completely understood. In this context, this paper aims to investigate the factors aff ecting consumers' attitudes towards food products with sustainable attributes. Th e fi rst part of the work presents an overview of the theoretical concepts of sustainable consumption. Subsequently, the results of an empirical analysis with a sample of 300 consumers aimed at assessing factors' aff ecting consumer attitudes towards food products with sustainable attributes, such as Organic, Fair Trade and typical products, are presented. Th e results presented in this paper are valuable for both producers in the formulation of marketing strategies and for public institutions in the planning of the programs of education and information for the promotion of sustainable consumption.
Article
This study analyses European consumers’ awareness and determinants of use of PDO, PGI and TSG labels in six European countries (Italy, Spain, France, Bel- gium, Norway and Poland) using data from a cross-sectional survey with 4,828 participants. The study confirms a higher awareness of PDO (68.1%) as compared to PGI (36.4%) and TSG (25.2%). Awareness is higher among men and people aged above 50 years. Consumers’ use of a PDO, PGI or TSG label is triggered by the belief that the label signals better product quality. Quality beliefs are shaped by an interest in getting information about product quality through the quality label. Interest in the origin of foods is a stronger direct and indirect driver of label use than interest in support for the local economy, but both motivations are not directly related to TSG-label use. Differences in the role of determinants are small between the three labelling schemes and between countries with versus without a strong tradition of quality labels in their agri- cultural and food quality policies. Apart from building general awareness and favourable quality perceptions of the quality schemes and their respective labels, efforts to stimulate consumers’ interest in origin and getting information about product quality through EU quality labels are recommended.
Article
The ability of Italian consumers to recognize and distinguish food products protected by the European Union denomination of origin trademarks PDO and PGI through the information provided on the label was explored with 400 face-to-face interviews of consumers, responsible for household food purchasing. Cluster analysis showed that the PDO and PGI logos are commonly the main purchasing motivation for shoppers with an excellent knowledge of the EU certification labels, while consumers with no knowledge of the European origin trademarks tend to base their decision to buy on the product's lower price, better appearance and Italian origin.