Article

Advanced planning model of formwork layout for productivity improvement in high-rise building construction

Article

Advanced planning model of formwork layout for productivity improvement in high-rise building construction

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Abstract

The recent trend toward irregular shapes in high-rise building construction makes planning formwork layouts a more complex and laborious task that has been mainly conducted by a heuristic method based on the intuitive judgment of formwork engineers. This study suggests a new planning approach integrated with practical software for formwork layout that is optimized for deploying formwork panels around structural obstacles while minimizing manual efforts. The proposed approach uses a harmony search algorithm (HSA); it has demonstrated improvement in work efficiency of formwork and has reduced formwork costs by minimizing both the use of nonstandard panels and the total number of panels. A case verification showed that the proposed planning method provided a 56% decrease in nonstandard panel-covered area with 14.1% lower cost than the previous heuristic approach by a formwork expert. Moreover, the results indicated that HSA was more efficient than the genetic algorithm (GA) in layout planning of formwork panels. The advanced planning method will support formwork engineers and will also contribute to increasing formwork productivity.

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... To address these issues, studies have applied various algorithms and advanced systems to formwork design [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. A study was conducted on the automation of the formwork system based on the development of building information modeling (BIM) software using Revit and AutoCAD [11]. ...
... and calculated the amount of formwork required for a project based on the use of the data extracted from the BIM model [12]. A study was conducted to propose a search algorithm to optimize formwork panels [14]. Research has also been conducted on an automated form layout system that arranged standard and nonstandard slab forms to increase work efficiency and reduce manufacturing costs [15]. ...
... Meanwhile, formwork manufacturing companies have been developing various programs to support formwork design. For instance, typical programs include Tekla Structures, PERI CAD, ELPOS, Tipos, and DokaCad [14]. However, using these programs is inconvenient given that formwork designers need to directly set contact points. ...
Article
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In this study, by applying the developed formwork automation design software to three target structures, we reviewed the applicability of the formwork automation design software for the aluminum formwork. To apply the formwork automation design software, we built an aluminum formwork library based on the conversion of two-dimensional (2D) computer-aided design (CAD) data to three-dimensional building information modeling data for all the components of the aluminum formwork. The results of the automated formwork layout on the target structures using the formwork automation design software confirmed that the wall and deck members were laid out by the set algorithm according to the formwork size and direction. However, because of the limited functionality of the software, the level of completion of the formwork layout was found to be lower than that of the manual formwork layout based on 2D CAD data. The currently developed software is based on a simple algorithm, but has a drawback in that the automated layout is limited to only some of its members. Therefore, additional research should be conducted on the development of advanced software through the diversification of the algorithm, automation of preprocessing of the mesh, and analysis of the relationships of all the members comprising the formwork.
... Recently, studies have been conducted with the objective of applying various algorithms and advanced systems for designing formwork owing to the complexity of the formwork design [6,[14][15][16][17][18][19][20]. Kannan and Santhi [15] conducted research on the automation of formwork systems using a building information modeling (BIM) software. ...
... Lee et al. [16] developed a method of collecting field labor productivity data and calculating the productivity by integrating a 3D model with the information obtained from a BIM model. Subsequently, Lee et al. [17] proposed a search algorithm to minimize manual efforts and optimize the formwork panels around structural obstacles. Lee and Ham [18] examined an automated form layout system that arranges standard and nonstandard slab-forms to increase the work efficiency and save manufacturing cost. ...
... Meanwhile, to support the formwork design, various applications such as Tekla Structures, PERI CAD, ELPOS, Tipos, and DokaCad have been developed by formwork manufacturing companies [17]. The representative example is Tekla Structures, which is a formwork design application based on BIM. ...
Article
This study developed a formwork automation design software that interprets 3D building information modeling (BIM) data from the 2D CAD data of a target structure. This software aimed to identify the quantity and types of formworks and situations that may occur at construction sites. A prototype that can implement 3D automation design, automatic formwork layout, and statistics function was developed for simple target structures; this confirmed the possibility of developing the software, for which a preliminary study was conducted to convert random vertices in the BIM data of the target structure to forms with certain rules. The meshes were transformed into a constant form using an algorithm that fills a 3D model with identical square meshes. Additionally, an algorithm was developed by setting and prioritizing specific rules for the faces. The software operation result confirmed the possibility of automatic formwork layout of wall and deck members.
... In order to improve safety performance and labor productivity, optimum layout of temporary facilities can be generated through simulation-based methods within the restricted sites [2,17]. The optimization criteria involved in temporary facility planning were identified to assist with the planning task using heuristic algorithms [6,9,[18][19][20][21][22][23]. To automate layout planning, Building Information Modeling (BIM) -based system can support the dynamic generation of site layout models, instead of manually inputting the information data [24]. ...
... Within a construction site, temporary facilities, such as equipment (e.g., cranes and scaffoldings), job offices, storage areas, warehouse, fabrication shops, and batch plants, are needed by work crews to support their task operations and various activities [2][3][4][5]. In order to improve the project profitability, labor productivity, safety, quality and controlling ability of project cost, the project managers need to conduct an effective temporary facility layout planning process properly during the construction planning phase [6][7][8]. An appropriate layout plan of facilities can reduce the construction expenses by up to 50 percent [9, 10]. ...
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In construction projects, the planning objectives include the safety and labor productivity of the activities, along with the cost influence affecting the overall performance of construction. Temporary facilities are critical in supporting structures and equipment that impact the direct task executions and resource transportation during various construction stages. The positioning of temporary facilities and the relative spatial relation between multiple facilities are critical factors that affect the success of construction delivery. To ensure the balance among safety, labor productivity and construction cost performance, all influencing factors associated with the construction objectives should be taken into account in temporary facility layout planning. This paper proposes a novel multi-criteria temporary facility layout planning model that integrates Analytic Network Process (ANP) modeling and simulation-based sensitivity evaluation, which effectively transforms the spatial layout planning problem into a mathematical decision problem. An application example is analyzed to demonstrate its capabilities of optimizing temporary facility layout planning. The proposed framework provides the construction managers and layout planners with a useful tool for selecting the optimal alternative of temporary facility layout plan on the construction site.
... It uses standard prefabricated modular units with various sizes of formwork panels. The modular components are assembled on-site in different combinations with the aid of computer-aided design (Lee et al., 2018), and minor conventional formwork typically made of timber is required to complement the system by filling gaps. The system form has high productivity and good casting quality as well as can be recycled more times than conventional forms such as timber and wood-based form, and various types of system form have been developed to suit the required shapes of concrete structures with less effort, especially in urban city construction. ...
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System form is widely used when constructing concrete buildings and structures because it has high productivity and good concrete casting quality compared with traditional hand-set form. However, from a worker’s perspective, system form is still very harsh to handle because of its heavy weight, noise generation, and use of releasing agent, and it also attenuates the productivity of system formwork. Therefore, this study proposes the use of an advanced composite material-based concrete form for workers using a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) process to improve constructability of system formwork. User requirements are systematically reflected in the technical characteristics of concrete form, and innovative principles are scientifically organized through the DFSS process that mainly consists of quality function deployment and theory of creative problem-solving methods. The proposed composite form showed improved performance in deriving high-quality formwork and worker-friendly working conditions compared with previous system forms. Additionally, this study demonstrated how the DFSS will be a valuable tool for technology development and systematic decision-making in building construction.
... These issues can be assumed as emerging considering that a growing trend in the number of documents is observed. It is worth noting the emerging nature of planning construction processes for highway projects, a phenomenon that contrasts with building projects, in which an overall development is observed [126][127][128][129]. Therefore, in the coming years, there is expected to be a growing development of the theme of planning construction processes for highway projects based on the adaptation of technologies that have been tested and improved in building projects. ...
Article
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An efficient highway infrastructure network is a determining factor in promoting the socio-economic development of countries and regions. Highway planning activities are highly important because their results ensure that projects are delivered within budget, schedule, and scope. Therefore, academics and professionals have promoted various methodological and technological advances focused on improving highway planning processes, evidenced by many scientific documents that address the topic. Despite progress, few studies have focused on analyzing the state of the knowledge structure and the technological and methodological trends of the highway planning topic. Considering this gap, this study presents trends in highway planning and its knowledge structure based on a bibliometric analysis from January 2015 to September 2021. The research method is based on a bibliometric analysis composed of five main stages: (1) scope definition, (2) selection of bibliometric analysis techniques, (3) data collection, (4) bibliometric analysis execution, and (5) evidence analysis and synthesis. Information from 1703 journal papers was collected and analyzed. The findings show that the main trends of highway planning focus on life cycle analysis, computational tools, smart cities, sustainability issues, construction processes, new equipment and materials, and multi-objective optimization, among others. Thus, the findings of this study allow the reader to identify the methodological and technological trends in highway planning and their knowledge gaps to guide future studies in the field.
... Furthermore, Mansuri et al. (2017) proposed an approach to using data drawn from building information models coupled with a cascading algorithm to efficiently manage formwork inventory on a construction project by generating a scheduled formwork reuse plan and calculating the minimum quantity of formwork required for the project. Lee et al. (2018) suggested a specialized method for deploying formwork panels around columns. The proposed approach used a harmony search algorithm (HSA), and the study demonstrated improvements in the work efficiency of formwork and reduced formwork costs by minimizing both the use of nonstandard panels and the total number of panels. ...
Article
Setting the baseline labor productivity (BP) values for construction activities is essential to compare the productivity performances of projects or contractors. The BP value can also be used to estimate the costs incurred due to the loss of productivity on a certain project. The objective of this research is to develop a Monte Carlo simulation-based baseline labor productivity model (MCBPM) that can be used to determine the BP value for formwork operations. After proposing a framework for the MCBPM, empirical data regarding the labor productivity of timber formwork for several building structures were collected from 40 contractors in Ethiopia. Thereafter, a Monte Carlo simulation was carried out to simulate the formwork labor productivity, and BP values were set. Following the simulation, the BP values for column, beam, slab, and wall formworks, at 95% probability, were found to be 0.94, 0.80, 0.93, and 1.0 m 2 =h, respectively. Compared to the previous BP models, the MCBPM provides more reliable estimation accuracy and efficiency to set the BP value based on the confidence level. This study contributes to the body of knowledge by proposing a stochastic labor productivity model that can be used as a practical tool in construction projects to forecast the BP values at certain confidence levels.
... For example, the FWS selected based on the FWS selection criteria and its effects on the project time, cost, and quality performances can be studied quantitively by considering the relationships among FWS selection criteria groupings. According to some studies, the FWS design and selection are mainly affected by the structural design criteria of the building construction project, e.g., [11,12]. Therefore, the structural design may also affect the project performance. ...
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Selecting the appropriate formwork system (FWS) is a critical aspect in the successful completion of reinforced concrete (RC) building construction projects. The selected FWS has a significant impact on the cost, time, and quality performances of the project. As there are many FWSs and formwork fabricators (FWFs) available, the selection of the FWS depends on several compromising and conflicting criteria. This study aims to identify the FWS selection criteria groupings (e.g., latent factors) and investigate the quantitative interrelationships among them. For this purpose, 35 FWS selection criteria were identified through literature review, and a questionnaire was developed. The data from the questionnaire were statistically analyzed, and five latent factors were identified: FWS-FWF characteristics, structural design, local conditions, cost, and performance indicators. A conceptual framework was developed based on the latent factors, and a structural equation modelling (SEM) approach was utilized to identify the effects among the latent factors. The results of the SEM approach confirmed that FWS-FWF characteristics are affected by the structural design and local conditions and FWS-FWF characteristics have a substantial effect on cost and the performance indicators of the project. The findings of this study may assist construction professionals in selecting the FWS in building construction projects.
... In a case study in Cincinnati, Ohio, Mansuri et al. (2017) used building information modeling (BIM) in conjunction with a cascading tool to show that the method reduced the cost and was more productive for workers, and improved formwork productivity, efficiency, and accuracy. Lee et al. (2018) used a harmony search algorithm (HSA) to demonstrate improvements in worker formwork installation and significant cost reductions from using less nonstandard material and fewer panels. They concluded that HSA was more efficient than a genetic algorithm (GA) in the planning process. ...
... However, no prior study has investigated whether there are any significant statistical differences/disagreements in the relative importance of FWS selection criteria among different groups of construction professionals and/or companies. Moreover, some building structural parameters (e.g., total building area, total building height) of the building construction project may significantly affect the FWS design and selection [14,15]. Hence, the effects, if any, of the building structural parameters on the FWS selection criteria may reveal some valuable insights for construction professionals in their decision-making process. ...
Article
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The formwork system (FWS) in reinforced concrete (RC) construction is a critical component. The appropriate FWS is selected based on a number of conflicting and compromising criteria, and the selection of the FWS is carried out by construction professionals with different technical and/or administrative backgrounds. The perspectives and perceptions of construction professionals and companies involved in the FWS selection process may vary depending on their motives. In addition, some building structural parameters may have a significant impact on the FWS selection criteria. Most of the former studies investigated the FWS selection criteria from only the perspective of contractors and neglected the potential differences in the perspectives and perceptions of different construction professionals (i.e., owners (CO), project managers (PM), construction managers (CM), site engineers (SE), planning engineers (PL), procurement engineers (PR), technical office engineers (TO), and formwork design and/or formwork sales engineers (FD/FSL)) and companies specialized in different fields (i.e., project management service (PMS), engineering and design (ENG/DSG), formwork and scaffolding (FW/SCF), and general and/or subcontractor (GC/SC)) regarding this issue. Moreover, the impact of building structural parameters on the FWS selection criteria has not been investigated. This study aims to fill this knowledge gap through analysing the FWS selection criteria for building construction projects while comparing the perspectives and perceptions of different groups of construction professionals and companies and investigating how FWS selection criteria are affected by the building structural parameters. Based on a comprehensive literature review, 35 FWS selection criteria were identified and a questionnaire was developed. The questionnaire data obtained from 222 Turkish construction professionals were statistically analysed using mean score analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis test, and the Mann-Whitney U test. According to the study's findings, the FD/FSL group presented significant statistical differences regarding the FWS selection criteria as compared to the CO, PM/CM/SE, and PL/PR/TO groups. Moreover, the total area of building construction and total building height significantly affected the FWS selection criteria. This study serves to underscore the perspectives of various groups of construction professionals and the critical connection between the structural parameters and FWS selection criteria. The findings of this study may guide construction professionals to select the appropriate FWS for their building construction projects.
... It is helpful for the organisation in the sector of construction to manage the business operation in the potential marketplace by meeting the needs of the consumers. Quality management is an essential aspect in this regard (Lee et al. 2018). As for this reason, the material of formwork is used in this context. ...
Conference Paper
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Formwork materials are useful in the project of the construction. It has several effects on the quality of the project. This research study has described the effects of the formwork materials in a well manner. Benefits of the materials are discussed in this regard. Flowchart is given in this study for understanding the work process of the formwork materials in the project of construction. Diagram as well as statistical data from other research paper are also included in this study. At the end a profound conclusion has been drawn.
... For instance, the size of the building construction projects (e.g., the total area of building construction) significantly affects some FWS selection criteria, such as labour productivity [52]. Furthermore, depending on the type of the project and the structural design of the structure [122,123], labour productivity and labour cost of the FWS may be critical factors in building construction projects, particularly high-rise ones [22,124]. The weather conditions, such as high wind speeds, may also affect the labour productivity of formwork-related activities [125]. ...
Article
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The successful completion of reinforced concrete (RC) building construction projects depends , in part, on selecting the appropriate formwork system (FWS) since it may significantly affect the project's cost, time, and quality performance factors. The selection of the FWS depends on a number of compromising and conflicting criteria, while several FWS alternatives may be available. Therefore, the FWS selection has mostly been treated as a multi-criteria-decision-making (MCDM) problem. Although various MCDM methods have been employed to address the FWS selection problem, none have considered the subjectivity and uncertainty arising from a group decision-making process. This study aims to fill this knowledge gap by proposing an integrated approach using recently developed MCDM methods with rough numbers. In the integrated approach, first, a decision making team is formed to develop the decision hierarchy. Then, the rough analytic hierarchy process (R-AHP) is used to determine rough criteria weights, followed by the rough evaluation based on the distance from average solution (R-EDAS) method to rank the FWS alternatives. Finally, the results are compared using different rough MCDM methods to ensure the stability of the proposed approach. The proposed approach is applied to a real-life building construction project in Turkey to select the most appropriate FWS. The integrated approach was found to be effective, and it was recommended to be used for future FWS selection problems. The proposed integrated approach in this study may be used as a decision support tool for construction professionals and experts to select the FWS in building construction projects.
Chapter
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Chapter
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Chapter
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Many optimization problems in various fields have been solved using diverse optimization al gorithms. Traditional optimization techniques such as linear programming (LP), non-linear programming (NLP), and dynamic program ming (DP) have had major roles in solving these problems. However, their drawbacks generate demand for other types of algorithms, such as heuristic optimization approaches (simulated annealing, tabu search, and evolutionary algo rithms). However, there are still some possibili ties of devising new heuristic algorithms based on analogies with natural or artificial phenom ena. A new heuristic algorithm, mimicking the improvisation of music players, has been devel oped and named Harmony Search (HS). The performance of the algorithm is illustrated with a traveling salesman problem (TSP), a specific academic optimization problem, and a least-cost pipe network design problem.
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The geometrical complexity available through additive manufacturing processes requires new tools to help designers maximise its advantages. A termite colony can construct highly complex nests that are optimised for thermoregulation and ventilation. The simple individual behaviour of these termites leads to highly intelligent colony behaviour, allowing nests to be simultaneously designed, optimised and produced. By mimicking termite behaviour, this research has led to a new design methodology using multi-agent algorithms that simultaneously design, structurally optimise and appraise the manufacturability of parts produced by additive manufacturing. A case study demonstrates the generative design of lightweight parts using the multi-agent system.
Article
Site layout planning is often performed on construction sites to find the best arrangement of temporary facilities so that transportation distances of on-site personnel and equipment are minimized. It could be achieved by creating dynamic layout models, which capture the changing requirements of construction sites. However, formulating such models is extremely tedious because it requires much manual data input and changes to design and construction plans are manually updated by layout planners. This study presents an automated framework of creating dynamic site layout models by utilizing information from BIM. The A∗algorithm is used in conjunction with genetic algorithms to develop an optimization framework that considers the actual travel paths of on-site personnel and equipment. To address the space limitation on site, our model optimizes the dimensions of facilities and also considers interior storage within buildings under construction. A case example is demonstrated to validate this framework and shows a 13.5% reduction in total travel distance compared with conventional methods.
Article
This paper develops a mathematical formulation to model and optimise site facility locations inside a construction site for a construction project's different stages. The existence and dimensions of a construction project's available locations and site facilities can be varied across the construction stages. Without proper planning, unnecessary facility relocations may be required in each construction stage, resulting in a higher construction cost and longer construction time due to the need to dismantle and set up site facilities. Site layout plans should be optimised using a multiple-stage model to avoid unnecessary changes to facility settings across construction stages, improving efficiency. The proposed site layout problem with multiple construction stages is formulated as a binary-mixed-integer-linear programme, which can be solved by a standard branch-and-bound algorithm using the commercial software package LINGO. The mathematical objective function established in the solution process aims to minimise the total cost, which consists of the material transportation cost between the relevant site facilities and the dismantling, setup and relocation costs for all of the involved site facilities in each construction stage. Numerical examples using the proposed mathematical model to optimise different site layout settings for a construction site are given, including (1) a reference site layout plan using the conventional static single-stage approach, (2) a multiple-stage construction site layout plan and (3) a multiple-stage site layout plan with additional safety design considerations.
Article
Recent increases in the number of irregularly shaped tall buildings have created a need for more applicable formwork methods and automated support for formwork layout planning, which has mainly depended on heuristic approaches based on the intuitive judgment of experienced engineers. This study proposes a new table formwork method integrated with a systematic layout planning approach for tall building construction. Adjustable subunits of the formwork cope with diverse building shapes and the software-based mathematical model helps practitioners make useful layouts for the method with minimal time and effort. In a case study, the proposed layout planning model offered lower costs and improved work efficiency in less time than the heuristic approach. Supported by the planning model, our advanced formwork method showed a 15.5% increase in covered area of irregularly shaped building floors and a 23.9% decrease in material costs compared with existing table formwork methods.
Article
Gene selection, which is a well-known NP-hard problem, is a challenging task that has been the subject of a large amount of research, especially in relation to classification tasks. This problem addresses the identification of the smallest possible set of genes that could achieve good predictive performance. Many gene selection algorithms have been proposed; however, because the search space increases exponentially with the number of genes, finding the best possible approach for a solution that would limit the search space is crucial. Metaheuristic approaches have the ability to discover a promising area without exploring the whole solution space. Hence, we propose a new method that hybridises the Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA) and the Markov Blanket (MB), called HSA-MB, for gene selection in classification problems. In this proposed approach, the HSA (as a wrapper approach) improvises a new harmony that is passed to the MB (treated as a filter approach) for further improvement. The addition and deletion of operators based on gene ranking information is used in the MB algorithm to further improve the harmony and to fine-tune the search space. The HSA-MB algorithm method works especially well on selected genes with higher correlation coefficients based on symmetrical uncertainty. Ten microarray datasets were experimented on, and the results demonstrate that the HSA-MB has a performance that is comparable to state-of-the-art approaches. HSA-MB yields very small sets of genes while preserving the classification accuracy. The results suggest that HSA-MB has a high potential for being an alternative method of gene selection when applied to microarray data and can be of benefit in clinical practice.
Article
The task of positioning temporary facilities on a construction site has long been recognized as a factor of great influence on the cost of projects. This paper proposes the use of a recently developed harmony search (HS) algorithm to solve the problem of assigning a set of predetermined facilities to a set of preallocated locations within a construction site. Experiments with different parameter settings were conducted, and an alternative approach was used with a modified HS algorithm to overcome shortcomings of the original method. The proposed algorithm shows a rapid convergence to an optimum solution during the early stages of algorithm progress. In addition, comparisons with different variations of the HS algorithm and genetic algorithm (GA) are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method and HS methodology in solving facility layout problems.Le positionnement des installations temporaires sur un site de construction a depuis longtemps été un facteur influençant beaucoup le coût des projets. Le présent article propose l'utilisation d'un algorithme de recherche métaheuristique mis au point récemment afin de résoudre le problème d'assignation d'un ensemble d'installations prédéterminées à un ensemble d'endroits pré-assignés au site de construction. L'expérimentation de divers réglages de paramètres a permis d'utiliser une approche alternative comportant un algorithme de recherche métaheuristique modifié afin de surmonter les lacunes de la méthode initiale. L'algorithme proposé montre une convergence rapide vers des solutions optimales dès les premières étapes de l'algorithme. Sont également présentées des comparaisons aux diverses variations de l'algorithme de recherche métaheuristique et à l'algorithme génétique afin de démontrer l'efficacité de la méthode proposée et de la méthode de recherche métaheuristique pour résoudre les problèmes de disposition des installations.
Article
A newly developed heuristic algorithm, Harmony Search, is applied to the parameter estimation problem of the nonlinear Muskingum model. Harmony Search found better values of parameters in the nonlinear Muskingum model than five other methods including another heuristic method, genetic algorithm, in terms of SSQ (the sum of the square of the deviations between the observed and routed outflows), SAD (the sum of the absolute value of the deviations between the observed and routed outflows), DPO (deviations of peak of routed and actual flows), and DPOT (deviations of peak time of routed and actual outflow). Harmony Search also has the advantage that it does not require the process of assuming the initial values of design parameters. The sensitivity analysis of Harmony Memory Considering Rate showed that relatively large values of Harmony Memory Considering Rate makes the Harmony Search converge to a better solution.
Article
In this article, harmony search algorithm was developed for optimum design of steel frames. Harmony search is a meta-heuristic search method that has been developed recently. It bases on the analogy between the performance process of natural music and searching for solutions to optimization problems. The objective of the design algorithm is to obtain minimum weight frames by selecting suitable sections from a standard set of steel sections such as American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) wide-flange (W) shapes. Strength constraints of AISC load and resistance factor design specification and displacement constraints were imposed on frames. The effectiveness and robustness of harmony search algorithm, in comparison with genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization-based methods, were verified using three steel frames. The comparisons showed that the harmony search algorithm yielded lighter designs.
Article
Construction site layout planning (CSLP) is a dynamic multi-objective optimization (MOO) problem as there are different facilities employed in the different construction phases of a construction project. In this study, a new method using continuous dynamic searching scheme to guide the max-min ant system (MMAS) algorithm, which is one of the ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithms, to solve the dynamic CSLP problem under the two congruent objective functions of minimizing safety concerns and reducing construction cost is proposed. Using weighted sum method the MOO problem can be solved by the proposed MMAS method. An office building case was used to verify the capability of the proposed method to solve dynamic CSLP problem and the results are promising. The approach could be benchmarked by researchers using other advanced optimization algorithms to solve the same problem or expand the applications to other fields.
Article
Most structural optimization methods are based on mathematical algorithms that require substantial gradient information. The selection of the starting values is also important to ensure that the algorithm converges to the global optimum. This paper describes a new structural optimization method based on the harmony search (HS) meta-heuristic algorithm, which was conceptualized using the musical process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. The HS algorithm does not require initial values and uses a random search instead of a gradient search, so derivative information is unnecessary. Various truss examples with fixed geometries are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the new method. The results indicate that the new technique is a powerful search and optimization method for solving structural engineering problems compared to conventional mathematical methods or genetic algorithm-based approaches.
Article
This paper develops an Improved harmony search (IHS) algorithm for solving optimization problems. IHS employs a novel method for generating new solution vectors that enhances accuracy and convergence rate of harmony search (HS) algorithm. In this paper the impacts of constant parameters on harmony search algorithm are discussed and a strategy for tuning these parameters is presented. The IHS algorithm has been successfully applied to various benchmarking and standard engineering optimization problems. Numerical results reveal that the proposed algorithm can find better solutions when compared to HS and other heuristic or deterministic methods and is a powerful search algorithm for various engineering optimization problems.
Article
Most engineering optimization algorithms are based on numerical linear and nonlinear programming methods that require substantial gradient information and usually seek to improve the solution in the neighborhood of a starting point. These algorithms, however, reveal a limited approach to complicated real-world optimization problems. If there is more than one local optimum in the problem, the result may depend on the selection of an initial point, and the obtained optimal solution may not necessarily be the global optimum. This paper describes a new harmony search (HS) meta-heuristic algorithm-based approach for engineering optimization problems with continuous design variables. This recently developed HS algorithm is conceptualized using the musical process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. It uses a stochastic random search instead of a gradient search so that derivative information is unnecessary. Various engineering optimization problems, including mathematical function minimization and structural engineering optimization problems, are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the HS algorithm. The results indicate that the proposed approach is a powerful search and optimization technique that may yield better solutions to engineering problems than those obtained using current algorithms.
Article
The Harmony Search (HS) algorithm is a population-based metaheuristic optimisation algorithm. This algorithm is inspired by the music improvisation process in which the musician searches for harmony and continues to polish the pitches to obtain a better harmony. Although several variants of the HS algorithm have been proposed, their effectiveness in dealing with diverse problems is still unsatisfactory. The performances of these variants mainly depend on the selection of different parameters of the algorithm. In this paper, a new variant of the HS algorithm is proposed that maintains a proper balance between diversification and intensification throughout the search process by automatically selecting the proper pitch adjustment strategy based on its Harmony Memory. However, the performance of the proposed Intelligent Tuned Harmony Search (ITHS) algorithm is influenced by other parameters, such as the Harmony Memory Size (HMS) and the Harmony Memory Considering Rate (HMCR). The effects that varying these parameters have on the performance of the ITHS algorithm is also analysed in detail. The performance of the proposed ITHS algorithm is investigated and compared with eight state-of-the-art HS variants over 17 benchmark functions. Furthermore, to investigate the robustness of the proposed algorithm at higher dimensions, a scalability study is also performed. Finally, the numerical results obtained reflect the superiority of the proposed ITHS algorithm in terms of accuracy, convergence speed, and robustness when compared with other state-of-the-art HS variants.
The development of automatic module for formwork layout using the BIM
  • C Lee
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C. Lee, S. Ham, G. Lee, The development of automatic module for formwork layout using the BIM, International Conference on Construction Engineering and Management, vol. 3, 2009, pp. 8-10.
The Process for Development of the Optimum Layout Model in Slab Formwork of High-rise Building Construction
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M. Cha, T. Kim, H. Cho, K.-I. Kang, The Process for Development of the Optimum Layout Model in Slab Formwork of High-rise Building Construction, 2011 Spring Conference vol. 11, The Korea Institute of Building Construction, 2011, pp. 171-172.
Advanced system formwork and construction planning model for tall building construction, Doctoral Dissertation Paper
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T. Kim, Advanced system formwork and construction planning model for tall building construction, Doctoral Dissertation Paper, Korea University, Seoul, Korea, 2013.
Doka formwork solution
  • Dokacad
DokaCad, Doka formwork solution, https://www.doka.com/en/solutions/services/tipos/ tipos-planning-software/DokaCAD8-software-formwork-planning.